Verkhniyon uprising

49
For three months, the rebel Cossacks under the command of Pavel Kudinov fought off the attacks of the 8 and 9 armies of the red Southern Front. The revolted Don Cossacks shackled considerable forces of the Red Army, contributing to the offensive of the White Cossacks. This allowed Denikin’s army to occupy the Don Region and create a threat of access to the central provinces of Russia.

Split the Cossacks. Storytelling



The attitude of the Bolsheviks to the Cossacks was ambivalent. On the one hand, negative, as the Cossacks were considered "executioners, guardsmen, dead men" of the fallen royal regime. The Cossacks were a privileged class, had land and privileges. At the same time, the Cossacks were professional military men, well trained, organized, and with their weaponsthat is, represented a threat. On the other hand, the Cossacks wanted to win over, since they were a special part of the peasantry. They could be used in the fight against the enemies of the Soviet regime.

The Cossacks themselves also hesitated; there was a split in their ranks in relation to the Soviet power. Initially, the bulk of the Cossacks, especially the young, front-line soldiers, were on the side of the Bolsheviks. They supported the first decrees, returned to peaceful life, nobody touched their land. The Cossacks believed that they could maintain neutrality and would not interfere in the war between white and red. That the repressive policy of the Bolsheviks was directed only against the rich classes - the bourgeoisie, landowners, etc. At the same time, some Cossacks had strong separatist moods that they could live separately and richly, avoid common collapse and chaos, war. They wanted to spit on a “united and indivisible” Russia, they became active separatists. It is clear that in the conditions of the general Russian distemper it was a utopia that cost the Cossacks very expensive.

As a result, the Cossacks became "grass on the battlefield." Kaledin, Alekseev and Denikins opposed the Bolsheviks, while the majority of the Cossacks on the Don were neutral. White and White Cossack were beaten. Volunteers retreated to the Kuban. Kaledin died. Don region occupied red. Among them were many red Cossacks under the command of a military foreman Golubov.

It is worth remembering that during the unrest up come various dark, asocial and criminal personalities. They use general chaos, anarchy, collapse to rob, kill, satisfy their dark needs. There is a criminal revolution. Bandits and criminals "repaint" in red, white, nationalists, to gain power, to use it in their own interests. In addition, many revolutionaries, the Red Guards, sincerely hated the Cossacks, the “royal guardsmen”.

Therefore, when the Reds occupied the Don region, it was automatically considered a hostile, enemy territory. Various negative excesses began to occur - red terror, repression, murder, unreasonable arrests, robberies, requisition, the seizure of elements of the control system, the land by aliens. Punitive expedition.

All this caused the active resistance of the Cossacks, who were the military class, that is, they knew how to fight. On this wave was created Cossack republic Krasnov. At the same time, she was hostile to the Russian civilization, to the people, as it was oriented toward the West, Germany. Krasnov asked the German emperor to help in the dismemberment of Russia and the creation of a separate state - the Great Don Army. Krasnov also claimed the neighboring cities and regions - Taganrog, Kamyshin, Tsaritsyn and Voronezh. Krasnov also supported the "separatism" of other parts of Russia - Ukraine-Little Russia, Astrakhan, Kuban and Terek Cossack troops, the North Caucasus. The course on "independence" led to the collapse of Russia. Krasnovtsy declared themselves "separate" from the Russian ethnic group. That is, half of the population of the Don Region (Russians, but not Cossacks) were removed from management, their rights were infringed, they were people of the “second class”.

No wonder that Cossacks also split. There was no united front of the Cossacks against the Bolsheviks. So, despite all the excesses, 1918 Cossack regiments fought on the side of the Red Army in the middle of 14, and among the Cossacks were such talented red commanders as Mironov, Blinov, Dumenko (from Don peasants). BUT Krasnov's government arranged its raskazachivanie - red Cossacks, in order to eliminate supporters of the red power in the Don. Sympathizers of the Soviet government were expelled from the Cossacks, deprived of all rights and privileges, taken land and property, expelled from the Don region, or sent to penal servitude. All the red Cossacks, who joined the Red Army and were captured, were executed. The policy of "white" raskazachivaniya underwent up to 30 thousand. Red Cossacks with their families. In total, during the policy of the Reds from May 1918 to February 1919, according to various estimates, thousands of Cossacks, supporters of Soviet power on the Don, were destroyed from 25 to 45.

It is also worth remembering that the White Cossacks, who fought in the armies of Krasnov and then Denikin, behaved in the neighboring provinces, in particular, in the Saratov and Voronezh gubernias, as foreign enemies. White and Cossacks were not knights without fear and reproach. They were "products" of decomposition, death of the Russian Empire. The Cossacks were participants in the White Terror. The Cossack units were robbed, raped, killed, hanged and flogged. Huge transports followed the Cossack regiments; the Cossacks plundered Russian villages as if they were walking not in Russia, but in a foreign land. In Denikin’s memoirs, they look like a gang of marauders, not “warriors of Holy Russia.” Russian citizens and peasants who were “liberated” from Soviet power were robbed, raped and killed. The Cossacks also acted against their own peasants, "non-resident" in the territory of the Don region. It is clear that it all caused a hard answer, when the flywheel of the terrible civil war turned back and the Don Army collapsed, began to retreat. The spontaneous response of the Red Guards, the Red Army turned into revenge, too, to all the Cossacks, indiscriminately.

You also need to know that in the leadership of the Bolshevik Party there was a wing of cosmopolitan internationalists, agents of the influence of the West. They led to the cause of the collapse, the destruction of Russian civilization, the "world revolution" on the basis of the death of Russia. The Cossacks, personified the ancient Russian traditions of the soldiers-tillers, caused their hatred. Trotsky and Sverdlov initiated the process of storytelling. Trotsky wrote about the Cossacks:
“This is a kind of zoological environment ... A cleansing flame must pass through the whole Don, and all of them bring fear and almost religious horror. The old Cossacks should be burned in the flames of a social revolution ... Let their last remnants ... be thrown into the Black Sea ... "


Trotsky demanded that the Cossacks arrange a Carthage.

In January, 1919, the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Yakov Sverdlov, signed a directive on disclosure. Tops of the Cossacks, the rich Cossacks were subject to total destruction, the terror was used against those who took any part in the fight against the Soviet regime; introduced the policy of surplus; in the Cossack region settled newcomer poor; carried out complete disarmament, shooting everyone who did not surrender their weapons; to prevent new uprisings, they took hostages from prominent representatives of the stanitsas. When the Voshensky Uprising began, these instructions were supplemented by the requirements of mass terror, with the burning of the insurgent villages, the merciless executions of the rebels and their accomplices, the mass taking of hostages; mass resettlement of the Cossacks into Russia, replacing it with a new element, etc. A little later, when the uprising began, the Soviet leadership recognized the fallacy of a number of revolutionary events. So, March 16 1919 was held with a plenum of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) with the participation of Lenin, who decided to suspend the planned measures of merciless terror "in relation to all Cossacks in general who took any direct or indirect participation in the fight against Soviet power."

Verkhniyon uprising


Verkhniyon uprising

The first wave of terror and robbery passed through the Don, when the Cossacks themselves opened the front and went home. Red troops entered the Don, they requisitioned horses, food, spontaneously allowed the enemies of the Soviet regime (or who seemed to be such) to the “expense”. Killed first officers. Then the regular red troops settled on the bank of the Seversky Donets, the front stabilized.

Organized rasskazachivanie was much worse. Commissar Fomin was replaced in February 1919 by the uprising against Krasnov. Among the representatives of the new government there were many revolutionaries-internationalists. The cossack regiments that had gone over to the side of the Reds were sent to the Eastern Front. Began mobilization, now the Cossacks persecuted to fight for the Reds. The red Cossack commander Mironov was removed far away (he later spoke out against the policy of disclosing and Trotsky). After that began a full-scale raskazachivanie. The very word "Cossack", the Cossack form, was forbidden, weapons were withdrawn, for non-delivery - execution. The villages were renamed in the parish, farms in the village. Verkhne-Donskoy district was liquidated, Vyoshensky district was created instead. The property of the rich and the bourgeois was seized. Settlements obkladyvali contribution. Some of the Don lands were planned to be divided into the Voronezh and Saratov regions, they were going to be settled by newcomers. In some places, they began to liberate land for immigrants from the central provinces.

Terror and repression were not spontaneous, but well organized, systematic. Any “accomplice” could have come under attack, and not just officers, gendarmes, chieftains, priests, etc. And a split took place in many families, one son, a brother could fight for the whites, another for the Reds. But it turned out that the family was "counter-revolutionary."

The Cossacks could not stand it and rebelled again. The spontaneous uprising began in March 1919. Immediately rebelled in several places. The Cossacks of the three farms drove the Reds out of Vyoshenskaya. The rebellion raised five villages - Kazan, Elanskaya, Vyoshenskaya, Migulinskaya and Shumilinskaya. Khutor formed hundreds, elected commanders. Spent a full mobilization of all those who could carry weapons. The slogan of the rebels at first was this: "For the Soviet power, but without the Communists!" It was like the program of Makhno. Chairman of the executive committee was elected military officer Danilov, commander - Khorunov Khorinov. Pavel Kudinov in the years of World War II was awarded four crosses of St. George, in 1918 he was the head of the machine gun command of the 1 th Vyoshensky cavalry regiment of the Don Army. After the uprising against Krasnov became Fomin's assistant.


Map source: A.I. Egorov. Civil war in Russia: the defeat of Denikin

March 20 1919, defeating the punitive detachment, the Vyoshensky regiment seized several guns and took Karginsky. Then the Cossacks broke another red squad and occupied Bokovskaya. Reds did not at first give the uprising a serious meaning. Weapons from the Cossacks mostly already taken away. There were a lot of similar uprisings in the country. Usually they were quickly crushed, or the rebels themselves dispersed. However, the Cossacks were a military estate, quickly organized themselves. New villages rose, practically the entire Upper Don region. Fermentation began in the neighboring districts - Ust-Medveditsk, Khopyorsk. At the beginning of the Cossack uprising there were about 15 thousand people. Kudinov reorganized the rebel army, combining the village hundreds of 5 regular cavalry divisions and one brigade and regiment. By May, Kudinov’s army already numbered about 30 thousand people.

The rebels had to repel weapons in battle. At first they fought with cold arms, swords and pikes. Then, during the battles, 6 batteries were made from captured guns, and 150 machine guns were captured. There was no ammunition, they were captured, made in a handicraft way, but they were sorely lacking. The Red Command, realizing the threat, began to remove regular regiments from the front, to enclose the region from all sides. Tightening detachments, detachments of internationalists, sailors, cadets, communists, reserve parts. In total, 25, thousands of people, were put up against the Cossacks with an overwhelming fire superiority (in May, 40, thousand soldiers, tried to suppress the uprising). The Cossacks were saved by the fact that they were underestimated, the Red troops were pulled up and entered into battle by units in different sectors, which allowed the rebels to repel attacks.

Verkhnedonskoe uprising was doomed to defeat. The rebels asked for help from the white command. However, the Don and Volunteer armies were tied up by heavy battles on the flanks — Tsaritsin and Donbass, so they could not immediately help. In March, the Eastern Front of the Don Army collapsed, the Cossacks fled to the steppe, beyond the Manych. Pala Grand Prince. The Reds forced the Manych and by the beginning of April occupied the Torgovaya, Ataman, advanced units came out to Mechetinsky. Between Don and Kuban there was a narrow, in 100 km, strip with a single branch of the railway. To stabilize the front in the east, the white command had to deploy troops from the western sector of the front, although the situation in the Donbas was also difficult. Only in May, the Don Army established contact with the rebel army with the help of airplanes. Aircraft began to bring ammunition in proportion to their weak capabilities.

In May, the Red Army, concentrating a strong strike force, began a decisive offensive. The Cossacks fought back fiercely, but there was extremely little ammunition. 22 May, the rebels began to retreat along the entire right bank of the Don. The population also ran for the Don. On the left bank of the Don Cossacks staged the last line of defense. Only the attack of Denikin’s army saved the rebels from total annihilation.

For three months, the rebel Cossacks under the command of Pavel Kudinov fought off the attacks of the 8 and 9 armies of the red Southern Front. May 25 (June 7) The rebels united with the Don Army. Over the next two weeks, through the joint efforts of the Don and the rebel armies, the entire territory of the Don Region was liberated from the Red Army. May 29 Don Army troops took Miller, June 1 - Lugansk. After that, Kudinov resigned his command. The 8-I Red Army was pushed aside to the north, on the Voronezh direction, the 9-I Red Army - to the northeast, to the Balashov direction. The rebel army was disbanded, parts of it poured into the Don Army. The White Command treated the insurgents with distrust, as they did to the former Reds, so the rebel commanders did not receive serious posts in it.

Thus, the insurgent Don Cossacks forged significant forces of the Red Army, contributing to the offensive of the White Cossacks. This allowed Denikin’s army to occupy the Don Region and create a threat of an exit to the central provinces of Russia, a strike against Orel and Tula.


Pavel Nazaryevich Kudinov, Commander of the Rebel Forces of the Upper Don District in 1919
49 comments
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  1. +5
    18 March 2019 06: 07
    Interestingly, Stalin Kudinov did not hang when he was taken in Bulgaria. And after the release, they also released abroad
    1. -2
      18 March 2019 11: 15
      In August 1938, Pavel Kudinov was arrested by the Bulgarian police on charges of having ties to the Soviet special services and was expelled from the country for a term of five years. He lived in Romania, then in Turkey, where he was also arrested as a Soviet spy.
      Well, so Kudinov spied on Comrade Beria for the victory of the world revolution. He was engaged in the decomposition of the Cossack emigration, campaigned to help the greatest Dzhugashvili.
      1. +4
        18 March 2019 13: 25
        Yes, they, the Cossacks, not only in Russia gnawed, but also in emigration: the "self-styled" Kudinov printed rags in which he lynched "monarchists", and received part of the money through the Soviet embassy. They had as much fun as they could. Self-organizers ..
  2. -11
    18 March 2019 06: 58
    For three months, the rebellious Cossacks under the command of Pavel Kudinov repulsed the attacks of the 8th and 9th armies of the red Southern Front. Rebels had to fight off weapons in battle. At first they fought with edged weapons, drafts and spades. Then, during the battles, 6 batteries were created from captured cannons and captured 150 machine guns. There were no ammunition, they were captured, made in a handicraft manner, but they were sorely lacking.

    Real heroes, defenders of their land! And they did it with much smaller forces, against the teeth of armed armies.
    Trotsky wrote about the Cossacks:
    "It's kind of zoological environment... The cleansing flame must pass throughout the Don, and all of them will bring fear and almost religious horror.

    What are the familiar words: this is what the Nazis said about Russians in WWII
    1. +6
      18 March 2019 08: 50
      Trotsky wrote about the Cossacks:
      “This is a kind of zoological environment ... The cleansing flame must pass through the whole Don, and fear and almost religious horror will bring on all of them.

      This quote is a grossly perverted piece of an article by the head of the Armed Forces of the RSFSR during the Civil War, Watsetis, “Fighting the Don,” published in the newspaper Izvestia VTsIK in January and February 1919, and not Trotsky.
      The head of the Cossacks laboratory at the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Don, historian Andrei Venkov, quoted the original article in his monograph Veshenskoy Uprising: “The Cossack mass is still so uncultural that when examining the psychological aspects of this mass, one has to note a great similarity between the psychology of the Cossacks and the psychology of some representatives of the zoological world ... The old Cossacks must be burned in the flame of a social revolution. The one hundred millionth Russian proletariat has no moral right to apply generosity to the Don ... The Don must be bewildered, disarmed and anesthetized and turned into a purely agricultural country. ”
      At the same time, the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Republic made an important reservation: “Speaking of the Cossacks fighting against us in the Don, we do not mean the working Cossack people, the Cossack proletariat, the one that is burning with the life of the revolution.
      1. -5
        18 March 2019 11: 06
        Quote: Nefarious skeptic
        One hundred million Russian proletariat

        Where did Leiba Bronstein in a country with 78% of peasants out of 170 million people find 100 million Russian proletarians ?!
        1. +7
          18 March 2019 11: 19
          1. What did Trotsky give you? Just a frightening fixation. It is clearly written to you - Vatsetis.
          2. Hyperbola is a stylistic figure of overt and deliberate exaggeration, with the goal of enhancing expressiveness and emphasizing the said thought. It is also characteristic of the rhetorical, oratory style, as a means of pathetic uplift.
          I suspect that you also literally perceive the words about the burning.
          1. -8
            18 March 2019 12: 23
            1.Yes, the fighter for the liberation of the Russian proletariat L. Bronstein earned his fame. Now I will know that Iukums Vatsietis has even more merit in the liberation of the Russian people. It’s scary to imagine what would happen to the Russians in the 20th century without the help of the brackets, vatsietis, dzhugashvili ... So they would languish under the yoke of the Romanovs!
            2. Does it mean that a lie is called hyperbole in the Soviet "newspeak"? Thank you for letting us know. The Soviets never lie, they only use hyperbole!
            1. +2
              18 March 2019 12: 40
              Does this mean that a lie is called hyperbole in Soviet "newspeak"?

              As you please, the problems of your worldview are by no means my problems.
            2. +6
              18 March 2019 17: 13
              Quote: rusin
              It’s scary to imagine what would happen to the Russians in the 20th century without the help of brackets, vatsietis, dzhugashvili ... So they would languish under the yoke of the Romanovs!

              You should move away from an alternative story:
              - to overthrow the yoke of the Romanovs, the brackets, the Vatsietisovs, the Dzhugashvili and the Bolsheviks had nothing to do.
              - before the Bolshevik coup d'etat, the Cossacks have their own government, (the autocrats broke Russia and give them free rein, as happened with the Austrian empire)
              - from May 1918 to February 1919, according to various estimates, 25 to 45 thousand Cossacks were destroyed, supporters of Soviet power in the Don - according to these numbers, Stalinist repressions throughout Russia look unconvincing
              1. -2
                19 March 2019 10: 08
                Quote: naidas
                - to overthrow the yoke of the Romanovs, the brackets, the Vatsietisovs, the Dzhugashvili and the Bolsheviks had nothing to do.

                "A short course in the history of the VKPb" disagrees with you. In this matter, I tend to trust the greatest Dzhugashvili, emphasizing the primacy of the Bolsheviks in overthrowing bloody tsarism. You can continue "... bronstein, chkheidze, dana, vatsietis, tsederbaum, tsereteli, dzhugashvili ... “I hope no one will deny the great role of Chkheidze and Tsederbaum in ridding the Russian people of the Russian Tsar?
                -yes, military governments in Russia existed and what? They did not doubt the indivisibility of the country.
                -
                Quote: naidas
                from May 1918 to February 1919, according to various estimates, from 25 to 45 thousand Cossacks were destroyed

                -ugu, in the regiments of Golubov, Mironov, Dumenko ... Red Cossacks killed Ataman Nazarov, Bogaevsky, Chernetsov and thousands of officers, Cossacks and civilians. After the rebels hacked the Red executioners, the Communists recorded Krivoshlykov and Podtelkov as "innocent at the hands of Krasnov "although Krasnov was not an ataman then.
                1. -1
                  19 March 2019 21: 43
                  Quote: rusin
                  "A short course in the history of VKPb" disagrees with you.

                  Hmm, he laughed heartily at this:
                  Stalin (Dzhugashvili) Iosif Vissarionovich> A short course in the history of the CPSU (b):
                  It is written everything that the Bolsheviks could do to overthrow the tsar (from a short course):
                  -The leadership of the practical work of the Bolshevik Party was carried out at that time by the Bureau of the Central Committee of our party, headed by Comrade Comrade Petrograd. Molotov. The Bureau of the Central Committee issued a manifesto on February 26 (March 11) calling for the continuation of the armed struggle against tsarism and the creation of the Provisional Revolutionary Government.
                  -In 1905, Soviets of only workers' deputies were created, and in February 1917, at the initiative of the Bolsheviks, Soviets of workers' and soldiers' deputies appeared.
                  The Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses in the streets, the compromising parties, the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries seized parliamentary seats in the Soviets, forming their majority in them.
                  And on this the Bolsheviks’ participation in the overthrow of the tsar (the manifesto, the proposal to introduce soldiers to the Soviets and personal participation in the streets where the Bolsheviks were dispersed among the masses) concludes the short course, though it explains why most of the leaders of the Bolshevik party were in prison and exile (Lenin was in exile , Stalin and Sverdlov in the Siberian exile), while the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries walked freely on the streets of Petrograd.
                  Quote: rusin
                  Chernetsova

                  The famous punisher in VO about him was: For a short time, executioners from the Chernetsov detachment at the Yasinovsky mine killed 117 workers, defeated the Berestovo-Bogodukhovsky mine, and shot a group of Bolsheviks and non-partisan miners here. About 90 workers were killed in Taganrog. The resistance to the police units of the White Cossacks, such as the Chernetsov detachment, has increased many times. In the hot revolutionary atmosphere of those days, many ordinary Cossack front-line soldiers of the field regiments, sent to pacify the rising Donbass, refused to be pacifiers and joined the workers and Red Guards. In one of his orders, an angry Kaledin called it a rebellion. “Our Cossack regiments,” the chieftain declared in extreme irritation, “raised a rebellion and, in alliance with the gangs of the Red Guard invading the Donetsk district and the soldiers, attacked the detachment of Colonel Chernetsov directed against the Red Army, and partly destroyed it.
                  1. +1
                    19 March 2019 23: 04
                    you studied the Short Course poorly. "... in February 1917, on the initiative of the Bolsheviks, Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies appeared.
                    While Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses in the streets, compromising parties, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries seized deputy seats in the Soviets ... "Mitrofan Bogaevsky, killed by the Reds, headed the Army Government. It's funny that the executioner Mitrofan Petrovich was shot by the Soviets along with the red corps commander B. Dumenko.
                    1. -1
                      19 March 2019 23: 28
                      Quote: rusin
                      you did not study the Short Course well. "

                      I did not study it, just quoted.
                      You have some kind of alternative Short course from an alternative story.
                      1. +1
                        20 March 2019 08: 52
                        Quote: naidas
                        I him not studiedjust quoted.

                        How is that possible? lol
                        Quote: naidas
                        You have some kind of alternative Short course from an alternative story.

                        You are illiterate, you don’t even know your bible, and she is Stalin about February. revolution:
                        Bolsheviks led direct struggle of the masses in the streets. Revolution made proletariat

                        a disgrace ....
                      2. -1
                        20 March 2019 22: 17
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        You are illiterate yes

                        Quote: Olgovich
                        the Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses in the streets. The proletariat carried out the revolution

                        Well, how do you explain that the Bolsheviks led, and the proletariat made the revolution. (In my quotation, Stalin explained the small number of Bolsheviks, they were in prison).
                        Well, let's quote from your alternative course.
                      3. +1
                        21 March 2019 09: 13
                        Quote: naidas
                        Well, how do you explain that led Bolsheviks, and revolution committed proletariat.

                        belay lol
                        KEM was led by the Bolsheviks. and ? lol the gendarmes?
                      4. -1
                        21 March 2019 17: 28
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        KEM was led by the Bolsheviks. and ? the gendarmes?

                        Olgovich was brought to you by the source, not a word about the overthrow of the tsar by the Bolsheviks, you cannot refute with a quote from the source, you brought gendarmes from your alternative world — how about your health?
                    2. -1
                      20 March 2019 22: 28
                      Quote: rusin
                      you did not do the Short Course well.

                      Well, the Bolsheviks put forward the initiative on the Soviets, and that overthrew the Tsar?
                      Quote: rusin
                      While the Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses in the streets, the compromising parties, the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries seized parliamentary seats

                      In my course with Stalin, this is understandable — they participated in the streets, but did not have it because of the small support of the people in power.
                      Do not reprimand the words, they led the masses, not the revolution. But this is a very big difference.

                      At the first All-Russian Congress of Soviets (June 1917), the words of Lenin there is such a party (on the seizure of power) caused laughter in the hall.
                      After the July crisis, the people followed the Bolsheviks, and after the failure of the Kornilov rebellion and the course towards armed rebellion.
                2. -1
                  19 March 2019 22: 00
                  Bogaevsky is no coincidence that the chieftain who created the international detachments:
                  "1. Of the detachments fighting on the fronts, by orders of the commanders of the fronts, special platoons, fifty or hundreds, composed of reliable, impeccable behavior of the Cossacks, and which should be given military courts, should be singled out. The task of these units in a strip of up to 50 versts in depth is to collect all military ranks that have left their units; to judge the most criminal of them and to execute the sentence on the spot, and to take the rest with them from village to village and deliver the fugitives to the nearest military units located in the strip from where the detachment was sent.
                  2. In the rear, deeper than the 50-verst strip, by order of the district chieftains, deserters should also be caught by special detachments with military vessels attached to them and members of the Great Military Highway. The tasks of these units are the same as in paragraph 1 of this order.
                  3. Temporary field courts shall be composed of 6 members: 3 Cossacks and 3 elected from among those subject to the draft of the village where the trial takes place.
                  4. The punishments applied by the court must be of only two types: 1) flogging with rods or lashes; 2) the death penalty.
                  5. When determining the punishment, do not constrain judges with any laws, but judge according to expediency and conscience.
                  6. Parsing in court and enforcement of the sentence - no more than 24 hours from the moment the trial begins. ”
                  7. Punished with flogging and a large fine, and sheltering deserters.
                  8. Keep a record in parts of the deserters caught and notify them against receipt that if the shoot is repeated, the death penalty will follow.

                  The order was signed by Ataman Bogaevsky and the commander of the Don Army, General Sidorin (see: Don Vedomosti, February 23 (March 8), 1919).
                  Claims 4 and on are very Cossack.
                3. -1
                  19 March 2019 22: 35
                  Quote: rusin
                  Red Cossacks killed ataman Nazarov

                  Yes, they didn’t do what the Cossacks did with Nazarov, although they could (A large, very excited crowd of railway workers and Bolsheviks raged around the Latvians. There were a lot of women - furies. They were especially frantic about demanding that they be sentenced to be “partisan officer, white-bandit bastard ..” . ". But the Latvians stood like a monolithic wall.) (Source: Buguraev M. Donskoy of the General Staff Major General A. Nazarov // Dear Land.)
                  And it was necessary for the Cossacks:
                  Quotation from the Cossack General Denisov: “A terrible everyday picture comes up before my eyes, but an ordinary picture of war is when, at the ordered hut, at the Zaplavskaya stanitsa’s village house, Cossacks do away with their own husbands and deal with prisoners delivered from a position, tear and tear them alive to pieces. Resistance to this and opposition from the authorities would be completely unnecessary and even harmful. ”
                  I’ll add from myself - what then did these individuals of both sexes want? They had to be shot like mad dogs. Because the Cossack authorities also encouraged atrocious extrajudicial killings, specially supplying prisoners for them, and the Cossack population itself perceived this as entertainment. Mass Chikatilo. In any case, no one will ever be able to give a similar example from the red side. And as it would be picturesque - for example, proletarian women shove the Cossacks under the presses of the Putilov factory, one after another ...
          2. +3
            18 March 2019 12: 55
            Vile skeptic "I suspect that you also take the words of burning literally."
            Yes, a hundred pounds! laughing
            1. +8
              18 March 2019 13: 08
              It would be nice to ask the "fighter for the truth" why he was so overexcited to the hyperbole in Vatsetis's speech, but he does not incriminate his like-minded person who reposted a fake quote (after which I entered the conversation).
        2. +5
          18 March 2019 13: 31
          Quote: rusin
          Quote: Nefarious skeptic
          One hundred million Russian proletariat

          Where did Leiba Bronstein in a country with 78% of peasants out of 170 million people find 100 million Russian proletarians ?!

          the overwhelming majority of peasants in 17 were proletarians along with workers, i.e. had neither capital nor means of production — who then, if not proletarians, were they?
          1. +2
            18 March 2019 14: 17
            Unconditionally, only landless non-bushmen.
            Everything else is from the field of polemics of political economists.
            1. +2
              18 March 2019 14: 28
              Quote: A vile skeptic
              Unconditionally, only landless non-bushmen.
              Everything else is from the field of polemics of political economists.

              and who was from the land of the former serfs? all in bondage for 50 years
              1. +2
                18 March 2019 14: 53
                Everything after 1907, except for replenished their allotments within the community. Like so.
                1. +2
                  18 March 2019 16: 18
                  Quote: A vile skeptic
                  Everything after 1907, except for replenished their allotments within the community. Like so.

                  by 16th year, only a third of the land was cut.
                  there, with the land question, the horse was still not lying. otherwise where does the revolution come from again?
    2. 0
      18 March 2019 22: 22
      And there is such a book - "Quiet Don" is called. The author is M. Sholokhov. Have you tried reading?
  3. +17
    18 March 2019 07: 14
    The author originally lied. The Cossacks were MILITARY CONDITIONS, Kalmyks and Buryats were recorded in the Cossacks. When pumping the Cossacks cut the land at the expense of neighbors. The uprising began not with storytelling, but with the establishment of the equal rights of all peoples. The lands began to be cut into all, without taking into account the estate, that's why the Cossacks rebelled, protecting their privileges.
    Cossacks after the uprising began to carry out purges * of non-Cossacks *, destroyed by families. The survivors were robbed, taking credit for not being killed. It is very artistically described in * Quiet Don *.
    How many * non-Cossacks * died is still not known exactly. In the battles for their privileges, the Cossacks were ready to destroy everyone until they themselves were shown their true place and benefactors from abroad and * former *. And with all this there were those who later served the Nazis.
    1. +1
      18 March 2019 08: 19
      Both sides are good ... noted in the shootings equally.

      “Cossacks are the only part of the Russian nation that is capable of self-organization. Therefore, they must be destroyed without exception. They are a kind of zoological environment, and nothing more ... A cleansing flame must pass throughout the Don and bring fear and almost religious horror to all of them. May their last remnants, like gospel pigs, be dumped into the Black Sea. ”


      This quote is a grossly perverted piece of an article by the head of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Republic during the Civil War and Joakim Wacetis, “Fighting the Don,” published in the Izvestia VTsIK newspaper in January and February 1919.

      https://aloban75.livejournal.com/3890709.html
      1. +3
        18 March 2019 12: 58
        The same LYOKHA "This quote is a grossly perverted piece of article."
        Not the only quote that was perverted by the way.)))
    2. -13
      18 March 2019 08: 54
      Quote: Vasily50
      When training Cossacks cut land at the expense of neighbors.

      what neighbors on the Don in the Middle Ages, the Buryats? fool lol ?! WHO? belay
      Quote: Vasily50
      The uprising began not with storytelling, but with the establishment of the equal rights of all peoples. Earth began to be cut into all

      what nations have returned the land from the Cossacks, a fighter for the equal rights of peoples?
      1. +6
        18 March 2019 10: 36
        Great Russian District
        (Russian) Little Russian
        (Ukrainian) German Kalmyk Armenian Jewish
        (Yiddish)
        The region as a whole 66,8% 28,1% 1,4% 1,3% 1,1% ...
        Donetsk 60,0% 38,9% ... ... ... ...
        Donskoy 1st 86,6% 11,6% ... ... ... ...
        Donskoy 2st 89,6% 8,7% ... ... ... ...
        Rostov 53,3% 33,6% 1,0% ... 6,9% 3,3%
        Salsky 32,1% 29,3% 1,0% 36,8% ... ...
        Taganrog 31,7% 61,7% 4,6% ... ... ...
        Ust-Medveditsky 87,0% 10,6% 2,0% ... ... ...
        Khopersky 92,8% 6,8% ... ... ... ...
        Cherkassky 78,9% 18,9% ... ... ... ...

        Cossacks make up about 40-45% of the region’s population.
        1. -2
          18 March 2019 11: 10
          Quote: Kazakh
          Great Russian District
          (Russian) Little Russian
          (Ukrainian) German Kalmyk Armenian Jewish
          (Yiddish)
          The region as a whole 66,8% 28,1% 1,4% 1,3% 1,1% ...
          Donetsk 60,0% 38,9% ... ... ... ...
          Donskoy 1st 86,6% 11,6% ... ... ... ...
          Donskoy 2st 89,6% 8,7% ... ... ... ...
          Rostov 53,3% 33,6% 1,0% ... 6,9% 3,3%
          Salsky 32,1% 29,3% 1,0% 36,8% ... ...
          Taganrog 31,7% 61,7% 4,6% ... ... ...
          Ust-Medveditsky 87,0% 10,6% 2,0% ... ... ...
          Khopersky 92,8% 6,8% ... ... ... ...
          Cherkassky 78,9% 18,9% ... ... ... ...

          Now write in Russian.
          1. The comment was deleted.
      2. +5
        18 March 2019 17: 24
        Terek Cossacks accounted for approximately 20% of the population of the Terek region, but owned more than 30% of the total land and 50% of the land convenient for cultivation. The land Cossack share on the Terek averaged 18,8 tithing, despite the fact that among the Highlanders this figure was 0,57 tithing. This made it possible to feed only 14% of the mountain population, the rest would have to die out.
        1. -1
          19 March 2019 09: 19
          Quote: naidas
          tersky Cossacks accounted for approximately 20% of the population of the Terek region, but owned more than 30% of the total land and 50% of the land convenient for cultivation. The land Cossack share on the Terek averaged 18,8 tithing, despite the fact that among the Highlanders this figure was 0,57 tithing. This allowed to feed only 14% of the mountain population, the rest would have to die out.

          1. You flood-article about the Don Cossacks

          2. Well, have you restored "justice"? They slaughtered and evicted tens of thousands of Cossacks, acquired ... "allies": the Red Highlanders.
          What, "your Poles helped you" (C)? fool
          How many Russian lives were laid during the assault in the 90th Cossack village (former) Samashkinskaya ,but?
          .
          Now the Russians are dying, and the mountainous peoples are growing.
          Maladets! Dobilis! hi
          1. -1
            19 March 2019 21: 49
            Quote: Olgovich
            1. You flood-article about the Don Cossacks

            The question was from Olgovich:
            Olgovich (Andrey) Yesterday, 08:54
            what nations returned the land from the Cossacks, a fighter for the equal rights of peoples?
            So Olgovich deal with Olgovich yourself-which flood.
            Quote: Olgovich
            They slaughtered and evicted tens of thousands of Cossacks, acquired ... "allies": the Red Highlanders.

            These your heroes first of all slaughtered Russians, which threw the bulk of the Cossacks to the Reds. (Read the article though)
            Quote: Olgovich
            Now the Russians are dying, and the mountainous peoples are growing. Maladets! Dobilis!

            Well, who's stopping you from multiplying and multiplying — God, president, someone else?
            1. 0
              20 March 2019 07: 57
              Quote: naidas
              Olgovich (Andrey) Yesterday, 08:54
              what nations returned the land from the Cossacks, a fighter for the equal rights of peoples?
              So Olgovich deal with Olgovich yourself-which flood.

              The question was about the lands of the Don Cossacks:
              When pumping the Cossacks cut the land at the expense of neighbors. The uprising didn’t begin with storytelling but with the establishment of the equal rights of all nations.
              It's about the DON rebellion.
              You are inattentive.
              Quote: naidas
              These your rHeroes cut out primarily Russian, which threw primary part of the Cossacks to the red. (read the article at least)

              belay fool lol
              Quote: naidas
              so who's stopping you from multiplying and multiplying — god, president, someone else?

              So the OLD population.
              And it’s aged by YOUR efforts in modern times.
  4. +9
    18 March 2019 08: 05
    “Trotsky demanded to arrange for the Cossacks“ Carthage ”.
    From the memoirs of Denikin "Essays on Russian Troubles"
    Bronstein's order for the Red Army:
    "... Under pain of the strictest punishment, I forbid the execution of captured ordinary Cossacks and enemy soldiers. The hour is near when the laboring Cossacks, having dealt with their counter-revolutionary officers, will unite under the banner of Soviet power."
    1. +9
      18 March 2019 09: 50
      Well, you anti-Soviet people don’t read the memoirs of their idols, and if they do, they are very small passages ...
  5. +4
    18 March 2019 10: 31
    Cossacks are the only part of the Russian nation that is capable of self-organization.“Something has lost the skill since the age of 91. All are self-organizing and self-organizing. Yes, in fact, the Old Men only gave rise to the Crusaders.
    1. +6
      18 March 2019 11: 49
      Well tell the Cossacks what am I wrong? Or is intelligence enough to disagree with a minus express? wink
      1. 0
        18 March 2019 15: 17
        Something lost the skill from '91 all are self-organizing and self-organizing

        See Transnistria, Yugoslavia, then everywhere. Organized and trained, traveled centrally. In Ossetia, by the way, the Cossacks were also the first. I don’t know how it is with the Kazakhs, but with the Cossacks everything is fine with the organization.
        1. +3
          18 March 2019 18: 24
          How do you know that you are not a Cossack but a gunner? And in Transnistria of Yugoslavia and in the Donbas, not only the Cossacks provided assistance
  6. 0
    18 March 2019 15: 22
    Article plus. Briefly and informatively.
  7. +2
    18 March 2019 20: 08
    Cossacks always considered themselves a separate nation. And now they think so. Order bearers and colonels of unknown troops are especially touched.
    1. 0
      19 March 2019 08: 13
      Not by the nation, but by the people. But the concept of people, I think, Cossacks use simply as a synonym for a special social group. This characteristic is not so much national as cultural. Cossacks consider themselves people more in spirit than in blood. Although, of course, the Cossacks have ethnic characteristics, they differ significantly by region.
  8. 0
    20 March 2019 00: 02
    In any outcome, the fate of the Cossacks was decided regardless of whether they were White or Red. While V. Lenin's grandfather was "locked" by comrade Sverdlov in Gorki and at the same time occupied his office for three months in the Kremlin, the question of terror against the Cossacks was decided, at the suggestion of the same Sverdlov. He didn't really want Lenin to have such highly trained fighters.