Military Review

Odessa operation ataman Grigoriev

Smoot. 1919 year. 6 April 1919, Odessa, without meeting any resistance, took Grigoriev's troops. Ataman trumped about his "grand" victory over the Entente around the world: "I won the French, the winners of Germany ..." It was the "finest hour" of the ataman. He was greeted as a victor, and Grigoriev was finally arrogant. He spoke of himself as a world strategist and a great commander.

Odessa operation ataman Grigoriev

Announcement of the beginning of the evacuation of Odessa. 3 April 1919 of the year

Red commander

In January, 1919, Grigoriev realized that the Petlyura case was lost. The Red Army occupied almost the entire Left Bank, except for the Donbass. In addition, the interventionists attacked from the south and in January occupied the entire Black Sea coast, which Grigoriev considered to be his patrimony.

On January 25, Petlyura ordered Grigoriev’s divisions to become part of the Southeast Group of the UNR army and begin preparations for an offensive against the whites east of Aleksandrovsk and Pavlograd. Here from mid-December 1918, the Petliurists fought with the White Guards. In addition, in these steppes fought with whites and Makhno, but he was an enemy of the Directory. As a result, pan ataman Grigoriev decided that it was not worth fighting with such strong opponents — whites and Makhno, behind which the local peasantry stands. He ignored the order Petlyury.

Thus, Grigoriev became "his own chieftain." He did not follow the orders of the headquarters of the UPR army, he kept all the trophies for himself, from time to time his soldiers robbed state property and the local population. 29 January 1919, Grigoriev broke with the Directory, sending a telegram in which he stated that he was going to the Bolsheviks. Atman urged the commanders of the Zaporizhia Corps to follow him. However, the corps commanders did not follow the example of the traitor, and until April 1919, the Zaporizhia Corps restrained the movement of Grigorievsk west to Elizavetgrad. Grigorievtsy attack Ukrainian troops retreating under the pressure of the Reds Yekaterinoslav Kosh and Colonel Kotik. In response, the Directory declares the chieftain outlawed.

Grigoriev establishes a connection with the red. The rebellious ataman sends his representative to the Revolutionary Committee of Elizavetgrad and reports that he is "the ataman of all the troops of independent Soviet Ukraine." In the Revolutionary Committee of Aleksandrovsk, Grigoriev sends a telegram in which he confirms his solidarity with the actions of the Soviet Bolshevik-Left Socialist-Revolutionary government of the Ukrainian SSR. 1 February 1919 of the year Grigoriev contacted the red command and proposed the creation of a unified Bolshevik-Left Socialist-Revolutionary command — the Revolutionary Military Council of the Ukrainian Red Army. Ataman boastfully reports that under him goes 100 thousand army. In a telephone conversation with the commander of the Ukrainian front, Antonov-Ovseenko, Grigoriev set the following conditions for unification: inviolability of organization and command, independence of armament, support and equipment; the independence of the troops and the occupied territory, the preservation of their trophies for the Grigor'evs. The Soviet leadership, in order to obtain a valuable ally, partially satisfied the demands of the ataman. On the issue of power, the Bolsheviks promised that the power would be coalition and fully freely chosen by the people at the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets.

In early February, 1919, Grigoriev knocked out Petliurists from Krivoy Rog, Znamenka, Bobrinsk and Elizavetgrad. The treachery of the Grigorievites led to the collapse of the Petliura front. Many parts loyal to Petliura were broken scattered or went over to the Reds. The remaining Petliurists fled from the central part of the Ukraine to Volyn and Podolia.

February 18 in Kharkov were gathered leaders of the Red Insurgent Movement of Little Russia for a meeting with the government of the Ukrainian SSR. Grigoriev first met with the commander of the Ukrainian Front Antonov-Ovseenko. Grigoryevtsy became part of the 1-th Zadneprovska Ukrainian Soviet division under the command of Dybenko. From the detachment of Ataman Grigoriev, the 1 Brigade was formed (the Makhnovists entered the 3 Brigade). The brigade was about 5 thousand fighters with 10 guns and 100 machine guns.

When 28 February 1919, the head of Grigoriev, which was located in Alexandria county, was visited by the Commander of the Kharkov group of Soviet troops Skachko, he found a complete lack of organization and discipline, decomposition of the brigade and the lack of communist work in the units. Grigoriev himself fled to avoid meeting with the immediate superior. Skachko, seeing a complete anarchy in parts of the Grigorievka, suggested liquidating the brigade headquarters, and shifting the ataman himself. However, the command of the Ukrainian front still wanted to use Grigoriev, so she chose to turn a blind eye to "atamanism". The Red Command continued to ignore the gangster antics of the “good men” Grigoriev.

In order to strengthen the moral and political status of the Grigorievka brigade, Commissioner Ratin and 35 Communists were sent to the brigade. On the other hand, among the Gregorievts, the left Social Revolutionaries had strong positions. Thus, Yuri Tyutyunnik, a member of the Borot Party, became the head of the brigade headquarters. Personality "loud", another one of the prominent adventurers of the period of the Troubles. A participant in the world war, after the revolution, took part in the Ukrainianization of the army, supported the Central Council and became the organizer of the "free Cossacks" in Zvenigorod. Cossacks Tyutyunnik in 1918, fought with the Reds and controlled a large part of the central Little Russia, then he raised a powerful Zvenigorod uprising against the hetman of Skoropadsky and the German invaders. He was arrested and sentenced to death, escaped death only because of the fall of Hetman. After being released, he goes over to the Reds, and persuades Grigoriev to betray Petlyura. However, soon Tyutyunnik realized that the power of the Bolsheviks did not promise him the first roles in Little Russia (Grigoriev also realized), began to lead anti-Bolshevik activities in the brigade.

Odessa operation

In February, 1919, the Grigorievskies launched an offensive in the Black Sea region. The French invaders had by this time completely decomposed and lost the aura of invincibility. They turned out to be “in the teeth” even for Grigoriev’s semi-bandit formation, consisting of rebel peasants and various rabble, including outright criminals.

After a week of fighting, the Grigorievtsy 10 March, 1919, took Kherson. The allied command, when they began to storm the city, began to send reinforcements on ships, but the French soldiers initially refused to disembark and then go into battle. As a result, the allies left Kherson, the Greeks and the French lost according to various sources about 400 - 600 people. Having captured the city, the Grigorievtsy killed the Greeks who had surrendered to them at the mercy of them. The French command, demoralized from an unexpected defeat, surrendered to Nikolaev without a fight. All troops were evacuated to Odessa, where the French only now decided to create a fortified area. As a result, the allies without a battle surrendered 150-kilometer territory between the Dnieper and Tiligulsky estuary, with a strong fortress Ochakov and military warehouses. Grigorievtsy without special labor from the raid captured two rich cities. Kombrig Grigoriev captured huge trophies: 20 guns, armored train, a large number of machine guns and rifles, ammunition, military property.

Having seized two large cities in the South of Russia, Grigoryev sent a telegram to the white military governor of Odessa, Grishin-Almazov, demanding unconditional surrender of the city, threatening otherwise to remove the skin from the general and pull it on the drum. Soon the Grigorievites won new victories. At the station Berezovka, the Allies concentrated a silt detachment - 2 thousand people, 6 guns and 5 tankslatest then weapon. However, the Allies panicked and fled to Odessa without much resistance, leaving behind all heavy weapons and supply trains. One of the captured tanks Grigoriev then sent to Moscow as a gift to Lenin. After Kherson, Nikolayev and Berezovka, the Petliura troops, covering the French occupation zone, fled or went over to the side of Grigoriev. In fact, now the front was held back only by the white brigade of Timanovsky.

Grigoriev’s popularity has increased even more, people flocked to him. Under the leadership of Grigoriev there were about 10 - 12 thousand motley fighters. The brigade, consisting of 6 regiments, equestrian and artillery divisions, deployed in the 6th division of the 3rd Ukrainian Soviet Army. The Reds were opposed in the Odessa region by 18 thousand French, 12 thousand Greek, 4 thousand white and 1,5 thousand Polish soldiers and officers. Allies had support fleet, heavy weapons - artillery, tanks and armored cars. Thus, the Entente had complete superiority over the Grigoriev brigade. However, the Allies did not want to fight, they were already curtailed, and at the same time they did not give White the opportunity to mobilize forces and repulse the enemy.

At the end of March 1919, the Supreme Council of the Entente decided to evacuate the Allied forces from the Black Sea region. In early April, the Clemenceau Ministry fell in France, the new cabinet first ordered the return of troops from Little Russia and the intervention stopped. The Allied forces received an order to clear Odessa within three days. They managed even faster - in two days. On the night of 1918 on 2 of April, the French agreed with the Odessa Council of Workers' Deputies on the transfer of power. 3 April was announced to be evacuated. 3 April chaos reigned in the city. In the city, seeing the flight of the invaders, the “army” of Mishka Yaponchik was outraged - the raiders, thieves, gangsters and hooligans “cleaned” the bourgeois who were left without protection. The first thing robbed banks and financial offices. The Allied flight was a complete surprise to the refugees and whites, who were simply abandoned. Only part of the refugee, throwing property, was able to escape on the ships of the allies. Most were left about the arbitrariness of fate. Do not have time to evacuate and part of the French soldiers. Who could, ran towards the Romanian border. The Timanovsky brigade, together with the remaining French and columns of refugees, retreated to Romania. There also broke through the Whites still remaining in the city.

April 6 Odessa, without meeting any resistance, took Grigoriev's troops. Grigorievtsy staged a three-day booze on the occasion of the victory. Ataman trumpeted his "grand" victory over the Entente around the world: "I won the French, the winners of Germany ...". It was the “star hour” of the ataman. He was greeted as a victor, and Grigoriev was finally arrogant. He spoke of himself as a world strategist, a great commander, moved by a large retinue, loved honor and flattery. At the same time he was constantly drunk. The soldiers then adored him, because the ataman not only turned a blind eye to “freedom and will” in the units, but also distributed most of the trophies, and in Odessa a huge amount of loot was seized, not only trophies, but the personal property of civilians.

One of the French tanks captured near Odessa in the Red Army

Conflict with the Bolsheviks

Known chieftain immediately entered into conflict with the Bolsheviks. After the “Odessa victory”, the Grigorievtsy captured the most populous and wealthy city of Little Russia, the largest port, industrial center and abandoned strategic base of the interventionists. Most of the reserves of the Entente - weapons, ammunition, provisions, ammunition, fuel, various goods, everything was thrown. Warehouses and cars with various goods remained in the port. Also Grigorievtsy got the opportunity to rob the property of "bourgeois". Grigoriev imposed a huge indemnity on the Odessa bourgeoisie. They immediately began to take trophies in trains to their places of origin, seized a huge amount of weapons.

There were other applicants for these riches — the local Bolshevik leadership and the mafia. Grigoriev also tried to limit the appetites of local inhabitants of Odessa. Ataman vowed to clear Odessa from the bandits, and Jap "put up against the wall." The commandant of Odessa Tyutyunnik, who was a very ambitious, sharp and also political opponent of the Bolsheviks, caused particular discontent. The Bolsheviks demanded an end to wide requisitions (in fact, robbery) from the Odessa bourgeoisie. Also, the Bolsheviks of Odessa were against the removal of trophies in the northern Kherson region. Grigorievtsy exported huge stocks of industrial goods, sugar, alcohol, fuel, weapons, ammunition and ammunition to their villages. The red command in the face of the Antonov-Ovseenko commander’s front preferred to close its eyes to this. The Odessa communists and the 3 army commander Khudyakov demanded that Grigoriev’s division be reformed and the ataman himself arrested. However, Grigoriev was not touched, his troops were still hoping to use to march into Europe.

After a ten-day stay in Odessa, on the orders of the command, the Grigorievsky division was still taken out of the city. Grigorievtsy themselves did not resist, they had already grabbed enough, they wanted to rest in their native villages, and the city almost got into a bloody fight. The local Bolsheviks literally bombarded the central authorities with reports of Grigoriev’s counter-revolutionism, and about the preparation of a divisional commander for an insurrection with Makhno. The chieftain himself threatened the Odessa Revolutionary massacre.

Soon Grigoriev entered into a new conflict with the Bolsheviks. In March 1919, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was established. Moscow saw this as the beginning of the "world revolution." Through Hungary, it was possible to break through to Germany. However, the Entente and neighboring countries tried to suppress the flames of the revolution. Hungary was blocked, Romanian and Czech troops invaded its borders. The Soviet government was thinking of moving troops to the aid of Hungary. In mid-April 1919, the Red Army concentrates on the Romanian border. A plan appeared: to crush Romania, to return Bessarabia and Bukovina, to create a corridor between Little Russia and Hungary, to come to the aid of the red Hungarians. The division of Grigoriev, which already distinguished itself by the “victory” over the Entente, was decided to leave for a breakthrough, “to save the revolution”.

18 April 1919, the command of the Ukrainian front offered the division commander to start a campaign in Europe. They flattered Grigoriev, they called him the “Red Marshal,” the “Liberator of Europe.” It seemed that the move was successful. The troops of the ataman were "semi-red"; if the campaign was unsuccessful, it was possible to write off military operations on the left Social Revolutionaries. The rout of the Grigorievsk also organized a red military-political leadership, the threat of insurrection was eliminated. Grigoriev, on the other hand, did not want to go to the front, his commanders and fighters were not interested in the revolution in Europe, they already seized huge booty and did not want to leave their native places. The men were more concerned about the food policy of the Bolsheviks in the Ukraine than the problems of the "world proletarian revolution." Therefore, Grigoriev dodged, asked the red command three weeks to rest in his native places, to prepare the division before the long march. In late April, the 1919 Grigoriev Division left for the Yelizavetgrad-Alexandria area.

Thus, Grigorievtsy, inspired by the latest major successes, returned to Kherson region. And then the "Moscow" pro-detachments and the Chekists managed it. The conflict was inevitable. Within a few days, the murders of communists, security officers and Red Armymen began. Appeals began to massacre the Bolsheviks and Jews.

Ataman N. A. Grigoriev (left) and V. A. Antonov-Ovseenko. Source:

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1919 year

How the British created the Armed Forces of the South of Russia
How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine
How Petliurists led Little Russia to a complete catastrophe
How defeated Petliurism
Give the boundaries of 1772 of the year!
Battle for the North Caucasus. How to suppress the Terek Uprising
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 2. December battle
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 3. The January accident of the 11 Army
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 4. How the 11 army died
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 5. Capture of Kizlyar and the Terrible
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 6. Furious assault of Vladikavkaz
How Georgia tried to seize Sochi
How the Whites crushed the Georgian invaders
The war of February and October as a confrontation between two civilization projects
How did the "Flight to the Volga"
How Kolchak's army broke through to the Volga
Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks
Verkhniyon uprising
How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd
"All to fight with Kolchak!"
Frunze. Red Napoleon
The missed opportunities of the army of Kolchak
May offensive of the Northern Corps
How white broke through to Petrograd
Battle for the South of Russia
Strategic change on the southern front. Manych operation
Crimea on fire Russian distemper
Crimea in 1918-1919. Intervents, local authorities and whites
How did the uprising of ataman Grigoriev
Nikifor Grigoriev, "ataman of the rebel forces of Kherson region, Zaporizhia and Tavria"
21 comment

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  1. Brutan
    Brutan 3 June 2019 08: 47
    I don’t understand why the system of atamans in the service of state entities (Grigoriev and Makhno among the Reds, Semenov with the Belykhs) is reminiscent of the medieval condottieres - when the head of the gang agreed with the authorities and served it for some time (on what grounds - this is the second thing) .
    The heads of such detachments could even be granted ranks and ranks in the state hierarchy (Grigoryeva and Makhno became divisional commanders, Semenov became general), but only in order to interest them more.
    Their own gangs and the temporary nature of the service left their mark on the whole process.
    Correct comparison?
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 3 June 2019 10: 01
      Quote: Brutan
      Grigoriev and Makhno at the Reds, Semenov at the White

      All of these atamans were united by one thing - the desire for independence, separatism, adventurism.
      The same Semenov can be called white ataman, he relied on the Japanese, openly feuding with Kolchak, all of Semenov's aspirations were aimed at creating all kinds of quasi-states - Transbaikal, Buryat and the like. The same thing can be observed at Makhno with Grigoriev.
      1. Brutan
        Brutan 3 June 2019 11: 18
        Where else can they turn around if not in a civil war
        at another time, the ram’s horn would be twisted at once
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 3 June 2019 11: 26
          Yes, this is such a type of person - in everyday prosperous life, inconspicuous and modest people, as soon as the former state foundations are broken, literally climb out of all the cracks.
          1. Brutan
            Brutan 3 June 2019 16: 06
            That's for sure
            Such gray mice are no higher than the centurion or office worker in normal times
            in the civilian - the leaders, with their "armies" and even prisons, like Father Angel))
            already an indicator of the abnormality of the situation, that from the social, that from any other point of view
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 3 June 2019 21: 36
      Brutan, celekom agrees with you, after all, 100% that the Bolsheviks or whites were not delighted with their "allies", but they pleased, and they were impudent
  2. heavy division
    heavy division 3 June 2019 09: 08
    All against everyone. That muddy time was.
    Mutual recycling. To spite us, to the delight of the enemies
    1. RL
      RL 3 June 2019 12: 53
      Again, "if only, but how would it be"? You should have been born earlier, if only you could rewrite history.
  3. Hunghuz
    Hunghuz 3 June 2019 09: 52
    It was necessary to send such chieftains to Hungary
    Let the Magyars be plucked, no matter what color
  4. Albatroz
    Albatroz 3 June 2019 11: 09
    Odessa is probably one of those cities where power has most often changed
    1. Captain45
      Captain45 3 June 2019 17: 29
      Quote: Albatroz
      Odessa is probably one of those cities where power has most often changed

      Last Saturday on "Kultura" they showed "The Green Van", there was an episode of how the borders were drawn around the city with ropes.
    2. Antares
      Antares 5 June 2019 21: 48
      Quote: Albatroz
      Odessa is probably one of those cities where power has most often changed

      The change of power in Odessa after the victory of the February Revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy took place peacefully
      Before the election of the new City Duma, the life of Odessa was led by the local Civil (Public) Committee
      In April 1917, the Red Guard detachments began to be created at the factories of the city
      At the same time, a movement for the Ukrainianization of the army began to take shape in Odessa - the local Ukrainian Military Council was created
      In the summer of 1917, in connection with the release of many criminal criminals from prison, banditry in Odessa took alarming proportions. The collapse of the army led to the appearance in Odessa and the surrounding area of ​​tens of thousands of deserters.
      Reds, Ukrainians, anarchists, bandits .. it’s already fun gone ..
      Further more
      Kornilovism was not supported by the Reds
      At the same time, the position of the Central Council was strengthened. Three kuren khaidamaks were formed, a horse guidamak regiment, an artillery battery, a machine gun regiment were Ukrainized. In October, the Ukrainianization of the headquarters of the Odessa Military District, artillery and infantry schools, the ensign school, several reserve regiments began. The soldiers who supported the Central Rada were reduced to the Odessa Gaidamak division (about 3 thousand people). Ukrainian flags were hoisted on the destroyer "Enviable" and the cruisers "Memory of Mercury" and "Svetlana", who were in the port of Odessa and at the raid
      The report of the Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd caused panic among the townsfolk and aggressiveness among the few radicals. The Bolsheviks, left Socialist-Revolutionaries, anarchists and maximalists began to demand the establishment of a "proletarian dictatorship" in Odessa. However, Rumcherod, where the Menshevik-Socialist-Revolutionary majority remained, condemned the October "coup" in Petrograd. Odessa Ukrainian Rada (following the Kiev Central Rada) also condemned the Petrograd events, while the Odessa Council took a neutral position
      Then unr
      Then the fun began .. Ex. Russian Empire in miniature!
      On the night of December 1 (14), 1917, in connection with rumors circulating about the upcoming disarmament by the guidamaks of the local Red Guard, up to 300 Red Guards and sailors occupied the station and seized the garage of the troops of the Central Council. The Red Guards tried to raise the Serbian units stationed in Odessa against the Central Council, as well as to storm the headquarters of the military district. The sailors from the cruiser "Almaz", where the headquarters of the uprising was located, supporting the Bolsheviks, tried to seize the building of the English Club - the meeting place of the Odessa Ukrainian Council. Haidamak detachments were sent to the city center to reflect the performance.
      Skirmishes between the Haidamaks and the Red Guards these days occurred in the center of Odessa, near the station and the district headquarters. The rebels, however, failed to seize strategic targets and oust Ukrainian units from the city.
      The apotheosis of disgrace ..
      On January 3 (16), 1918, the Odessa Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Sailors' Deputies decided on the self-determination of Odessa as a "free city" with an autonomous government
      Then Power to the Soviets - and the UPR - "neutrality" Bolsheviks, bandits, prisoners of war ..
      Further, in the best traditions of the Civil War, some kind of global City Civil War simply went!
      On the morning of January 15 (28), the Gaidamak units and the cadets loyal to the Central Rada, with the support of armored cars, launched an offensive from the Greater Fountain region, where the Gaidamak barracks were located, to the city center and station. They managed to recapture the station, the district headquarters and occupy the central part of the city right up to the Cathedral and Greek squares and the port. The Bolsheviks took up defense around the headquarters of the Red Guard and the Revolutionary Committee on the Trade. By evening, the rebels held only the working outskirts, the port and part of the city center
      However, on January 16 (29), the cruiser Rostislav and the armored train captured by the Bolsheviks began shelling the Haidamaks, and reinforcements entered the battle on the side of the rebels - the combined battalion of the 6th Army of the Romanian Front (500 bayonets). Front-line soldiers hit the Ukrainian units from the rear - from the Great Fountain
      On January 17 (30), the rebels again recaptured the station, the district headquarters, surrounded in the Alexander Garden a significant part of the Haidamaks. In view of the futility of further resistance, the troops of the Central Council requested a truce and on January 18 (31) were withdrawn from Odessa. At the Razdelnaya station, most of the Haidamaks were disarmed by a detachment of Bolsheviks
      then Odessa Soviet Republic
      cruel terror of wealthy citizens (. Warships "Rostislav" and "Almaz", who were on the Odessa roadstead, were turned into floating prisons, where detainees were tortured and executed without trial) Mishka Yaponchik.
      Then Muravyov. The world signed in Odessa with the Romanians.
      The incompetent rule of such reds with bandits led to the fact that the city did not defend such power and did not defend itself. The Germans and Austrians entered without a fight.
      Ukrainian Central Council
      In Odessa, a public commission was established to investigate the crimes of the Bolsheviks during the period of the Odessa Soviet Republic. Dozens of corpses of tortured "counter-revolutionaries" were lifted from the bottom of the bay
      von Balti (from June 1, 1918 - the Governor-General of Odessa) shot himself in the office after the defeat of Germany.
      Entente takes control of the city
      Then Directory-Petlyura
      Then the French
      Then white
      Odessa was divided into control zones: voluntary, French and Polish. The blockade of the 600-strong Odessa army by the UPR and the cessation of food supplies led to hunger and food unrest.
      Then the already described period in the article
      Then Denikin
      Then Kotovsky
      Since February 7, 1920, after the capture of the city by the cavalry brigade of Kotovsky, Soviet power was finally established in Odessa, which put an end to the Civil War in this region.
      2 years of unbridled fun ala-RI in miniature ... It cost our city hundreds of thousands of victims .. millions of losses .. from 2 ports of the empire turned into some kind of nativity scene ..
  5. Major48
    Major48 3 June 2019 11: 24
    The Grigoryevsky army was distinguished by the most massive and brutal Jewish pogroms, Grigoryev’s anti-Semitism even angered Makhno.
  6. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 3 June 2019 23: 47
    About the article and about the author

    There is such a law of dialectics - the transition of quantity into quality, but Samsonov’s quantity will never grow into quality. On the contrary, his hastily stamped “historical” articles began to look more like historical handicrafts, apparently written for commercial purposes. Generalizations and assessments of historical events are superficial, there are many inaccuracies in the description and in the chronology of events. To that are written in too frivolous language.

    There were other applicants for these riches - the local Bolshevik leadership and the mafia.

    I wonder where in Odessa in those days the mafia? Firstly, she appeared later and not in our country. Secondly, to put the mafia and the Bolsheviks on one board? There are no words...

    However, Grigoriev was not touched, his troops still hoped to use for a campaign in Europe.

    The author cited a similar idea in the first part of the article.
    "Moscow was preparing for the" export of the revolution "to Europe."

    "Moscow was preparing for the" export of the revolution "to Europe." But one should not ascribe this to the Bolsheviks, none of the leaders of the Bolsheviks posed such a task, even Trotsky, since everyone familiar with Marxism knew for a bit that the revolution must ripen, that objective and subjective conditions must be formed for it. And if the author had in mind the Hungarian revolution, then it was still to come, and no one had yet planned to send troops to help her

    Grigoryev was flattered, called the “Red Marshal”, “the Liberator of Europe”

    I wonder where the author read this? Really in the documents of the Bolsheviks? Yes, they had in those days in the lexicon and there weren’t such words.

    Ataman’s troops were “half-red,” if the campaign was unsuccessful, military operations could be attributed to the Left Social Revolutionaries.

    I wonder how Samsonov found out that the Bolsheviks wanted to blame everything on the Left Social Revolutionaries. The Socialist Revolutionary Party had already been outlawed by this time and, as a political force, had no influence.
    1. Purgin
      Purgin 4 June 2019 07: 59
      Another author mixed up. Hungary attacked Romania, and not vice versa.
      And the Bolsheviks could not return Bukovina. Before that, it did not belong to Russia.
    2. Antares
      Antares 5 June 2019 21: 50
      Quote: Alexander Green
      I wonder where in Odessa in those days the mafia?

      it was used by the Reds in the fight against others. Bear Jap even took prison .. freed. And the terror of the bandits was cruel.
      somehow he freed 700 criminals.
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 5 June 2019 23: 13
        Quote: Antares
        Quote: Alexander Green
        I wonder where in Odessa in those days the mafia?

        it was used by the Reds in the fight against others. Bear Jap even took prison .. freed. And the terror of the bandits was cruel.
        somehow he freed 700 criminals.

        Dear, do not confuse the classic mafia with Odessa raiders.
        1. Antares
          Antares 8 June 2019 23: 43
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Dear, do not confuse the classic mafia with Odessa raiders.

          you know, our flavor and popularity of "Odessa raiders" has echoes even now.
          Moyshe-Yakov Volfovich Vinnitsky put together 2 thousand thugs and worked for the Reds (and for his beloved) until the Chekists shot him.
          And his courtyard and his monument still have excursions to it.
          A very criminal city at all times. The capital of smuggling and other things ..
          Here either the methods of the KGB or Zhukov. It is better of course to allow and even force to carry weapons.
          The mafia is diverse. It is clear that the classic is different from the color.
          Especially in the years of chaos, it does not smell like classics ...
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 9 June 2019 14: 16
            Quote: Antares
            It is clear that the classic is different from the color.

            So, do not confuse the classics with the color, you have read Babel, who was also a dreamer,
            "The devil is not so terrible as his" little ones. "Do not think that I have misinterpreted the proverb, they just say that in Odessa, instead of" little "-" little ones "(in Russian - drawings).
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 4 June 2019 08: 50
    The article is interesting, but there are annoying typos.
    В end of March 1919 The Entente Supreme Council decided to evacuate the Allied forces from the Black Sea. In early April 1918 years in France, the Clemenceau ministry fell, the new cabinet first ordered the return of troops from Little Russia and to stop the intervention.

    It is advisable to read the text again before sending it to the site.
  8. RoTTor
    RoTTor 28 July 2019 17: 27
    "Ataman" Grigoriev "- Not only a robber and pogromist, a sadist, alcoholic, anti-Semite and Russophobe, but also a pathological traitor who constantly betrayed everyone and everything - whites, reds, hetmans and Petliurists, Borotbists, who changed and Russified even his surname for a career" "= Napkin maker, rag picker
    When Makhno eliminated Grigoryev — the traitor, robber, and pogromist, he gave his personal “gang guard” to the massacre of the Makhnovists' priestly company, each soldier of which someone died during the Grigorev-Petliura pogroms.