Siberian exodus

Siberian exodus

The retreat of the Kolchak army. 1919


Smoot. 1919 year. The defeat at the front, the loss of Omsk, flight and guerrilla war in the rear caused the complete decomposition of the Kolchak camp. The decaying garrisons of the cities rose uprising and sided with the Reds. All around conspiracies and riots ripened.

The final decomposition of the Kolchak camp


The defeat at the front, the loss of Omsk, flight and partisan war in the rear caused the complete decomposition of the Kolchak camp. The decaying garrisons of the cities rose uprising and sided with the Reds. All around conspiracies and riots ripened. So, dismissed in September 1919 from the Russian army, deprived of all awards and the rank of general Hyde (former commander of the Siberian Army), he settled in Vladivostok and began subversive activities. On November 17 of November 1919 in Vladivostok he led a rebellion prepared by the Socialist-Revolutionaries against the Kolchak authorities. The Socialist-Revolutionaries planned to convene a Zemsky Sobor in Vladivostok to establish a new government. The rebellion, however, was not supported by the residents of Vladivostok. On the third day, the head of the Amur Region, General Rozanov, collecting all he could - midshipmen, cadets, an officer school, crushed the rebellion. Gaida was arrested. At the request of the Entente command, he was released and Gaida returned to Czechoslovakia.

The Social Revolutionaries were preparing uprisings in Irkutsk and Novonikolaevsk. Negotiated with the Czechs. Allied missions knew about the conspiracy. They informed their governments of the imminent collapse of Kolchak’s power and the creation of a “democratic” government in Siberia. The Socialist-Revolutionaries were in contact with the Allies, trying to attract them to their side. Obviously, the Entente surrendered to the admiral, "the Moor has done his job, the Moor may leave." Ataman regimes in Chita and Khabarovsk were also waiting for Kolchak to fall, playing their games. With the support of Japan, it was planned to form a puppet regime of Semenov in the Far East.

On November 12, in Irkutsk, at the All-Russian Conference of Zemstvos and Cities, the Political Center was created, which included the Menshevik Socialist Revolutionaries, representatives of the Zemstvos and the Central Committee of the "Unions of the Labor Peasantry". The political center set itself the task of overthrowing Kolchak’s power and creating a democratic republic in the Far East and Siberia. The local governor Yakovlev supported the Socialist Revolutionaries, was a supporter of the independence of Siberia, and did not take any measures against the Political Center. He himself wanted to break with Kolchak, the arrival of the Irkutsk government was received coldly. He ordered the trains with refugees and employees of institutions from Omsk not to be allowed into Irkutsk at all, but to be placed in the surrounding villages. Yakovlev began negotiations not only with the Political Center, but also with the Bolsheviks on the issue of ending the war in the region. The Political Center also made contact with the Bolsheviks. The Communists refused to join it, but entered into an agreement on cooperation against the Kolchakites. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and Bolsheviks began to jointly decompose parts of the local garrison, to form workers' detachments.

Meanwhile, part of the Kolchak government managed to get into Irkutsk. The new Prime Minister V.N. Pepelyaev reorganized the cabinet, and tried to find a common language with the Siberian Zemstvos in order to neutralize the coup prepared by the Political Center. He proposed the creation of a “government of public trust”, but the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Zemstvos did not want to make any contacts with Kolchak. Then Pepelyaev went to Kolchak to persuade him to make concessions and find a way out of the crisis.

Death sentence to Kolchak residents


From the very beginning, the Siberian campaign was a tragedy for thousands of people. At first, people began to rob. As soon as the evacuation from Omsk began, the railroad decided to squeeze the "bourgeoisie." Train crews set an ultimatum for passengers, refusing to drive on, demanding “indemnity” and threatening to drop them off the train. This robbery began to be repeated at each subsequent station, where the railway crews changed. The progress on the railway was barely possible. The Siberian railway was clogged, the condition of the tracks and rolling stock left much to be desired. Often there were accidents. Even the lettering "golden train" crashed when it collided with another train.

The situation was sharply worsened by the conflict between Kolchak and the Czechoslovakians who controlled the Trans-Siberian Railway. They were the full owners of the main highway of Siberia. Even before the fall of Omsk, a memorandum was issued by the Czech leadership on November 13 that their army’s stay in Russia was aimless, that under the “protection of Czechoslovak bayonets” the Russian reactionary military commits crimes (although the Czechs themselves were active punitive and war criminals). The conclusion was drawn about the need for an immediate return home. That is, not earlier and not later. It was at the time of the beginning of the large-scale evacuation of the Russian army of Kolchak and the refugees associated with it to the east. In fact, if the Entente so desired, the Czechoslovak Corps - an entire 60 thousand army, fresh, well-armed and equipped, with a whole railway army (armored trains, armored vehicles, trains, steam locomotives), easily covered Kolchak’s withdrawal. The Bolsheviks would not intensify the offensive, breaking through the Czechs to avoid international complications, as they later avoided coming into conflict with the Japanese.

The Czechs did the opposite, the most complicated way Kolchak retreat. The Czechoslovak command ordered to suspend the movement of the Russian echelons, and in no case let them pass further than the Taiga station (near Tomsk) until all the echelons of the Czechs passed. It was openly proclaimed: "Our interests are above all others." In fact, given the local conditions - one main highway, huge distances, winter conditions, lack of supplies, this was the death sentence of Kolchak’s army from the West.

On November 20 on November 1919, Commander Sakharov announced the evacuation of the Novonikolaevsk-Krasnoyarsk area. Here were concentrated many hospitals, sick, wounded, families of soldiers, refugees. They needed to be taken to the Amur region. However, there it was. The Czech army - rested, armed to the teeth, with echelons full of wealth, plundered in Russia, was in a hurry to break through to the east. The Czechs brought hundreds of trophy wagons with them, and dreamed of returning home to the rich. In the conditions of total collapse and chaos, their actions began to be marauding, predatory in nature. They used their strength to get to Vladivostok at any cost. Russian trains were forcibly stopped, driven into dead ends, steam locomotives and brigades were selected. Many echelons - sanitary, rear, with refugees, were stopped, deprived of steam locomotives and railway brigades. Someone was relatively lucky, neither found themselves in settlements, most didn’t, they found themselves in a remote taiga, at dead ends and traveling, doomed to die from cold, hunger and disease. Also, unprotected trains were attacked by rebels or bandits, robbed and killed passengers.

The Kolchakov troops, which the Czechs forbade to use or even get close to the railway, had to march along Siberian routes. Frosts, food shortages and epidemics completed the destruction of the Siberian white armies, killing more people than the red ones. To survive, the Kolchak units entirely surrendered to the enemy. This has become so commonplace that the Red Army soldiers behind the White Guards name: "Uncle, where are they surrendered?" Unable to take everything east weapon, property and equipment, whites destroyed hundreds of wagons, spoiled steam locomotives, blew up railway structures to stop the enemy’s advance. But in conditions of rapid flight, they did not have time to destroy everything. Soviet troops captured more and more trophies. Dozens of echelons with military equipment, arsenals, warehouses with ammunition, food, factory equipment, etc. Everything that Kolchakites took out in the summer of 1919 fell into the hands of the Red Army.

Amid this chaos, the “supreme ruler” Kolchak was lost in his train. He was torn from the troops marching along the old Siberian highway. One by one, the admiral wrote protests against the Czechs to their commander General Syrov, complained to the commander-in-chief of the allied forces, General Janen. He noted that the use of the Siberian Railway exclusively for allowing Czechoslovak troops to pass means the death of many Russian echelons, the last of which were actually on the front line. On November 24, Kolchak wrote to Jeanen: “In this case, I will consider myself entitled to take extreme measures and will not stop before them.” However, everything remained the same, since Kolchak did not have “large battalions” for “extreme measures”, and the Czechs knew this.



The collapse of the white command


Disagreement intensified among the command of the white army. The commanders of some formations and garrisons refused to obey the orders of the command. At the end of November 1919, General Griven, commander of the Northern Group of Forces of the 1 Army, ordered the troops to immediately withdraw to the Irkutsk region, the places where its units were formed. By this he violated the order of the command, which forbade to go east without resistance. As a result, parts of the Northern Group left the front. Coming to the commander of the 2 Army General Wojciechowski, Grivin said that the Northern Group was so weak that it could not fight. Therefore, he decided to take her deep into Siberia and will not change his decision. The demand to surrender the command answered categorically. General Wojciechowski personally shot Grivin "as if he had failed to comply with a military order and violated the foundations of military discipline." A new commander was appointed, but the troops continued to flee or surrendered in whole regiments.

In early December 1919, one of the division commanders Colonel Ivakin rebelled in Novonikolaevsk, demanding a truce with the Bolsheviks and the convening of the Siberian Constituent Assembly. The rebels blocked the headquarters of Wojciechowski and tried to arrest him. The rebellion was crushed. The Polish legionnaires who guarded the Novonikolayevsky section of the railway, unlike the Czechs, remained combat-ready and did not sympathize with the rebels. They defeated the rebels, activists were shot.

The high command was at a loss. In early December, a military meeting was held in Novonikolaevsk in the Kolchak carriage. A plan for further action was discussed. Two views were expressed. Some suggested moving along the railway line to Transbaikalia, where there was hope for the help of Semenovites and Japanese. Others suggested going from Novonikolaevsk to the south, to Barnaul and Biysk. There, unite with the troops of the chieftains Dutov and Annenkov, winter and spring, having bases in China and Mongolia, go on the offensive. Most supported the first option. Kolchak agreed with him.

In addition, the command of the Kolchak army was again changed. The failures of the White Guards led to a fall in the authority of Kolchak and Commander Sakharov in the army, he was considered one of the main culprits of the defeats at the front and the fall of Omsk. This caused a conflict between the supreme ruler and the commander of the 1 Army A.N. Pepelyaev (brother of the prime minister). When the admiral’s train arrived at Taiga station, he was detained by Pepelyaev’s troops. The general sent Kolchak an ultimatum on the convocation of the Siberian Zemsky Sobor, the resignation of Commander Sakharov, whom Pepelyaev ordered to arrest on December 9, and the investigation into the surrender of Omsk. In case of failure, Pepelyaev threatened to arrest Kolchak himself. The conflict could be hushed up by the head of government V.N. Pepelyaev who came from Irkutsk. As a result, Sakharov was ousted from his post as commander; other issues were postponed until his arrival in Irkutsk. The troops proposed to lead Diterikhsu, who was in Vladivostok. He made a condition - Kolchak’s resignation and his immediate departure abroad. The new commander was appointed Kappel.

This could not change anything. The collapse of the army was complete and final. But amid the general collapse and chaos, Vladimir Kappel showed his talents as a commander and organizer and until the very end was the most intelligent Siberian military leader of the whites. Until his death, he retained the nobility and devotion to Kolchak, and was able to collect the most reliable units from the remnants of the troops, organize at least some resistance.

On December 3 1919 the Red partisans occupied Semipalatinsk, where on the night of November 30 on December 1 the uprising of the Pleshcheyevsky factory and part of the garrison began. On December 10, partisans liberated Barnaul, on 13 on Biysk, capturing the entire garrison, on 15 on Ust-Kamenegorsk. On December 14, 1919, units of the 27th Division liberated Novonikolaevsk. Many captives and large trophies were captured. Thus, by mid-December 1919, the Red Army reached the border of the river. Obi.


Lieutenant General V.O. Kappel, commander of the Eastern Front. Source: https://ru.wikipedia.org
Author:
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  1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 November 2019 06: 41 New
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    A notable fact is the fierce war of the Socialist-Revolutionaries and other socialists against the Russian Army. Unlike Soviet propaganda, the Socialist-Revolutionaries considered themselves genuine revolutionaries and in the 1919 year made an alliance with the Bolsheviks against the Russian government, completely destroying its rear. . Of course, after the approach of the Red Army to Socialist Revolutionary Socialism came to an end and a complete "dictatorship of the proletariat" came. Useful and idiots! as old Krupsky said.
    1. Olgovich 15 November 2019 07: 26 New
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      Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
      A notable fact is the fierce war of the Socialist-Revolutionaries and other socialists against the Russian Army. Unlike Soviet propaganda, the Socialist-Revolutionaries considered themselves genuine revolutionaries and in the 1919 year made an alliance with the Bolsheviks against the Russian government, completely destroying its rear. . Of course, after the approach of the Red Army to Socialist Revolutionary Socialism came to an end and a complete "dictatorship of the proletariat" came.Useful idiots! as old Krupsky said.

      Their idiocy was worthily rewarded: a bullet from the grateful Bolsheviks. Share.

      But the true cause of the defeat was the betrayal of the allies, their actual cooperation with the Bolsheviks. Where are the "heroic" battles of the Reds with the hated invaders, Czechoslovakians? But no ...

      The destroyers of Russia are more profitable for them. The catastrophe of 1991 r and the Russian Cross showed that their hopes for the Bolsheviks in this were largely justified ...
      1. Alexander Suvorov 15 November 2019 07: 41 New
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        Olgovich (Andrey)
        But the true cause of the defeat was the betrayal of the allies, their actual cooperation with the Bolsheviks. Where are the "heroic" battles of the Reds with the hated invaders, Czechoslovakians? But no ...
        Twenty-five again, good morning ward No. 6.
        The interventionists in Russia came to rob, but did not die for the whites, whose interventionists immediately understood the worthlessness. Their task was to plunder as much as possible, but not to fight instead of the whites. The maximum that they were capable of was to participate in parades, walk in front of Denikin and type to show that they were with him.

        What else is new in parallel reality?
        1. knn54 15 November 2019 09: 10 New
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          And the new thing is that the Siberians rose. As long as the people watched, Kolchak did well. And the armies of Tukhachevsky went to Omsk with almost no resistance, because the same partisan army Schetinkin did more than the future Marshal.
          And the allies defended their concessions received in long-term lease from Nikolai 2.
          During the NEP, they continued to cash in. Until Stalin did not cover this shop.
        2. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 09: 33 New
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          Not respected negative fool And the Reds in general, then gave these lands to the interventionists free of charge, starting from Finland and ending with the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, which were transferred to us safely after the battle, but the Reds refused them.
          1. knn54 15 November 2019 13: 34 New
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            And you take an interest (not on the Internet) how many bourgeoisie "mastered" concessions (the first "joint ventures") after the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Civil War.
            And after the introduction of the surplus appraisal, Siberia flared up again. Moreover, the detachment was led by the Socialist-Revolutionaries. So were former officers.
            Read at least the Khakass period of life of A. Gaidar (Golikoav) at your leisure.
            And somehow mysteriously (and “on time”) the winner of Ungern “Siberian Chapai” Shchetinkin died in Mongolia.
            1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 14: 12 New
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              And you take an interest (not on the Internet) how many bourgeoisie "mastered" concessions (the first "joint ventures") after the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Civil War.
              Let's start with these words: - I use the Internet very little, I prefer libraries. Fortunately, we still have them in some places, which is good. Nikolay, why will I take from some sources there, when I want to hear all this from you, since you undertook to comment.
              And after the introduction of the surplus appraisal, Siberia flared up again. Moreover, the detachment was led by the Socialist-Revolutionaries. So were former officers.
              What the Bolsheviks began to do with the common people, naturally it blazed, they promised one thing, and they did something completely different, the last one was taken from the people. And these people mainly for them (for the Reds and fought), that’s what the Bolsheviks thanked them for.
              Read at least the Khakass period of life of A. Gaidar (Golikoav) at your leisure.
              “I don’t remember in the history of the case when my grandfather would have gotten so for his grandson.” His fame and I hope you understand their meaning.
              And somehow mysteriously (and “on time”) the winner of Ungern “Siberian Chapai” Shchetinkin died in Mongolia.
              You probably know how you did then?
        3. Olgovich 15 November 2019 11: 02 New
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          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          Good morning ward No.6. !!

          Shhh ...: Your neighbors are still sleeping ... yes
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          The interventionists in Russia came to rob, but did not die for the whites, whose interventionists immediately understood the worthlessness. Their task was to plunder as much as possible, but not to fight instead of the whites. The maximum that they were capable of was to participate in parades, walk in front of Denikin and type to show that they were with him.

          What else is new in parallel reality?

          There is just such a fascinating book on a topic that interests you (and the neighbors will be delighted), this is the story of one party https://www.ozon.ru/context/detail/id/7326063/ hi
      2. apro 15 November 2019 08: 24 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        The destroyers of Russia are more profitable for them. The catastrophe 1991 r and the Russian Cross showed that their hopes for the Bolsheviks in this - in

        Who is interested in the profitability of Olgovich? And who hoped for the Bolsheviks in the matter of the destruction of mother race?
        1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 09: 57 New
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          Quote: apro
          Quote: Olgovich
          The destroyers of Russia are more profitable for them. The catastrophe 1991 r and the Russian Cross showed that their hopes for the Bolsheviks in this - in

          Who is interested in the profitability of Olgovich? And who hoped for the Bolsheviks in the matter of the destruction of mother race?

          Those countries that sponsored the Bolsheviks, and not only they, all who were not lazy, made their contribution to this, and first of all (hans, and shaving too).
          1. apro 15 November 2019 10: 05 New
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            Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
            Those countries that sponsored the Bolsheviks

            With a book of accounting pzhlst ....
            And a complete list of pzhlst ..
            1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 10: 32 New
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              With a book of accounting pzhlst ....
              And a complete list of pzhlst ..
              Why and what is the point? I, just like you, can only speculate from the materials and not duel their books. Such books are not lying on the roads so that they can be shown to you. So I can ask you the same question, show me a book, too, where you confirm your words in practice, and not just so on my own.
              1. apro 15 November 2019 10: 50 New
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                Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
                Why and what is the point?

                Then why hang on the Bolsheviks too much?
                1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 10: 54 New
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                  Quote: apro
                  Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
                  Why and what is the point?

                  Then why hang on the Bolsheviks too much?

                  All that is written in the story about them.
          2. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 14: 29 New
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            Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
            Those countries that sponsored the Bolsheviks, and not only they, all who were not lazy, contributed to this

            In short, all progressive humanity ... wink
        2. AK1972 15 November 2019 12: 08 New
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          Olgovich falls asleep and wakes up with the "Russian cross", and when he sleeps, he dreams of him.
      3. Looking for 15 November 2019 15: 52 New
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        Breachy Bulkohrust. What kind of Czech interventionists. Czechs were former prisoners of war in tsarist Russia
    2. Moskovit 15 November 2019 09: 31 New
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      But here is a sample of valor and honor dealt with the Democrats. This is the question of the constant groans of Olgovich about the Regular Meeting.

      Memoirs of D.F. Rakov, a prisoner of the Kolchak prison, about the murder in Omsk of deputies of the Constituent Assembly:

      “Omsk simply froze in horror. They were afraid to go out into the street, meet each other ... The murder itself presents a picture so wild and terrible that it is difficult to speak even to people who have seen many horrors in the past and in the present. Unhappy stripped, left only in his underwear. They beat them with all kinds of weapons, with the exception of artillery: they beat them with rifle butts, stabbed with bayonets, chopped with sabers, shot them with rifles and revolvers. The execution was attended not only by performers, but also by spectators. In front of this audience, N. Fomin was inflicted 13 wounds, of which only two were gunshot. They tried to chop off his hands with sabers, while still alive, but the sabers were apparently stupid - they got deep wounds on the shoulders and under the arms ... This terrible orgy was played out on the bank of the Irtysh at a distance of less than a mile from the house where the Supreme Ruler was located. ”
      1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 09: 58 New
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        You all wrote all about the Bolsheviks now, to be more precise about the Reds?
        1. Moskovit 15 November 2019 10: 06 New
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          Read carefully. Learn the history of the Civil War. Google how Kolchak came to power.
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 10: 24 New
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            Read carefully.
            It is written somehow you are not correct, I ask you?
            Learn the history of the Civil War.
            It says that he was met with salt and bread.
            Civil war. Google how Kolchak came to power.
            I prefer our Russian manufacturer, rather than Stripovskiy, so I don’t use Google. I asked you?
            1. Moskovit 15 November 2019 11: 16 New
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              Memoirs of D.F. Rakov, prisoner of Kolchak prison, about the murder in Omsk of the deputies of the Constituent Assembly:

              It seems to me quite understandable. Plus, if you studied history, you know about the November 18 coup in Omsk and the December 23 execution.
              1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 11: 25 New
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                The December uprising in Omsk in 1918, of course I know.
              2. Olgovich 15 November 2019 11: 54 New
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                Quote: Moskovit
                Memories D.F. Rakov, a prisoner of the Kolchak prison, about the murder in Omsk, the deputies of the Constituent Assembly:

                Whom he did not see. is he sat at that time. lol
                But "recalls" - in full!
      2. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 November 2019 11: 10 New
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        Quote: Moskovit
        the murder in Omsk of the deputies of the Constituent Assembly:

        What passions do you tell, directly, "Irtysh Chainsaw Massacre"! Obviously, the Soviet deputies of the Constituent Assembly were cherished, cherished and kissed in all places, weren't they ?! Soviet, after all, are not animals like Russian soldiers!
        In the period from 1918 to 1950, the Soviet punitive bodies were 201 member of the Constituent Assembly was shot and 35 deputies tortured in Soviet concentration camps.
        1. Moskovit 15 November 2019 11: 18 New
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          Do not confuse warm with soft. I showed you as an example how Kolchak dealt with the Democrats. This is for those who are captivated by illusions.
        2. Olgovich 16 November 2019 06: 54 New
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          Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
          In the period from 1918 to 1950, Soviet punitive bodies were shot 201 member of the Constituent Assembly and 35 deputies tortured in Soviet concentration camps.

          One addition: many of them were ....Bolshevik deputies of the CSS. By the way, by the way. yes
      3. Olgovich 15 November 2019 11: 34 New
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        Quote: Moskovit
        But here is a sample of valor and honor dealt with the Democrats. This is the question of the constant groans of Olgovich about the Regular Meeting.

        “Omsk simply froze in horror. They were afraid to go out into the street, meet each other ... The murder itself presents a picture so wild and terrible that it is difficult to speak even to people who have seen many horrors in the past and in the present. Unhappy stripped, left only in his underwear. They beat them with all kinds of weapons, with the exception of artillery: they beat them with rifle butts, stabbed with bayonets, chopped with sabers, shot them with rifles and revolvers. The execution was attended not only by performers, but also by spectators. In front of this audience, N. Fomin was inflicted 13 wounds, of which only two were gunshot. They tried to chop off his hands with sabers, while still alive, but the sabers were apparently stupid - they got deep wounds on the shoulders and under the arms ... This terrible orgy was played out on the bank of the Irtysh at a distance of less than a mile from the house where the Supreme Ruler was located. ”

        An eyewitness is rotten:: Rogov was NOT a witness to the execution, retells what M. had told him, to whom N. had told him, etc.
        WHY do you bring this chatter? request

        Most (Chernov and others) quietly left the country, an official investigation was appointed to kill some of the deputies, and those responsible were brought to trial.
        1. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 11: 46 New
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          Quote: Olgovich
          and the perpetrators are brought to justice.

          Who ... did what? wink
          1. Moskovit 15 November 2019 12: 29 New
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            Who did nothing. Not only that: Colonel Volkov, military foremen Katanaev and Krasilnikov appeared before the court. During the court hearings, however, it was mainly a question of the subversive actions of the arrested members of the Directory, the Social Revolutionaries. As a result, all three accused were acquitted. Moreover, by decree of the Supreme Ruler, Admiral Kolchak, on the same days, they were awarded regular military ranks.
            1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 November 2019 12: 42 New
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              Quote: Moskovit
              Who did nothing

              Tell me, how were the Soviet Chekists punished for killing 236 deputies of the Constituent Assembly of Russia? I suspect they were awarded orders and prizes! Then why are you worried about the deputies killed by Russian officers, but are indifferent to the fate of the same founders killed by the Soviet ?! It seems that if the Kolchakites had not killed Omsk deputies, then the Soviet KGB would have shot them!
              1. Moskovit 15 November 2019 12: 56 New
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                I repeat. It's about Kolchak. The fact that it was a knight whom bloody communists prevented from making Russia a democratic country. Fools-peasants who did not understand his liberation mission also interfered.
                Do not worry about the Chekists. They got theirs. Ask Olgovich)).
                1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 November 2019 13: 08 New
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                  Quote: Moskovit
                  it was a knight whom the bloody communists prevented from making Russia a democratic country.

                  It turns out that the Communists made a democratic country from Russia ?! They freed clever peasants? From what, interestingly, did the communists liberate these peasants: from money, land, and their property? Interesting. What were the advantages of Soviet power: on collective farms, the Cheka-NKVD, the Gulag, the destruction of temples ?! Oh yes: the Soviet liberated the Siberian peasants from the landlords, whom there were flying penguins in Africa ... And they gave land ... which in Siberia and under the emperor was more than enough, and during the Soviet era all land was left to the state!
                  1. Moskovit 15 November 2019 13: 17 New
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                    Again, you begin to translate arrows on the Communists. We are talking about Kolchak. That he was an ordinary dictator and his policies led to his fall. In every city where his army reached, there are monuments to the dead and martyred. There is a gigantic array of documents, including a photo where all this is recorded.
                    At that moment, the people followed the Bolsheviks. Probably not just.
                    1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 November 2019 13: 57 New
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                      Quote: Moskovit
                      his policy led to his fall

                      But Bronstein with Ulyanov significant? Hmm, according to Soviet data, it’s just the opposite. What the monuments erected during the USSR is not at all surprising: the Soviets won and did what they wanted. If the Russian Army won, we would also commemorate the fallen Russians and curse the Soviet ISIS. But you don’t understand Soviet morality poorly. Do you think they were embarrassed by the Red Terror and other massacres? Yes, the red partisans still went to schools in the 30 years and told admiring pioneers how they exterminated people by thousands! And the people went ... where the Chekists and red Latvians drove him to the collective farms, the exile and the Gulag.
                    2. voyaka uh 19 November 2019 17: 42 New
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                      If to summarize (according to the set of documents and memoirs):
                      1) In the Civil War, both the Reds and the Whites were atrocious.
                      2) But to the east of the Urals, the atrocities of the Whites surpassed the atrocities of the Reds.
                      3) But in the European part of Russia, on the contrary, the atrocities of the Reds surpassed the atrocities of the Whites.
                      4) The sooner the Russians admit that both warring parties were atrocious, the sooner historical reconciliation will come.
                      1. Moskovit 19 November 2019 20: 55 New
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                        Paraphrasing the name of one film, also by the way about the civil war, but in Lithuania
                        - No one wanted to admit
                  2. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 14: 51 New
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                    Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                    what were the advantages of Soviet power: on collective farms, the Cheka-NKVD, the Gulag, the destruction of temples ?!

                    To this there are answers of Soviet generals - peasants by origin from different areas of great Russia:
                    Utvenko A.I., Ukrainian:
                    "I would have been a laborer without Soviet power."
                    Altunin A.T., Siberian (Omsk):
                    "- And what is your title?
                    “Lieutenant, Comrade Uncle!” I jokingly reached out, dashingly putting my hand to the visor.
                    - Which, for example, can be equated to the officer rank of the tsar’s army? - the old soldier became interested.
                    “It seems the second lieutenant ...” I answer uncertainly.
                    “Ege, it turns out higher than ensign. But to our brother, the son of a peasant, please be higher than ensign and do not dream, even if you are capable and smart. And here you are, even the milk on the lips has not dried out, you have already been awarded the rank of officer. Appreciate brother. Thank the Soviet authorities, protect it, since you have been entrusted with such an important matter. "
                    Ivanov S.P., Smolyanin:
                    “In September of 1920, at the age of thirteen, I myself could personally experience the advantages of a new life. Before the revolution, the peasant’s son would hardly even have dreamed of secondary school education, if only his parents could scrape 10 rubles a month in gold - namely, this was only the tuition fee for the gymnasium, plus the money for uniforms and textbooks. Now, when the education at the second level school became free, and the form was canceled, the costs were reduced to a minimum and were reduced only to the costs of renting a house angle in g food and nutrition. "
                  3. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 15: 00 New
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                    Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                    And they gave land ... which in Siberia and under the emperor was more than enough

                    Not only that - the mass of peasants, the king and his prime minister Stolypin P.A. they gave a lot of land in Siberia. Then, when it was the MAIN way, the "Stolypin agrarians" rebelled against Kolchak, Stolypin, presumably, strongly hiccuped in the next world from the expressions with which the white officers remembered him. bully
                    1. Ryaruav 16 November 2019 15: 00 New
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                      sugar yes swami agrees about the opportunities that Soviet power gave us to the descendants of ordinary peasants (we are not Cossacks) but I never accept the slaughter of sailors from the brigade of battleships of the Baltic Fleet in Kronstad
            2. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 12: 43 New
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              What are we talking about. And what Olgovich ... is not talking about. negative
        2. Moskovit 15 November 2019 12: 31 New
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          That is, there were no executions, cuttings?
    3. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 13: 56 New
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      Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
      . It was on the side of the "revolutionary socialists" that the rebellious garrisons passed

      Little of:
      "... many Polish units in Siberia were also largely propagandized by the Bolsheviks. So, on 4 of March 1919 of the year in Novo-Nikolaevsk there was a secret meeting of red underground workers with Poles. On 9 of July 1919 of the same year the Poles organized a rally under the slogans" Home to Poland ! ". According to Soviet sources, in the area of ​​the cracker factory (now Sukharnaya Street) 94 participants of the rally were shot. In the autumn of 1919, when the Bolshevik underground was defeated, it turned out that the Polish gunmen were also involved in underground work - counterintelligence were Polish troops were sold Dreitzeno, Zharich, Pramzhevsky, Kuchinsky and others.
      The commander of the 1 th Infantry Regiment. Tadeusz Kosciuszko Colonel Boldok wrote in his order “... The mood is hostile against the Poles ...” (“Novonikolaevsk in a military uniform”).
  2. Dalton 15 November 2019 06: 48 New
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    Kappel and Wojciechowski are examples of fidelity, honor and valor of a Russian warrior. Saved even in the Time of Troubles.
    The first one was able to save the army from encirclement near Krasnoyarsk and bring it to Baikal, albeit at the cost of its life. And he was so loved by the soldiers that, despite all the difficulties, they dragged a coffin with the body of a commander.
    The second - leading the remnants of the army, he was able to put it in order. And (by the way, those who constantly remember the renegades Shkuro and Krasnov), the Germans during WWII went to the immigrant Wojciechowski and invited him to head the ROA. To which Wojciechowski replied: “I hate the Bolsheviks, but I won’t go to fight against the Russian soldier!” The ROA had to head not the Russian general Wojciechowski, but the Soviet general Vlasov.
    The Siberian outcome is terrible because wilderness. Threads of highways, which cut the end. There were trains with frozen people.
    Scary time but what kind of people
    1. Olgovich 15 November 2019 07: 40 New
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      Quote: Dalton
      And he was so loved by the soldiers that, despite all the difficulties, they dragged a coffin with the body of a commander.


      The body of Vladimir Oskarovich was rescued by soldiers from reproach in Chita and transported to Harbin.

      In free Russia, the ashes of the Russian hero finally found their rightful place in the very heart of Russia, in Moscow, at the Novodevichy cemetery. As it should.
      1. Ryaruav 16 November 2019 11: 43 New
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        not at the Novodevichy, but in a Don monastery next to Anton Ivanovich and his wife
        1. Olgovich 16 November 2019 12: 34 New
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          Quote: Ryaruav
          not at the Novodevichy, but in a Don monastery next to Anton Ivanovich and his wife

          Guilty, slip of the tongue, although he knew ... hi
          1. Ryaruav 16 November 2019 14: 35 New
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            Comrade monarchist olgovich, I specially with my daughter visited the graves of not the last Russian soldiers
            1. Olgovich 17 November 2019 07: 18 New
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              Quote: Ryaruav
              Comrade monarchist olgovich, I specially with my daughter visited the graves of not the last Russian soldiers

              And? belay
    2. apro 15 November 2019 08: 53 New
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      Quote: Dalton
      The ROA had to head not the Russian general Wojciechowski, but the Soviet general Vlasov.

      Ie Vlasov was sent to Roa by the Soviet government led by TovIVStalin? Or this character committed an act of betrayal. And has nothing to do with the Soviet ..
      1. Ryaruav 16 November 2019 14: 52 New
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        Comrade Oleg, just don’t need to distort the speech that Wojciechowski didn’t go with that, compared to the so-called Cossacks, Krasnov and his skin show his moral character, but I am for socialism with a human face (the time of Leonid Ilyich) but opening the Soviet military encyclopedia in 8 volumes I find the demise of 80% of the heroes of the civil war 35-39 years, I am for Stalin's industrialization, but why are Tupolev, Petlyak, Mesishchev, Queens enemies of the people, which is normal, like let 5 die an innocent kill to destroy one enemy, yes I understand VR it was very difficult but it’s not necessary to blame everyone, look at our courts today it's just
    3. Moskovit 15 November 2019 09: 22 New
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      It’s a pity that you don’t worry so much about the thousands of peasants executed by Kolchakites.

      Memoirs of Anna Fedorovna Mokrushina, Omsk:

      “Kolchakites locked four grandmother's children in the bathhouse, and pinned my grandfather Dmitry Petrov alive with the peaks at the door of the bathhouse, lined the bathhouse with straw and set it on fire. My aunt Anna Petrova ... was tied by the legs to two horses and dragged around the village by drag. Until they were torn to pieces ... ”Natalya Feoktistova, Omsk:“ My mother is a native of Omsk, and her life passed in this city. Under Kolchak (she heard this from many, including Kolchak’s soldiers), those who were suspected of sympathy for the Reds were tortured and tortured terribly, even hung on meat hooks. After the defeat of Kolchak, she and her friend participated in the funeral of victims of the Kolchak terror. In the coffins lay chopped and shot people, the coffins were all in blood. And there were more than a hundred, they were carried in their arms from the hospital to the current Square of the fighters of the revolution. A groan and a cry stood on the Grief and Lubinsky streets along which the procession moved. The whole city escorted the heroes on their last journey and sent curses to the murderers. ”
      1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 November 2019 11: 30 New
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        Quote: Moskovit
        pinned my grandfather Dmitry Petrov alive, imposed a straw on the bathhouse and set it on fire.

        A nightmare! Grandfather had to call Rogov's red partisans for help! Soviet partisans are the most humane people on Earth!
        In the town of Kuznetsk (now Novokuznetsk), Soviet partisans of two thousand horsemen, armed with 18 machine guns, killed hundreds of people in December 1919 in three days (some sources refer to 300 or 400 dead, one of the KGB reports of that time indicates another number of victims is 800). And according to the report of the Kuznetsk Revolutionary Committee, partisans killed about 1400 people out of four thousand residents of the city ... Soviet unarmed people were taken out of their houses, right there at the houses, they were stripped at the gates and chopped down with checkers. Particularly "eminent" and "persons of a spiritual rank" were killed in the Transfiguration Cathedral. A rare woman or girl avoided the vile violence. People were chopped up according to the "class criterion": soft hands - chop, commissar - chop. "
        As the Soviet partisan Volkov recalled: "police officers Milyaev and Petrov, my wife and I sawed, and that saw is stored with me. Oh, dear comrade, I’ll look at her another time — here, they say, was my power! I’ll look and kiss her. ... that one saw, which I, therefore, sawed Kolchak bourgeois police officers Milyaev and Petrov, I give for historical memory to the Mikolaevsky Museum. I received five rubles for the purchase of a new one from comrade Zazubrin, in which I will subscribe. Long-range sailor of the Baltic Fleet of Wolves. "
        1. Alexander Greene 15 November 2019 22: 23 New
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          Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
          Long-range sailor of the Baltic Fleet of Wolves. "

          And you believe in crap? One signature is worth it. No real sailor will ever sign up like that.
          Could sign if they served in the navy: "sailor of the Baltic Fleet" or "Baltic sailor" If in the merchant navy, then they signed: "sailor of the voyage." Moreover, merchant ships belonged to shipping companies and societies, not fleets.
          1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 16 November 2019 09: 02 New
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            Quote: Alexander Green
            And you believe in crap?

            And do not you believe the Soviet sources? You can visit Novokuznetsk yourself and go to the museum, where there is a photo of the very heroic saw that Soviet partisans sawed living people through.V.Zazubrin "Unbroken roads" 1926 year magazine "Siberian Lights"
            1. Alexander Greene 16 November 2019 10: 06 New
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              Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
              And do not you believe the Soviet sources?

              Which one? What did the former Kolchak officer who suddenly became a journalist compose? And which are the Internet replicating now?
            2. Ryaruav 16 November 2019 15: 18 New
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              Dorya Aleksey Vladimirovich I can’t believe Soviet sources on history issues at 80%, I, as a person of the 1959 sample for a year interested in the history of military equipment (at 65% of the Navy), can either say lies or were silent about one example not a bad book by Dmitriev attacked by submariners describes the actions of our pl in and in this work not a word about the torpedoing of the LC Tirpitz but the sleek announcer of the first channel forgot how to call for years commercials 7-8 said on channel No.1 he achieved a torpedo hit although the commander of Katyusha reported only about the shooting of fodder that yes, we are all neimeet analogues including lie
      2. Olgovich 15 November 2019 11: 45 New
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        Quote: Moskovit
        Memoirs of Anna Fedorovna Mokrushina, Omsk:

        “Natalia Feoktistova, Omsk:“ My mother is a native of Omsk, and her life passed in this city. When Kolchak (she heard it from many including from Kolchak soldiers) suspected of sympathy for the Reds were tortured and tortured terribly, even hung on meat hooks. After the defeat of Kolchak, she and her friend participated in the funeral of victims of the Kolchak terror. In the coffins lay chopped and shot people, the coffins were all in blood. And there were more than a hundred, they were carried in their arms from the hospital to the current Square of the fighters of the revolution. A groan and a cry stood on the Grief and Lubinsky streets along which the procession moved. The whole city escorted the heroes on their last journey and sent curses to the murderers. ”


        Oh, "she heard it about many," and not she, but .... mom: this chatterof course, "convincing" evidence ....

        And what faith is these agitation of the times when the word of truth was completely forbidden, and their atrocities had to be justified in any way.?

        Write you memories from, for example, O. Marusyak? hi
  3. parusnik 15 November 2019 06: 52 New
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    although the Czechs themselves were active punishers and war criminals
    ... And now they are erecting monuments ... from grateful Russians ... laughing
    1. Alexander Suvorov 15 November 2019 07: 42 New
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      parusnik (Alexey Bogomazov)
      ... And now they are erecting monuments ... from grateful Russians ... laughing
      And they are trying to whitewash Kolchak with all their might.
      1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 09: 28 New
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        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        parusnik (Alexey Bogomazov)
        ... And now they are erecting monuments ... from grateful Russians ... laughing
        And they are trying to whitewash Kolchak with all their might.

        Not respected negative and they act correctly that they have whitewashed Kolchak, he is the hero of his country, who actually proved it. He took the oath to his country and fought for it to the end, but did not destroy it and tried to preserve it in every way. Unlike the Reds, who eventually destroyed their country and distributed the land for free.
        1. Qiman Kyrivo 15 November 2019 10: 41 New
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          He fought for his country, destroying his own people. We know.
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 10: 58 New
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            Quote: Qiman Kyrivo
            He fought for his country, destroying his own people. We know.

            Unlike the Reds, he did not create camps. And he defended his own people, against those who created these camps, for the common people.
          2. Olgovich 15 November 2019 11: 48 New
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            Quote: Qiman Kyrivo
            He fought for his country, destroying his own people. We know.

            Of course, we know that Russia has never suffered such losses as under the Bolsheviks: NEVER: in people or in territories.
            This is just a fact.
        2. Qiman Kyrivo 15 November 2019 10: 41 New
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          He fought for his country, destroying his own people. We know.
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 10: 59 New
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            Yes, he fought heroically, against those who later destroyed in the camps his own people, who fought for them during the years of the revolution.
        3. Alexey RA 15 November 2019 10: 56 New
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          Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
          He took the oath to his country and until the end fought for it

          Are you talking about the UK? wink
          Today is a day of great importance to me; today I was called by Sir Green to the embassy and received a message from him deciding my immediate future. I, with my two companions, have been accepted into the service of His Majesty the King of England and am going to the Mesopotamian front.
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 11: 06 New
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            No, his Motherland was the Great Russian Empire, for which he fought, in all the wars that were in those years wink .Unlike the Reds, who gave their native land to all other countries for free, they also gave it to the British, for which Russian soldiers shed their blood.
            1. Looking for 15 November 2019 16: 10 New
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              In Ukraine, atrocities are happening with 2014. Justified by just one idea - PATRIOTISM.
              1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 16: 41 New
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                This is not called patriotism - (I will say more softly) do not understand what. When own people, begins to fight with each other.
        4. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 13: 58 New
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          Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
          actually proved it

          According to his deeds, he was rewarded ...
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 14: 15 New
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            As well as the Bolsheviks.
        5. Looking for 15 November 2019 16: 02 New
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          Kolchak the murderer. Scoundrel and Judas.
          1. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 16: 37 New
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            And where does such knowledge come from? In addition to sitting at the computer, you probably don’t know anything else.
  4. SERGEY SERGEEVICS 15 November 2019 10: 00 New
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    Lieutenant General V.O. Kappel, this was a true patriot of his country and his work.
  5. Qiman Kyrivo 15 November 2019 11: 10 New
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    Extraordinary judicial "triples" were invented by Kolchak long before 1937. This is for all anti-Soviet advisers who do not like to recall the deeds of their ancestors.
    1. Olgovich 15 November 2019 12: 06 New
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      Quote: Qiman Kyrivo
      Extraordinary judicial "triples" were invented by Kolchak long to 1937 Mr.

      Ahhh, in xnumx g was still walking Grad Waras at Kolchak! yes

      But what about ...... already built socialism and universal support of the people? belay
      And then rrrrraz! -And hundreds of thousands of enemies of the people at the very ... popular regime!
      No anti-people so many enemies had.request
  6. Qiman Kyrivo 15 November 2019 11: 10 New
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    Extraordinary judicial "triples" were invented by Kolchak long before 1937. This is for all anti-Soviet advisers who do not like to recall the deeds of their ancestors.
  7. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 12: 19 New
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    “Kolchak’s officership was never homogeneous. The admiral’s army included former Socialist-Revolutionaries, who were often unfriendly to the“ supreme ruler ”, usurping power belonging to the Constituent Assembly; extreme monarchists; resented and frightened inhabitants by the revolution; venal landsknechtes, for whom murder became the source of profession existence; intellectuals entangled in contradictions; military, accustomed not to reason, but only to carry out commands.
    There were frank criminals and “ideological fighters for a great and indivisible Russia”, sadists, Black Hundreds and those who unsuccessfully tried to maintain their human likeness and convince themselves that, fighting against the Bolsheviks, he defends civilization. But all of them had some kind of core - discipline, conviction, subordination, officer honor, the idea of ​​what was permitted and not permitted. Now this rod has broken. At the same time, the fragile shell of ostentatious decency crumbled to dust. Maddened with fear, the cattle burst out. The officers disappeared, turning into a gang of murderers, rapists, thieves and psychopaths. In official documents, this was called decomposition.
    ... military units retreated into the depths of Siberia. Avoiding meetings with large partisan formations, thousands of soldiers and officers retreated along the old Siberian highway and country roads. We walked. We drove on carts requisitioned in the villages. Numb with frost and malice, they shot political prisoners in prisons, stabbed them with bayonets, burned down partisan villages. Suspected of Bolshevism, men gouged out their eyes, women cut off their breasts.
    When it happened to go onto the railway line, warm clothes and horses were taken away from the refugees, hung on telegraph poles and tied up to the train pipes by the train locomotives, on occasion fired at the echelons of the allies who had seized the road ... (Klarov Yu M “Fifth cell arrestees”)
  8. Sugar Honeyovich 15 November 2019 12: 32 New
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    "the Czechs themselves were active punitive and war criminals"
    This is yes:
    "According to the memoirs of the old-timers, when the squirrels, who kept the whole district in fear, had nothing to do at night, they got drunk in the train station restaurant, went out into the street, took several prisoners out and shot them in a birch grove, on the site of which, by the way, is now the city stadium. Almost every morning, locals found dead people in the grove. They also say that once a dog brought a human hand to the village ... "(modern city of Topki, Kemerovo Region).
    However:
    “Many people passed through us, the Reds - normally passed, the Czechs - also didn’t touch anyone. But the Kolchakites ... And they hung and drowned people in the wells ...
    And when they retreated, they mined the dam. If they blew up, half of the village would be flooded. They didn’t detonate because the red underground member neutralized these charges "(Suksun, Perm Region)
  9. Fevralsk. Morev 16 November 2019 17: 03 New
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    100 years ago defeated the White Guard. And now she, the White Guard, is defeating the peoples of Russia. We all see how the postulates of the ideologist of the White Movement of the philosopher Ilyin, the head of the country, come to life, the people don’t choose; new aristocracy; instilling a sense of rank to the people; the imposition of Orthodoxy as part of the state apparatus. Why did our ancestors die?
  10. Grandfather Mansour 17 November 2019 18: 25 New
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    Good day, friends! Thanks to the author for an interesting article!
    At the same time, I would like to note the following: there is an apologetics of the white movement and the admiral himself. The fashion trend is to whitewash the opponents of the Bolsheviks. But do not forget that despite all the merits of A.V. Kolchak as a polar explorer and naval commander, he was recognized as a war criminal, and his rehabilitation was refused twice: at the end of the 90-s and at the beginning of the 2000.
    So all the parties to the conflict were weird in the civil war, and who is bigger and who is smaller - and there are no ends.
  11. Grandfather Mansour 18 November 2019 15: 48 New
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    By the way, with the centenary of the expulsion of Kolchakites from Omsk!