Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks

111
100 years ago, in March 1919, the Vyoshensky Uprising began. Don Cossacks rose up against the Bolsheviks, who established control over the Upper Don Region at the start of the 1919 year.

At the end of 1918 - the beginning of 1919, the Tsaritsyn front of the White Cossacks fell apart. In January, 1919, the third assault on the red Tsaritsyn failed. The mutiny of several Cossack regiments, tired of war, began. In February, the Cossack Don Army retreated from Tsaritsyn. The Cossack army collapsed, the Cossacks went home or went over to the Reds. The troops of the Southern Front of the Red Army again occupied the lands of the Don Region. The victorious red did not stand on ceremony with the Cossacks. Red terror, raskazachivanie and ordinary robbery caused a response. The Don Cossacks soon rebelled again.



prehistory

After the February Revolution, the collapse of the Russian Empire began. Don Cossacks did not remain aloof from this process and raised the question of the autonomy of the Region of the Don Army. Ataman was elected to General Kaledin. After October, the situation on the Don strained even more. The military (Don) government refused to recognize the power of the Bolsheviks and began the process of liquidation of Soviet power in the region. The Don Region was proclaimed independent before the formation of a legitimate Russian government. In November, General Alekseev arrived in Novocherkassk on November 10, the process of creating volunteer formations for war with the Bolsheviks (the Volunteer Army) began.

In late November - early December 1917, the Kaledin government with the help of volunteers (most of the Cossack troops assumed neutrality and refused to fight) suppressed the Bolshevik uprising. Kaledinians took control of Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog and a significant part of the Donbass. Kaledin, Alekseev and Kornilov created the so-called. "Triumvirate", claiming the role of the all-Russian government. Officially announced the creation of the Volunteer Army.

However, the "triumvirate" had a weak social base. Many officers took the position of non-intervention, not wanting to fight. The position of neutrality was also taken by most of the Don Cossacks. Cossacks are already tired of war. Many Cossacks were attracted by Bolshevik slogans. Others hoped that the conflict concerns only the Bolsheviks and volunteers (whites), and they will remain on the sidelines. That the Don region will be able to come to terms with the Soviet government.

The Bolsheviks in December 1917 created the Southern Front of the Red Army and launched an offensive. The bulk of the Don Cossacks did not want to fight. Therefore, Kaledinians and Alekseevs suffered a defeat. In February, the 1918 of the Reds occupied Taganrog, Rostov and Novocherkassk. Alekseev and Kornilov, seeing that the situation was hopeless, increased their forces to Kuban (the First Kuban campaign), hoping to raise the Kuban Cossacks and create a new base for the Volunteer Army. Kaledin committed suicide. The irreconcilable Cossacks, led by General Popov, went to the Salsk steppes.

In March, 1918, the Don Soviet Republic was proclaimed on the territory of the Don Cossacks. Her head was the Cossack Podtylokov. However, the Soviet government lasted on the Don only until May. The policy of land redistribution, with the seizure of "nonresident" peasants of Cossack lands, looting and terror by the Red troops, which then often did not differ from the usual gangsters, led to elemental Cossack riots. In April, 1918, based on the rebel detachments and the returning Popov detachment, began the process of creating the Don Army. The Cossacks were helped by a favorable military-political situation. In the course of the intervention, the Austro-German army pushed the Red detachments back to the beginning of May and reached the western part of the Don Region, capturing Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog, Millerovo and Chertkovo. Returned from the unsuccessful campaign of the Kuban Volunteer Army. From Romania, a white detachment of Drozdovsky made a hike and helped the Cossacks take 7 to Novocherkassk. The Don Soviet Republic was destroyed.

The new Don government in May 1918 was headed by ataman Krasnov. The government of Krasnov and the command of the Volunteer Army did not unite. First of all. Krasnov was guided by Germany, and Alekseev and Denikin (Kornilov died) - by the Entente. Krasnov proclaimed the creation of an independent Cossack republic, and hoped to create a confederation with Ukraine and the Kuban. The volunteers who stood for “united and indivisible” Russia were against such a policy. Secondly, the Don government and the command of the Volunteer Army dispersed on the issue of military strategy. Red offered to go to Tsaritsyn, to the Volga, to unite with the anti-Bolshevik forces in the east of Russia. Also, the Don government planned to expand the boundaries of its “republic”. The volunteers decided to go again to the Kuban and the North Caucasus, destroy the Reds there and create a rear base and a strategic base for further hostilities.

Since the enemy was common, Krasnov and Alekseev became allies. In June 1918, the Volunteer Army launched the Second Kuban campaign. The Don Army launched an offensive on the Voronezh and Tsaritsyn axes. The Don Region was the rear of the Volunteer Army while it was fighting in the Kuban and the North Caucasus. Don government supplied volunteers weapons and ammunition received from the Germans.

In July - early September and September - October 1918, the Don Army stormed Tsaritsyn twice. The Cossacks were close to victory, but the Red Command took extraordinary measures and repelled enemy attacks. The Tsaritsyn assault failed, the Cossacks retreated beyond the Don.

Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks

Ataman of the Great Don Army, cavalry general P. N. Krasnov

Commander of the Don Army Svyatoslav Varlamovich Denisov

The military leader of the Don Army Konstantin Konstantinovich Mamontov (Mamantov)

Catastrophe of the Don Army

In November, 1918 of the Year capitulated to Germany, the patron of the government of Krasnov. The victory of the Entente radically changed the military-strategic situation in the South of Russia. German troops began to evacuate from the western part of the Don region and Little Russia, opening the left flank of the Cossack republic to the Red Army. The front line for the Cossacks immediately increased by 600 km. The influx of weapons and ammunition purchased by the Don government from the Germans stopped. The Cossacks kept already from the last forces, attacked only on the Tsaritsin direction. The winter was harsh, snowy and frosty. An epidemic of typhus has come to the Don. The fighting was no longer due to tactical considerations, but simply for housing, the ability to live under the roof, in the heat. Krasnov tried to negotiate with the Entente, but did not recognize his power.

After the evacuation of the German army, a huge breach formed on the left flank of the Don Republic. And she came to the industrial, mining area, where the Red Guard detachments began to appear again. Makhno troops were threatened from Tavria. The troops of the 8 th Red Army began moving south. The Cossacks had to urgently withdraw two divisions from the Tsaritsyn Front to occupy Lugansk, Debaltseve and Mariupol. But this was not enough, the Cossacks created a rare veil. Krasnov asked for help from Denikin. He sent an infantry division May-Mayevsky. In the middle of December, Denikinites landed in Taganrog and occupied a section of the front from Mariupol to Yuzovka. Also, white detachments were sent to the Crimea, Northern Tavria and Odessa.

In January 1919, the Don Cossacks organized the third attack on Tsaritsyn, but it ended in defeat. The failures of the Don Army near Tsaritsyn, the disintegration of the Cossack troops, the victories of volunteers in the Kuban and the North Caucasus, and the appearance of the Entente troops in the South of Russia forced Krasnov to recognize the primacy of Denikin. In January, the 1919 was formed by the Armed Forces of the South of Russia (the Volunteer and Don armies) led by Denikin.

Simultaneously with the attack on the west of Russia and in Ukraine, Ukraine, the Red Command decided to put an end to the center of counter-revolution in the south with a powerful blow. In January, 1919, the troops of the Southern Front of the Red Army launched an offensive with the aim of defeating the Don Army and liberating Donbass. Additional forces were redeployed from the Eastern Front, where during this period the Reds won victories on the Volga and the Urals. In the west, the Kozhevnikov group was deployed, the future 13-I Red Army, in the north-west there was the 8-I army, in the north - the 9-I army. The 10-I army of Egorov was advancing from the east, she had to cut off the Don from the Kuban. The total number of red troops exceeded 120 thousand bayonets and sabers with 468 guns. The Don Army numbered about 60 thousand fighters with 80 guns.





Source: A. Egorov. Civil war in Russia: The defeat of Denikin. M., 2003.

At first, the Cossacks held out and even attacked. The offensive of the 10 Red Army was repelled. Parts of Mamontov broke through the front, and the Don Cossacks approached Tsaritsyn for the third time. In the west, the Cossacks, with the support of the Whites, also held out — the Konovalov group and the May-Mayevsky division. The Reds here constantly increased the onslaught at the expense of the Red Guard and Makhnovist workers. However, Krasnov conducted a new mobilization, and Denikin sent reinforcements.

The front collapsed in the northern sector, on the Voronezh direction. Here the Cossacks were demoralized by constant battles, parts of them could not be replaced. The same regiments were transferred from one dangerous area to another. Severe winter, typhus. Krasnov promised help to the Germans, the Entente and the Whites, but she was not there. The Bolsheviks stepped up campaigning, promising peace. As a result, the Cossacks revolted. In January, 1919, the 28 of the Upper Donskoy, Kazansky and Migulinsky regiments, rallied, threw the front and went home "to celebrate the Feast of Christ." Soon the front left and 32-th regiment. The Cossacks of the 28 Regiment decided to make peace with the Bolsheviks and seize the "cadet" headquarters in Vyoshenskaya. Fomin was elected commander, Melnikov was appointed commissioner. On January 14, the thinned regiment (many fled) entered Vyoshenskaya, although it was in no hurry to attack the headquarters of the Northern Front, led by General Ivanov. The Cossacks did not want to fight with their own. But Ivanov did not have the strength to suppress the rebellion. As a result, the front headquarters moved to Karginskaya. The connection of the headquarters with the troops and their management was broken. Krasnov also did not have a reserve to build a rebellion, all the troops were at the front. The Atman tried to persuade the Cossacks, but he was sent in Russian swearing.

Krasnov was accused of betraying the "labor Cossacks", the Cossacks recognized the Soviet government, and Fomin began negotiations with the reds about peace. The departure of several regiments from the front created a big gap. The 9 Red Army, under the command of Knyagnytsky, immediately entered it. Cossack villages met red shelves with bread and salt. The front finally crumbled. The Cossacks from the lower Don, bypassing the rebellious villages, went home. The units that remained loyal to the Don government went along with them. It was not just a retreat, but an escape, a collapse. The retreating units did not resist, quickly decomposed, fell apart, threw guns and carts. Again began the rally, insubordination to the commanders, their “re-election”. There are a lot of deserters. Part of the Cossacks went over to the Reds. In particular, to the Cossack, the corps commander Mironov.

The collapse of the Northern Front also affected other sectors. General Fitkhelaurov began his retreat, covering the Kharkov direction, where the 8 Red Army was advancing. The third assault on Tsaritsyn failed. Cossacks Mamontov broke through to the main line of defense of the city, took its southern stronghold - Sarepta. In Tsaritsyn, the emergency mobilization began again. However, the Cossacks soon died out. Rumors reached the army about the collapse of the Northern Front. The combat capability of the Don Army has plummeted. Red troops under the command of Yegorov launched a counterattack. Dumenko's cavalry division marched through the enemy’s rear. In February 1919, the Don Army retreated from Tsaritsyn again.

Krasnov could not stop the collapse of the army on its own. He asked for help from Denikin and the Entente. At this time, the Allied mission headed by General Pull visited Novocherkassk. The British general promised that a battalion would soon come to the aid of the Don Army, and then a brigade of the English army. She was planning to transfer from Batum. French representatives promised that Allied troops from Odessa would go to Kharkov. However, they did not go further Kherson. The High Command of the Entente did not intend to send divisions and corps to fight in Russia against the Bolsheviks.

In the meantime, the Don Army rolled back and collapsed like a military force. War fatigue, frost and typhoid complete its decomposition. The soldiers ran home, others died. January 27 1919 died of typhoid warfare with Turkey and Japan, former commander of the Imperial Army’s South-Western Front of the Imperial Army, General Nikolai Iudovich Ivanov. He was to lead the formation of the Southern White Army.

There were rumors of betrayal throughout the army: some blamed the traitors who opened the front, the second - the command, Krasnov, others - the generals who sold themselves to the Don, and who are now specifically destroying the Cossacks. With deserters decomposition went through the villages. Krasnov rushed around the region, spoke to the Cossacks in Karginskaya, Starocherkasskaya, Konstantinovskaya, Kamenskaya, persuaded to hold on, promised help from Denikin, the troops of the Entente. But there was no help. At that time, Denikin’s army conducted heavy, last battles with the Red Army in the North Caucasus, the whites themselves each had a bayonet and saber. The British and French did not intend to fight on the front line themselves, for this there existed a Russian “cannon fodder”.

The sequel continued to deteriorate. 12 February 1919 of the year on the Northern Front a few Cossack regiments went over to the side of the Red Army. The White Cossacks left Bakhmut and Millerovo. Krasnov and Denisov concentrated in the area of ​​Kamenskaya remaining combat-ready troops, mainly from the composition of the so-called. A young army to counter strike Makiivka and stop the enemy.

At the same time, the opposition Krasnov intensified and decided to change the chieftain. They were dissatisfied with those who had previously been against the German orientation, criticized for separatism. Now the military foremen decided to surrender it in order to establish relations with the Entente and Denikin. Like, Krasnov causes dissatisfaction with the allies. 14 February The Military Circle expressed no confidence in the command of the Don Army - Commander General Denisov and Chief of Staff General Polyakov. They previously spoke out against the subordination of the Don Army to Denikin. Krasnov tried to use the technique, which had already helped him earlier, said that he was distrustful of himself, therefore he refused the post of ataman. The opposition just wanted it. The circle accepted Krasnov’s resignation with a majority of votes (he later worked at the headquarters of Yudenich’s army, then went to Germany. Soon, Bogaevsky was elected ataman who was a member of the First Kuban campaign and did not contradict Denikin. And the Don Army was headed by General Sidorin.

The offensive of the Red Army was gradually stopped. The grouping of the Don Army, assembled by Krasnov and Denisov, struck a counterstrike in red, which no longer waited for resistance from the whites and were stunned. White troops began to arrive from the North Caucasus, where Denikinians won a convincing victory. February 23 Cossack Corps Shkuro entered Novocherkassk. The formation of new volunteer units from the youth (junkers, students, high school students) began. In addition, Don helped nature. Spring thaw began. After a harsh winter, strong thaws began, a stormy spring. The roads are gone. Spilled the river, becoming a serious obstacle. As a result, the Red attack was stopped at the turn of the Northern Donets. Only about 15 thousand fighters remained from the strong Don Army recently.


"Ataman Bogaevsky" - the armored car of the Don Army

To be continued ...
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. -15
    March 15 2019
    Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks
    The brilliant estate of Russia was banned, torn to pieces, ruined.
    And the events described were only the beginning of a mournful, tragic journey ....
    1. +19
      March 15 2019
      Quote: Olgovich
      Brilliant estate

      Are you raving about "estates"? You still can't get it in your head that any "estate" only divided the Russian people.
      1. +12
        March 15 2019
        that any "estate" only divided the Russian people.


        And that estate has disappeared? But I didn’t notice .. laughing
      2. -2
        March 15 2019
        Quote: bistrov.
        that any "estate" only divided the Russian people.

        Under the USSR, one might think there was no estate ... One Part. the nomenclature of what was worth .. And the trade mafia .. Guild workers .. The deficit worked "miracles" in the country. Yes, back to the topic .... The Cossacks were destroyed by Comrade. Trotsky (Bronstein). Destroyed - shot, exiled, dispossessed and doomed to starvation more than three million people .. Children, women, men .. Ideologues, inspirers and organizers of the Cossack genocide - Lev Bronstein (Trotsky), Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin), Yakov Sverdlov and others. The Bolshevik leaders did not intend to either re-educate or Bolshevize the "counter-revolutionary" Cossacks. They decided to destroy it as such. Circular letter of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b)
        On the attitude to the Cossacks
        January 24, 1919
        Circularly. Secretly

        Recent events on various fronts in the Cossack regions — our advancement deeper into the Cossack settlements and the expansion among the Cossack troops — compel us to give party workers instructions on the nature of their work in the reconstruction and strengthening of Soviet power in these regions. It is necessary, taking into account the experience of the civil war with the Cossacks, to recognize as the only right the most merciless struggle against all the tops of the Cossacks through their CRIMINAL EXAMINATION. No compromises, no half way is unacceptable. Therefore, it is necessary:
        1. To conduct MASS TERROR against the rich Cossacks, exterminating them by the LITTLE; conduct a merciless MASS TERROR in relation to all Cossacks who took any direct or indirect part in the struggle against Soviet power. By the average Cossacks, it is necessary to take all the measures that give a guarantee against any attempts on his part to make new demonstrations against the Soviet power.
        2. To confiscate the bread and force to pour all the surplus in the specified points, this applies both to bread and to all other agricultural products.
        3. Take all measures to assist the relocating alien poor, organizing relocations where possible.
        4. Equalize alien "non-resident" to the Cossacks in the land and in all other respects.
        5. Conduct complete disarmament, shooting everyone who will be found weapons after the deadline.
        6. Issue weapons only reliable items from other cities.
        7. Armed detachments should be left in Cossack villages until the establishment of full order.
        8. All commissars appointed to one or another Cossack settlement are invited to show maximum firmness and to steadily carry out these instructions.
        The Central Committee decides to commit, through the appropriate Soviet institutions, the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs to develop in a hurry actual measures for the mass relocation of the poor to Cossack lands
        Central Committee of the RCP (b)
        RCCHIDNEY. F.17. Op. 4. D.7. L.5; F.17. Op. 65. D.35. L.216. Typewritten copy
        1. -2
          March 16 2019
          Quote: 30 vis
          .Ideologists, inspirers and organizers of the Cossack genocide - Lev Bronstein (Trotsky), Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin), Yakov Sverdlov and others. The Bolshevik leaders did not intend to re-educate or Bolshevize the "counter-revolutionary" Cossacks. They decided to destroy it as such.

          Fear of the Russian people dictated a directive to destroy the Russian Cossacks on the Don. Signed by Yasha Sverdlov on January 24.01.1919, XNUMX, it read: “The latest events on various fronts in the Cossack regions - our advances into the depths of the Cossack settlements and the decomposition among the Cossack troops - compel us to give instructions to party workers about the nature of their work in the restoration and strengthening of Soviet power in the indicated areas. It is necessary, taking into account the experience of the year of the civil war with the Cossacks, to recognize the only right thing to be the most merciless struggle against all the tops of the Cossacks through their total extermination. No compromises, no halfway paths are acceptable. The Central Committee decides to carry out through the appropriate Soviet institutions an obligation to the People's Commissariat to develop hastily measures for the massive resettlement of the poor to the Cossack lands. For some reason, the current official media are silent about this directive, which has toughened the massacre of the Civil War, increasing the number of victims. How so? They suck all sorts of "bloody crimes of Stalin" and are silent about the bloody crimes of the Bronsteins, Uritsky, Sverdlovs, Bluesteins, Zalkind, etc. I remember here, I don’t remember here. And then I come up with something that was not.
          1. 0
            March 16 2019
            Quote: Z.O.V.
            For some reason, the current official media are silent about this directive.

            In a strange way, White Guard (including Cossack) sources are silent about the "destruction of the Cossacks". The impression that the whites simply did not notice this "genocide"!
            1. +1
              March 16 2019
              Quote: Sahar Medovich
              In a strange way, White Guard (including Cossack) sources are silent about the "destruction of the Cossacks". The impression that the whites simply did not notice this "genocide"!

              Abstract about decossackization. There are over fifty links to works about "In a strange way, White Guard (including Cossack) sources are silent about the "destruction of the Cossacks"."
              https://www.bestreferat.ru/referat-269171.html
              More than 80 thousand Cossacks fought in the ranks of the Wehrmacht. These are the Cossacks whose families were told, and they themselves went into exile.
              1. +1
                March 17 2019
                There are almost 60 links. And almost all of them are contemporary works. I ask - among the White Guards - CONTEMPORARIES of events, does anyone talk about the "genocide of the Cossacks"? If not, why not?
                Quote: Z.O.V.
                More than 80 thousand Cossacks fought in the ranks of the Wehrmacht. These are the Cossacks whose families were told, and they themselves went into exile.

                In the Red Army, the Cossacks fought more.
      3. +7
        March 16 2019
        Raves, raves. Andrei Olgovich sleeps and sees how his family name will be returned, and with the serfs, whom he will certainly make happy. I wonder where his friends - full-time monarchists of VO got to: actually the Monarchist and Lieutenant Teterin?
        1. +3
          March 16 2019
          I did not know that Olgovich is from the hereditary landowners, but where is his estate?
          And if the jokes, then many of us have our own pedigree? Most to the fourth knee and all. And in Kyrgyzstan, boys have only recently crammed their pedigree to 72 knees!
      4. -1
        March 16 2019
        Quote: bistrov.
        Quote: Olgovich
        Brilliant estate

        Are you raving about "estates"? You still can't get it in your head that any "estate" only divided the Russian people.

        The estates have not gone anywhere under the Union, and now in Russia there is generally a caste society.
    2. +11
      March 15 2019
      Quote: Olgovich
      The brilliant estate of Russia was banned, torn to pieces, ruined.

      What is the splendor of the gadget troops, torn by internal contradictions ... the throne's support is his mother’s mother ... the independents are unfinished.
      1. +4
        March 15 2019
        In fact, the Russian autocracy rested not only on the Cossacks.
        "Nagayechnye troops", and OMON and SOBR in this case, "club troops"?
        Why did the myth appear that the support of the throne is the Cossacks? At that time, the Cossacks were the most mobile units, and therefore EVERYWHERE where the peace of mind was broken there were Cossacks. Yes, a whip is far from the most "humane" thing, but a nut is better than sabers of dragoons, and even more so soldiers' bullets
      2. +1
        March 16 2019
        Quote: apro
        support of the throne, his mother’s mother ... secessionists unfinished.

        Cossacks played a huge role in guarding the borders and were one of the best warriors since the Time of Troubles and during the Second World War.
    3. +10
      March 15 2019
      Brilliant estate?
      The selfish interests of this estate are not patriotism, but their own hut, this is not their homeland.
    4. +3
      March 15 2019
      This "Brilliant estate of Russia" brought the country to collapse, did not have any reasonable project of a new state, therefore it got what it deserved, and you can believe in fairy tales as much as you like.)))
    5. +6
      March 15 2019
      Makarov. "My service in the Old Guard." Pre-army memories of the son of a landowner - "my uncle traveled through the villages and chose the most beautiful girls, after which he handed them over to his coachman. Once he killed him, falling in love with such. On weekends, young people came to us from the city, collected the surrounding girls and got drunk to madness, arranging orgies. "
      An officer of the Semenovsky regiment, who participated in the execution of civilians in 1905, fled to Argentina in the 20s.
      1. -5
        March 15 2019
        Quote: Flatter
        Officer Semenovsky regiment involved in the execution of civilians

        TOPIC -see .te. You have a flood.
        1. +6
          March 15 2019
          "THEME-look.te. You-flood."
          To your comment about the brilliant estate
          1. -1
            March 16 2019
            Quote: Flatter
            "THEME-look.te. You-flood."
            To your comment about the brilliant estate

            He expressed his opinion on the topic of the article. I have the right.
            Flood is forbidden.
      2. +1
        March 15 2019
        Historical fact - Gaidar (Golikov) was expelled from the party for atrocities with the local population - so the reds for atrocities were not a gift either
        1. +6
          March 15 2019
          Alas, in the civil war there are no "white and fluffy" there can only be gradations of decency
          1. -2
            March 16 2019
            Quote: vladcub
            Alas, in the civil war there are no "white and fluffy" there can only be gradations of decency

            April 20, 1917 Lenin called for the violent overthrow of the Provisional Government. Vladimir Ilyich exclaimed: “We will do our best to accelerate the onset of this. Let's not be afraid of the victims ... ”Fedorov and Kamenev (Rosenfeld) at a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Petrosoviet on April 20, argued“ that there is nothing to fear the civil war, it has already come and only as a result its people will achieve their liberation ... These were new and then very scary words. All this, Bruce Lockhart later outlined in his memoirs, “History from the Inside. Memoirs of a British Agent. " Martov (Cederbaum), one of the founders of the RSDLP: “Down with the death penalty” (July 1918): “As soon as the Bolsheviks became in power, from the first day, announcing the abolition of the death penalty, they began to kill. Blood will give birth to blood. Political terror, introduced since October by the Bolsheviks, filled the air of Russian fields with bloody fumes. The civil war is becoming increasingly fierce, more and more people go wild and atrocious in it, and the great covenants of true humanity, which socialism has always taught, are more and more forgotten. Where the masses of the people or the armed forces overthrow the Bolsheviks, they apply the same terror to the Bolsheviks as they do to their enemies. ”
        2. +4
          March 16 2019
          you.liberastov. historical fact is the lie of the escaped White Guard rabble.
      3. -9
        March 15 2019
        Have you written about Beria? About his voluptuousness? About how beautiful women on the streets of Moscow, his adjutant looked out and delivered to the little pervert sadistic Mengrel?
      4. +2
        March 16 2019
        Quote: Flatter
        Pre-army memories of the landowner's son - "my uncle traveled through the villages and chose the most beautiful girls, after which he handed them over to his coachman. He once killed him, falling in love with such. On weekends, young people from the city came to us, gathered the neighboring girls and gave them a drink to madness arranging orgies. "

        Not tired of lying? For the sake of interest, I found and read:
        Grandfather had a confidante, a young guy and his favorite coachman, [7] Alyosha. With Alyoshka they raided neighboring villages, lied to their grandmother together, and despite the difference in years, grandfather was well over forty, and Alyoshka, with a little twenty, had no secrets from each other. More than a dozen women and girls went through their hands, and they all shared amicably. And then, finally, there was one between them, which for Alyosha turned out to be real and unique, such that people go "for shame and under, under the executioner's sword." He could not give up and began to think. And the grandfather, not suspecting anything, continued his attacks and, one must think, received the desired. Once late at night, after drinking, they returned from Buzheninov to their home in Sobolev. We rode in a pair, a goose. In our places, where for five months the snow lies on one and a half arshin and where there is only one rolled road, otherwise you can’t drive. And then I imagine how it all happened. Wrapped in a bear coat and a fur hat, in a carpet sleigh, grandfather slept and nodded. The moon was shining. We drove through the forest. But huge spruce trees stood on the sides of the road and stretched white fluffy paws. The snow shone on them dazzlingly and seemed no longer white, but red or blue. The frozen horses ran amicably and the runners sang their song. Suddenly the horses stopped. "What are you?" - mumbled the grandfather. “And to the wind” ... answered Alyosha. Grandfather fell asleep again, and he got down from the irradiation, went over to the sled, lifted up a crowbar in advance, and smashed his grandfather with a terrible blow. After that, he disappeared, and the horses themselves brought his grandfather home. When they told grandmother, the first thing she ordered was to chop it into pieces and burn the bloodied sled, and the next day she appointed a funeral, at which she did not utter a single tear. Neither doctoral evidence to confirm death, or detective departments in those days did not exist. The entire nobleman was gathered, everyone kissed the gospel and all vowed to be silent. And when about three days later the “commander-commander”, his own landowner and nobleman, arrived, he was informed that his grandfather had suddenly died from a blow. They didn’t find the killer because they didn’t search.

        http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/makarov_uv/01.html
        Somewhat different from your tales?
        I was too lazy to look for the "shooting of civilians", but I believe that there is the same lie.
        1. 0
          March 16 2019
          So grandfather, not uncle. Sorry, forgot. With the essence, I hope you agree by contacting the source.
          1. 0
            March 16 2019
            "https://pikabu.ru/story/karatelnaya_yekspeditsiya_leybgvardii_semenovskogo_polka_1905_god_6069317
            Semenovsky regiment.
          2. 0
            March 16 2019
            Quote: Flatter
            With the essence, I hope you agree by contacting the source.

            With the gist? The text that I cited says exclusively that the landowner and his friend-coachman walked around women, that's just there are no hints that it was about some kind of violence. Everything was voluntary, unlike your opus.
            Quote: Flatter
            https://pikabu.ru/story/karatelnaya_yekspeditsiya_leybgvardii_semenovskogo_polka_1905_god_6069317
            Semenovsky regiment.
            AND? Again, tales of mythical reprisals against the poor, innocent? You yourself have not tried to read?
            I took part, like the rest of the officers, in searches and executions on the orders of Colonel Riemann, who ordered the officers when detecting weapons, shoot workers on the spot.

            to clear Perovo of revolutionaries, shoot people who will find weapons

            Since when have armed terrorists become civilians? Or will you assure that those who killed it was necessary to stroke the head?
    6. 0
      March 15 2019
      Olgovich, do you know that Gumilyov considered the Cossacks not an estate, but a separate ethnic group?
    7. +3
      March 15 2019
      Quote: Olgovich
      The brilliant estate of Russia was banned, torn to pieces, ruined.

      Olgovich, are you for separatism?
      On October 20 (November 2), 1917, that is, even before the establishment of Soviet power, the leaders of the Don Cossacks convened in Vladikavkaz a constituent congress of representatives of the so-called Southeast Union (Don, Kuban, Terek, mountain peoples of the Caucasus and free peoples of the steppes), formed a united government led by MP Bogaevsky.
      1. -4
        March 16 2019
        Quote: naidas
        Olgovich, are you for separatism?
        On October 20 (November 2), 1917, that is, even before the establishment of Soviet power, the leaders of the Don Cossacks convened in Vladikavkaz a constituent congress of representatives of the so-called Southeast Union (Don, Kuban, Terek, mountain peoples of the Caucasus and free peoples of the steppes), formed a united government led by MP Bogaevsky.

        LOCAL SELF-GOVERNANCE IN COMPOSITION OF THE ONE AND THE INDIVIDUAL
      2. 0
        March 16 2019
        Quote: naidas
        Quote: Olgovich
        The brilliant estate of Russia was banned, torn to pieces, ruined.

        Olgovich, are you for separatism?
        On October 20 (November 2), 1917, that is, even before the establishment of Soviet power, the leaders of the Don Cossacks convened in Vladikavkaz a constituent congress of representatives of the so-called Southeast Union (Don, Kuban, Terek, mountain peoples of the Caucasus and free peoples of the steppes), formed a united government led by MP Bogaevsky.

        Remember how many Soviet republics there were from Donbass to the DSR, not counting any Bukhara republics or.
        1. 0
          March 16 2019
          Quote: RUSS
          Remember how many Soviet republics there were

          According to Olgovich it was:
          Olgovich (Andrey) Today, 07:41 New
          LOCAL SELF-GOVERNANCE IN COMPOSITION OF THE ONE AND THE INDIVIDUAL
    8. 0
      March 15 2019
      If honestly no one has done more for the white movement like the Cossacks. And no one did more harm to the white movement like the Cossacks, or rather their elite.
    9. +3
      March 16 2019
      Say brilliant class ... Heh ... Yes, in Holy Russia there was no meaner people than the Cossacks .. Without denying the merits of the Cossacks in the expansion of Russia, I can only say that their merits come to an end. As soon as the next Cossack army was formed, it immediately became a gendarme for the surrounding residents separating from it ... In short, a fat minus to you. By the way, I can be considered a hereditary Cossack. My great-grandfather was exiled to Igarka. at 29 Returned to Kuban only in 68
  3. +13
    March 15 2019
    After the February Revolution, the collapse of the Russian Empire began. The Don Cossacks did not remain aloof from this process and raised the question of the autonomy of the Don Cossack Region.

    Well, there and further in the text of the article. These clowns decided to sit out in their well-fed and rich lands without taking sides. Where is the tragedy, got what they deserve.
    1. +9
      March 15 2019
      The Cossacks have always been like that.) Only under tsarist rule did it turn into troops, and earlier it was actually gangs that were very unstable.
  4. +8
    March 15 2019
    To be continued ...

    No need to continue. We already understood everything. I know about my great-grandfather - a Don Cossack, from my grandfather - a Red Army soldier. So reading this is rather strange for me. And yes, he did not consider himself non-Russian, if that.
  5. +2
    March 15 2019
    On occasion, I got information about the methods of preparing plastuns (as they would say now - the development of hypersensitivity). Unique material. But Cossacks have their own specifics - this is not a regular army. And order always beats class.
    And about the fact that they fought with the red ones - and what would you do if you took everything away from you?
    Although already taken away. I was in the UAE - the locals there receive a share of oil wealth. But how in Russia do Mr. Senchin and others share with pensioners? Or don't the sheriff Indians care?
    1. -1
      March 15 2019
      The "sheriff" has more important things to do: calculate the profit, what to give to the state, what to girlfriends and sons. Do you remember about the redskins
    2. -2
      March 15 2019
      Quote: PASSED BY
      And about the fact that they fought with the red ones - and what would you do if you took everything away from you?

      “The robberies and robberies of the Bolsheviks made the Cossacks wary, even the Cossacks of the Golubov regiments took a wait-and-see attitude. marauding the Reds and forcibly confiscating food. The fact is that the Brest-Litovsk Peace sharply aggravated the already tense food situation in the country. After the conclusion of this humiliating and predatory peace treaty, external control was actually established in Soviet Russia. Germany was starving, and the curators from the German The missions persistently demanded from the Council of People's Commissars immediate payment of debts and indemnities stipulated by the treaty, while the main reparations, after the German occupation of Donbass, were to be carried out in gold, bread and food. The leaders of the Bolsheviks, who were called to the German government, began to pay indemnities from state reserves and sharply intensified the surplus appropriation. An acute food shortage pushed Soviet Russia towards the bread-rich south.
      The awakening and rise of the Cossacks went faster than their fall. Ataman Kaledin failed to force the Don Cossacks to rebel against Bolshevism. But this was easily done by a communist experiment - the Don Soviet Republic. Already in mid-March, strong ferment began in various parts of the region and the secret organization of the Cossack forces. "
      https://topwar.ru/70689-kazaki-v-grazhdanskuyu-voynu-chast-i-1918-god-zarozhdenie-belogo-dvizheniya.html
    3. -1
      March 15 2019
      Quote: PASSED BY
      but what would you do if everything was taken from you?

      The tangle of insurmountable contradictions and discontent with the new government grew like a snowball. From 12 to 25 in March 1918, in Orenburg, the 1 Provincial Congress of Soviets was held. 1200 delegates were present, more than 120 were from the Cossacks. The congress was led by the Bolsheviks S.M. Zwilling and A.A. Korostelev. Most of the Cossack delegates demanded to preserve the Cossack lands and self-government. But the Bolshevik delegates, and there were a majority of them, put tough demands on the Cossacks: to abolish the Cossack class and self-government, to eliminate the Cossack service and Cossack land tenure, giving the Cossacks land on the same basis. The leader of the congress Zwilling took an uncompromising stance. He attacked the Cossacks with accusations of reactionary, monarchism and counter-revolution. At the congress, he stated: “For three hundred years, the Cossack whip has walked around the Russian land and slaughtered all living things. Now we are free from the shackles of autocracy. We have forgotten all your beatings ... we have forgiven all this for you ... So how do you respond to our proposal to go hand in hand with the working peasantry? You answer us or not, or you are neutral. So know that those who are not with us are against us! ” The 100 Cossacks left the congress, the remaining 23 formed the Cossack section, which was headed by N.P. Zakharov. The congress appointed him "Commissioner for the liquidation of the Orenburg army." It was a crude political provocation, it was a consequence of the Bolsheviks' commitment to the policy of discourse. In the meantime, in the villages, the self-serving detachments cleaned up the “surplus” grains for the “starving regions of Russia”, and in fact for the payment of bread to Germany for reparations. It was hard for young uncouth urban fools from food detachments to understand, but as a result of such measures, the Cossacks remained in front of the sowing campaign without seeds. Discontent grew into hatred. And when the food detachment under the command of the chairman of the Sol-Iletsk Revolutionary Military Command, Persianov, held another gathering of grain and weapons in the village of Izobilnaya, a conflict occurred. The old men kept the young people in the village itself, but the Cossacks-front-line soldiers caught up with the food squad in Vetlyanskaya and hacked them up with swords. Zwilling could not forgive such a thing and, having collected several hundred soldiers and militiamen, moved to Sol-Iletsk. There he announced mobilization to fight the Cossacks. As usual, in any disgrace under the revolutionary slogans, green declassed young people (students, farm laborers, apprentices, the unemployed) are most willing to work. As a result, the squad began to count, according to various sources, 600-800 fighters, half of which were not even sixteen years old.
      The village abundant waited punishment. Formed Cossack hundred did not exceed three hundred sabers and had one machine gun repulsed by the detachment. But on the side of the Cossacks was military proficiency, front-line experience and discipline. 2 April 1918 at noon Zwilling's squad approached the village and opened fire with artillery and machine guns. After several gun volleys, the Cossacks realized that they could not win such a battle and threw a white flag. A small Cossack detachment, shooting, for the species left the village. The Reds, on sleds and carts, entered victoriously along the main street into the central square of the stanitsa and were immediately attacked by the Cossacks from all sides. The Cossacks were much smaller and they were armed with mostly cold arms, but the Red Army was in a terrible panic and they rushed to flee. The villagers captured about 700 rifles, 12 machine guns and 4 guns. Cossacks in the brutal saber felling did not spare anyone. Zwilling himself was also killed, prancing in front of the detachment in an expensive general's uniform and a sheepskin coat on a beautiful pedigree horse in a precious harness. From the command of the Zwilling squad only his commissioner Burchak-Abramovich, who was in Orenburg already at night, survived. On April 3, shootings of hostages began in Orenburg, and on the night of April 4, about a thousand Cossacks from the villages closest to Orenburg conducted an unorganized and bloody raid on sleeping Orenburg. In response, the Chekists launched a merciless terror against hostages and Cossacks, promised by Zwilling in an ultimatum. Thus, a full-scale civil war began in Orenburg, dividing all residents into two warring camps. Dutov himself was not directly involved in these events. At that time, under the pressure of the Reds, he and the regiment retreated from Vehneuralsk to the Turgai Steppe, on the border with which the Red 1918 (11) of April stopped the prosecution of the Cossacks.
  6. -3
    March 15 2019
    Article plus. The tragedy of the Don Cossacks will come later. The Reds, under the leadership of Sverdlov, will arrange terror, which will turn into decossackization and eviction. I am writing this, according to the stories of my grandmother - Rogozhina Anna Ivanovna, born in 1924. Father Ivan, mother Maria and 5 children were deported in late autumn to the city of Kotlas and further to Ust-Vym. They brought them to the forest on a barge and left everyone there - several hundred people. True, there was no guard, but on the other hand, there was taiga around. Nevertheless, Maria and her children still took a risk and went across the country, without money and documents, went to their homeland. Granny recalled how the controller at the railway asked her mother - "Are you running a pier?" However, they were not touched. They did not dare to return to their native farm Zavyazka - they settled in the village of Semyonovka. Yes, and there was nowhere - the hut and the farm were taken by the village idle, which then turned red. Father Ivan returned later, and the second time he was taken away, he never returned.
    1. +4
      March 15 2019
      The tragedy of the Don Cossacks is well written by M. A. Sholokhov - already now we know that Sholokhov was still silent a lot, and there were a lot of reasons
    2. +1
      March 16 2019
      I respect the work of Igor. Tears flow from this song
      1. 0
        March 20 2019
        I ALSO TEXT THE RIVER.
  7. +4
    March 15 2019
    Firstly, the Cossacks, like ALL the people on the territory of Russia / USSR all these 100 years after the October Revolution, were divided into "white" and "red". "Red" Cossacks, like ALL "red" on the territory of the USSR all these 100 years, were for the BEST for their country and people - socialism and Soviet power, "white" Cossacks, like ALL "white" on the territory of the USSR, all these 100 years, were for the WORST for their country and people - for such a power and System that was before the October Revolution.
    The White Cossacks, like the enemies of the communists who seized the USSR, never intended to do anything useful for their country and people, but simply wanted to overthrow the power of the communists, and to HAVE a lot of things, and EVERYTHING "but we have nothing to do with it, we owe nothing to this country and to this people. "
  8. 0
    March 15 2019
    I was brought up on the ideals of the October Revolution, but despite all the ideological differences with whites, I somewhere sympathize with whites: they are also part of our people and it is not their fault for what happened. People like Sverdlov and his "leather boys" DO NOT care about the RUSSIAN PEOPLE.
    Perhaps I reason naively, but if there were fewer in the SNK: Apfelbaumov, Bronstein and others, the civil war would end earlier and be bloody.
    PS. When I read Quiet Don, I cried: I felt sorry for the Melikhovs — there was an honest and hardworking family and what was left of the family? Even a blood brother and sister can be enemies, she married Mishka Korshunov, and Gregory does not recognize such a relationship.
    I don’t know for what sins the Lord sent us such as Sverdlov, Trotsky and others.
    PD I liked Samsonov's article: for the first time without vulgarity and universal conspiracies
    1. +1
      March 15 2019
      Typically female reaction. Do not think that I want to insult or ridicule women, but this is a fact. It seems that Ewing even threw a woman: she relieves stress with tears, and men with alcohol
    2. +5
      March 15 2019
      Quote: Astra wild

      I was brought up on the ideals of the October Revolution

      Quote: Astra wild
      Perhaps I reason naively, but if there were less in the SNK: Apfelbaum, Bronstein and others

      I hate two things - atisemitism and the Jews! Yes?
      Or more correctly, like this: I love proletarian equality of nations and Russian nationalism !?

      Threat. Do not worry. Everyone happens. I, for example, also ... love blondes and logic. )))
    3. +3
      March 15 2019
      Quote: Astra wild
      PD I liked Samsonov's article: for the first time without vulgarity and universal conspiracies

      Do not flatter yourself. Samsonov is a multiple personality and now the most adequate of 6-7 his alter ego has climbed into the "circle of light".
  9. +1
    March 15 2019
    Quote: apro
    Quote: Olgovich
    The brilliant estate of Russia was banned, torn to pieces, ruined.

    What is the splendor of the gadget troops, torn by internal contradictions ... the throne's support is his mother’s mother ... the independents are unfinished.

    Where there are no internal contradictions? Here read the Polish article about Sverdlov. I think even in an archaic society there could be contradictions, but just then there were no writers to describe
  10. +3
    March 15 2019
    "Many officers took a position of non-interference", when I read these lines I remembered: "Walking from hand to hand" by A. Tolstoy, do you remember when Roshchin's former colleague Tetkin cooked shoe polish?
    Alas, the "triumvirates" are very rarely stable, the Don "government" and the Dbroarmiya were situational allies: when Alekseev and L.G. Kornilov took the army on an "ice campaign" Krasnov or someone from the headquarters joked at the good army: "blind musicians ". For the fact that Krasnov was guided by the Kaiser, the "Drozdovites" called the Krasnov government: "a n-ka in the bed of the German General Staff."
  11. +8
    March 15 2019
    About tumbling

    May 1, 1918 in Novocherkassk Cossack "Circle of salvation of the Don", which adopted a resolution about the "tumbling" of the Red Cossacks:
    “All Cossacks participating in the Soviet troops and Bolshevik organizations should be excluded from the Cossack estate according to the sentences of the subordinate village societies” (source: Don Chronicle, 1924, No. 3, p. 57; Don Vedomosti, October 4 (17), 1918).

    This decision expressed the interests of the prosperous Cossacks. By September 1918, 1400 verdicts were sentenced to break up the Red Cossacks (source: Priazovsky Krai, September 20 (October 3), 1918). Not only men, but also their wives, children, were repressed by the White Cossacks, their houses were taken away, their lands, families were evicted to other areas, they were killed, they were imprisoned, they were sentenced to hard labor, etc.

    Until the Sverdlov directive of January 24, 1919, another whole 10 months
    1. -4
      March 16 2019
      Quote: Alexander Green
      Until the Sverdlov directive of January 24, 1919, another whole 10 months

      Here, you also need to consider what led to the events you wrote about. The Trotskyists-Bolsheviks prepared and carried out the socialist revolution under the scarlet banner, on which the high and bright words flamed brightly: "Freedom!", "Equality!", "Brotherhood!" ... How did it happen that soon "freedom" turned into concentration camps , hostages and mass executions, "equality" - hunger for millions and privileges for the elite, and "brotherhood" - a cruel fratricidal war? A handful of Bolsheviks, which rallied around themselves a mass of fellow tribesmen, as well as legions of lumpen - proletarians of different nationalities, destroyed over 1917 million Russian people in 1935-30, and above all the overwhelming majority of the Russian intelligentsia. And we shouldn't only blame Stalin for this. He, a romantic of the revolution, sincerely believed in the ideals of communism. And who he was at that time. One of many. The understanding of what is happening comes much later. And many Trotskyists subsequently received their punishments. This is what the media now write about them as "innocent victims."
      1. +2
        March 16 2019
        Appeal to the labor Cossacks about the conquests of the October Revolution and the fight against counter-revolution
        November 25 (December 8) 1917

        FROM THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS TO LABOR COSSAMS

        Cossack brothers!

        You are being deceived. You are being pitted against the rest of the people. You are told that the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies are your enemies, that they want to take away your Cossack land, your Cossack "freedom." Do not believe, Cossacks! You are being lied to. You are being criminally deceived. Your own generals and landlords are deceiving you to keep you in darkness and bondage. We, the Council of People's Commissars, address you Cossacks with this word. Read it carefully and judge for yourself where the truth is and where the evil deception is.

        The life and service of the Cossack was always a bondage and hard labor. At the first call of his superiors, the Cossack was obliged to mount a horse and march. The Cossack had to create the entire military "right" on his own hard-earned, labor means. Cossack on campaigns, the economy goes bankrupt and falls. Is this order fair? No, it should be canceled forever. The Cossacks must be freed from bondage. The new, people's, Soviet power is ready to come to the aid of the working Cossacks. It is only necessary that the Cossacks themselves decide to abolish the old order, throw off their obedience to the feudal officers, landowners, the rich, throw off the damned yoke from their necks. Rise up, Cossacks! Unite! The Council of People's Commissars calls on you to a new, freer, happier life.

        In October and November, the All-Russian Congresses of Soviets of Soldiers, Workers and Peasants' Deputies took place in Petrograd. These congresses transferred all local power to the hands of the Soviets, i.e. into the hands of people elected by the people. From now on, there should be no rulers and officials in Russia who command the people from above and push them around. The people themselves create their power. The general has no more rights than the soldier. Everyone is equal. Reason, Cossacks, - {157} is it bad or good? We urge you, Cossacks, to join this new popular order and create your own Councils of Cossack deputies. To these Councils all power should belong on the ground. Not to chieftains in the ranks of generals, but to elected representatives of the labor Cossacks, their trusted, reliable people.

        All-Russian congresses of soldiers', workers' and peasants' deputies decided to transfer all landowner lands to the use of the working people. Is it really unfair, Cossacks? The Kornilovs, Kaledins, Dutovs, Karaulovs, Bardisians wholeheartedly stand for the interests of the rich and are ready to drown Russia in blood, if only to defend the land for the landowners. But you, labor Cossacks, do not you yourself suffer from poverty, oppression and land tightness? How many Cossacks are there who have no more than 4-5 tithes per yard? And next to them are the Cossack landowners, who have thousands of acres of their land and who, moreover, are taking up military lands and lands. Under the new Soviet law, the land of the Cossack landowners must, without any payment, pass into the hands of the Cossack workers, the Cossack poor. You are scared that the Soviets want to take your land from you. Who scares you? The rich Cossacks, who know that the Soviet regime wants to transfer the landowner lands into your own hands. Choose, Cossacks, for whom you stand: for the Kornilovs and Kaledins, for the generals and the rich, or for the Soviets of peasant, soldier, workers and Cossack deputies?

        The Council of People's Commissars, elected by the All-Russian Congress, offered all peoples an immediate truce and an honest democratic peace, without resentment or damage to any people. All capitalists, landowners, Kornilov generals rebelled against the peaceful policy of Soviet power. The war gave them profits, power, ranks. And you, ordinary Cossacks? You died without meaning and without purpose, like your brothers soldiers and sailors. It is already 372 years soon that this cursed massacre has dragged on, which the capitalists and landowners of all countries have started because of their own benefits, because of world robberies. The war brought the labor Cossacks only ruin and death. The war sucked out all the juices from the Cossack economy. The only salvation for our entire country and for the working Cossacks, in particular, is a swift and honest peace. The Council of People's Commissars declared to all governments and all peoples: we do not want someone else's and do not want to give our own. A world without annexations and without indemnities! Each nation must decide its own destiny. There should be no oppression of a nation over a nation. Such an honest, democratic, i.e. the people’s world offers the Council of People’s Commissars to all {158} governments, all peoples, allied and hostile. And the first result is obvious: a truce has already been established on the Russian front. Soldier and Cossack blood no longer flows there. Now, Cossacks, decide for yourself: do you want to continue to carry out a pernicious, senseless, criminal massacre? Then support the Cadets - the enemies of the people, support Chernov, Tsereteli, Skobelev, who threw you on the offensive on June 18, support Kornilov, who introduced the death penalty for soldiers and Cossacks at the front. And if you want a speedy and honest peace, then join the ranks of the Soviets and support the Council of People's Commissars.

        Your fate, Cossacks, is in your own hands. Our common enemies: landowners, capitalists, Kornilovite officers, bourgeois newspaper men deceive you and push you onto the path of destruction. In Orenburg, the Dutov arrested the Soviet and disarmed the garrison. Kaledin threatens the Soviets in the Don. He declared martial law there and is pulling troops there. Karaulov shoots the natives in the Caucasus. The cadet bourgeoisie supplies them with their millions. Their common goal is to strangle the people's Soviets, crush the workers and peasants, reintroduce stick discipline in the army and perpetuate the slavery of the labor Cossacks.

        Our revolutionary troops moved to the Don and the Urals to put an end to the criminal uprising against the people. The commanders of the revolutionary troops were ordered: do not enter into any negotiations with the rebel generals, act decisively and mercilessly.

        Cossacks! Unite in the Councils of Cossack deputies! Take control of all the affairs of the Cossacks in your hands. Take away the lands of your own rich landowners. Hand over their grain, their equipment for cultivating the lands of the labor Cossacks, devastated by the war.

        Forward, Cossacks, to the struggle for the cause of the whole people!
        Long live the labor Cossacks!
        Long live the union of Cossacks, soldiers, peasants and workers!
        Long live the power of the Soviets of Cossack, soldier, worker and peasant deputies!
        Down with the war! Down with the landowners and the Kornilov generals!
        Long live the peace and brotherhood of nations!
      2. +5
        March 16 2019
        Quote: Z.O.V.
        Here, you also need to consider what led to the events that you wrote about.

        And we take into account. Just take into account that the first concentration camp for Soviet workers in 1918 on the island of Mudyug was organized by whites together with the English interventionists, and the Soviet government released the first counter-revolutionaries on parole not to fight the people ...
        .
        1. +1
          March 16 2019
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Just take into account that the first concentration camp for Soviet workers in 1918 on the island of Mudyug was organized by whites together with the English interventionists, and the Soviet government released the first counter-revolutionaries on parole not to fight the people ...

          I know about Mudyug. As well as about other atrocities of the interventionists. Which for the most part were engaged in punitive operations against civilians and the protection of the export of the loot from Russia. They, like jackals, rushed to the country tormented by internal murders. I blame those who prepared and organized these murders and they are definitely not white or red.
          1. -2
            March 16 2019
            Quote: Z.O.V.
            As well as about other atrocities of the interventionists. Which for the most part were engaged in punitive operations against civilians and the protection of the export of the loot from Russia. They, like jackals, rushed to the country tormented by internal murders.

            Punishers-interventionists are you talking about what operations? And, keep quiet about the punitive Latvians and Chinese in the Red Army. And by the way about the interventionists, you know their goals in Russia.?
          2. +3
            March 16 2019
            Quote: Z.O.V.
            I blame those who prepared and organized these murders and they are definitely not white or red.

            I hope you correctly identified the culprit? This is world imperialism, for which the appearance of the first proletarian state was the beginning of its demise. The appearance of the Soviet state led to socialist revolutions in a number of countries, to the destruction of the colonial system, to the creation of the countries of the socialist camp.
      3. 0
        March 16 2019
        Quote: Z.O.V.
        they prepared and carried out under the scarlet banner, on which the high and bright words glowed: “Freedom!”, “Equality!”, “Brotherhood!” ... How did it happen that soon “freedom” turned into concentration camps, hostages and mass executions , "Equality" - hunger for millions and privileges for the elite, and "brotherhood" - a fierce fratricidal war?

        Yes, because if people could live in a society where these slogans operate in practice, and not in theory, then they would have built it a long time ago. Without any riots and stabbings.
        1. 0
          March 16 2019
          Quote: Dart2027
          Yes, because if people could live in a society where these slogans operate in practice, and not in theory, then they would have built it a long time ago. Without any riots and stabbings.

          I agree. This is exactly what I tried to tell in my comments. I wonder who put this minus. From me definitely +
          1. +2
            March 16 2019
            Quote: Z.O.V.
            I agree.

            But I do not agree with you. We have already lived in such a society and not in theory, but really in practice. That is how all working people lived, and this life was defended by the dictatorship of the proletariat. Those who fought to one degree or another against the Soviet regime, namely against equality, fraternity and freedom for all, were subjected to suppression. They could not calm down because of that. that the common people have thrown themselves away from all the burials.
            1. -1
              March 16 2019
              Quote: Alexander Green
              We have already lived in such a society and not in theory, but really in practice.
              IN USSR? I also lived then, so no need to tell tales.
              1. +2
                March 17 2019
                Quote: Dart2027
                IN USSR? I also lived then, so no need to tell tales.

                And you apparently lived on the other side of Soviet life, and therefore did not understand it.
                1. -2
                  March 17 2019
                  Quote: Alexander Green
                  because they did not understand her
                  And you apparently lived in some kind of fictional world that, by no means, came into contact with the realities of life.
                  1. +2
                    March 17 2019
                    Quote: Dart2027
                    And you apparently lived in some kind of fictional world that, by no means, came into contact with the realities of life.

                    No, I lived in the real world, and I lived in it a large, and better half of my life, while not only living, but also building this world, so I have something to remember.
                    1. -2
                      March 17 2019
                      Quote: Alexander Green
                      No, I lived in the real world

                      And in this "real" world there was no envy, no greed, no lies, no meanness? How tired when they start to tell some fairy tales.
                      Knowing that many wrote about this, I fear that I would not be considered presumptuous because, having chosen the same subject, in the interpretation of it I most disagree with others. But, having the intention to write something useful for people who understand, I chose to follow the truth, not imaginary, but real - in contrast to those many who depicted republics and states, which in reality no one knew or saw.
                      ("Sovereign")
                      1. +1
                        March 17 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        And in this "real" world there was no envy, no greed, no lies, no meanness? How tired when they start to tell some fairy tales.

                        There was this too, but these were isolated cases, the so-called birthmarks of capitalism, inherited from the past society, but they gradually disappeared, because the strategic direction of the development of Soviet society was correct. Unfortunately, many of the "other world" did not like this.
                      2. -2
                        March 17 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        There was this, but these were isolated cases

                        Single? Hmm ... Even if we take only criminal offenses, then there will be by no means isolated cases.
                      3. +1
                        March 18 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Single? Hmm ... Even if we take only criminal offenses, then there will be by no means isolated cases.

                        Do not exaggerate, compare with today's time. And in those days they re-educated everyone, including criminals, some of the camps went out with orders of the Red Banner of Labor for conscientious work ..
                      4. -2
                        March 18 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Do not exaggerate, compare with today's time.
                        At present, much less than during perestroika, when there were only Soviet people in the country (others simply had nowhere to come from).
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        including criminals
                        And then who were the repeat offenders?
                      5. +1
                        March 18 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        At present, much less than during perestroika, when there were only Soviet people in the country (others simply had nowhere to come from).

                        Here you are wrong, the prisons are overcrowded now.
                        Regarding upbringing, you, unfortunately, do not see the dialectic of a change in society. After Stalin's death, a gradual retreat began about the correct upbringing of Soviet people, as a result of the restructuring there was a shift in the mass consciousness towards petty-bourgeoisness. The enemies of socialism took advantage of this, drove into the head the myths of Western democracy, everyone began to consider themselves undervalued, they wanted to work less and get more. The result you see. I don’t know about you, but I don’t like this result. Everything that is going on is negative in Soviet times.
                      6. -1
                        March 18 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Here you are wrong, the prisons are overcrowded now.

                        Including those who sat down or committed crimes then.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Regarding education, you, unfortunately, do not see the dialectic of a change in society
                        And that under Stalin there were no repeat offenders?
                      7. +1
                        March 18 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Including those who sat down or committed crimes then.

                        Do we really have prison sentences of 28 years?
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        And that under Stalin there were no repeat offenders?

                        There were, but these are vestiges of the tsarist regime. Read A. Makarenko or M. Gorky, how criminals were re-educated. Particularly dangerous repeat offenders - were shot.
                      8. 0
                        March 19 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        we have a prison term of 28 years

                        Up to 30 years, as well as life.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        There were, but these are vestiges of the tsarist regime.

                        Yeah, and then the vestiges of the Trotskyists, and then someone else's there.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        how criminals were re-educated

                        They are re-educated now, the question is in percentage terms.
                      9. +1
                        March 19 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        They are re-educating them now

                        Yes, we have heard that prison lawlessness is very "effective".
                      10. 0
                        March 19 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        prison lawlessness

                        Do you believe that then in prisons everything was according to the law and schedule?
                      11. +1
                        March 20 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Do you believe that then in prisons everything was according to the law and schedule?

                        You won’t believe it, but then you really did re-education.
                      12. 0
                        March 20 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        You will not believe but
                        the proverb about paper and ravines did not appear yesterday. Engaged in something, but only the number of repeat offenders from this greatly decreased?
                      13. +1
                        March 20 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        the proverb about paper and ravines did not appear yesterday. Engaged in something, but only the number of repeat offenders from this greatly decreased?

                        I personally knew one former prisoner who received the Order of the Red Banner of Labor at the camp. During the war he received several more orders, but this one he loved most of all, and always wore it. .
                      14. 0
                        March 20 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        I was personally acquainted with one former prisoner

                        One, and not one prisoner can be found. That's just the rule of mass. Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? About 100%, even talking is pointless.
                      15. +1
                        March 20 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        One, and not one prisoner can be found. That's just the rule of mass. Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? About 100%, even talking is pointless.

                        Do not speculate. Find me today too, at least one Zek who received the order in the camp.
                      16. 0
                        March 21 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Find me today too, at least one Zek

                        In our time, prisoners are not awarded orders.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Do not speculate.

                        Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? As I understand it, the first digit is more accurate.
                      17. 0
                        March 21 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        In our time, prisoners are not awarded orders.

                        Well, see, then what to talk about?
                      18. 0
                        March 21 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        what to talk about then
                        About it.
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? As I understand it, the first digit is more accurate.

                        Quote: Dart2027
                        And that under Stalin there were no repeat offenders?
                      19. 0
                        March 21 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        what to talk about then
                        About it.
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? As I understand it, the first digit is more accurate.

                        Quote: Dart2027
                        And that under Stalin there were no repeat offenders?


                        The main thing is that in the USSR there was such a penitentiary system that allowed a prisoner to receive an order. You don’t understand this, or you just don’t want to. It is to see, and therefore you behave like an ordinary bot.
                      20. 0
                        March 22 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        which allowed the prisoner to receive the order

                        AND? Once again - on a statewide scale, the mass is driving. Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? You don’t understand this, or you just don’t want to. Is it to see?
                      21. +1
                        March 22 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Once again - on a statewide scale, the mass is driving. Re-educated 0,05% or 50%? You don’t understand this, or you just don’t want to. Is it to see?

                        And you count: find on the Internet how many people were in prison during the Soviet era, and how many of them remained repeat offenders. And compare. I can’t say for sure, there’s no time to look for mine, but I think that 0,05% of the recidivists remained, and the rest were re-educated,
                      22. 0
                        March 22 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        I can’t say for sure, mine has no time to look

                        So you don’t know anything for sure?
                        in the 1930s in the USSR there were an average of 583 prisoners per 100 thousand people.
                        In 1992-2002 per 100 thousand people in Russia, 647 prisoners per 100 thousand people.
                        The difference is far from critical.
                      23. +1
                        March 22 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        The difference is far from critical.

                        The question is not this, but how many relapses were.
                      24. 0
                        March 22 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        but in how many relapses were

                        Circular No. 61 of the Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR M.P. Frinovsky "On Strengthening the Fight against Robbers and Criminal Offenders" August 7, 1937
                        http://istmat.info/node/32888
                        So much that I had to introduce a special order.
                      25. +1
                        March 23 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        So much that I had to introduce a special order.

                        So how much nevertheless?
                      26. 0
                        March 23 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        So how much nevertheless?

                        Among thieves, the vast majority (92%) were people under the age of 30, unmarried (70%). The bulk of the convicts was illiterate (72%). Every third criminal at the time of detention was not working or studying, while in the prewar years this figure reached 50% 8. At the same time, half of the number of non-working criminals earned a livelihood by theft. As for the general relapse, it was relatively low among thieves: 40% for thefts of state property; personal property of citizens — 34,7% (pickpocketing not counted). Such a small relapse, which remained at the level of the 20s, can be explained by the fact that, firstly, these crimes were generally reduced; secondly, the sentences for thefts were significant; thirdly, the contingent of criminals was significantly rejuvenated in the war and post-war years. Even among pickpockets, a relatively small proportion of repeat offenders was observed. However, a special relapse (homogeneous) among previously convicted thieves reached 70%that could not but testify to a certain level of professionalism of criminals and the presence of professional crime in the 50s.
                        I clarify that the one who was considered a recidivist in the 1950s was just starting his career in the 1930s.
                      27. +1
                        March 24 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        I clarify that the one who was considered a recidivist in the 1950s was just starting his career in the 1930s.

                        So what, it doesn’t mean anything, you beat around the bush, and all in order to prove to me that in the 30s. with prisoners, things were worse than today.

                        I remind you once again, because of which our dispute arose. I affirm that in the 30s in the USSR there was such a penitentiary system that was aimed at re-educating a person, in which most prisoners were re-educated, and some even went out with orders.

                        You, as usual, are trying to belittle the achievements of the Soviet regime, saying that “0,05% was re-educated on a statewide scale.” I think this is absurd.

                        Count how many were in prison and camps in the 30's. and how many village re. and compare this to the present times, how many are sitting now and how many of them are being reused.
                      28. 0
                        March 24 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        So what, it doesn’t mean anything, you beat around the bush, and all in order to prove to me that in the 30s. with prisoners, things were worse than today.
                        I remind you where the conversation started
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        And then who were the repeat offenders?

                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Yes, because if people could live in a society where these slogans operate in practice, and not in theory, then they would have built it a long time ago. Without any riots and stabbings.
                        In the 30s, the situation with prisoners was no worse and no better than now, they simply were. Just as they were centuries before, and how they will be centuries after us.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Count how many were in prison and camps in the 30's. and how many village re. and compare this to the present times, how many are sitting now and how many of them are being reused.
                        It has already been.
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        I clarify that the one who was considered a recidivist in the 1950s was just starting his career in the 1930s.
                      29. 0
                        March 25 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        In the 30s, the situation with prisoners was no worse and no better than now, they simply were. Just as they were centuries before, and how they will be centuries after us.

                        And I think. what's better. In the 20-30s in the execution of sentences, the concepts of “upbringing” and “reforging” began to be used. Criminals were not kept in prisons; and in “forced labor camps,” where they could improve and then integrate into Soviet society.

                        Having created a system of forced labor camps in the early 1930s, the Bolsheviks created the conditions for the re-socialization of criminals. In the experience of collective work and in the use of the cultural and educational capabilities of the system, prisoners turned into full-fledged Soviet citizens. Read about this at Makarenko, Gorky, even V. Shalamov wrote about this.

                        PS And you didn’t present the digits.
                      30. 0
                        March 26 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        PS And you didn’t present the digits.

                        Quote: Dart2027
                        As for the general relapse, it was relatively low among thieves: 40% for thefts of state property; personal property of citizens — 34,7%

                        Quote: Dart2027
                        However, a special relapse (homogeneous) among previously convicted thieves reached 70%

                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        In the 20-30s in the execution of sentences, the concepts of “upbringing” and “reforging” began to be used. Criminals were not kept in prisons; and in the "forced labor camps"

                        Simply put, work out your stay. The idea is sound, that's just an ideological bandit, that always remains one, and he who wants to tie, he ties it up.
                      31. +1
                        March 26 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Simply put, work out your stay. The idea is sound, that's just an ideological bandit, that always remains one, and he who wants to tie, he ties it up.

                        So, the Soviet authorities helped those who wanted to strike up, but they broke down ideological bandits, destroying their joint and thieves' law. The first time this happened in 1940, and the second time in the early 50s. Moreover, repeat thieves (thieves in law) in 1950, there were only about 1000 people

                        But there are more specific numbers.
                        In the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Historical Sciences “IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POLICY OF THE SOVIET STATE REGARDING DECLARED POPULATIONS IN ALTAI IN THE 1920S – 1930S.” Kudenko N.V. the figure of recidivism in the region - 10,9%).
                        “The focus of the triple sentencing on the suppression of professional and recidivism defined in the directive documents of the NKVD leadership was manifested in a large number of charges of recidivism (10,9%)” I do not think that this figure can be very different from other regions.

                        At the end of Soviet power, this figure increased to 25%.

                        Today in Russia the number of relapses is steadily increasing. According to the Prosecutor General’s Office (GP), from 2012 to 2016 it increased by almost 16% - from 583 thousand to 675 thousand. The GP believes that educational work in places of detention is not carried out enough
                        https://iz.ru/666795/mariia-nediuk-kseniia-dagaeva/retcidivisty-stali-sovershat-bolshe-prestuplenii

                        According to Rudogo’s information, 673 percent of the 85 thousand convicts in Russia today are people who have been convicted two or more times. ”
                        https://lenta.ru/news/2015/03/24/jail/
                      32. 0
                        March 26 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        So, the Soviet government helped those who wanted to strike up - it helped, but they broke down ideological bandits
                        That is, we return to what we left - the one who wanted to tie up, and who did not want to, was re-educated himself. There was much more sense in the fact that a repeat offender could be sent for 101 km, where he was under surveillance and physically could not return to his former life, only this is not re-education
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        destroying their joint thieves law

                        In fact, he has survived to this day. Only by an ideological bandit I did not mean "concepts", but the very unwillingness of a person to leave the crime, and he could not give a damn about the "law".
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        According to Rudogo’s information, today out of 673 thousand convicts in Russia

                        Already less. https://iz.ru/834628/2019-01-16/chislo-osuzhdennykh-v-rossii-dostiglo-istoricheskogo-minimuma Otherwise, as I wrote
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        In the 30s, the situation with prisoners was no worse and no better than now, they simply were. Just as they were centuries before, and how they will be centuries after us.
                      33. +1
                        March 26 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        That is, we return to what we left from - the one who wanted to tie was re-educated, and who did not want to, he remained himself

                        Quote: Dart2027
                        In the 30s, the situation with prisoners was no worse and no better than now, they simply were. Just as they were centuries before, and how they will be centuries after


                        No, we started with what you called the reforging system in the 30's. not effective. And I do not know. who should be in order to deny the obvious: 10% of convicts repeatedly in the 30s compared with 85% of relapse in today's Russia - this is a very good result.

                        Yes, there was a small part of repeat offenders who were not affected by these methods of reeducation, but a different method was applied to them, which made it possible to achieve such results. This is the destruction of thieves' solidarity by separating the members of criminal groups (pulling those who waver to the side of the administration), by discrediting the "authorities", thereby reducing their influence on the accomplices.

                        And as soon as Khrushchev, carried away by the struggle against the "personality cult," defamed these methods, the percentage of relapse began to grow again. ...
                      34. 0
                        March 27 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        No, we started with what you called the reforging system in the 30's. not effective.
                        Actually, I started with this.
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Yes, because if people could live in a society where these slogans operate in practice, and not in theory, then they would have built it a long time ago. Without any riots and stabbings.

                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Moreover, repeat thieves (thieves in law) in 1950, there were only about 1000 people
                        A thief in law is the title of some members of the criminal world, belonging to his elite and enjoying considerable authority, and this specific to the USSR a phenomenon in the criminal world, unparalleled in global criminal practice, formed in the 1930s and characterized by a strict code of criminal traditions, as well as an exceptional level of closeness and conspiracy.
                        And, by the way, a "thief in law" and a "repeat offender" are far from the same thing. A repeat offender is a professional criminal, and VVZ is an authority, that is, an elite.
                      35. +1
                        March 27 2019
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        And, by the way, a "thief in law" and a "repeat offender" are far from the same thing. A repeat offender is a professional criminal, and VVZ is an authority, that is, an elite.

                        Have you seen the numbers? At the end of the 30s repeat convicts were about 10%, and the figures of thieves in law I cited only to emphasize that even their authoritative influence, their romance, their ideology were, if not completely destroyed, but thoroughly undermined.
                      36. 0
                        March 28 2019
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Have you seen the numbers?
                        Saw. Before the revolution, the VVZ did not exist at all, and in the 50s there were already a thousand of them.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        that even their authoritative influence, their romance, their ideology
                        How tired lovers to see ideology in everything.
                        Quote: Dart2027
                        Only by an ideological bandit I did not mean "concepts", but the very unwillingness of a person to leave the crime, and he could not give a damn about the "law".
                        The notorious law for criminals is just a set of rules and nothing more, and even more so not romance.
  12. 0
    March 16 2019
    "The grouping of the Don Army, which had been assembled by Krasnov and Denisov, struck a counterattack on the Reds, who no longer expected a rebuff from the Reds and were stunned."
    I do not understand, explain.
  13. 0
    March 17 2019
    Well, fine! And not that there would not be a single country, but colonies of Germany, France and the like would appear.
    1. -1
      March 17 2019
      Quote: shamil
      Well, fine! And not that there would not be a single country, but colonies of Germany, France and the like would appear.

      Germany? laughing Have you heard anything about the Brest peace?
      1. +1
        March 17 2019
        Quote: RUSS
        Germany? Have you heard anything about the Brest peace?

        But didn’t you hear the cooperation of Ataman Krasnov with the Germans in 1918?
  14. -1
    March 17 2019
    A native Cossack can have only one answer to the question of who are Cossacks. Cossacks are a people. Already in court..: [media = https: //professionali.ru/Soobschestva/rossiya_velikaya_derzhava/sud_postanovil_chto_kazaki_eto_vse-taki_otdelnyj_33416953/]
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. 0
    March 21 2019
    No matter how you say black, it’s white, black it is and will be.
    And today, it’s the stench that is raised in Ukraine by people like Bandera who are in Ukraine, that they fought for something of their own, but they did not understand and offended them. Share it all

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