Military Review

How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine

26
100 years ago, in January 1919, the restoration of Soviet power in Ukraine began. January 3 The Red Army liberated Kharkov, February 5 - Kiev, March 10 1919 - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was founded with its capital in Kharkov. By May, Soviet troops controlled almost the entire territory of Little Russia within the former Russian Empire.


The relatively easy and quick success of the Soviet government was due to the fact that the Central Powers were defeated. A "independent" Kiev held only on the Austro-German bayonets. Ukrainian nationalists did not have the support of the people (the overwhelming part of the population of Little Russia was Russian, the Little Russians were the southwestern part of the Russian superethnos), and could be held in power only with the help of external force. Germany and Austria-Hungary supported the nationalists, as with their help they could use the resources of Little Russia (Russia), especially agricultural.

By the fall of 1918, it became obvious that the German Empire was losing the war. Moscow begins to prepare troops for the restoration of Soviet power in Ukraine. To do this, in the neutral zone (it was created between the German occupation zone in Ukraine and Soviet Russia), on the basis of the partisan detachments, the 1-I and 2-I Ukrainian Insurgent Divisions are formed, united in the Kursk military forces group. 30 November 1918 was created on the basis of divisions by the Ukrainian Soviet Army under the command of V. Antonov-Ovseenko. At the end of the 1918 of the year, the Ukrainian Soviet Army had more than 15 thousand bayonets and sabers (not counting the unarmed reserve), in May 1919 of the year - more than 180 thousand people.

As soon as Germany and Austria-Hungary capitulated, the Soviet government, which initially expected such a scenario, decided to restore its power in the Ukraine to Ukraine. On November 11, on November 1918, the head of the Soviet government, Lenin, ordered the Revolutionary Military Council (PBC) of the republic to prepare an offensive against Ukraine. November 17 was created RVS Ukraine under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. On November 28, the Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine headed by G. Pyatakov was created in Kursk. In November, fighting began on the border of Soviet Russia and occupied Ukraine with the Haidamaks (Ukrainian nationalists) and the retreating German units. The Red Army launched an attack on Kharkov and Chernigov.

In December, our troops occupied Novgorod-Seversky, Belgorod (the Ukrainian government moved here from Kursk), Volchansk, Kupyansk and other cities, and settlements. 1918 January 1, the Bolshevik underground revolted in Kharkov. The remaining German soldiers supported the uprising and demanded that the Directory withdraw its troops from the city. 1919 January 3, the troops of the Ukrainian Soviet Army entered Kharkov. The provisional Soviet government of Ukraine moves to Kharkov. January 1919 RVS on the basis of the troops of the Ukrainian Soviet Army creates the Ukrainian Front. The Red Army on January 4 launches an offensive in two main directions: 7), the western - on Kiev; 1) southern - Poltava, Lozova and further Odessa. 2 January 16, the UNR Directory declared war on Soviet Russia. However, the troops of the Directory under the leadership of S. Petlura failed to provide effective resistance. The people are tired of powerlessness, violence and robbery by the Austro-German invaders, detachments of Ukrainian nationalists and ordinary gangs, so the rebel and partisan detachments, local self-defense units en masse side with the Red Army. Not surprisingly, the 1919 of February, the 5 of the year, the Reds occupy Kiev, the Ukrainian Directory runs to Vinnitsa.

How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine

Special purpose armored division of the Council of People's Commissars of Ukraine with captured French a tank "Renault FT-17", captured near Odessa from the French army in late March - early April 1919. Kharkov, April 22, 1919. From the hatch of the tank "Renault" looks Alex Selyavkin. Photo source: https://ru.wikipedia.org/

Prehistory General situation in Ukraine

In March - April 1918, the Austro-German troops occupied Little Russia. 29 - On April 30, the Germans overthrew the Ukrainian Central Rada inviting them. The German command decided to replace the Central Council, which in fact did not control the country, with a more effective government. In addition, Berlin did not like the socialist color of the Central Council. They needed to pump out resources from Ukraine, and not to tolerate left-nationalist demagogy. And for this, solid power in the center and large landlord farms in the countryside were needed. On the other hand, the Second Reich did not see a “union state” in Ukraine, but a raw materials colony. Ukraine gave the hetman - General Pavel Skoropadsky. The fact that the German guard broke her up without a single shot speaks well of the influence of the Central Rada. Not a single person in the Ukraine came to her defense.

The era of the hetman, the “Ukrainian state” began with the hetman's semi-monarchical authoritarian rule. 3 May was formed a cabinet headed by Prime Minister Fyodor Lizogub - a large landowner. The social support of the new regime was minimal: the bourgeoisie, the landowners, the bureaucracy and the officers.

In reality, the power of the hetman was nominal - it was supported only by German troops. At the same time, the Austro-German troops, under the cover of the hetman's regime, brought about their own order: all socialist transformations were canceled, land and property returned to the landowners, enterprises owned, punitive detachments carried out mass executions. The Germans organized the orderly robbery of Ukraine, especially they were interested in food reserves. The Skoropadsky government tried to create its own army; in the summer of 1918, the law of universal military service was introduced. In total, it was planned to form the 8 infantry corps according to the territorial principle; in peacetime, the army should have numbered about 300 thousand people. But by November 1918 was able to recruit only about 60 thousand people. These were mainly infantry and cavalry regiments of the former Russian imperial army, which had previously been Ukrainized, led by former commanders. Its efficiency was low due to the lack of motivation. In addition, in Ukraine, primarily in Kiev and other major cities, Russian volunteer organizations (whites) were actively formed and operated with the permission of the authorities. Kiev became the center of attraction for all anti-Bolshevik, anti-revolutionary forces that had fled from Moscow, Petrograd and other parts of the former empire.

It is clear that the actions of the Austro-German occupiers and the new Ukrainian authorities, as well as the landlord reaction, did not reassure, and even more embittered the people. Under the hetman, the activity of various gangs increased even more, compared with the period of the Central Rada. Also against the hetman's power were the political forces that previously constituted the Central Council. In particular, the uprisings were raised by the Ukrainian Social Revolutionaries, who enjoyed great influence among the peasantry. In the summer of 1918, a large-scale peasant war began, landowners were killed and expelled, and land and property were divided. 30 July left Social Revolutionaries were able to kill the commander of the German occupation forces of Aigorn. In the summer, only in Kyiv region there existed up to 40 thousand of rebels - nationalists and various socialists (including the Bolsheviks). In August, the Bolsheviks prepared a large-scale uprising led by N. Krapivyansky in Chernihiv and Poltava regions. In September, Makhno began his operations. He emphasized that he was fighting with landlords and fists. Therefore, soon the successful chieftain received massive support from the peasantry.

The German occupation and hetman authorities responded with punitive campaigns, massacres of the rebels. German field courts made arrests. In response, the peasants turned to guerrilla warfare, making sudden raids on landowner estates, government units, government officials and occupiers. Part of the partisan detachments, moving away from the attacks of the German troops, went into the neutral zone on the border with Soviet Russia. There they began to prepare for new fighting in Ukraine. Some gangs turned into real armies controlling large territories. So, detachments of Makhno's Batko operated from Lozovoi to Berdyansk, Mariupol and Taganrog, from Lugansk and Grishin to Yekaterinoslav, Aleksandrovsk and Melitopol. As a result, Little Russia turned into a “wild field,” where various atamans had power in rural areas, mainly occupations and large settlements controlled the occupants and authorities.

It is worth noting that the large-scale partisan struggle in the Ukraine did not allow the Germans to get as much food and other resources as they wanted. In addition, the struggle against the guerrillas held down considerable forces of the Austro-Hungarian and German empires, undermined them. Berlin and Vienna had to keep 200-thousand in Ukraine. grouping, although these troops were needed on the Western Front, where the last great battles raged and the outcome of the war was decided. Thus, Russia again unwittingly supported the Entente powers, helped them defeat Germany.

Only the Cadets, who were part of the all-Russian constitutional democratic party, supported the Skoropadsky regime. To do this, they had to violate their own principles: to support the head of the Ukrainian state (the principle of "united and indivisible Russia"), who was a protege of Germany - the enemy of the Entente. But the "sacred" principle of private property (the Cadets were the party of the big and middle bourgeoisie) turned out to be more important for the Cadets than patriotic considerations. In May 1918, the cadets entered the Hetman government. At the same time, the cadets also hatched the idea of ​​an alliance with the Germans to march on the Bolshevik Moscow.


Pavel Skoropadsky (in the foreground on the right) and the Germans

The collapse of the hetman and the emergence of the Directory

Meanwhile, the hetman’s opposition intensified. In May, the 1918 of the Year was created by the Ukrainian-National-State Union, which united nationalists and social democrats. In August, the left socialists joined him and renamed it the Ukrainian National Union (ONS), which took a radical stance towards the Skoropadsky regime. In September, the union was headed by V. Vinnichenko, who had previously been the head of the government of the Ukrainian People’s Republic (UNR), liquidated by the Germans. He began to build ties with the rebel atamans and tried to negotiate with Moscow. The National Union begins to prepare an uprising against the Skoropadsky regime.

In September, the hetman visited Berlin, where he was instructed to Ukrainize the government and stop flirting with Russian leaders who wanted to organize a campaign against red Moscow with the help of Little Russia forces. The problem was that the Ukrainian nationalists and socialists were not going to negotiate with Skoropadsky, they needed all the power. In October, the Cadets left the Hetman government, who did not receive support for the idea of ​​a common struggle against the Bolsheviks. The government included the Ukrainian right-wing leaders (ONS). However, they also left the government on November 7, protesting against the ban on holding the Ukrainian National Congress.

November Revolution in Germany ("How the Second Reich died") ruined the Skoropadsky regime. In fact, his power stood only on German bayonets. Hetman, in search of a path to salvation, decided to fundamentally change the course of the government and on November 14 signed the “Literacy”. In this manifesto, Skoropadsky said that Ukraine "should be the first to come out in the formation of the All-Russian Federation, its ultimate goal will be the restoration of Great Russia." However, it was too late.

November 11 1918 Germany signed the Compiegne truce, began the evacuation of Austro-German troops from the Ukraine. 13 November Soviet Russia broke the Brest Peace, which meant the early appearance of the Red Army. 14 - 15 November At a meeting of the ONS, the Directory of the Ukrainian People’s Republic was created, headed by V. Vinnichenko (chairman) and S. Petlyura (commander-in-chief). Directory raised a rebellion against the hetman government. The directory promised to return all the gains of the revolution and convene a Constituent Assembly. Vinnichenko offered to seize the Bolsheviks slogan of Soviet power and form democratic councils. But the majority of directors did not support this idea, since the Entente would not have liked her and would not guarantee support for Soviet Russia. In addition, according to Petliura, various chieftains and field commanders were against the Soviet regime (in fact, they will be divided on this issue, later some will go over to the Soviet side, others will fight against it). As a result, they decided, together with the parliament, to create labor councils and convene a Congress of the working people (analogous to the Congress of Soviets). The real power remained with the field commanders and atamans, the future commandants and commissars of the Directory.

15 November The Directory left for Bila Tserkva, in the location of a detachment of Sich Riflemen, who supported the uprising. The revolt was also supported by many Ukrainian units and their commanders. In particular, Bolbochan in Kharkov (commander of the Zaporizhia Corps), commander of the Podolsk Corps, General Yaroshevich, commander of the Black Sea Kosch Polishchuk, Minister of Railway Transport Butenko, General Osetsky — Commander of the Hetman Railway Division (he became the head of the uprising headquarters) went over to the Directorate. The uprising was supported by peasants tired of the power of the invaders and their henchmen, there was hope that with the new government the situation would change for the better (already in 1919, the peasants will fight against the Directory).

On November 16, the Directorate’s forces captured Belaya Tserkov and they headed towards Kiev in trains. November 17 The Council, created by German soldiers, signed a neutrality agreement with the Directory. Germans were now interested only in evacuation to their homeland. Therefore, the Petliurists, in agreement with the Germans, had to maintain order on the railways and not hurry with the assault on Kiev. As a result, Skoropadsky lost the support of the German troops and could now rely only on the Russian officers in Kiev. However, the numerous officers were not a single force, many preferred neutrality or went to the service of the Ukrainian nationalists. In addition, the hetman's government was late, the existing volunteer formations were small and they had no desire to die for the hetman. Thus, Skoropadsky was left almost without troops.

19 November 1918, the Petliurists approached Kiev. They were in no hurry to attack only because of the position of the Germans. Ukrainian nationalists acted brutally, captured Russian officers brutally tortured and killed. The bodies of the dead were pointedly sent to the capital. Panic began in Kiev, many fled. Skoropadsky appointed the commander in chief of the remaining troops of General Fyodor Keller, who was popular among the officers. He was a hero of the First World War (commanded a cavalry division, cavalry corps), an excellent cavalry commander - “the first piece of Russia”. In their political positions - the monarchist. His far-right beliefs, hatred of Ukrainian nationalism and tough straightforwardness (he did not hide his convictions), restored the local Kiev "swamp" and "progressive" circles against the commander-in-chief. Skoropadsky, fearing that Keller, in his work to "re-establish a united Russia," would also liquidate the German regime, dismissed the commander-in-chief. This will repel a part of the Russian officers from the hetman, who would prefer to leave Kiev and go to the Crimea and the North Caucasus to serve in the Volunteer army of Denikin.

In the meantime, the troops still loyal to the hetman government went over to the Directory. Zaporozhye Corps Bolbochan took control of almost the entire territory of Left-Bank Ukraine. The Petliurists achieved a large numerical superiority near Kiev, formed four divisions and disarmed part of the German troops. The Germans did not resist. 14 December 1919, the Petliurists occupied Kiev almost without a fight. Skoropadsky abdicated power and fled with the departing German units. The former hetman lived quietly in Germany until 1945, received a pension from the German authorities. By December 20, the Directorate's troops were defeated up in the provinces.

Thus, the UNR was restored. Petliurists committed brutal terror against Russian officers and supporters of the hetman. In particular, December 21 was killed by General Keller and his adjutants.


Government Directory. In the foreground are Simon Petlyura and Vladimir Vinnichenko, the beginning of 1919 of the year.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1919 year

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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 17 January 2019 07: 35
    -10
    Denikin’s All-Russian Union of Political League, who advocated for United and Indivisible Russia, dealt with Ukrainian nationalism with ease.
    Their main opponent was the dividers of the Russian Bolsheviks, who created the so-called Ukraine from Little Russia and Ukrainians from Russian and Little Russians, including in it purely Russian Odessa, Nikolaev, etc.
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 17 January 2019 08: 33
      +6
      And by what criterion, I wonder, let's say Odessa is "purely Russian"?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 17 January 2019 09: 28
        -2
        Quote: Decimam
        And by what criterion, I wonder, let's say Odessa is "purely Russian"?

        See the history of Odessa. Absolutely Russian (Russian) city before violent Ukrainization ..
        1. Decimam
          Decimam 17 January 2019 09: 35
          +3
          I know the history of Odessa. What moments in the history of Odessa indicate a "purely Russian city"?
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 17 January 2019 11: 42
            -2
            Quote: Decimam
            What kind moments in the history of Odessa indicate a "purely Russian city"?

            All. And let's define the concepts: for me "Russian" means "Russian".
            1. Decimam
              Decimam 17 January 2019 12: 40
              +8
              Personally, you understand that your concepts are absolutely uninteresting to the historical process. That is, you have only one argument: "I think so."
              Well, consider further.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 17 January 2019 13: 12
                -4
                Quote: Decimam
                otherwise you understand the historical process yourself, absolutely uninteresting

                Your lack of understanding of the very concept of "definition" makes your speech meaningless.
                That is, you have one argument: "I think so."
                Well, consider further.

                belay fool
                The arguments are given: this is the ALL history of Odessa, before the so-called. owls. "Ukraine"
                1. Decimam
                  Decimam 17 January 2019 13: 41
                  +6
                  Olgovich, I kind of said goodbye that you were fussing, this is no longer interesting to anyone.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 18 January 2019 09: 52
                    -1
                    Quote: Decimam
                    Olgovich, I kind of said goodbye,

                    He said goodbye, but ... did not leave. belay
                    Strange you ...
          2. Gopnik
            Gopnik 17 January 2019 12: 50
            +4
            Created by the Russian government on the territory conquered by the Russian army, the majority of the population is Russian. Although personally I would call Odessa a "Russian-Jewish city", but, of course, never Ukrainian. However, in principle, there were almost no "Ukrainian" cities, only, perhaps, in the small "Ukrainians" -Malorossians made up the majority.
            1. Decimam
              Decimam 17 January 2019 13: 49
              +8
              "Although I personally would call Odessa a" Russian-Jewish city "
              Not in the eyebrow, but in the eye. I also meant it. Even in the twenties, after all the vicissitudes of the Civil, in Odessa, Russians and Jews were almost equally - 45 and 41 percent, respectively. Therefore, the definition of "purely Russian" looks somewhat comical, especially when you live in Odessa. But the Romanian imperialists are not subject to such subtleties.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 17 January 2019 14: 07
                0
                What does "EVEN in the 20s" mean? Just after the revolution, civil war, Ukrainization, etc., etc., the share of Russians decreased, and under the tsar-father it was 49 and 30 percent. At the same time, the Jews there were inscribed in the Russian cultural field - they knew Russian, studied in Russian, communicated with the Russian authorities, and read signs in Russian. Those. they did not live in a ghetto, but lived in the "Russian city of Odessa, with a Russian-Jewish population." For example, the native language of the same Jabotinsky, the ideologist of Zionism, who was born and studied in Odessa, was Russian; he, EMNIP, at first hardly knew Yiddish at all. "Zhabotinsky told in his Autobiography how he first encountered a mass of Yiddish-speaking people - he was then already seventeen, and he went abroad for the first time."
                1. Decimam
                  Decimam 17 January 2019 14: 54
                  +5
                  There was no ghetto in the Russian Empire, don't push it. There was a Pale of Settlement. About the cultural field - this is not a phenomenon either, Jews wherever they lived, interacted with the surrounding cultural field, even Yiddish has more than twenty varieties, depending on the "cultural field". And Ukrainization in Odessa is a separate topic altogether, for Russian-Jewish Odessa, by and large, ignored it.
                  That is why Odessa has always had and still has its inherent, Odessa flavor, and Odessa is not just a resident of Odessa, it is a cultural phenomenon.
                  1. Gopnik
                    Gopnik 17 January 2019 16: 54
                    0
                    Quote: Decimam
                    About the cultural field is also not a phenomenon, Jews everywhere where they lived interacted with the surrounding cultural field


                    Well, okay, who is against it.
                    But, for example, in Austrian Lviv, EMNIP, the situation was similar - Poles approx. 50%, Jews approx. thirty%. Poles, and not only, consider Lviv a Polish city. Although, with great desire, it can be called Polish-Jewish, as well as Odessa.
                    In principle, this can be said about almost all the cities of Lithuania, "Ukraine" and "Belarus". Almost everywhere in large cities, Jews are in the top three (together with Russians or Poles), and the "titular" nationalities (Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Belarusians) are in an absolute minority.
                    For example, in Vilna, the proportion of Jews is greater than in Odessa, and in Kovno, Minsk they generally come first. Even in Kiev, Jews are in second place - Jews 19%, not 30% as in Odessa, and Russians 55%, not 50%.
                    That is, all the cities of the future Ukrainian SSR, BSSR, Lithuanian SSR, like Odessa, can bear the prefix "Jewish", sometimes even in the first place.
          3. gsev
            gsev 4 March 2019 03: 11
            -1
            Quote: Decimam
            What moments in the history of Odessa indicate a "purely Russian city"?

            This land was recaptured from the Turkish army by Russian troops and since then has the geographical name Novorossia. Ukraine is the border territory of the Commonwealth, populated by Russians. At one time Lithuania was conquered by Russia from Russia during the feudal fragmentation of the Russian state and became part of Poland under the union of Poland and Lithuania. The fight against German interventionists and their lackeys is described historically in the article.
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 17 January 2019 11: 54
      +6
      Olgovich
      "The AFYUR of Denikin also dealt with Ukrainian nationalism with ease."
      With ease, VSYUR Denikin could not even deal with Old Man Makhno.)))
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 17 January 2019 12: 52
        +2
        and where does Old Man Makhno, if we are talking about Ukrainian nationalism?
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 17 January 2019 19: 14
          +4
          Gopnik "and where does the old man Makhno, if we are talking about Ukrainian nationalism?"
          Yes, despite the fact that they were not capable of anything. And Old Man made his contribution to the struggle of the Ukrainian nationalists. He also drenched them.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 17 January 2019 13: 20
        -1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        With ease, VSYUR Denikin could not even deal with Old Man Makhno.))

        Can't you read? I repeat:
        Main adversary they were the dividers of the Russian Bolsheviks, who created the so-called Ukraine from Little Russia and Ukrainians from Russian and Little Russians
        .
        There would be no main enemy, everything else (Fatherland) was destroyed lightly.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 17 January 2019 19: 18
          +1
          Olgovich "There would be no main enemy, everything else (Batkovshchina) was destroyed lightly."
          Yeah, they destroyed a lot of Makhnovists.))))
  2. BAI
    BAI 17 January 2019 09: 12
    0
    with a captured French tank "Renault FT-17", captured by the French army near Odessa in late March - early April 1919. Kharkov, April 22, 1919.

    And the author does not want to add that the ataman Grigoriev captured these tanks?
  3. nivander
    nivander 17 January 2019 11: 33
    +5
    On February 5, 1919, the Reds took Kiev. April 10, 1919 Chubaty, on April 11, 1919 the Reds again, on August 31, 1919 the Whites and the Chubaty, on September 1, 1919 the White drove the chubates away. On October 14, the Reds took Kiev for the third time in 1919, on October 16 for the third time. he was left without restraining the counterattack of the retreating Belykhs. And only on December 16, 1919 the Reds took Kiev 4 times a year, and only then until May 7, 1920 when Kiev was captured by the unreasonably plundered Poles
  4. svp67
    svp67 17 January 2019 12: 59
    +2
    On November 19 on November 1918, Petliurists approached Kiev.
    The events described by Mikhail Bulgakov in his "White Guard"
  5. sah4199
    sah4199 17 January 2019 17: 31
    -2
    The author missed some interesting details.

    1 It was impossible to restore Soviet power in Ukraine, since such has never been there. Of course, there were attempts to "proclaim" Soviet power, but in this way any person with a tinned throat can go out somewhere and declare something.

    2 The history of the occupation of Ukraine and the establishment of Soviet power there began
    from the ultimatum, which was personally written by the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars V.I. Lenin
    On December 3 (16), 1917, Lenin wrote "MANIFESTO TO THE UKRAINIAN PEOPLE WITH
    ULTIMATIVE REQUIREMENTS TO THE UKRAINIAN RADA ", in which he offered Ukraine a choice between war and surrender.
    This work was not hidden under the USSR and was even studied in the course of the History of the CPSU.

    3 On November 28, 1918, the "Government of Soviet Ukraine" was created in Kursk, the chairman of the government G. Pyatakov and members of the government K. Voroshilov, A. Sergeev (Artyom), E. Kviring, V. Zatonsky, Yu. Kotsyubinsky. The government began to "lead" after the capture of the first more or less large us. point of Ukraine - the city of Sudzha (now Kursk region). During the war, the "Government of Soviet Ukraine" moved to a larger city - to Belgorod (December 24, 1918 - January 7, 1919), then moved to Kharkov (December 19, 1919 - June 24, 1934). Despite the presence of the Red Army with an overwhelming military force in Kiev, the "Government" decided to move only after the organization of the Holodomor of 1932-33. Still, in Kiev and around it there were solid "Bandera" or, in the terminology of that time, "Petliurites"

    4 But in Kharkov, agitation began for a new regime. One of the activists was Stepan Afanasevich Saenko (August 2, 1886 - August 17, 1973) - a Russian revolutionary, leader of the Soviet special services, commandant of the concentration camp of the Kharkov Cheka at ul. Tchaikovsky, 16 (1919) [1]. Active conductor of the "Red Terror" [2]. From 1924 until retirement - Director of enterprises in Kharkov. He, apparently, in childhood read books about Indians.
    “The specialty of the Kharkov Cheka, where Saenko acted, was, for example, scalping and removing gloves from hands” or “That city was famous for the name Saenka. They told about him that he said that of all the apples, he loves only eyeballs ... "

    Saenko retired in 1948, at the same time he was awarded the Order of Lenin for special services to the Soviet government. In retirement, he grows flowers and educates young people, being a personal pensioner of national importance. Repeatedly elected as a member of the Kharkov city committee of the Communist Party, the Kharkov city council.

    Stepan Sayenko died on August 17, 1973 in Kharkov. “A group of comrades” made an obituary: “Sayenko is a fighter for the establishment of Soviet power, he devoted all his energetic energy and organizational skills to his work. The bright memory of him will forever remain in the hearts of all who knew him and worked with him. " The inscription on the grave: "Sleep well, dear Stepochka" "[8].

    5 The Wiki contains a list of members of the "Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine" operating in Kharkov, although workers and peasants are somehow not observed in its composition.
  6. mehan
    mehan 18 January 2019 11: 12
    -1
    Restored?
    And what, until the nineteenth in Ukraine was power?
  7. alatanas
    alatanas 18 January 2019 13: 31
    0
    Again, he could not do without a "superethnos". I'm tired of it.