Military Review

Give the boundaries of 1772 of the year! Creating the Second Polish Commonwealth

32
100 years ago, in January 1919, the Soviet-Polish war of 1919 - 1921 began. Poland, which gained independence during the collapse of the Russian Empire, laid claim to Western Russian lands — White Russia and Little Russia, Lithuania. The Polish elite planned to restore the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth within the borders of 1772, to create Greater Poland "from sea to sea". The Poles rejected the peace proposals of Moscow and launched an offensive to the east.


prehistory

In the course of the collapse of the Rurik Empire (the Old Russian state), the Western Russian lands were ruled by Lithuania and Poland. In the 16th century, Lithuania and Poland concluded a union, the Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed. The huge Slavic empire claimed dominance in Eastern Europe. Its demographic and economic potential was much more powerful than that of Muscovy. Poland could become a center for uniting most of the Russian lands However, the Polish elite was not capable of this. The Polish elite could not combine the Poles and the Russians into one development project. Although during this period, the Polish glades and the Russians were practically still part of the same super-ethnos. After all, literally at the time of the first princes of Rurikovich, the western glades (Poles) and the Rus-Russians had a single spiritual and material culture, one language and faith.

But the Polish elite became part of the western development project, the western matrix. That is a project to create a global slave civilization. Then the control center of this project was Catholic Rome. For more than a thousand years, Poland has become an instrument for war with Russia (Russian civilization and Russian superethnos) for more than a thousand years. The masters of the West repeatedly threw the brothers of Slavic Poles into Russia-Russia. The Commonwealth during the crisis, Russia captured vast territories, including Kiev, Minsk and Smolensk. The Poles laid claim to Pskov and Novgorod, broke spears against the walls of Moscow.

However, the Polish elite, submitting to the Western project (through Catholicism), failed and did not want to create a common state for the Poles and Russians. In Poland itself, the majority of the population (peasants) were serfs for gentry-gentry. Working cattle (cattle) for the "chosen" -pans, gentlemen-gentry. Relations were built in the Western Russian lands along the same lines. The Russian princely-boyar elite was polished, heaped. And the Russian masses were turned into slaves, which were oppressed not only socially and economically, but also along national and religious lines. At the same time, the Polish gentlemen were mired in luxury, feasts and debauchery. The quality of management has plummeted.

It is not surprising that the loose Eastern European empire did not last long (historically). She was knocked down by the uprisings of the Russian population, endless wars with neighbors and civil conflicts, when the lords created confederations-unions and fought wars among themselves for their candidate for the royal throne and for other reasons. As the Russian kingdom was restored, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had no internal unity, began to suffer one defeat after another. During the national liberation war of Bogdan Khmelnitsky in the middle of the XVII century. The Russian kingdom was reunited with part of the lands of Western Russia (Left-bank Ukraine, Zaporizhia army). In 1772 — 1795 during the three divisions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Poland’s tough internal crisis with the participation of external players), Polish statehood was destroyed, and Western Russian lands returned to Russia — Belaya Rus and Malaya Russia-Russia (without Galician Russia). Ethnic Polish lands were divided between Prussia and Austria.

In the 1807 year after the defeat of Prussia, Napoleon transferred the Belostok District to Russia. And on the territory of the Polish possessions of Prussia, the Duchy of Warsaw was formed. After the defeat of Napoleon’s empire, the Duchy of Warsaw was divided between Prussia, Austria and Russia. Emperor Alexander I granted the Poles autonomy - the Kingdom of Poland was created. Due to the growth of Polish nationalism and uprisings 1830 - 1831 and 1863 - 1864. Polish autonomy was curtailed. In 1867, its status was downgraded, and it received the name Privislensky Territory: Warsaw, Kaliszka, Petrokovskaya, Kaletskaya, Radomskaya, Suvalki, Lomzhinskaya, Lyublinskaya and Sedletskaya (from 1912 year - Kholm region) provinces.

Restoration of the Polish state

With the outbreak of the First World War, Russian Tsar Nicholas II promised, after victory, to unite Polish lands as part of Russia with Polish regions that were part of Austria-Hungary and Germany. The restored Polish state was supposed to exist in union with Russia. Polish nationalists at this time were divided into two parties: the first believed that Poland would be restored with the help of Russia and at the expense of Germany and Austria-Hungary; the latter considered the main enemy of the Russians and the path to independence of Poland was through the defeat of the Russian empire, it actively cooperated with the Germans and the Austrians. Jozef Pilsudski, one of the leaders of the Polish Socialist Party, began to create Polish legions as part of the Austro-Hungarian army.

In 1915, the Austro-German troops occupied the territory of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1916, the German authorities proclaimed the creation of the puppet Kingdom of Poland. Berlin tried to involve the Poles in the struggle against Russia and to use the resources of Poland in their best interests. In reality, they were not going to restore Poland as an independent state, but to Germanize and make it a province of the Second Reich. After the February Revolution 1917, the Russian Provisional Government announced that it would contribute to the restoration of the Polish state on all the lands inhabited by the majority of Poles, subject to the conclusion of a military alliance with Russia. The formation of the 1 Polish Corps commanded by I. Dovbor-Musnitsky began. After the October Revolution, the Soviet government decreed 10 of December 1917 of the year recognized the independence of Poland.

In January, 1918, the Polish corps of Dovbor-Musnitsky, raised a mutiny. Red troops under the leadership of Vatsetisa defeated the Poles, they retreated. However, then, with the support of the Germans and Belarusian nationalists, they launched a counter-offensive and in February occupied Minsk. The Polish corps became part of the German occupying forces in Belarus (then it was disbanded). After Germany's capitulation in November 1918, the Regency Council of the Kingdom appointed Pilsudski (he was then the most popular Polish politician) interim head of state. The Polish Republic was established (Second Rzecz Pospolita).

The new Polish leadership, led by Pilsudski, set the task of restoring the Commonwealth within the boundaries of 1772, with the establishment of control over the Western Russian lands (White and Little Russia) and the Baltic states. Warsaw planned to create a powerful country from the Baltic to the Black Sea, to dominate Eastern Europe - from Finland to the Caucasus. Russia, cut off from the Baltic and Black Seas, from the lands and resources of the south and southwest, was hoped to be turned into a second-rate power. The war with Soviet Russia in such conditions was inevitable. It should be noted that at the same time the Poles claimed part of the lands of Czechoslovakia and Germany.

Give the boundaries of 1772 of the year! Creating the Second Polish Commonwealth

"What will end pansky venture." Soviet poster

The beginning of confrontation

Under the terms of the Brest Peace Treaty, Soviet Russia refused the Benefit of the Central Powers from the Baltic states, parts of Belarus and Ukraine. West Russian lands were occupied by the Austro-German army. Moscow was not able to continue the war with Germany, but the concession was a temporary measure. The Soviet government did not refuse from Belarus and Ukraine. In addition, within the framework of the concept of the world revolution, Lenin considered it necessary to make Warsaw Soviet in order to destroy the Versailles system and unite with Germany. Soviet Russia and the victory of the socialist Revolution in Germany created the basis for the victory of the world revolution.

In November, 1918, after the capitulation of Germany, the Soviet government issued an order for the Red Army (7 and the Western army — only about 16 thousand bayonets and sabers) to be sent to the western lands of Russia for the retreating German forces. At the same time, the offensive of the Soviet troops was complicated by the actions of the Germans: the destruction of communications, the delay in evacuation; assistance to the white, local nationalists and Poles in the formation of their own detachments, their armament and equipment; the delay of the German garrisons in Western Belarus and the Baltic States.

10 December 1918, the Red Army occupied Minsk. The Polish government of Pilsudski ordered to occupy Vilna. 1 January 1919, the Poles captured Vilna. In December 1918 - January 1919 Reds occupied most of the territory of Lithuania. 5 January Soviet troops drove the Poles out of Vilna.

Formed new Soviet republics. December 16 The Lithuanian Soviet Republic was formed on December 1918. 30 - December 31 The Belarusian Provisional Revolutionary Workers 'and Peasants' Government was established in Smolensk on December 1918. 1 January 1919 The Provisional Revolutionary Government published a manifesto that proclaimed the formation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus (SSRB). 31 January 1919 of the year The SSRB withdrew from the RSFSR and was renamed the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic, the independence of which was officially recognized by the government of Soviet Russia. February 27 occurred the merger of the Lithuanian and Belarusian Republics, the Lithuanian-Belarusian SSR (Litbel) was established with its capital in Vilna. Litbel suggested Warsaw to enter into negotiations and settle the issue of a common border. Pilsudski ignored this sentence.

Poland could not immediately go on a decisive offensive, since the Germans had not yet completed the evacuation, and part of the Polish forces were diverted to the western border (border conflicts with Czechoslovakia and Germany). Only after the intervention of the Entente in February, which transferred Poland into its sphere of influence (as a millennial anti-Russian gun), did the German troops let the Poles east. As a result, Polish troops occupied Kovel, Brest-Litovsk, Kobris in February 1919, and in the Little Russia - Kholmshchina, Vldymyr-Volynsky. 9 - 14 February 1919, the Germans missed the Poles on the line p. Neman - p. Zelvianka - p. Rouzhanka - Pruzhany - Kobrin. Soon parts of the Western Front of the Red Army approached. Thus, the Polish-Soviet front was formed on the territory of Lithuania and White Russia.

At the same time, the opposition began in the southern strategic direction (Polish-Ukrainian war 1918 - 1919). At first, Polish and Ukrainian nationalists clashed there in Galicia, in the battle for Lviv. The Galician Army of the West Ukrainian Republic (ZUNR), which was then supported by the Kiev Directory, lost the war. This led to the occupation of Galicia by the Poles. In addition, the Romanians captured Bukovina during the war, and the Czechs captured Transcarpathia. In the spring of 1919 of the year, the Soviet Ukrainian front came in contact with the Polish army in the south, which had by this time restored Soviet power in Little Russia.

Having regrouped their forces, at the end of February 1919, the Polish army crossed the Neman and launched an offensive. Soviet troops in the western direction totaled 45 thousand people, but by this time the most combat-ready units were sent to other directions. And the situation on the Eastern (Kolchak offensive), Southern and Ukrainian fronts (Denikin's offensive, uprising) did not allow to further strengthen the Western Front. In March, 1919, the Polish troops captured Slonim, Pinsk, in April - Lida, Novogrudok, Baranavichy, Vilna and Grodno. In May - July 1919, the Polish forces were significantly strengthened by Jozef Haller's 70-thousand army, which the Entente had previously formed in France for the war with Germany. In July, the Poles captured Molodechno, Slutsk, in August - Minsk and Bobruisk. In the fall, the Red Army troops counterattacked, but failed. After that, there was a pause on the front.

This was largely due to the offensive of Denikin’s army and the position of the Entente powers (the Declaration on Poland’s eastern border limited the appetites of the Poles). The Polish government was concerned about the success of Denikin’s army in southern Russia. The White government recognized the independence of Poland, but opposed the claims of the Poles to the Russian lands. Therefore, the Poles decided to take a break. Pilsudski underestimated the Red Army, did not want Denikin to win, and waited for the Russians to bleed each other, which would make it possible to realize plans for the creation of a “Greater Poland”. He waited for the Reds to crush the Denikinists, and then it would be possible to beat the Red Army and dictate the world that would be advantageous to Poland. In addition, Pilsudski dealt with internal issues, fought with the opposition. In the west, the Poles fought with the Germans, in Galicia with the Ukrainian nationalists. In August, miners' workers rebelled in Silesia's 1919. The Polish army suppressed the uprising, but the tension remained. Therefore, Pilsudski decided to stop the movement to the east, to wait for a more favorable situation.


Jozef Pilsudski in Minsk. 1919 year
Author:
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1919 year

How the British created the Armed Forces of the South of Russia
How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine
How Petliurists led Little Russia to a complete catastrophe
How defeated Petliurism
32 comments
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  1. Dmitry Hamburg
    Dmitry Hamburg 29 January 2019 05: 12
    +1
    Does it have to be on VO?
    1. Cheldon
      Cheldon 29 January 2019 06: 43
      +7
      Quote: Dmitry Hamburg
      Does it have to be on VO?

      Where should there be an article in the historical section of VO? Very interesting, concise.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 29 January 2019 07: 10
        +1
        Today it is fashionable to moralize, but for some reason RUSSIA and RUSSIAN always make claims.
        The article briefly talks about how the RUSSIAN EMPIRE created the Polish troops and how they easily and simply became units of the German army. No less easily and simply began to cooperate with the Germans those Poles who armed the French and Americans. No less ridiculous is the appointment of an Austrian agent as a Polish dictator-director.
        that's just why all these moments, if they mention it, as if, among other things, as something insignificant.
        1. Ekaterina Shtepa
          Ekaterina Shtepa 29 January 2019 10: 37
          +3
          During WWII, we (the USSR) also trained the Polish army of General Anders, but she did not fight on the Soviet-German front and went to Iran. So, Poles are always Poles ...
          1. Timofey Astakhov
            Timofey Astakhov 18 September 2021 23: 04
            -1
            During WWII, we (USSR) also trained the Polish army of General Anders,


            yeah. Just do not forget before that the joint partition of Poland with Germany. Or what - we remember here, but not here?
    2. 210ox
      210ox 29 January 2019 07: 38
      +1
      And what do you think should be in? In the historical section?
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 29 January 2019 17: 49
        +3
        "WHAT do you think should be on VO? In the historical section?"
        In the "History" section there should be history, you can even publish military history.
      2. My doctor
        My doctor 31 January 2019 20: 12
        0
        Quote: 210ox
        And what do you think should be in? In the historical section?

        History, not propaganda.
        But the Polish elite became part of the western development project, the western matrix. That is a project to create a global slave civilization. Then the control center of this project was Catholic Rome. For more than a thousand years, Poland has become an instrument for war with Russia (Russian civilization and Russian superethnos) for more than a thousand years. The masters of the West repeatedly threw the brothers of Slavic Poles into Russia-Russia. The Commonwealth during the crisis, Russia captured vast territories, including Kiev, Minsk and Smolensk. The Poles laid claim to Pskov and Novgorod, broke spears against the walls of Moscow.

        Really recourse
        The GDL was created not by a sword with genocide of the population, but by political agreements, marriage unions, treaties. Even the seizure of Russian lands took place in many cases without much bloodshed. Often, during the absence of the prince and his retinue, the population of the city overthrew his governors and passed under the "occupation" of a neighbor. Upon the return of the prince with a retinue and with allied troops, the remnants of the city's population (if they were lucky to survive) returned to the bosom of Russian civilization.
        The same Poles occupied Moscow only at the time of turmoil that began after the model reign of Ivan the Terrible.
        But over time, degradation began, the decomposition of the Commonwealth. In the end, Russia and Prussia broke the agony of the Republic of Poland by dividing it among themselves.
    3. Ekaterina Shtepa
      Ekaterina Shtepa 29 January 2019 10: 34
      0
      Where else? The article is very short, informative and good. Thank !
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 29 January 2019 06: 58
    -5
    Such a detailed description of the Poles' aspirations for the borders of 1772 and not a word about the MAIN: 29.08.1918/XNUMX/XNUMX left Decree of the Council of People's Commissars on the waiver of treaties of the government of the former Russian Empire regarding the partition of Poland, and the recognition by the Polish people of the inalienable right to self-determination.
    And the rejection of the sections is the automatic recognition of the borders of 1772. \

    in addition, the unrecognized power in Russia and its promises of self-determination to everyone and everything, justified all neighbors to claim any land in Russia.

    it never occurred to anyone during the Republic of Ingushetia or during the Provisional Government.

    .
    1. apro
      apro 29 January 2019 08: 31
      +2
      Do you consider the people's right to self-determination to be criminal?
      And the Russian Tsars came up with a lot of things. In fact, both Finland and Poland were as a state in a state ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 29 January 2019 08: 39
        -6
        Quote: apro
        Do you consider the people's right to self-determination to be criminal?

        I consider it criminal to destroy all the achievements of Russia in the Western direction in 140 years.
        Moreover, even in 1772, the western border of Russia was west of today's, arranged by the Bolsheviks.
        1. apro
          apro 29 January 2019 09: 27
          +6
          Quote: Olgovich
          Moreover, even in 1772, the western border of Russia was west of today's, arranged by the Bolsheviks.

          And what does the Bolsheviks have to do with today's Russia?
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 29 January 2019 12: 10
            -3
            They created its borders.
            And yes, the right of nations to self-determination can be criminal.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 29 January 2019 12: 56
            -4
            Quote: apro
            And what does the Bolsheviks have to do with today's Russia?

            belay belay
            And who cut its borders from 1917 to 1954 ?!
            1. apro
              apro 29 January 2019 13: 56
              +6
              What were the borders bad?
              Not in 1917. and 1945. The borders of the USSR were finally formed.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 29 January 2019 15: 15
                -4
                The fact that these are the borders of the USSR, and not Russia. And so today's Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine, I am sure, are quite satisfied with the borders of 1945
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich 29 January 2019 16: 41
                -3
                Quote: apro
                What were the borders bad?
                Not in 1917. and 1945. The borders of the USSR were finally formed.

                What was cut into Russia in 1917-1954 and became its state border. Ukraine have nothing to do with it.
    2. alebor
      alebor 29 January 2019 10: 39
      +4
      We must not forget that then the Communists sincerely believed in the imminent victory of the World Revolution and in the unification of the proletarians of all countries. I even read such a version, I don’t know how true it is, that the Bolsheviks specially created the country according to the national federal principle, so that in the future other nations would join the federation after the victory of the revolution in their countries. And in light of this, all territorial concessions should have been perceived as temporary.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 29 January 2019 12: 11
        -1
        Taxed, in general. They had some kind of turbidity in their heads, and they were sure that others were living with the same turbidity in their heads.
        1. revnagan
          revnagan 29 January 2019 22: 28
          +2
          Quote: Gopnik
          Taxed

          Well, so you try to "tax" in such a way as to return all the territories lost by the USSR. Is it weak?
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 30 January 2019 13: 22
            0
            I do not seize power and do not conduct subversive activities against my country, unlike these bastards
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. ecolog
      ecolog 29 January 2019 18: 19
      0
      Ukrainians began to self-determination even under Kerensky, he went to persuade them not to do this. And the Ukrainians signed the Brest peace with the Germans separately from the Bolsheviks, seriously complicating the situation of the Soviet delegation. And in the days of RI, that the Finns, that the Poles had very broad autonomy, in the manner of the Soviet Union republics, which only made it easier for them to secede as soon as the central government weakened.
  3. Yustet1950
    Yustet1950 29 January 2019 09: 06
    +3
    The farther into the forest the more firewood. Indeed, the longer you live, the more you become convinced that simple money is at the heart of political events. That is, politics is a way of earning.
  4. nnz226
    nnz226 29 January 2019 23: 05
    -1
    After Catherine II, there were no more "anpirators" with a "title" - "great" .... Alexandra 2, and 1, and 2 (and Nicholas 3) after the Polish riots, instead of giving all sorts of benefits and constitutions, should have to realize the Polish dream "from Mozha to Mozha" !!! Choose only the seas at your discretion. For example, from the Laptev Sea to the East Siberian Sea ... Now life would be much easier for Russia!
  5. Heraldry
    Heraldry 30 January 2019 13: 27
    0
    But the Polish elite became part of the Western development project, the Western matrix. That is, a project to create a global slave civilization. Then the control center of this project was Catholic Rome. For more than a millennium, up to now, Poland has become a tool for war with Russia (Russian civilization and the Russian superethnos). The hosts of the West over and over again threw the Slavic-Poles brothers into Russia-Russia. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the crisis of Russia captured vast territories, including Kiev, Minsk and Smolensk.
    The author does not need to know that in the Middle Ages and in the New Time (before the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars) serfdom was widespread both in Catholic countries and in Orthodox Christians. It makes no sense to give out the idea that this is a purely Western innovation, as well as attempts to push the Slav brothers against each other, the West (all Western European states) themselves looked at each other as a future victim for expansion. And Poland had to deal with Catholic hemorrhoids for a long time (the Teutonic Order), and in general, the Poles came up with `` Sarmatism '' further in order to separate themselves and the Europeans)
  6. radislaw
    radislaw 31 January 2019 09: 07
    0
    The borders are determined based on the results of the last war. Correcting them is fraught with a new war. History should be treated without nostalgia (oh, how great it would be if ...) as a lesson that should not be forgotten so as not to make old mistakes. For example, as a representative of modern Belarus, I like the slogan “You give the borders of 1940!” More, when Vilnius and Bialystok were included; as a representative of the chronicle Lithuania - "Give us the boundaries of 1500!", when the principality was from the Baltic to the Black Sea. But in the fight, the strongest wins, and after the fight they don't wave their fists ...
  7. IMHO
    IMHO 31 January 2019 22: 07
    0
    A largely propaganda article.
    In the Commonwealth, the peasants were slaves, and in the Republic of Ingushetia in general slaves. Serfdom, I recall, was canceled only in 1861.
    To win the "war of civilizations", Western and Russian, it is necessary not to drag into the composition by force, but above all to ensure a decent standard of living for citizens within the country. Become, for example, like Finland. Then you look and the rest of the small nations will be drawn. And the Poles will remember their common roots with Russian.
    1. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 1 February 2019 20: 44
      0
      And largely a propaganda response. I do not agree with the author in everything, but the excess was more powerful:
      Quote: IMHO
      slaves, and in RI in general slaves

      Well, here is the first strain.
      1. Serfdom is not slavery. The serf had an order of magnitude more rights than slaves.
      2. Serfdom was a process that developed in all states and existed in 99% of all states of Western and Eastern Europe. The exceptions were mainly city-states and trade republics (but slavery existed in them).
      3. If in the Rzecz Pospolita they treated the rabble so well, then why did the peasants (Polish and Ukrainian) en masse enroll in "Cossacks" during the unrest and uprisings in the Rzecz Pospolita?

      Quote: IMHO
      To win the "war of civilizations", Western and Russian, it is necessary not to drag into the composition by force, but above all to ensure a decent standard of living for citizens within the country. Become, for example, like Finland. Then you look and the rest of the small nations will be drawn. And the Poles will remember their common roots with Russian.

      "War of Civilizations" - what is this? There is a confrontation between states for economic, geopolitical, ideological and religious reasons.
      Something is not noticeable that countries were eager to join the composition of England, Germany, Finland, Iran, China and India. In general, I will tell you such a thing: there were fewer cases when a country voluntarily and with the whole composition from a good life asked for another, than fingers on its hand. On the contrary, history directly and unequivocally says that small and weak countries (even very rich ones) are always absorbed by large ones.
  8. Yellow bubble
    Yellow bubble 31 January 2019 23: 55
    0
    Everyone makes claims to Russia, is it time for Russia to show the opposite ???
  9. Kapitan a
    Kapitan a 1 February 2019 22: 49
    0
    What next?!?
    Or to be continued ....
    Interesting material, I would like to continue.
  10. Timofey Astakhov
    Timofey Astakhov 18 September 2021 23: 00
    -1
    project to create a global slave civilization


    bl @ yat guys. Well, you are not tired of this, that's all, huh?