The fall of white Omsk. Great Siberian Ice Camp


Sergey Chudanov. Great Siberian Ice Camp


Smoot. 1919 year. 100 years ago, on 14 on November 1919 of the year, the Red Army occupied Omsk. The remnants of the defeated armies of Kolchak began their retreat to the east - the Great Siberian Ice Campaign.

Omsk operation


After the defeat on the Tobol River, the Kolchak army suffered heavy losses that could no longer be restored and non-stop retreated to Omsk. The organized resistance of the Kolchakites was broken. Soviet troops without a pause continued the offensive. After the capture of Petropavlovsk and Ishim (October 31 and November 4 1919), the Red Army on November 4 1919 began the Omsk operation. In the main direction, along the line of the Petropavlovsk-Omsk railway, three divisions of the 5 Red Army moved. To attack Kokchetav, where part of the Whites led by Ataman Dutov retreated, a special group of troops (54-I rifle and one cavalry division) was allocated. The 30th Infantry Division of the 3th Red Army operated along the Ishim - Omsk railway line. In the valley of the Irtysh River, the 51 Division was advancing upstream to Omsk. The 5-I and 29-I divisions were withdrawn to the front reserve.

In Omsk was the Headquarters of Kolchak and his government. From here came the control of the front. The city was the main base of the white army, supplying troops weapons, ammunition and equipment. Therefore, Kolchak made the last desperate attempts to keep the city. There was no consensus among the white command on this issue. So the front commander Diterichs considered the defense of Omsk a hopeless affair and proposed retreating further east. But the supreme ruler did not want to hear about the abandonment of Omsk. “Omsk is unthinkable to pass. With the loss of Omsk, everything is lost, ”Kolchak said. He was supported by Sakharov. On November 4 on November 1919 there was a final break: Kolchak was furious with the stubbornness of the commander in chief, accused him of mediocrity, defeat, and ordered him to surrender his command to Sakharov. Diterikhs left for Vladivostok.

Kolchak asked for help from the commander of the allied forces, General Janin. He proposed moving the Czechoslovakians to the front line (their number reached an entire army - 60 thousand fighters). Jeanne refused under the pretext of the complete decomposition of the Czechs. It was true, the Czechs, controlling the Siberian Railway, did not want to fight, but only guarded their echelons with riches stolen in Russia. At the same time, they negatively reacted to the Kolchak government. The only thing that kept the Czechs from a new uprising, already against the Kolchakites, was greed. The railway protection service was well paid and gave them the opportunity to accumulate many echelons of trophies, ownerless and looted goods. On the other hand, the Entente has already written off Kolchak as a used tool.

Kolchakites began to hastily prepare the city for defense. In 6 km from the city, they began to build a defense line, dig trenches and install wire fences. The position was convenient: the bends of the Irtysh narrowed the front, covered from the flanks by the river and swamps. In Omsk itself there was a large garrison. The troops of the defeated Kolchak armies retreated to the city. The defense was led by General Wojciechowski. Kolchakovo newspapers and the church raised another campaign to raise the spirit of the army and population. They called on citizens to join the army, power to defend the "Orthodox faith against the Antichrist." However, all these attempts were futile. A large number of combat-ready men gathered in the city — employees of the Kolchak government, rear officers, former tsarist officials, representatives of the bourgeoisie, Cossacks, etc., but they were not eager to take up arms. Representatives of the wealthy classes had already packed their bags and thought about how to escape further east. Officials of the current government from the beginning of November went to the service in full readiness and tried at the first opportunity to jump on the train and go deep into Siberia.



The fall of Omsk


The city’s defense plans collapsed. The large Omsk garrison has completely decomposed. It covered a large part of the officers, who indulged in rampant drunkenness and revelry. There was no one to take a position. Under these conditions, the Kolchak government had no choice but to abandon Omsk’s defense plans and begin the evacuation. The command hoped that it would be possible to assemble troops, including the 1 th army of Pepelyaev, withdrawn earlier to the rear and give battle on the line of Tomsk-Novonikolaevsk. Belated evacuation began. The Czech regiment standing here escaped one of the first - on November 5. Western diplomats invited Kolchak to take the gold reserve under international protection. The supreme ruler, realizing that he was interested in the Entente only as long as he had gold, refused. The capital was transferred to Irkutsk. On November 10 the Siberian government left there. Suppressed by the setbacks, the head of government Vologda resigned. The formation of a new government was entrusted to a former member of the State Duma, a prominent cadet V. N. Pepelyaev (brother of General A. Pepelyaev). After the February Revolution, Pepelyaev was the commissar of the Provisional Government, the chairman of the eastern section of the Cadet Party Central Committee, and became one of the main organizers of the coup in favor of Kolchak.

The retreat took on a general character. The retreating troops, not having a solid support in the rear, lost the remnants of combat capability. The situation was aggravated by late and prolonged rains. Despite the late season, the turbulent and deep river has not yet frozen. Irtysh spilled, floods began in Omsk. The lower part of the city was flooded, the streets became rivers. In the retreating units, seeing that the escape routes were cut off, panic broke out. Soviet troops would easily destroy the remnants of the White Guard divisions retreating north and south of Omsk, there were no river crossings there. The White Command even considered the possibility of turning the army retreating east to the south, with the aim of withdrawing it to Altai. 10 - On November 12, unexpected frosts chained the river with ice. A general escape for the Irtysh began. In addition, the position in front of Omsk became vulnerable, now the Reds could easily get around it. Evacuation took the character of total flight. Kolchak remained in the city until the last to take out the gold. 12 November, he sent a train with gold. Sam left Omsk on the night of 13. In the afternoon, the rear guards of the White Guards and the headquarters of Commander Sakharov left through the city. Thus began the Great Siberian Ice Campaign, an almost 2500-kilometer horse-foot trek to Chita, which lasted until March 1920.

Meanwhile, the advanced units of the Reds approached the city. November 12 27-I division was 100 km from Omsk. Three brigades of the division, one from the west, the other from the south and north, forced march approached the white capital. On November 14 1919 in the morning the 238 Bryansk Regiment, having overcome almost 100 km on supplies per day, entered the city. Other regiments came up behind him. Omsk occupied without a fight. Several thousand White Guards who did not manage to leave the city laid down their arms. The 27 I rifle division of the Red Army was marked by the revolutionary Red Banner and received the honorary name Omsk. Kolchakites fled in great hurry, so the Reds captured large trophies, including 3 armored trains, 41 guns, over 100 machine guns, more than 200 steam locomotives and 3 thousand wagons, a large number of ammunition.

The fall of white Omsk. Great Siberian Ice Camp

Palace of the Russian (Omsk) government of Kolchak


Novonikolaev operation


After the liberation of Omsk, Soviet troops advanced east for another 40 - 50 km, then stopped for a short rest. The Soviet command was pulling up troops, rear and preparing to continue the offensive. A special Kokchetav group in mid-November liberated the city of Kokchetav and began moving to Atbasar and Akmolinsk. In the Omsk region, units of the 5 and 3 red armies merged. Due to the reduction of the front line and the defeat of the main enemy forces, the persecution of the remnants of the Kolchak army and their elimination was assigned to one 5 army under the command of Eikhe (Tukhachevsky left for the Southern Front in late November). The 3th Army was withdrawn to the reserve, with the exception of the powerful 30th and 51th Rifle Divisions, which merged into the 5th Army. November 20 1919 The Red Army resumed the offensive in the depths of Siberia, beginning the Novonikolaev operation. By this time, the 5 Army numbered 31 thousand bayonets and sabers, not counting reserves, garrisons and rear units.

The retreating white troops totaled about 20 thousand people, plus a large mass of refugees. The retreating armies of Kolchak were divided into several groups. South moved along the highway Barnaul - Kuznetsk - Minusinsk. The middle group, the largest and somewhat more stable, moved along the Siberian Railway. The northern group departed along river systems north of the Siberian Railway. The main forces of Kolchak in the 3 and 2 armies retreated along the only line of the railway and the Siberian highway. The remnants of the 1 Army, previously assigned to the rear for restoration and replenishment, were located in the area of ​​Novonikolaevsk (now Novosibirsk) - Tomsk. After the fall of Omsk, the control of the Kolchak troops was disrupted. Everyone was saved as they could. The government, torn away from the army and Kolchak, essentially collapsed. The front commander, Sakharov, along with his headquarters, lost control and retreated on the train, lost among the many trains that went east. In the middle of this huge convoy, echelons of Kolchak marched on. As a result, in November, the entire railroad from Omsk to Irkutsk was packed with echelons, which evacuated civilian and military institutions, officers, officials, their entourage, families, military and industrial cargoes, and valuables. On the same road, starting from Novonikolaevsk, Polish, Romanian and Czech legionnaires fled. Soon all this was mixed into one continuous line of large-scale flight of Kolchakites, and civilians who did not want to remain under the rule of the Bolsheviks.

The Trans-Siberian Railway at that time was controlled by Czechs, who received orders not to let Russian military trains pass east of Taiga station until all Czechoslovakians with their “acquired” good passed. This exacerbated the chaos. The lack of control over the Siberian railroad deprived Kolchakites of even minimal chances to hold on for some more time. If the Kolchak government controlled the Trans-Siberian Railway, then White could still carry out a quick evacuation, save the core of the army, cling to some point, use winter to gain time. Partisan raids on the railroad even more complicated the organized retreat of the Kolchakites.

Meanwhile, a harsh Siberian winter came. On both sides of the Siberian Railway and the Siberian Highway, along which troops moved, there was a dense taiga. There were few villages. Troops and refugees began to mow cold, hunger and typhoid. Half of the Kolchak army was ill with typhus. At dead ends, and sometimes right on the tracks, there were entire trains with patients or with corpses. The epidemic mowed the local population and Soviet troops. Thousands of Red Army fell ill, many died. Almost all the members of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 5 Army and its commander Eihe suffered the disease. The army chief of staff, Ivasias, died of typhus.

In conditions of almost panic flight of the whites to the east, the Kolchak command could not even think of organizing any resistance to the red. The whites tried to use the vast expanses of Siberia to break away from the enemy as far as possible and save the remnants of the troops. But this could not be done. The Red Army, taking advantage of the complete decomposition of the enemy, quickly moved forward. The main forces advanced along the railway line. One brigade of the 26 division from the Omsk region was sent south - to Pavlodar and Slavgorod to liquidate the enemy units located there and ensure the right flank of the 5 army. At the end of November, Soviet troops, with the support of the rebels, liberated Pavlodar. Two other brigades of the division launched an attack on Barnaul to help the partisans there. Here Kolchakites had considerable strength to defend the railway Novonikolaevsk - Barnaul. The defense was held by Polish legionnaires, who maintained their combat readiness. But in early December, the partisans struck hard at the enemy, captured two armored trains (Stepnyak and Sokol), 4 guns, a large amount of ammunition and equipment.

It is worth noting that the partisans greatly helped the Red Army. The interaction of the partisans with the advancing parts of the Red Army began back in late October 1919, when the rebels in the Tobolsk province, when the Reds approached, liberated a number of large settlements. At the end of November, a close relationship was established between the 5 Army and the Altai partisans. Altai partisans at that time created an army from 16 regiments, numbering about 25 thousand people and launched a major offensive. In early December, the rebels united with the Soviet units. To communicate with the partisans and coordinate actions, the command of the 5 Army sent its representatives to the main headquarters of the partisans. In addition to resolving military issues, they were also involved in political affairs and seized control of partisan detachments, often led by Socialist-Revolutionaries, Anarchists, and other opponents of the Soviet regime.

The partisan movement also intensified in the area of ​​the Siberian Railway. Here the partisans put a lot of pressure on Kolchakites. In areas remote from the front, the popular movement acquired even greater dimensions. In the regions of Achinsk, Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk and Kansk, whole armies of partisans operated. Only the presence of the Czechoslovak corps and other intervention troops did not allow the rebels to capture the Trans-Siberian Railway.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1919 year

How the British created the Armed Forces of the South of Russia
How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine
How Petliurists led Little Russia to a complete catastrophe
How defeated Petliurism
Give the boundaries of 1772 of the year!
Battle for the North Caucasus. How to suppress the Terek Uprising
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 2. December battle
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 3. The January accident of the 11 Army
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 4. How the 11 army died
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 5. Capture of Kizlyar and the Terrible
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 6. Furious assault of Vladikavkaz
How Georgia tried to seize Sochi
How the Whites crushed the Georgian invaders
The war of February and October as a confrontation between two civilization projects
How did the "Flight to the Volga"
How Kolchak's army broke through to the Volga
Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks
Verkhniyon uprising
How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd
"All to fight with Kolchak!"
Frunze. Red Napoleon
The missed opportunities of the army of Kolchak
May offensive of the Northern Corps
How white broke through to Petrograd
Battle for the South of Russia
Strategic change on the southern front. Manych operation
Crimea on fire Russian distemper
Crimea in 1918-1919. Intervents, local authorities and whites
How did the uprising of ataman Grigoriev
Nikifor Grigoriev, "ataman of the rebel forces of Kherson region, Zaporizhia and Tavria"
Odessa operation ataman Grigoriev
Uprising in the Ukraine. How failed the “Blitzkrieg” of Grigorievka
Ufa operation. How were defeated the best parts of the army of Kolchak
Moscow campaign army Denikin
"All to fight with Denikin!"
Battle of the Urals
The defeat of the Siberian army. How the Red Army liberated Perm and Yekaterinburg
The defeat of Kolchak in the Chelyabinsk battle
August Counterattack of the Southern Front
The battle for Siberia. Recent operations Kolchak
Pyrrhic victory of the Kolchak armies on Tobol
Operation "White Sword". Beat at the heart of the revolution
"Do not give up Petrograd!"
General battle for Russia
Avalov Army Campaign in Riga
The defeat of the Kolchak armies in the second battle on Tobol
Victories of Denikin’s army in New Russia and Little Russia
White Movement Top
Recent major victories of Denikin
Why did the White Army lose?
Makhno's blow to Denikin
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

34 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Far B 14 November 2019 05: 11 New
    • 26
    • 4
    +22
    Shykarno ... The officers decomposed, indulged in rampant drunkenness and debauchery. Members of the still existing government strove to jump on the train and drape east at the first opportunity. Czechs "graze" a piece of iron with looted Russian goods. Kolchak is written off by the "Allies" (?) As the used rubber product No. 2 ... And did these people consider themselves the saviors of Russia? And until now, it is believed by some that if they won, the country would revive and flourish? Yeah.
    1. Mar.Tirah 14 November 2019 06: 09 New
      • 15
      • 5
      +10
      Quote: Far In
      some believe that if they won, the country would have risen and flourished? Yeah.

      That's right. Even the flag hangs over the Kremlin, so we bloom and smell, and until now we are looking for gold. Let it lie until better times. They will not be seen by its people.
      1. RUSS 14 November 2019 10: 14 New
        • 5
        • 11
        -6
        Quote: Mar. Tira
        Quote: Far In
        some believe that if they won, the country would have risen and flourished? Yeah.

        That's right. Even the flag hangs over the Kremlin, so we bloom and smell, and until now we are looking for gold. Let it lie until better times. They will not be seen by its people.

        We are also looking for gold parties
        1. Mar.Tirah 14 November 2019 10: 41 New
          • 12
          • 3
          +9
          Quote: RUSS
          We are also looking for gold parties

          It was ransacked by the descendants and heirs of the White Army (Volunteer) that had come to power, former party and Komsomol activists. Therefore, it was no longer to be found, it was well hidden in offshores. They did not manage to be taken out, so they compensated.
    2. parusnik 14 November 2019 07: 06 New
      • 14
      • 3
      +11
      The officers decomposed, indulged in rampant drunkenness and debauchery. Members of the still existing government strove to jump on the train and drape east at the first opportunity.
      ... What are you saying? laughing These people yesterday, fought for a brighter present today and it came laughing
      1. Far B 14 November 2019 07: 10 New
        • 12
        • 4
        +8
        Yeah. Bright present. Blind from the light, fuck me!
      2. vladimirZ 14 November 2019 07: 25 New
        • 17
        • 3
        +14
        The wide partisan movement in Siberia against the troops of Kolchak and the interventionists totaled many tens, or even hundreds of thousands of soldiers from Omsk to Vladivostok. In fact, all the people of Siberia opposed the White movement. Monuments to fighters of the 5th Red Army and partisans in all the old cities of Siberia. I remember from childhood until the 60s, many dogs were nicknamed "Kolchak".
        And someone else will argue that White had a chance of some sort of victory in Russia ?!
        1. Basil50 14 November 2019 07: 45 New
          • 15
          • 3
          +12
          to Vladimir
          Well, today you are from * former * and even more so from those who fought against SOVIET RUSSIA sculpting such knights. Soon we can read about the angel-like interventionists, those very ...
          The author managed to circumvent the most important component of the defeat of all these whites and their masters.
          The White Army as well as the interventionists fought in the same way as the Nazi Germans fought later. All of these ......, in the same way, for any reason and just to intimidate, they burned, robbed, killed, raped with impunity. That is precisely why there was a complete decomposition of all these kind of * knights of the white movement *. They understood that they would not be forgiven and if they didn’t have time to escape, there would be no mercy. Because there were so many partisans, they felt all the charms of themselves both from the interventionists and from all sorts of bastards serving them.
          1. Alexander Suvorov 14 November 2019 10: 31 New
            • 16
            • 3
            +13
            Vasily50 (Dmitry) Soon we will be able to read about the angel-like interventionists, those ...
            Well, why, soon, I recently announced that the interventionists were normal. They killed "nothing at all", some miserable 4,5, and this, according to his notions, was a trifle. True, as always, he didn’t bring the data, but yes, this is in his order of things.
            The White Army as well as the interventionists fought in the same way as the Nazi Germans fought later.
            So they mostly served the Nazis later. On the side of Franco in Spain was a whole unit consisting entirely of former white officers. They fought including against our volunteers. It is not difficult to guess who they fought in the Second World War.
  2. Olgovich 14 November 2019 07: 33 New
    • 8
    • 18
    -10
    The tragedy of betrayal by the allies of ...

    Cut and ravaged by the red into chunks, Russia turned out to be more profitable for them than United powerful Russia.

    Nothing, they will still receive for this 1940, which forever covered France with shame ...
    And it began in 1919.
    1. Alexander Suvorov 14 November 2019 08: 32 New
      • 15
      • 5
      +10
      Olgovich (Andrey)
      The tragedy of betrayal by the allies of ...
      With such "allies" and enemies do not. This was perfectly understood by Alexander III (I respect the man!), But his worthless geek Nikolashka forgot his father’s covenants and was led to divorce from the Entente.
      Cut and ravaged by the red into chunks, Russia turned out to be more profitable for them than United powerful Russia.
      It was ruined by just the whites with their allies in the person of the occupying forces of all stripes from the Czechoslovak corps to the Japanese.
      ravaged by the reds
      Just the white ones scattered it, while the red ones, on the contrary, did not let it fall apart. As always, ascribe to whites what they did not do.
      Nothing, they will still receive for this 1940, which forever covered France with shame ...
      And it began in 1919.
      I will tell you a terrible secret. The world behind the scenes specifically laid under Hitler all of Europe precisely for the war with the USSR. The Soviet Union developed under Stalin at a pace that the leading countries did not even dream of. Another 10 years of such development without war, and the West would never have caught up with the USSR in development.
      1. Olgovich 14 November 2019 10: 59 New
        • 6
        • 23
        -17
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        It was ruined by just the whites with their allies in the person of the occupying forces of all stripes from the Czechoslovak corps to the Japanese.
        ravaged by the reds
        Just the white ones scattered it, while the red ones, on the contrary, did not let it fall apart. As always, ascribe to whites what they did not do.
        Н

        GDP before the Thief and after his citizen slaughter-to help you: complete de-instrumentalization

        The country was ruined by the Bolsheviks, practically the way they surrendered it to the invaders in 1918: look out the window
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        I will tell you a terrible secret. World backstage specially laid under Hitler all of Europe.

        Enemies, enemies, enemies around! belay Outside and inside !!! Ahhhhh !!! ... 03 ..... 03 ..... yes
        1. Alexander Greene 14 November 2019 21: 57 New
          • 10
          • 1
          +9
          Quote: Olgovich
          Outside and inside !!! Ahhhhh !!! ... 03 ..... 03 ....

          Hold on ... an ambulance will come from ward No. 6 soon ...
          1. Olgovich 15 November 2019 10: 39 New
            • 0
            • 5
            -5
            Quote: Alexander Green 21:57
            Hold on ... an ambulance will come from ward No. 6 soon ..

            I didn’t understand: for so long, and no help was given to world prisoners of torture ... belay
            1. Alexander Greene 15 November 2019 11: 08 New
              • 5
              • 0
              +5
              Quote: Olgovich
              I didn’t understand: for so long and no help was given to the world

              What, the ambulance still hasn’t come to you? Outrage. Well, bear it, this is capitalism, you yourself were ruining medicine, in Soviet times you would have been taken for treatment in 15 minutes ..
              1. Olgovich 15 November 2019 12: 10 New
                • 0
                • 6
                -6
                Quote: Alexander Green
                What, the ambulance still hasn’t come to you? Outrage. Well, bear it, this is capitalism, you yourself were ruining medicine, in Soviet times you would have been taken for treatment in 15 minutes ..

                so, not I am surrounded by the world behind the scenes and tortured. request
                The tortured must be helped! yes
                1. Alexander Greene 15 November 2019 18: 53 New
                  • 2
                  • 2
                  0
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  so, not I am surrounded by the world behind the scenes and tortured.
                  The tortured must be helped!


                  How not you? And who shouted: "Enemies, enemies, ENEMIES all around! Outside and inside !!! Aaaaaa !!! ... 03 ..... 03 ....."?

                  So only those who shouted demons shouted. You have a clouding of consciousness, in such cases only a psychiatric hospital will help ..
                  1. Olgovich 16 November 2019 08: 09 New
                    • 0
                    • 1
                    -1
                    Quote: Alexander Green
                    You have a clouding of consciousnessin such cases only a psychiatric hospital will help..

                    You are just great! yes
  3. denatured alcohol 14 November 2019 09: 00 New
    • 7
    • 11
    -4
    The Great Siberian Ice Camp is the same legend of the White Cause as the Ice Camp of the volunteers of the South.
    In perfect order, through terrible adversity, with the coffin of his beloved commander.
    The skeleton of the most valiant fighters has been preserved. Therefore, they went like a knife through butter.
    1. Alexander Suvorov 14 November 2019 09: 14 New
      • 16
      • 6
      +10
      methylated spirits (Sergey)
      In perfect order, through terrible adversity, with the coffin of his beloved commander.
      All right? Your imagination is excessively developed, since you are fleeing, you understand as "in perfect order."
      The skeleton of the most valiant fighters has been preserved.
      Yeah, the complete scumbags remained, which, because of their crimes against the people, the Reds would immediately put to the wall.
      Therefore, they went like a knife through butter.
      What kind of "oil" is it through? Where did they go there were regular units of the Red Army ?!
      Learn the story of the victim of the exam.
  4. Yaik Cossack 14 November 2019 10: 54 New
    • 11
    • 16
    -5
    Samsonov continues the heavy highly scientific work of rewriting Shambarov, diluting it with his comments.
    It is amusing that the commander of the red Eastern Front, Olderogge, and Eihe mentioned here, like many of their associates, were rewarded for the defeat of Kolchak and then shot by valiant Chekists ... for which they fought, they ran into it and executed ...
    But the former anti-Kolchak Siberian partisans later rebelled against the Reds on the same scale. For some reason, Soviet reality did not make them happy)))
    1. Yaik Cossack 14 November 2019 17: 52 New
      • 10
      • 12
      -2
      The cons put to me are probably related to the fact that the forum leftists are aware of the facts of the shooting of prominent red commanders and the Siberian anti-Bolshevik peasant war, but they too spoil their picture of Soviet reality.

      Do not be shy, comrades, if you do not like reality, deny it even more vigorously)))))
      1. tanit 14 November 2019 19: 15 New
        • 1
        • 1
        0
        milestones.
  5. L-39NG 14 November 2019 15: 57 New
    • 5
    • 5
    0
    A few questions for the author.
    1) Not Czechs, but Czechoslovakians. And in Chechnya, the Russians called the enemies Czechs.
    2) The author, I am sure, knows how Czechoslovakians appeared in Russia, and why they began to fight against Germany and Austria-Hungary together with the Russian army
    3) Why did Czechoslovakians suddenly side with the Reds? Because of the agreements between Germany and the Bolsheviks (the author argues?) And the orders signed by Trotsky. Our grandfathers wanted their republic. And here is the agreement between the Bolsheviks and the Germans. Masaryk the author remembers?
    4) Why did all Czechoslovakians, who remembered where the gold of the Russian Empire went, died in the Gulag after 1945?
    5) Does the author know the name of Radol Hyde? Read his book?
    1. Catfish 14 November 2019 16: 50 New
      • 5
      • 0
      +5
      Why did all Czechoslovakians, who remembered where the gold of the Russian Empire went, died in the Gulag after 1945?

      Where does this information come from, colleague? hi
      1. L-39NG 14 November 2019 19: 29 New
        • 2
        • 7
        -5
        And again, I can draw your attention to General Radola Hyde and his book, which was first issued in 1920. There are interesting points about how local "red commanders" took gold from Kolchak and what orders the Czechs received from the supreme "commander in chief".
        And, please, think about the basis on which the Czechoslovak General Sergei Wojciechowski, yes, he was Russian, yes, he was a White Guard, and when the Germans wanted to persuade him to his side, he said: “I hate the Bolsheviks, but I’m fighting against a Russian soldier - will not go!". And he sided with the protigeman resistance. In relations with the Vlasovites, he took the anti-Lasov position. In 1945 he was taken by SMERSH, in 1951 he died. He was buried in the cemetery of the Central Hospital No. 1 of Ozerlaga near the village of Shevchenko, Taishet district, Irkutsk region. No burial place was found.
        Thank God, his notes and documents of 1918 - 1919, were in the Czechoslovak archives, which were kept, despite the search for the Germans and Soviet comrades.
        And an interesting thing. From 1945 to 1948, before the Gottwald putsch, all state institutions of Czechoslovakia were under the direct control of the Soviet special services, despite the declaration of non-interference in the internal affairs of independent Czechoslovakia. It must be said that sometimes Soviet senior officers tried to help their friends, the Czechoslovak officers with whom they fought, but the system was stronger than the truth.
        1. Catfish 14 November 2019 19: 36 New
          • 6
          • 0
          +6
          Thanks for the answer, but nevertheless, the story connected with General Wojciechowski explains little. I’ll try to find General Hyde’s book online, if possible. But, I believe, the story with this gold will never be revealed; whoever stole it, he did it talentedly and cannot find the ends now, and all the witnesses died long ago. hi
    2. L-39NG 14 November 2019 19: 36 New
      • 4
      • 8
      -4
      Minusators! Do you even know what you are minus? Though you argue the minuses, otherwise it turns out stupidly from you
      1. tanit 14 November 2019 19: 50 New
        • 11
        • 4
        +7
        Well, I know why it was minus. For the lack of evidence, instead of them there is only a frantic belief in "their innocence"
        1. L-39NG 14 November 2019 22: 33 New
          • 5
          • 5
          0
          So your minus in my direction, without a history of confirmed arguments on your part, is an argument for your frantic faith in "Your rightness"?
          Although it has long been known that "HISTORY is a concubine in the hands of the rulers of the world today."
          1. tanit 15 November 2019 18: 17 New
            • 3
            • 0
            +3
            And now I plus you. For a beautiful and explanatory answer. What changed? I was not like-minded with you, but I did not.
            Is motivation of the pros and cons so important to you?)))
            With respect.
      2. Catfish 14 November 2019 20: 16 New
        • 5
        • 5
        0
        It’s useless, Peter, it’s like “the voice of one crying in the wilderness”. I have already ceased to be interested, and what's the point. You write:
        Minusators! ... stupidly from you
        , and where does he come from, mind? So the minuses fly without arguments. laughing
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. The comment was deleted.
          1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  8. Grandfather Mansour 18 November 2019 20: 11 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    By the way, using the decomposition of Kolchak’s troops, the Reds acted very boldly. For example, the regiment commander Vostryakov with a group of soldiers (to the company) secretly entered the station and the Omsk station and disarmed and captured the Kolchakites who were at the station and the station without a fight - several thousand people.
    The Reds also performed a similar trick in Novonikolaevsk, with the difference that Vostretsov could have done it (typhoid, if memory serves), the operation was carried out by his deputy, and the trophies turned out to be more significant.
    By the way, the same Vostretsov finished off a detachment in the summer of 1923 in the Okhotsk-Ayan expedition and captured one of the "legends" of the white movement of Siberia - General A. Pepelyaev.
    KMK, even flinging on a white movement, it is incorrect to compare the “Ice campaign” of the Volunteer Army with the great drape of the “Armed Forces of Siberia”. If in the first case this was the start of the white movement in the south of Russia, then in the second it was the agony of the whites in Siberia, after which the latter did not pose a fatal threat to the Soviet government. Everything is different - from military results to the morale of the white movement.
  9. Azzzwer 11 January 2020 19: 36 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    Dogs, canine and death!