Battle for the North Caucasus. How to suppress the Terek Uprising

100 years ago, in February 1919, the battle for the North Caucasus ended. Denikin's army defeated the 11 th Red Army and captured most of the North Caucasus. After completing the campaign in the North Caucasus, the Whites began to deploy troops to the Don and Donbass.

prehistory



In October - November 1918, the whites beat the Reds in extremely stubborn and bloody battles for Armavir and Stavropol (Battle for Armavir; Stavropol battle). The second Kuban campaign was completed for Denikin’s army successfully. Denikinians occupied the Kuban, part of the Black Sea coast, and a significant part of the Stavropol province. We received a strategic foothold and a rear area for further deployment of the White Army and the conduct of hostilities. The main forces of the Red Army in the North Caucasus suffered a heavy defeat.

However, the victory was achieved by the extreme tension of the forces and facilities of the Volunteer Army. Volunteers suffered heavy losses, many units changed their lineup several times. Therefore, White could not continue the offensive and finish off the Reds in the Caucasus. The front stabilized for a while, both sides took a pause, regrouped and reorganized the forces, and filled up troops with the help of mobilizations. Both the red and the white had supply problems, especially the shortage of ammunition. White reformed their infantry divisions in 3 army and 1 equestrian corps under the command of Kazanovich, Borovsky, Lyakhov and Wrangel.

The new commander of the Red Army, after the death of I. Sorokin, was I. Fedko. The Reds reformed all their forces in the 4 Infantry and 1 Cavalry Corps of the 11 Army. The Taman army was incorporated into the 11 of the Red Army as the 1 of the Taman Infantry Corps. The army headquarters was located in Petrovsky, then in Alexandria. The main problem of the Red Army in the North Caucasus was the lack of full-fledged communication with central Russia and communication for supplies. The rear of the 11 Army rested on the Caspian steppe, where there were no developed communications and rear bases. The closest rear base was Astrakhan, where the military road was 400 km long. Communication passed through Georgievsk - the Holy Cross - Yashkul and further to Astrakhan. But to establish a full supply on this road failed. The smaller 12-I Red Army (one Astrakhan division) fought in the eastern part of the North Caucasus against the White and Terek Cossacks Bicherahov. Also, the Reds occupied Vladikavkaz, which linked the 11 and 12 army.

The battle for the eastern part of the Stavropol province

After a short pause, Denikin’s army resumed the offensive. Particularly stubborn fighting began in the area of ​​Beshpagir, Spitsevka and Petrovsky. The 1 Army Corps of Kazanovich (composed of the 1 Division of Kolosovsky, the 1 of the Kuban Pokrovsky Division and the 1 of the Caucasian Cossack Shkuro Division), overcoming the stubborn resistance of the Reds, 24 of November 1918 of the year came to the village of Spitsevka. Then White got stuck and 9 days unsuccessfully attacked the Gudkov group in the Bespagir area.

Meanwhile, Wrangel's cavalry corps (as part of Topkoff's 1 Cavalry Division, Ulagay's 2 Kuban Division, the Tchaikovsky Combined Cavalry Brigade, and Hodkiewicz's 3 Brigade) crossed the Kalaus River and 24 took Petrovskoye on November. On November 25, the Tamans counterattacked and beat out Wrangel from Petrovsky. Heavy fighting went on for several days. Peter several times passed from hand to hand. Wrangel suffered heavy losses, Wrangel’s headquarters itself was nearly captured in Konstantinovsky, during the counterattack of the Reds. Only November 28 could finally take Petrovskoye.

Wrangel threw an 1 Cavalry Division and a Cavalry Brigade under the overall command of Toporkov to aid the corps of Kazanovich. White went to the rear in red. At dawn 5 December, the Wrangers in the Spitsevka area struck a sudden blow at the enemy. The Reds were defeated and fled, having lost up to 2 thousand prisoners, 7 guns, 40 machine guns and a large wagon train. White went to the river Kalaus. Gudkov's group suffered a new defeat, having lost up to 3 thousands of people captives. Red retreated to the area with. Medvedsky and 7 December entrenched there. At the same time, the Tamans again tried to counterattack Petrovsky, but the Topkoff's 1 Cavalry Division were defeated. Wrangel reports on 5 thousand prisoners.

It is worth noting that this time the Red Army in the Caucasus was in poor condition due to mistakes and squabbles of command, constant reorganization and restructuring in conditions of incessant battles, which caused great confusion, confusion in command and control, reduced their combat capability. The fighting qualities of the army dropped sharply due to defeats and losses in the brutal battles for Armavir and Stavropol. The most militant and resilient units were exsanguinated, and emergency mobilization could not quickly rectify the situation, since the replenishment was poorly trained, prepared, and had low motivation. The troops had a poor supply. In the conditions of the beginning of winter, the soldiers experienced a shortage of food and warm clothing. In addition, an epidemic of Spanish and typhus began, it literally devastated the army. On 1 December, there were about 40 thousand patients. The medical staff was sorely lacking, there was no medicine. All the hospitals, train stations, motels and homes were typhoid. A lot of people died.

Defeat of the Terek Uprising

In the course of the Second Kuban campaign, when the main forces of the Red Army in the North Caucasus were tied up with volunteers in the North Caucasus, rebellions against Soviet power broke out. In Ossetia, against the Bolsheviks, a veteran of the wars with Japan, Germany and Turkey (he commanded a Cossack brigade in Persia), General Elsa Mistulov, spoke out. In Kabarda, Prince Zaurbek Dautokov-Serebryakov, an officer of the Kabardian Regiment of the Nat Division during the Great War, raised a rebellion. On the Terek, the Cossacks raised Social Revolutionary Georgy Bicherahov. It was the brother of Lazar Bikherakhov, who formed a Cossack detachment in Persia and, in alliance with the British, fought in Baku against the Turkish-Azerbaijani troops, and then went to Dagestan, captured Derbent and Port Petrovsk (Makhachkala). There L. Bikherakhov headed the government of the Caucasian-Caspian Union and formed the Caucasian army, which fought with the Turkish-Azerbaijani troops, Chechen and Dagestan troops, and the Bolsheviks. He supported weapons Terek Cossacks.

The Terek Cossacks were irritated by the policies of the Bolsheviks, who relied on the Highlanders. This led to the loss of the former position of the earth. In addition, distemper caused a criminal revolution, gangs appeared everywhere, the mountaineers recalled the old craft - raids, robberies, kidnapping. Therefore, the Cossacks opposed both the Bolsheviks and the Highlanders. In June 1918, the Cossacks captured Mozdok. 23 June in Mozdok was the Cossack-Peasant Congress, which spoke for the "Soviets without the Bolsheviks" and chose the Provisional Government headed by Bikherahov. In the summer - fall of 1918, the Bicherahov was the de facto ruler of the Terek. Military forces led by General Mistulov. Cossacks occupied the villages of Cool and Soldier.



In August 1918, the rebel Cossacks attacked Vladikavkaz and Grozny - the center of Soviet power in the Terek region. But they could not achieve victory. Vladikavkaz Cossacks for a short time captured, but then they were knocked out. In Grozny, which was under siege for more than three months, the Bolsheviks were able to put together an efficient garrison of soldiers, Highlanders and Red Cossacks (mostly the poorest part of the Cossacks). From the end of September, the defense was headed by Ordzhonikidze and the commander of the Vladikavkaz-Grozny group of troops Lewandowski. They formed the Soviet troops of the Sunzhensky line under the command of Dyakov (from the red Cossacks and the so-called "non-resident"), who attacked the rebels from the rear.

In early November, 1918, the red command decided to strike at the insurgent area. The 1-I Extraordinary Division Mironenko, reinforced by the mountaineers, was transformed into the 1-th Shock Soviet Sharia column. Highlanders who fought for Soviet power in the North Caucasus were headed by a teacher of Arabic and stories East Nazir Katkhanov. The Reds planned to take the villages of Zolskaya, Marinskaya, Staro-Pavlovskaya, Soldatskaya, and then to develop the attack on the Cool and Mozdok. Thus, defeating the Bikherakhov troops, eliminating the anti-Soviet uprising on the Terek, uniting with the red troops in the area of ​​Vladikavkaz, Grozny, Kizlyar and the coast of the Caspian Sea. This made it possible to occupy the railway to Kizlyar, establishing a reliable connection with Astrakhan through Kizlyar along the Caspian coast, providing the army with ammunition, ammunition and medicines. In strategic terms, the defeat of the Terek Uprising allowed the strengthening of the rear of the Red Army in the North Caucasus, in order to continue the fight against Denikin’s army; and allowed the Petrovsk and Baku offensive, restoring positions in the Caspian, to return the important Baku oil fields.


Map source: V.T. Sukhorukov XI army in battles in the North Caucasus and the Lower Volga (1918-1920). M., 1961

The main attack on the Zolskaya, Marinskaya stanitsa, Apollonskaya station was struck by the Shari'a Shock column (around 8 thousand bayonets and sabers, 42 guns, 86 machine guns) and the St. George combat station (more than 3,5 thousand bayonets and saber guns with 30 weapons and the forces and XIJUMX forces, and the forces of XI and XIUMX weapons, and the forces of the Nazi forces. Then they reached the line of Staro-Pavlovskaya, Marinskaya, Novo-Pavlovskaya and Apollonskaya. The Holy Krestovsky battle area (more than 60 thousand people with 4 guns and 10 machine guns) struck at the village of Kurskaya, and then at Mozdok. Then, by joint efforts, they planned to smash the enemy near Prokhladny and Mozdok, then to unite with the Soviet troops in Vladikavkaz and Grozny.

The total number of rebels in the Terek region was about 12 thousand people with 40 guns. About 6 - 8 thousand bayonets and sabers, 20 - 25 guns acted against the St. George and St. George combat areas. That is, the red had a twofold superiority in this direction. It should be noted that by this time the Cossacks had already lost their former motivation and fighting capacity, as with them on other fronts (on the Don), were tired of the war.

2 November 1918, the regiment of the Shok Shariah column, came out from the Pyatigorsk area. The right flank (3 infantry and 2 cavalry regiment) advanced on the Zalukokoazhe area - Zolskaya village; the left flank (1 infantry and 1 cavalry regiments) - should have hit Zolskaya from the rear. A group of Colonel Agoeva was holding up the defense in this area. By noon, the Reds took Zalukokoazhe, in the evening, after a stubborn fight, Zolskaya. White Cossacks retreated to Maryinsky.

November 3 Red attacked Maryinskaya and crushed the whites. The Cossacks retreated to the villages of Staro-Pavlovskaya and Novo-Pavlovskaya. The offensive of the Red forces was unexpected for the White Cossacks. Agoyev asked for help from the headquarters of the Terek division of General Mistulov in Cool. Cossacks organized a counterattack. In the evening of November 4, Serebryakov's regiment unexpectedly hit Zolskaya, in the rear of the Sharia column. White planned to thwart the Reds offensive so successfully. However, in time approached the Derbent regiment of Beletsky and two squadrons of the Nalchik police regiment defeated the enemy.

5 - November 6 The shock Shari'a column broke the White Cossacks at the turn of Staro-Pavlovskaya and Novo-Pavlovskaya. The enemy, avoiding complete encirclement and destruction, retreated to the Soldier. The troops of the Sharia column joined the forces of the Georgievsky military sector under the command of Kuchura. On the night of November 7, the troops of the Georgievsky military sector went on the offensive with the support of armored train No. 25, and advanced to the Sizov, Novo-Sredny and Apollonskaya lines. In the meantime, the forces of the Sharia column occupied Staro-Pavlovskaya, Novo-Pavlovskaya and Apollon. White Cossacks retreated to the Soldier and Cool.

8 November Soviet troops defeated the enemy in the area of ​​the Soldier and took the village. The enemy, having lost a significant area with Cossack villages, retreated to Cool. The White command was forced to lift the siege on Grozny and Kizlyar, to concentrate all remaining forces in the area of ​​Prokhladnaya, in order to give here a decisive battle in red. General Mistulov hoped to launch a strong counterstrike and launch a counterattack. The Soviet command was also preparing for a decisive battle, regrouping forces, tightening reserves. All the forces of the Sharia column and the Georgievsky combat sector were brought in for the battle. The troops of the Shook Shariah column attacked the Cool from the west and the south, parts of the Georgievsky military sector attacked the Cool from the north and provided the operation from the Mozdok direction. 1-I Holy Krestovskaya division of those time led the fighting in the area of ​​Kursk.

November 9 Cossacks struck a counterattack from the Prokhladnaya along the railway to Soldatskaya. The Reds repelled the enemy attack, and then began a general assault on Cool from the south, west, and north. The enemy could not stand it and began to retreat. However, Soviet troops from the north and south blocked the White Cossacks. The enemy threw into battle the last reserve (2 of the cavalry regiment and 3 of the Plastun battalion), which attacked from Ekaterinogradskaya. During the stubborn battle, the enemy was defeated and thrown to the village of Chernoyarsk. The commander of the Terek Cossacks, General Mistulov, in view of the collapse of the front and a hopeless situation, committed suicide. After that, the Reds took Cool. Most of the Cossack troops were destroyed or captured, only a small detachment broke through to Chernoyarsk.

Thus, the case was decided, the Reds defeated the main forces of the White Cossacks. By November 20, the Red Army cleared the rebel road to Mozdok. White command, pulling up the remaining forces from Kizlyar and Grozny, tried to organize the defense of Mozdok. On the morning of November 23, the Reds went to storm Mozdok, by the end of the day they took the city.

As a result, the Tersk uprising was crushed. Two thousand Terek Cossacks, led by General Kolesnikov and Bikherakhov, went east to Chervlennoye and then Port Petrovsk. Another more numerous detachment under the command of Colonels Kibirov, Serebryakov and Agoev went to the mountains and later joined up with Denikin.

Victory on the Terek temporarily strengthened the position of the Red Army in the North Caucasus. The center of counter-revolution was suppressed, Soviet power was restored in the Terek district. Liberated from the blockade of Grozny, Vladikavkaz and Kizlyar. A connection was established with the 12 th Red Army, a railway and telegraph communication from Georgievsk to Kizlyar was restored, and a direct connection with Astrakhan was restored. That is, the Red Army in the North Caucasus strengthened its rear.

Battle for the North Caucasus. How to suppress the Terek Uprising

One of the leaders of the Terek Uprising, General Elmurza Mistulov
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