How the Whites crushed the Georgian invaders

54
The aspiration of Georgia to expand its territory at the expense of the Sochi district led to the Georgian-voluntary war. Georgian troops were defeated, Denikin’s army returned Sochi to Russia.

The first contacts of the Volunteer Army with Georgia



During the campaign of the Taman army ("The heroic campaign of the Taman army"), which was retreating under the onslaught of volunteers, at the end of August 1918 of the Reds encountered units of the infantry division of the Georgian Republic in the region of Gelendzhik. The Georgian army, based in Tuapse, occupied the Black Sea coast to Gelendzhik. Tamans easily knocked down the front barrier of the Georgians and August 27 occupied Gelendzhik.

Continuing the offensive, the Reds overthrew the Georgians near the village of Pshadskaya, and on August 28 approached Arkhipo-Osipovka, where they encountered more serious resistance. Georgian reinforcements were reinforced by an infantry regiment and a battery. The Georgians opened heavy fire and stopped the Tamans. Then the Reds with the help of cavalry went around the enemy and completely defeated him. Georgians suffered serious losses. 29 August Tamans occupied Novo-Mikhailovskaya. On September 1, the Tamans in a fierce battle, again using a cavalry maneuver, defeated the Georgian division and took Tuapse. The Reds lost several hundred people killed and wounded, and destroyed, according to the commander of the Taman army Kovtyukh, the entire enemy division - about 7 thousand people (apparently an exaggeration, for the most part, the Georgians simply fled). At the same time, the Tamans, who had already practically exhausted their ammunition, seized a large number of trophies, weapons and stocks of the Georgian infantry division in Tuapse. This allowed the Taman Division to continue the campaign and successfully break through to their own.

After the Tamanians left Tuapse, the Georgians again occupied the city. Almost simultaneously with them, volunteers, Kolosovsky's cavalry, entered the city. On behalf of Denikin, the former quartermaster general of the headquarters of the Caucasian Front, E.V. Maslovsky, traveled to the Tuapse area. He was supposed to unite all the anti-Bolshevik forces on the Black Sea coast to Maykop. At the same time, relying on his authority as the former quartermaster general of the headquarters of the Caucasian Front, Maslovsky was to include the Black Sea region in the scope of the Volunteer Army. Many former officers of the Russian imperial army, like General Mazniev, became the core of the Georgian army. The commander of the Georgian division Mazniev agreed to enter into submission to the Volunteer Army (DA). The head of the Volunteer Army, General Alekseev, sent a letter to Mazniev, in which he expressed joy at the union.

Denikin during this period tried to limit the collapse of Russia, while preserving the Caucasus in its sphere of influence. Georgia, according to Denikin, lived with the “Russian heritage” (which was true) and could not be an independent state. Also, the main rear warehouses of the former Caucasian Front were located in Georgia, while whites needed weapons, ammunition and equipment for war with the Reds. Denikin wanted to receive part of this legacy of the Russian Empire. In addition, Georgia at that time was under the influence of Germany, and Denikin considered himself loyal to the alliance with the Entente.

It seemed that the two anti-Bolshevik forces would enter into a strong alliance. Georgian leaders, whose policies Denikin described as “anti-Russian,” did not want an alliance with the Bolsheviks or volunteers. The Mensheviks saw the threat in the Bolsheviks and the whites. The Georgian Mensheviks were real revolutionaries, they participated in the organization of the February revolution and the subsequent unrest in Russia. Now they were afraid of both the Bolsheviks, who established their dictatorship, and with "iron and blood," again united the empire, and the Denikinists, who were considered reactionary. A "colonialist" force hostile to social democracy and trying to destroy all the gains of the revolution.

Therefore, General Mazniyev was accused of Russophilism and recalled to Tiflis. He was replaced by General A. Koniev. He took a tough stance towards volunteers. Georgian troops were withdrawn from Tuapse and formed a front at Sochi, Dagomys and Adler, where the Georgians pulled together additional forces and began to build fortifications. Thus, Tiflis blocked the further advance of Denikin’s army along the coast.

Negotiations in Ekaterinodar

To find a common language, the white command invited the Georgian side to negotiate in Yekaterinodar. The Georgian government sent to Ekaterinodar a delegation led by Foreign Minister E. P. Gegechkori, who was accompanied by General Mazniyev. 25 -26 September negotiations took place. The volunteer army was represented by Alekseev, Denikin, Dragomirov, Lukomsky, Romanovsky, Stepanov and Shulgin. On the part of the Kuban government, the ataman Filimonov, the head of the government Bych and a member of the government of Vorobiev participated in the talks.

The following issues were raised at the meeting: 1) establishment of trade between Georgia and the Kuban regional government, YES; 2) the question of the military property of the Russian army on the territory of Georgia. Denikin wanted to get weapons and ammunition, if not for free, like allied aid, then in exchange for food (in Georgia it was bad in food); 3) the question of the border, the belonging of the Sochi district; 4) on the situation of Russians in Georgia; 5) on the possible union and nature of Georgia’s relations with YES. The whites wanted to see a friendly neighbor in Georgia in order to have a calm rear and it was not necessary to keep serious forces on the Georgian border, which were so necessary for fighting the Reds.

However, the negotiations quickly failed. None of the parties could make fundamental concessions. The white government was not going to give Tiflis the Russian territories of the Black Sea province, although de facto they were occupied by the Georgian army. The Georgian side did not want to soften the Russophobic policy towards Russians in Georgia and return the illegally occupied Sochi district. According to Denikin, most of the villages in the district were Russian, the rest with a mixed population and only one Georgian. And Georgians in Sochi constituted only about 11% of the population. At the same time, the Sochi district, using Russian money, was turned from wasteland into a flourishing health resort. Therefore, General Denikin rightly noted that the Sochi District historical"Georgia did not have any rights for ethnographic reasons." Abkhazia was also forcibly captured by Georgia, but Denikin and Alekseev were ready to make concessions along it if the Georgians cleared Sochi.

According to the Georgian delegation, the Georgian in the Sochi district was 22% and YES could not represent the interests of the Russians, as it is a private organization. Tiflis considered the Sochi district very important in terms of ensuring the independence of Georgia. The Georgians planned to turn the Sochi region into an “insurmountable barrier” for the White Army of Alekseev and Denikin.

It was a difficult situation for the Russians in Georgia. It should be noted that, in general, the Georgian people treated the Russians well, and the government, with the support of the nationalist minority, pursued a Russophobic policy. In Georgia, as Russia moved to the Caucasus, a significant Russian community formed from various specialists and employees. In addition, after the World War in Georgia, and the headquarters of the Caucasian Front was located in Tiflis, there remained a few thousand Russian officers. The Georgian authorities feared them, considered them unreliable and disloyal to the new government. If desired, Russian officers could take power in Georgia, but there was no organizing force among them. Many were at a loss, for them the Caucasus, Tiflis was the motherland, and suddenly they became “alien”, “abroad”. Therefore, the Russians in Georgia were “harassed” with various kinds of cavils, deprived of civil rights, and with active protest they were subjected to arrest and deportation. Russian officers in Tiflis lived in misery, for the most part did not have capital, sources of income, were in a beggarly state. At the same time, the Georgian authorities diligently stopped the attempts of officers to leave to join the Volunteer Army. It is clear that all this irritated Denikin.

At the same time, with the radicalization of local authorities and the growth of nationalist sentiment, the position of the Russians in Tiflis became simply dangerous. Russian officers were beaten, robbed, and maimed by gangs of nationalists and the tramps, the criminals who joined them. The Russians were “outlawed” in Georgia, that is, defenseless. It is clear that in such a situation, the masses of officials, employees and the military who were thrown into the streets began to look for a way out. Many decided to flee to Little Russia. -Ukraine, for this they were looking for "Ukrainian roots" for themselves. In Hetman Ukraine, they hoped to get rid of the threat of nationalists and the arrival of the Bolsheviks (under the protection of German bayonets). As a result, most of the officers fled to Ukraine.

Thus, the negotiations failed because of the intransigence of the parties. Alekseev expressed his readiness to recognize “a friendly and independent Georgia,” but he firmly raised the question of the need to end the persecution of the Russians in the new Georgian state and the withdrawal of the Georgian army from Sochi. In turn, Gegechkori, this “desperate, angry, intolerant Georgian chauvinist,” as described by his famous Russian political figure and white ideologue Shulgin, took a firm stand. He did not recognize that the Russians in Georgia were being oppressed and refused to recognize the Volunteer Army as the successor of the Russian Empire, which he insulted Alekseev. The Georgian side refused to leave Sochi district.

How the Whites crushed the Georgian invaders

Commander of the Volunteer Army, General A. I. Denikin, end of 1918 or beginning of 1919 of the year

White Guard-Georgian war

After the failure of the negotiations in Ekaterinodar in the Sochi district until the end of 1918 - the beginning of 1919, the position of “neither peace nor war” remained. Volunteers stood south of Tuapse, occupying the leading parts of the village of Lazarevskoye. The Georgian forces of General Koniev stood against them at Loo station. The Georgians continued to rob the Sochi region, oppressed the Armenian community. Local residents asked the army of Denikin to free them from the Georgian occupation.

The reason for the beginning of an open confrontation between Georgia and the DA was the Georgian-Armenian war that began in December 1918. After the withdrawal of the German-Turkish occupation forces, the Georgian government, continuing the policy of expansion, decided to establish control over the areas of the former Tiflis province of Borchali (Lori) and Akhalkalaki, where the Armenian population prevailed. In addition, the richest copper mines were located in the Lori area. Thus, one Alaverdi copper-chemical plant produced one-fourth of copper smelting throughout the Russian Empire.

The war was stopped under the pressure of the British. British troops landed in Georgia. The British forced the Armenians and Georgians to make peace. In January, an agreement was signed on 1919 in Tiflis, until the final resolution of all disputed territorial issues at the Paris conference, the northern part of Borchaly district was transferred to Georgia, the southern part to Armenia, and the average (in which the Alaverdi copper mines were located) was declared a neutral zone and was under control the English. The Armenian authorities agreed to withdraw their claims to the Akhalkalaki district on the condition that the district would be under the control of the British and the participation of the Armenians in local self-government would be guaranteed.

Because of the war with Armenia, Georgians began to transfer troops from the Sochi region to the line of the new front. Volunteers began to move, occupying the left territory. 29 December Georgians left the station Loo, which occupied the whites. Then the withdrawal of the Georgian troops halted and during the month the sides took up positions on the Loo River.

The war of Armenia with Georgia was reflected in the Armenian community of Sochi district. The Armenians, who constituted up to a third of the region’s population, raised a rebellion. In many ways, it was caused by the predatory, repressive policies of the Georgian authorities. Georgian troops began to suppress the uprising. Armenians turned to Denikin for help. The commander-in-chief ordered the commander of the troops in the Black Sea region, General Matthew Burnevich, to take Sochi. At the same time, Denikin ignored the demand of General Forestier-Walker, commander of British troops in the Caucasus, to stop the offensive in the Sochi district before obtaining British consent.

6 February 1919, the Denikinians crossed the Loo River. From the rear, Georgian troops attacked the Armenian partisans. The Georgian commander, General Koniyev, and his headquarters at that time were walking at a wedding in Gagra. Therefore, the attack of the Russian troops for the Georgians was unexpected. Having put up little resistance, the Georgian troops capitulated. White occupied Sochi. General Koniev while captured. A few days later, Denikin liberated the entire district, Gagra, and reached the line of the Bzyb River. Georgia dispatched the People’s Guard battalions to the 6 river, but the British stopped the further development of the war. They divided the warring parties with their post. The British command issued an ultimatum to Denikin demanding to clear the Sochi circle. However, Denikin refused to give Russian land. Koniyev and his soldiers were later returned to Georgia. The Georgian authorities, in response, strengthened the repressive policy towards the Russian community.

In the future, YES and Georgia remained in hostile relations. In the spring of 1919, when the white command transferred the main forces to the north to fight the Red Army, the Georgians prepared an offensive to repel Sochi. 6 - 8 has been concentrated behind Bzyb. soldier with 20 guns. In addition, in the rear of the whites was organized uprising "green" - the bandits. Under the onslaught of the Georgian army, the whites retreated across the Mzymta River. With the help of reinforcements from Sochi, the whites broke the “greens” and stabilized the front. White was preparing a counterattack, but at the suggestion of the British, they entered into new negotiations. They led to nothing. The front has stabilized at Mekhadyri.

Until the spring of 1920, the White Command held on the Black Sea coast from 2,5 to 6,5 thousands of people to restrain Georgians and “greens” who were supported by the Georgian authorities trying to organize an uprising in the rear of the White Army. In addition, Georgia, like Azerbaijan, supported the uprisings of mountaineers and jihadists in Chechnya and Dagestan. Tiflis tried to support the creation of a mountain republic in the North Caucasus in order to obtain a buffer area between Georgia and Russia. Therefore, Georgia supported insurgent gangster formations, sending instructors, fighters and weapons to the mountainous regions of the North Caucasus.

In the spring of 1920, the Red Army reached the borders of the Black Sea province and the Georgian government had to abandon plans for the expansion of Georgia at the expense of Russian territory.


The White 2 Infantry Division in the city of Sochi, liberated from the troops of independent Georgia. 1919 year
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

54 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +1
    February 21 2019
    In 1918, representatives of the Sochi militias, volunteer entrepreneurs, the so-called "green", appealed to the government of Georgia, so that they would take the Sochi province into their own hands, so that they would not suffer either from the Reds or from Denikin's volunteer army, they still had there was dogma, it is better to trade than to fight, they wanted to be more cunning, wiser than a wise ...
  2. +4
    February 21 2019
    If the Reds didn’t interfere with the white, they would establish the One and the Indivisible with ease.
    1. +2
      February 21 2019
      I gave you an example above, the Sochi province generally wanted to join Georgia, if only not to take part in serious battles, neither on the red side nor the white side, but who was stopping anyone and who is better, my opinion is that history hasn’t shown it clearly and clearly, a lot of positive and a lot of negative was that with those with others .....
      1. +2
        February 21 2019
        Quote: anjey
        that history has not yet shown clearly and graphically, there was a lot of positive and a lot of negative that with those that with others .....

        Compare DEMOGRAPHY and TERRITORY of Russia with whites by 1917 (22 млн km2 and density 9,5 people / km2) and the RSFSR with the Reds - by 1991 (17 млн km2 and density 8,5 people/ km2).

        I emphasize once again that AFTER the formation of the USSR, 22 g, the territory of Russia decreased by 4 million km2 and tens of millions of people
        For me, this is enough to evaluate.
        1. The comment was deleted.
    2. +2
      February 21 2019
      Already with the Georgians, it was easy. "Wise" commander Koniev danced at the wedding
  3. +4
    February 21 2019
    There is nothing surprising in the fact that YES of Georgians supplanted. RA successfully opposed the Kaiser, and the German troops are not even a couple of Georgians. Fired parts in the lungs will make beginners.
    For Georgian officers, ambition replaced knowledge. Suppose the "Tamans" were able to bypass the Georgians once, but in subsequent times the Georgian command had to draw the appropriate conclusions? No, they always stepped on the same rake
    1. +1
      February 21 2019
      Quote: vladcub
      There is nothing surprising in the fact that YES of Georgians supplanted. RA successfully opposed the Kaiser, and the German troops are not even a couple of Georgians. Fired parts in the lungs will make beginners.

      Ahem ... no need to confuse the Volunteer Army and the Empire Army. In the Civil War, military thought somehow very quickly degraded ...
      The whites had the experience of three years of the Great, and many of the years of the Japanese war. Perfectly saw the mistakes of both the tsarist and the Provisional Government back then. And what did you get?
      IMHO, most of all the civil war resembled a war not even of the XNUMXth, but of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries - large and small gangs (sic) of unknown orientation and unknown numbers roam the ruined country in an unknown direction. With their heads at the peaks and hatred of all living things.
      Instead of assault teams - walking in the attack with thick chains without a shot, without bending down and not lying down, and the officers are proud of it. My God, many years before this, the last blacks in Africa knew what a machine gun, shrapnel and magazine rifles were. On the WWII fronts, even half a head could not be raised, or looked out into a loophole.
      Since August 14th, when the hands lying under shrapnel were digging shelters, fortification and tactics have developed incredibly. And then "the simplest tactical truths were perceived as a revelation." In the 18th, “trenches and fortifications were not built. The largest that was dug by a hole to protect the shoulders and head, for the most part lay open ”, in the 19th“ our trenches were built extremely remotely ”and in the 20th already on Perekop it was the same. Artillery pulls up and openly shoots at close range, forgetting just everything. Intelligence is such that even in the 18th, the Reds attack suddenly, despite the fact that their plans and radio were read freely. And a constant refrain: “But if the hand of the red machine gunner / gunner didn’t flinch, we would all remain there.”
      In the memoirs and works - a continuous moan over the shots destroyed in the WWI, and rightly so. But whites create officer regiments and St. George battalions, completely not caring for the training of recruits. They drove to slaughter, although often there was time and money. And dreamed of what kind of division could be made from the Academy of the General Staff.
      There were so many curses about the supply in the WWI — the whites experienced themselves.
      (...)
      I think one of the (many) reasons for such failures in tactics is the principle of voluntary formation, which Zaitov, Bayov, Budberg, Dostovalov, Shteifon and many other bright minds kicked off after. The soldier, especially in the infantry, does not like to fight (Hares). A mobilized would be nice to learn and educate. Idealists without food quickly die, on personal devotion come either warlords-dad-atamans, or condottiers who know how to fight, but do not understand why. As a result, White is commanded by the passive "remnants of the former luxury" (May-Mayevsky) and the "child prodigies" - generals at the age of 27-28 from ensigns and paramedics and captain Wrangel. They simply had no experience, no desire to learn and obey.
      "And our military thought in the Crimea continued to work sluggishly, but more often than not it did not work at all, and we didn’t reduce our initial victories, but at the cost of officer lives, which we had nothing to replace."
      And this is with excellent (sometimes) shots, which until the very end delivered very painful blows to the Reds.
      © E. Belash
      1. 0
        February 21 2019
        In this case, how to explain that YES made Georgians easy? I see one explanation: the experience of the Russian command and the arrogance of the Georgians.
        When I read and heard but the front-line soldiers: it’s dangerous to overestimate and underestimate the enemy at the front
        1. +1
          February 22 2019
          Everything is simpler, Lermontov remember “timid Georgians fled”
  4. +8
    February 21 2019
    Events are little known, and excellently considered.
    Sochi is a Russian city, and thanks to Denikin (like some other territories). Maybe a monument to him in Sochi to put?
    Who knows, if the Georgians overcame Sochi during the Civil War - maybe when defining the borders of the union republics, the city remained then in Georgia? Indeed, in Soviet times, such territorial "trifles" were not given special importance - everything was in a single state (remember at least the episode with the Crimea).
    But that would have come back later - when Georgia left the Union. And now the Georgian flag would hang there.
    Thank you for the article!
    1. +3
      February 21 2019
      Quote: Adjutant
      Who knows, if the Georgians would overcome Sochi during the Civil War - then, when determining the borders of the Union republics, then the city would then remain in Georgia?

      certainly, everything would be so. As with the Crimea, Odessa, Nikolaev, Ekaterinodar, etc.
      1. +2
        February 21 2019
        Actually, Ekaterinodar is Krasnodar, and this is a city within the Russian Federation, at least it was this morning.
        Perhaps you mean Yekaterinoslavl-Dnepropetrovsk?
        1. 0
          February 22 2019
          Quote: Astra wild
          Perhaps you mean Yekaterinoslavl-Dnepropetrovsk?

          Of course, you are right. hi
    2. 0
      February 21 2019
      Georgians would be happy to have this happen
    3. 0
      February 22 2019
      Now there would be an Abkhaz flag)
  5. +8
    February 21 2019
    Here is Comrade Samsonov and destroyed the favorite Soviet argument: “the whites sold Russian land to foreign invaders and destroyed Russia!” all the places of the Caucasians, gathered the great Ukrainushka from the lands with the Russian population. If the Russian Army had won the Civil War, then no Ukrainians and Georgians would exist - only the provinces of Russia.
    1. 0
      February 22 2019
      The outskirts began to sprawl actively before October 1917. The protracted war is incomprehensible for what, the February coup d'état, inappropriately conceived. The founding fathers of the white movement supported this coup, like Alekseev, or did not oppose him. That is, they had a hand in weakening central authority. Ataman Krasnov actually separated Don from Russia, relied on the Germans.
      The same ukrov Kerensky still went to break up not to be independent.
      It was White who acted under the roof of the interventionists, relying on them. British were not ordered in red and stop orders were not sent.
      Wrangel was delivered to Sevastopol by the English battleship "Emperor of India", again indicating the interests of the GV.
      If it were not for the "Alekseev movement", then there would be no civil war. The Reds would quickly pass on amateur performances on the outskirts. By the way, all these officer regiments are not from a good life. It was difficult to recruit soldiers. Whites may have been experienced military men, but politicians were zero.
    2. -1
      February 22 2019
      And do you still object to the historical truth that you, the enemies of the Bolsheviks, were accomplices of the invaders of Russia? And the fact that you fought in Civilian against each other, so you, even after the seizure of the republics of the USSR, start wars against each other.
  6. 0
    February 21 2019
    Coercion to a world of free Georgia?
  7. +2
    February 21 2019
    Russian officers could stop this Georgian farce, but in their inert mass there were no initiative people.
  8. +3
    February 21 2019
    Quote: anjey
    Sochi province
    You don’t confuse the concepts of "province" and "okrug" for an hour? I know that there was a Sochi district. But this was the first time I heard from you about "Sochi province".
    1. +1
      February 21 2019
      Yes, I won’t argue, I read for a long time, of course, the district, here is an excerpt from memories
      NV Voronov "Green" rebels on the Black Sea coast.
      There, the British "beloved" by us, very well stirred up ...
  9. +1
    February 21 2019
    Quote: anjey
    Sochi province generally wanted to be part of Georgia
    Not a province, but a district.
    And not the whole district wanted to enter, but only Georgians living in the Sochi district. Of which 10 thousand of the population of the district were 2 thousand. And that is not a fact.
    In his memoirs, a Georgian general who, so to speak, "returned the allegedly historical Georgian lands" Giorgi Mazniashvili writes: "
    I received orders from both Tbilisi and the Abkhaz National Council - to move forward and occupy Sochi. The reason I was given a direct wire was as if the request and supplications of Georgians living in Sochi, and some members of the Abkhaz National Council assured me that Sochi not only once belonged to Abkhazia, but in ancient times the borders of Abkhazia reached Anapa. With the receipt of the order, they stood for a whole week, did not move forward, but slowly began preparations for the capture of Sochi ... They told usthat the Georgians living there are looking forward to the arrival of Georgian troops ... In addition, while the Bolsheviks were in Sochi, the danger of provocations and attacks from them was constant. ”
  10. 0
    February 21 2019
    As soon as the Entente barked imperiously, Denikin immediately stopped the offensive. Although Sochi is still worth saying thanks to him
  11. +5
    February 21 2019
    Compare the DEMOGRAPHY and TERRITORY of Russia with whites by 1917 (22 million km2 and a density of 9,5 people / km2) and the RSFSR with red by 1991 (17 million km2 and a density of 8,5 people / km2).
    ================================================== ===========================
    Well, you don’t need to distort the cards.
    First, when the Reds took over the cases on October 25, 1917, Russia no longer controlled all of Poland and most of the Baltic states (all under the Germans), Finland, Transcaucasia, Ukraine, and Central Asia were practically separated. So what about 22 million square kilometers. do not.
    Secondly, the area of ​​the USSR before the collapse was 21.4 million square kilometers, that is, almost the same as the Russian Empire BEFORE the First World War.
    Thirdly, the empire's population was about 170 million, and the USSR before the collapse - almost 300 million.
    It is possible to divide the twice as large population into almost the same territory, but to receive a much lower density - there is a great secret.
    Or EGE education.
    Look carefully with the karitshkami.
    Candlesticks are heavy.
    1. -3
      February 21 2019
      Quote: Seamaster
      Finland, Transcaucasia, Ukraine, Central Asia were practically separated.


      This is why they "actually separated" by the time of the October Maidan ??? Everything was under control.

      Quote: Seamaster
      and the RSFSR under the Reds - by 1991

      Quote: Seamaster
      the area of ​​the USSR before the collapse was 21.4 million square kilometers, that is, practically the same as the Russian Empire BEFORE the First World War.
      Thirdly, the empire's population was about 170 million, and the USSR before the collapse - almost 300 million.
      Divide as much as twice as large population into almost the same territory, but get a much lower density - there is a great secret


      There is a great secret, how you can "not notice" that we are talking about Russia, not the USSR, and confuse these two state formations.


      Quote: Seamaster
      Look carefully with the karitshkami.
      Candlesticks are heavy.


      Exactly, by the way.
      1. +3
        February 21 2019
        There is a great secret, how you can "not notice" that we are talking about Russia, not the USSR, and confuse these two state formations.
        ================================================== =====================
        Yes, here you can’t get off with candlesticks, you need logs or reinforcing bars ..
        An interesting calculation: we consider the territory of ALL of the Russian Empire, but only the RSFSR are distinguished from the USSR.
        And why not?
        Then take away from the territory of the Russian Empire the Kingdom of Poland, Central Asian khanates and emirates, well, Finland was a state in a state with its own currency, police, parliament, customs and infringement of the rights of Russians.
        And in real life - the USSR = 21.4 million square kilometers and 280 million people and RI with 22 million square meters. km and 170 million people.
        Divide and compare, not just.
        1. -1
          February 21 2019
          Because both there and there, we believe Russia, which is incomprehensible?
          Undoubtedly, dependent khanates (but they are never considered) and, possibly, Finland (they are often not considered too) should be isolated from the Republic of Ingushetia. And the Privislin provinces, why not take this into account ???
        2. 0
          February 22 2019
          In fact, the area of ​​the USSR was in 1990 22,4 million square meters. km Where did you share a whole million square meters. km.? Was it hard for you to pick up a reference book or textbook on geography? And, by the way, an area of ​​more than 21 million square meters. km was at the RSFSR at the time of the creation of the USSR. And three other republics - the Ukrainian SSR, BSSR, ZSFSR occupied the territory of about 500 thousand square meters. km And the territory of the RSFSR, indeed, after the creation of the USSR, was reduced by 4 million square meters. km For example, in 1924 and 1926, territories were transferred from the RSFSR to the BSSR (the territory of which at the time of joining the Union almost coincided with the territory of the modern Minsk region), as a result, the area and population of Belarus increased threefold.
      2. 0
        February 22 2019
        To begin with, you will learn to distinguish a real revolution, as a change of power and the socio-economic System, from your "colored" coups-Maidans, which you, the enemies of the Bolshevik-Communists, arrange in the republics of the USSR that you have captured, and always leave the System beneficial only to you the same.
    2. 0
      February 22 2019
      In fact, we are talking about the territory of the RSFSR, and not the entire USSR. And it is a fact that after the creation of the Union, the area of ​​the RSFSR decreased due to the separation of the Turkestan ASSR (mid-20s), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Karakalpakstan (1936), provinces and counties transferred to the Byelorussian SSR (1924 and 1926), and later Crimea (1954).
  12. +6
    February 21 2019
    If the Reds didn’t interfere with the white, they would establish the One and the Indivisible with ease.
    ================================================== ===========================
    Clear business.
    Without the help of the Japs and Americans in the Far East, the French and Greeks in Odessa, the British in the Caucasus and the North, the Germans in the Baltic states.
    And so yes - all by yourself, all by yourself.
  13. +7
    February 21 2019
    Gentlemen, comrades, did you read the article before posting?
    As in the old joke about the long battle for the hut at the edge of the forest and the watchman who dispersed the conflicting parties.
    White knocked out Georgians from Sochi, Georgians knocked out whites from Sochi.
    And again the cycle.
    And so - two years.
    And then the watchman came - pah, red - and dispersed everyone.
    Someone to Constantinople, someone to sell mimosa.
    And then he even slammed this sharashka - independent Georgia.
    So - like.
    So who was indivisible here?
    But commies left - and oops! - Again, everyone strives to snatch from the indivisible.
  14. +8
    February 21 2019
    And one more thing.
    We noticed how white people were reverent about the signs of the Great White Master - the British.
    They just hoot - and the white knights mink.
    But the Reds put it .... Well, in general, they ignored the opinion of the British during the capture of Baku and Batumi, were not afraid to engage in fights with them in the North, and the Anzeli operation is really a song!
    Under the threat of complete destruction, the British POLK were knocked out of the city into the desert, and then they started kneading the whites who remained there.
    And the whole white flotilla was taken to Astrakhan.
    And that’s all - on the territory of a foreign state.
    1. -6
      February 21 2019
      Just do not need a fairy tale about the courage of the Bolshevik scum in the part of the war for Baku - it was Lenin’s scum who laid bare this city at his request for German-Turkish interests ...
      1. +2
        February 21 2019
        Excuse me, uncle, did the Turks and Germans stay in Baku like that?
        Until 1991?
        The Germans were in Stalingrad in 1942-43.
        And sho?
        By the way, in Baku, before the Germans and Turks came, it was not the Bolsheviks who ruled, but what the hell is a coalition consisting mainly of local Socialist-Revolutionaries, nationalists, etc.
        Bolsheviks there were 10 percent.
        By the way, at the same time the Germans controlled a third of the territory of France.
        Also the Bolshevik-Leninists are to blame?
        1. -1
          February 21 2019
          I apologize - as it’s not a shame not to know.
          I repeat.
          There were no Bolsheviks in Baku, since it was precisely Lenin who ordered the commissars to drape from there, moreover, having previously and maliciously disbanded many Armenian military structures ...
          Lenin clearly followed the instructions of the Germans and Zionists ...
          And yes ... Turks in Baku remained not only until 1991, but still ... True, under the appropriation of another nationality - Iranian-speaking Azeri - self-name, but it is so ... temporarily ...
    2. 0
      February 22 2019
      Have you read that Denikin did NOT notice the demands of the British to give Sochi to the Georgians?
      1. 0
        February 23 2019
        Ага.
        I also showed them nevermind in my pocket.
        Locked in the bathroom.
    3. 0
      February 22 2019
      I’ll look for and honor the Enzelian operation. Honestly: I almost never read the history of the civil war at school
  15. +1
    February 21 2019
    Alone against everyone, like a rock among the raging ocean.
  16. 0
    February 21 2019
    Colleagues, I have now compared the style of work: Samsonov, Wind and Andrei from Chelyabinsk. Samsonov lost in the net. See for yourself: Andrei loves a balanced analysis, and Samsonov immediately places accents, which in my opinion does not decorate the author. Can any of you imagine a similar manner with Klyuchevsky, Solovyov (V. I. Lenin respected these authors), or with Soviet historians? Sometimes in his manner he reminds Americans: a kind of vulgarity
    1. 0
      February 22 2019
      Hold the plus) but you are comparing the incomparable. Andrei Chelyabinsky (because of his articles I registered on the site) is a slightly different level, he is a researcher in the first place, maybe an unprofessional but a historian. And Samsonov and Wind (whose articles I also read with interest) are more likely writers, in my opinion.
      By the way, this series of articles really liked, a lot of new information for me, for which thanks to the author.
      1. +1
        February 22 2019
        Khazarin, thanks for the +. I agree on something, but not on something.
        As I imagine it: Andrei, he thought the historian, and he is an economist, LOVES HISTORY and, therefore, conscientiously understands everything. The wind is a storyteller and good. He owns the word, and Samsonov wants to be: a historian, but NOT A HISTORIAN (historians know who Genghis Khan was and the author is not) is not a storyteller, storytellers own the word, and he does not own the word. If you carefully look at his work, you will be surprised: what a different style and manner (rummaged in the archive of the site) sometimes it seems that they are different people under the same name. A kind of collective pseudonym
        1. +1
          February 22 2019
          As for the collective pseudonym, I completely agree with you, I also drew attention to this, too different style. They should remove from the collective the one who is responsible for the "agitation" would be the norm.
  17. -3
    February 21 2019
    At the same time, the Tamanians, who have almost exhausted their ammunition, captured a large number of trophies, weapons and stockpiles of the Georgian infantry division in Tuapse. This allowed the Taman division to continue the campaign and successfully break through to their own.

    Something I see the familiar handwriting of Zionism ... Theatrical deception ... Since both the Georgian Mensheviks and the Bolshevik bastard are fostered by Zionism, it seems to me that in this case too, the weapon was transferred to red ...
    1. 0
      February 22 2019
      Dear Karen, I would still be a shore in your place of Jews. You know who they will take when they’ll get rid of them)
      1. -1
        February 22 2019
        Naturally, we will protect Jews from non-Zionists ...
        We are talking about the Zionists ... Those about whom Wilhelm Marr still said that the last unoccupied bastion remained on their put, RI ... They demolished RI, and what will happen in the near future ... it is not clear ...
        1. 0
          February 22 2019
          It was after the capture of the USSR by your anti-Soviet clique that the Jews gained tremendous power and enormous wealth. And the Russian enemies of the Communists, along with the Jews, fiercely hate the BEST for the country and the people, except for criminals and parasites, the Soviet power, in comparison with the pre-revolutionary and your post-Soviet ones.
          1. -1
            February 22 2019
            You would have to erect a monument to the Georgian Stalin at home and kiss every day - that saved the Russian ethnos from the Great Evil evil ...
            1. 0
              February 22 2019
              What, and there is nothing to refute my words about your anti-Soviet clique? And it is behind the Jewish liberals that the Russian / Russian enemies of the communists repeat in chorus "Stalin is a cannibal and a ghoul", "all Stalinists are the descendants of guardians."
              And you, the enemies of the Communists, all the decades after the October Revolution have longed to take the country away from the Communists and their supporters, but not for the fact that you wanted to MAKE at least something useful for the country and people, but only in order to LIVE a lot of things at the expense of country and people. Therefore, you categorically do not want to take responsibility for your counter-revolution of 1991.
              1. 0
                February 22 2019
                Madame, you made a mistake with the address ... you would have to Zu - he will support me with false deception ...
                1. 0
                  February 22 2019
                  Well AGAIN nothing could refute my words about the anti-Soviet clique. And these anti-Soviet cowardly, evil creatures, whose ideology is to make others bad, to at least make themselves better than others, seriously imagined that they are more than communist Bolsheviks and their supporters deserve to own the country.
                  And do not write me more of your answers in the cowardly style of the anti-Soviet clique "defending oneself by attacking others." They won't answer.
  18. 0
    February 22 2019
    Quote: Astra wild
    historians know who Genghis Khan was, and the author is not
    If historians know who Genghis Khan would be, the flag is in their hands. Let them continue to think that they know. If only the heads are not littered with their fantasies.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"