Military Review

Operation "White Sword". Beat at the heart of the revolution

27
Smoot. 1919 year. 100 years ago, in the fall of 1919, Operation White Sword began. The White Northwest Army under the command of Yudenich with the support of Estonian troops and the British fleet tried to take red Petrograd. In late September and October, the White Guards broke through the defenses of the Red Army and reached the near approaches to Petrograd.



Northwest Army Tank


The failure of the first attack on Petrograd


In the spring and summer of 1919, the White Guards, with the support of the Estonian army, made the first attempt to take Petrograd (May offensive of the Northern Corps, How white broke through to Petrograd) In the second half of May, the White Guard Northern Corps and Estonian troops, breaking through the defenses of the Red Army (Petrograd defended the troops of the Western Front as part of the 7 and 15 armies), captured Gdov, Yamburg and Pskov. At the end of May, the whites reached Luga, Ropsha and Gatchina, 11 — 12 of June — to the forts “Krasnaya Gorka” and “Gray Horse”, where an anti-Soviet rebellion broke out.

The red front staggered. The Petrograd direction was considered calm, there were not the best parts. Many soldiers sided with the enemy, surrendered, or fled. The command was unsatisfactory. However, the Soviet government reacted immediately and most decisively restored the defense capability of Petrograd. On May 22, the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) Addressed the workers with an appeal "To the Defense of Petrograd", adopted a resolution on the mobilization of communists and workers of the north-western provinces to the Petrograd sector of the front, which was recognized as the most important. A commission led by Stalin and the deputy chairman of the Cheka Peters arrived from Moscow to Petrograd to investigate and take emergency measures. Petrograd carried out a “purge”, the White Guard, anti-Soviet underground, ready for an uprising, was suppressed. Mobilization was hastily carried out in the city, new units were formed, reserves from Central Russia and parts from other fronts were being tightened. The proximity of such a large city to the front, with a powerful industrial potential, large population, the main base of the Baltic Fleet, became an important prerequisite for the victory of the Red Army in the Petrograd direction.

As a result, White’s offensive stifled. The troops of the Northern Corps of Rodzianko, even with the support of the Estonians, who relied on the white rear, were too small and weak to storm such a huge city, the former capital of the Russian Empire. Help from Finland did not wait. The Finns, who planned to build "Great Finland" at the expense of Russian lands (Karelia, the Kola Peninsula), began the invasion back in April (How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd) In the second half of April, the Finnish "Olonets Volunteer Army" captured Olonets and went to Lodeynoy Pole. In early May, the Finnish army was driven back from Lodeynoye Pole, and on 6 in May, Soviet troops liberated Olonets. The joint performance of the Northern Corps and Finland on Petrograd did not take place.

Rodzianko’s army quickly ran out of steam. Not enough weapons and ammunition. Supply from Estonia has been discontinued. Then the whites lost the support of the Estonian troops. White captured a large territory, Pskov. However, war has already swept through these lands twice. Robbed, ravaged lands could not provide either fighters or food. White and could not get a rear base on Russian soil.

In addition, there was no unity in the white movement itself. Its leaders were in conflict. The "Ataman of the peasant and partisan detachments" Bulak-Balakhovich sought to lead the white army in the Baltic states, clashed with Rodzianko and Yudenich (he accepted the army on 2 on October). Having captured Pskov, Bulak-Balakhovich established his order in the city. Pskov was completely plundered, and the population was terrorized. Also, the "father" was convicted of printing fake money ("kerenok"). Rodzianko tried to calm the raging "dad". He wanted to transfer his detachment to the new 2 corps of General Arsenyev and reorganize it into a regular unit with its organization and discipline. However, the “Old Man” did not want to obey such an order and suggested reforming his detachment into the “Peasant Army”.

The sabotage and altercation between the commander of the North-Western Army, General Rodzianko and Bulak-Balakhovich lasted more than a month. The leaders of the British military mission, Generals Marsh and Gough, and the Estonian Commander-in-Chief Laidoner took part in this conflict. The proximity of Bulak-Balakhovich to the Estonian British military leadership irritated Yudenich and Rodzianko. They saw the intrigues of the "father" against the command of the North-West Army, but could not suppress his rebellion without the approval of the Allies. As a result, the new commander of the Northwest Army, General Yudenich, with the full support of the army commanders, ordered the arrest of the "father". A detachment of Colonel Permikin was sent to Pskov. “Bulak-Balakhovich fled under the protection of the Estonians. The withdrawal from the front of a part of the white forces and the Estonians supporting them allowed the 15 Red Army quite easily to occupy Pskov. In September, Bulak-Balakhovich tried to arrest the command of the North-West Army in order to lead it, but his conspiracy was exposed. Subsequently, the "father" with his detachment was in the service of the Estonians.

Operation "White Sword". Beat at the heart of the revolution

Bulak-Balakhovich (far left) in Pskov with the commander of the Estonian army Johan Laidon. 31 May 1919 of the year


On 21 on June, the troops of the 7 Red Army, with the support of the Baltic Fleet, broke through the defenses of the Northern Army (deployed from the Northern Corps on 19 on June, and the North-West Army on 1 on July) and on August 5 liberated Yamburg. In late June - early July, the troops of the 7 Army, in cooperation with the Onega military flotilla, during the Vidlitsky operation drove the Finnish troops to the border. The troops of the 15 Army 26, which went on the offensive in mid-August, liberated Pskov on August.

Thus, with the liberation of Yamburg and Pskov, the Red Army summed up the first White Guard attack on Petrograd. The defeated white parts were fixed on a narrow bridgehead between Lake Peipsi and the Plyussa River. Yudenich’s army was squeezed on a narrow patch of land with the “capital” in Gdov. On the right flank, the Reds threatened from Pskov, Lake Peipsi and Estonia beyond the river. Narva were in the rear, the sea on the left flank. The army headquarters in Narva, the “government” in Reval - is already on foreign territory. There was a temporary lull in the Petrograd direction.

It is worth noting that the Civil War in the north-west of Soviet Russia is interesting for the interweaving of interests of Germany (at the first stage of the formation of the Baltic Limitrophs and white forces), the Entente - primarily England, which tried to occupy a dominant position in the Baltic Region, the nationalistic aspirations of the Baltic Limitrophs and Finland . The white formations in these conditions in the northwest turned out to be very weak and very much depended on the support of external sponsors of the Civil War in Russia. So, the Northern Corps (then the army) was very dependent on the position of Estonia and the British.



Creation of the Northwest Government


In early August 1919, the Estonian government raised the issue of recognition of independence by the white movement, threatening otherwise to stop supporting Rodzianko’s army. On August 10, Deputy Chief of the British Military Mission in the Baltic, General Marsh (March), summoned members of the Political Conference under Yudenich to Revel (One of the best generals of the First World War N. N. Yudenich, H. 2, H. 3, H. 4), a group of industrialists from the Committee on Russian Affairs in Finland and public figures. Here he delivered an ultimatum to them: immediately, without leaving the room, to form a "government of the North-Western region of Russia." Otherwise, the British will stop helping the white movement and the White Guards will not receive anything from the already brought goods (weapons, uniforms, etc.). This government was to immediately recognize the independence of Estonia, conclude an alliance agreement with it. The British also prepared a list of members of the government and the Tex Treaty, recognizing the full independence of Estonia.

Bearing in mind the extremely difficult situation of the army and not seeing any other way out, the members of the meeting accepted the British ultimatum. Yudenich, who was at the front, was unable to arrive at the meeting on time due to frustrated communications. But he demanded from Marsh that a decision should not be made without him. But the decision was made. On August 11, a government led by Lianozov was created. Yudenich was appointed Minister of War and Commander-in-Chief. At the same time, the British changed the statement again in a day. If on August 10 General Marsh invited the Russian and Estonian representatives to sign a document with mutual equal and direct obligations (the formed Russian government was obliged to recognize the full independence of Estonia, and the Estonian government was to provide the armed forces with armed support “in the liberation of Petrograd”), then the document from August 11 It was already a unilateral obligation of the Russians to recognize the independence of Estonia and a request to the Estonian government to assist in the attack on Petrograd.

The Northwest government is located in Reval. In September, the Lianozov government recognized the independence of Latvia and Finland. The issue of own currency began. The offensive on Petrograd by the forces of the Northwest Army did not promise a quick victory. Therefore, in its foreign policy activities, the northwestern government made every effort to attract Estonia and Finland to attack the Petrograd. However, negotiations dragged on and the question of direct and open action by Estonia and Finland against the Bolsheviks remained open. Estonia and Finland put forward the requirement for the immediate and unconditional recognition of their state independence not only by the northwestern government, but also by Admiral Kolchak and the League of Nations as the main condition for providing armed assistance to the Yudenich army. And the "supreme ruler" Kolchak categorically refused to recognize the independence of Estonia. The government forcefully created by the British did not go into military affairs, limiting itself to the role of an advisory and administrative body under the commander in chief Yudenich.

At the same time, the British did not render effective assistance to the White Guards. Due to their intrigues, the receipt by the troops of the necessary weapons and uniforms was still delayed. While negotiating, while unloading, while delivering ... The Red Army did not wait and defeated the enemy. Small, poorly armed and without ammunition, the droopy spirit of the Northwest Army retreated beyond the Luga River, blowing up bridges behind it. The recognition of independence did not improve relations with Estonians. On the contrary, seeing the weakness of whites, seeing how the British were wiping their feet on them, they gained strength and became insolent. Estonian troops looked at the White Guards with hostility, as at possible opponents of their independence, the Estonian authorities, as they could, put sticks in the wheels. Home-grown Estonian politicians and national intelligentsia, drugged by "freedom", dreamed of creating their own "power." An information campaign was conducted against the "Great Russian" governments of Kolchak, Denikin and the Northwest Army, a bubble of threats from the white officers who promised to move to Revel after the capture of Petrograd was inflated.

True, the high command, led by General Laidoner, understood that the Estonian troops are too weak to withstand the Reds, and if they go to the Estonian border, they will quickly establish Soviet power there. It was obvious that it was better to fight the enemy on foreign territory and with the wrong hands. Let the Russians weaken the Russians. Therefore, Laidoner willingly went to a military-technical agreement with Yudenich. Threw up a little help with weapons and money. Estonian regiments advanced into Russian territory and guarded the rear, minor sectors of the front, which made it possible for White to concentrate all his forces and assets in the main areas. However, anti-Russian propaganda was doing its job, Estonian troops were more and more hostile to the Whites.

From the allied command, Yudenich’s army did not wait for effective assistance. When the trick of Hoff and Marsh with the creation of the northwestern government received publicity, an international scandal erupted. It turned out that the British military mission has the authority only to be under Yudenich, and not arbitrarily rebuild the life of the Baltic states. A diplomatic conflict arose between France and England. The French themselves broke firewood in southern Russia, but here they tried to act as defenders of Russian interests. Mainly due to a possible future threat from Germany. Paris has in the east an ally against the Germans. As a result, the Supreme Council transferred the general leadership of the allied forces in the western region from England to France. Hoff and Marsh were recalled. France sent General Nissel to the Baltic. But while negotiations were ongoing, time was lost. By October, Nissel had not yet reached Revel. During the decisive battles, Yudenich’s army was left without the support of the Entente.


Head of the Northwest Government S. G. Lianozov


The idea of ​​a new offensive on Petrograd


The Soviet government tried to regulate relations with the Baltic countries. Finland was recognized by the Council of People's Commissars as early as December 1917. In response to the note of the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Chicherin from 31 on August 1919 to Estonia, on September 14 on September September, the foreign ministers of Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia gathered to resolve the issue of peace negotiations. 29 September 1919 was opened in Yuryev conciliation conference of the Baltic states. On October 4, the governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania informed Moscow of their agreement to begin preliminary talks on October 25 in Yuriev. At the same time, Estonia hindered the start of negotiations with Soviet Russia. The Estonian government wanted to support itself in two scenarios: the victory of the whites and their capture of Petrograd, and the victory of the Red Army. These negotiations provided diplomatic cover for the offensive of Yudenich’s army on Petrograd. Weakened vigilance of the Soviet command in the Petrograd direction.

Estonian Foreign Minister Noski said in an interview with the Minister of Commerce, Industry and Supply of the Northwestern Government Margulies:
“Hurry up with the preparation of the offensive, and we will support you. But know that everything must be done before November, because later we will no longer be able to evade peaceful negotiations with the Bolsheviks. ”


The ongoing diplomatic negotiations between Estonia and the Bolsheviks forced the White Guards to rush into an attack on Petrograd in order to once and for all discourage the Baltic Limitrophs from negotiating independence with the Soviet government. In addition, the attention of whites in the north-west of Russia was riveted to the fighting on the Southern Front, where Denikin broke through to Moscow. In September - early October 1919, the attack of Denikin’s army on Moscow developed successfully, it even seemed that the red Southern Front was falling apart and a little more and the White Guards would take the capital. It seemed that the moment for the strike on Petrograd was the most favorable. The offensive of Yudenich’s army will contribute to the victory of the All-Union Socialist League in Moscow and the overall victory of the white movement in Russia.

The British also pushed for an attack on Petrograd. The British military mission assured Yudenich that, with the advance of the Northwest Army, the English fleet would provide support on the coastal flank and undertake an operation against Kronstadt and the Baltic Red Fleet. It was wise to launch the offensive before the start of winter, while the British fleet could provide support. Then the waters of the Gulf of Finland will be chained with ice. White also had to prove to the Entente its usefulness in order to be supported.

In September 1919, the Northwest Army revived. Finally, the whites received weapons, ammunition, ammunition, food, which were supposed to arrive in the summer. The Entente stepped up supplies. True, there was a lot of outright rubbish. The war in Europe ended and the Westerners got rid of scrap metal. So, from the party sent tanks only one turned out to be serviceable, the rest required major repairs. Airplanes were unsuitable, because the motors sent to them were not the same brand. English guns were not of high quality, were without locks. But on the whole, the army was armed, equipped, equipped with ammunition. Parts began to receive food rations and cash allowance. Discipline has recovered, morale has recovered.

There was no unity in the white leadership in the northwest about the future offensive. Part of the government believed that it was premature. The army is too small, so it is necessary to gain time, form new units, prepare and arm them, and only then strike at Petrograd. However, the opinion of the military leadership led by Yudenich won. The generals believed that it was necessary to attack immediately, while Denikin was advancing in the south, there was a supply from England and Estonia did not make peace with Soviet Russia.

State of the Northwest Army


At the time of the second offensive, the North-Western Army consisted of 26 infantry regiments, 2 cavalry regiments, 2 individual battalions and an amphibious naval detachment, totaling about 18,5 thousand people. The army was armed with about 500 machine guns, 57 guns, 4 armored trains (Admiral Kolchak, Admiral Essen, Talabchanin and Pskovite), 6 tanks, 6 airplanes and 2 armored cars.

The composition was motley. The soldiers were from peasants mobilized in the frontline who did not want to fight, former prisoners of war of the old army, who were in the camps of Austria-Hungary and Germany and deserters from the Red Army. The most combat-ready was Lieven's detachment (of a monarchist orientation), he was perfectly equipped with the German authorities, and with his dressing and discipline resembled parts of the old army. Among the officers were supporters of orientation to Germany. A mass of the useless element was concentrated in the rear: cowards who were afraid of the front line, greedy parasites from the civilian and military, generals and former officials, gendarmes, adventurers, longing for profit at all costs (robbery of Petrograd or a crumbling, crumbling army).

Army troops were divided into 2 corps: 1th under the command of Count Palen (2th, 3th and 5th Liven divisions), 2th - General Arsenyev (4th division and a separate brigade). There were also separate units - the 1-I separate division Dzerozhinsky (3,2 thousand people), 1-th and 2-th reserve regiments, tank battalion and amphibious assault squad.

The White Guards planned to seize Petrograd by a sudden and powerful blow to the shortest direction Yamburg - Gatchina. Auxiliary and distracting attacks were carried out in the Luga and Pskov directions.


Northwest Army Command


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
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How to restore Soviet power in Ukraine
How Petliurists led Little Russia to a complete catastrophe
How defeated Petliurism
Give the boundaries of 1772 of the year!
Battle for the North Caucasus. How to suppress the Terek Uprising
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 2. December battle
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 3. The January accident of the 11 Army
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 4. How the 11 army died
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 5. Capture of Kizlyar and the Terrible
Battle for the North Caucasus. CH 6. Furious assault of Vladikavkaz
How Georgia tried to seize Sochi
How the Whites crushed the Georgian invaders
The war of February and October as a confrontation between two civilization projects
How did the "Flight to the Volga"
How Kolchak's army broke through to the Volga
Catastrophe of the Don Cossacks
Verkhniyon uprising
How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd
"All to fight with Kolchak!"
Frunze. Red Napoleon
The missed opportunities of the army of Kolchak
May offensive of the Northern Corps
How white broke through to Petrograd
Battle for the South of Russia
Strategic change on the southern front. Manych operation
Crimea on fire Russian distemper
Crimea in 1918-1919. Intervents, local authorities and whites
How did the uprising of ataman Grigoriev
Nikifor Grigoriev, "ataman of the rebel forces of Kherson region, Zaporizhia and Tavria"
Odessa operation ataman Grigoriev
Uprising in the Ukraine. How failed the “Blitzkrieg” of Grigorievka
Ufa operation. How were defeated the best parts of the army of Kolchak
Moscow campaign army Denikin
"All to fight with Denikin!"
Battle of the Urals
The defeat of the Siberian army. How the Red Army liberated Perm and Yekaterinburg
The defeat of Kolchak in the Chelyabinsk battle
August Counterattack of the Southern Front
The battle for Siberia. Recent operations Kolchak
Pyrrhic victory of the Kolchak armies on Tobol
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  1. Albatroz
    Albatroz 4 October 2019 06: 34
    +7
    Events for which for some reason much less attention is paid than the GV in southern Russia.
    In many respects, it’s crucial, and it’s excellent that they are paid attention to Military Review.
    And the bottom photograph does not exactly refer to an earlier period in the life of N. Yudenich, one of the best commanders of the WWI?
    Probably the general just loved these pictures.
    here is an earlier one. The scene is very similar
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 4 October 2019 22: 33
      -1
      Yudenich really was an excellent commander.
      If he headed the South, and not Denikin, then white
      could achieve greater success.
      Denikin was a decent honest man, but an average commander.
      1. Albatroz
        Albatroz 5 October 2019 08: 48
        +5
        Denikin was an excellent COMMANDER, for in the Great War he had excellent command of the division and, well, of the front.
        But COMMANDER, this word suggests a little more.
        Yudenich was a colonel, moreover, Suvorov school. Eye meter, speed, onslaught)
        But, of course, generals - heroes of wars with an external enemy are not suitable for civil wars. The latter have their own, often incomprehensible and hooligan laws.
        Yes, and such an eerie balance of power.
        It is worth saying that the eye and here did not disappoint Yudenich. Quickly enough, he became convinced of the futility of his onslaught and left.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 4 October 2019 06: 50
    -12
    In the spring and summer of 1919, the White Guards, with the support of the Estonian army, made their first attempt take Petrograd

    not to take, but release from the invaders, supported by the foreign mercenary army of Soviet Latvia
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 10: 07
      +6
      not to take, but to release from the invaders, acting with the support of the foreign mercenary army of Soviet Latvia
      It's funny ... Yudenich, like all other "whites", is the same invader as the Reds. Not tired of talking about your nonsense? If you forgot, then Nikolashka was not dared by the Bolsheviks, but by the white generals you adore, headed by the relatives of the idiot king.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 4 October 2019 12: 19
        -9
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        Funny ...

        Laughter for no reason, yes ...
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        Yudenich, like all other "whites", is the same invader as the Reds.

        No, white did NOT illegally seize power, contrary to the will of the people expressed in the ELECTION. She was captured losers.
        They fought for this popular choice.
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        Not tired of carrying your stuff?

        More specifically, funny.
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        If you forgot it, then the Bolsheviks did not dare to Nicholas, but the white generals adored by you, led by the relatives of the half-witted tsar.

        You didn’t go to school?

        Stalin wrote to you in a short course on the february of revolution about the following:
        The bourgeoisie thought to resolve the crisis through a palace coup.
        But people allowed its own way.
        February 23 (March 8) at the call of the Petrograd Committee Bolsheviks female workers took to the streets to demonstrate against hunger, war, tsarism.
        Practice guide bolshevik party carried out in
        this time the Party Central Committee Bureau in Petrograd
        led by comrade Molotov. Bureau of the Central Committee issued on February 26 (March 11) manifest
        with a call to continue the armed struggle against tsarism, to create
        Provisional revolutionary government.
        Bolsheviks led the direct struggle masses on
        the streets

        Got it?
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 12: 35
          +5
          No, white did NOT illegally seize power
          From those here, strength is all in the mandate ... But who made the February revolution, is it really Lenin and his comrades ?!
          contrary to the will of the people expressed in the ELECTION.
          What elections are cute? In the founding or what? Don’t tell my sneakers ... Your people showed their choice when they drove mother from Russia with a filthy broom from the whole White Guard pack together with the invaders.
          You didn’t go to school?
          Unlike you, YES went.
          Got it?
          What exactly? Quote taken out of context? Nope, this is not an answer to a specific question, but again your next pulling an owl on a globe. I hope you don’t have to remind who the first of the Romanovs put on a red bow, no ?!

          It’s ridiculous to talk to you monarchy of her God, you’re all up and down ...
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 October 2019 13: 10
            -9
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            From those here, strength is all in the mandate ... But who made the February revolution, is it really Lenin and his comrades ?!

            Didn't get it 1 time? I repeat:
            Stalin wrote to you in a short course on the february of revolution about the following:
            The bourgeoisie thought to resolve the crisis through a palace coup.
            But the people resolved it in their own way.
            On February 23 (March 8), at the call of the Petrograd Committee of the Bolsheviks, women workers took to the streets to demonstrate against hunger, war, and tsarism.
            The practical work of the Bolshevik Party was led in
            this time the Party Central Committee Bureau in Petrograd
            led by comrade Molotov. Bureau of the Central Committee issued a manifesto on February 26 (March 11)
            with a call to continue the armed struggle against tsarism, to create
            Provisional revolutionary government.
            the Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses on
            the streets
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            What elections are cute? In the founding or what? Don’t tell my sneakers ... Your people showed their choice when they drove mother from Russia with a filthy broom from the whole White Guard pack together with the invaders

            The people in the war didn’t participate, 5% of the country's population participated in it. In the elections, more than 50%.
            did you get it?
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            Unlike you, YES went.

            Nope
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            What exactly? Quote taken out of context? Nope, this is not an answer to a specific question, but again your next pulling an owl on a globe.

            Refute Stalin in FULL text. lol
            He is about February roar:
            "Revolution made proletariat, he showed heroism, he shed blood, he carried with him the widest masses of the working and the poorest
            population ... "

            By the way. The USSR had a day off- HOLIDAY March 1: Day of the Overthrow of the Autocracy. Apparently, in honor of the white generals who threw off the king. lol
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            I hope you don’t have to remind who the first of the Romanovs put on a red bow, no ?!

            NOBODY from the Romanovs red bow-NOT dressed.

            But a certain Ulyanov - FOR THE FIRST TIME IN LIFE, it was after the February revolution, instead of the usual bowler hat, put on ... a cap (cap) - "closer" to the backgammon, yes ...
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            it’s ridiculous to talk to you by monarchy, all you have is a scruff of the neck

            Funny bankrupt ..... lol
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 14: 22
              +4
              NOBODY from the Romanovs red bow-NOT dressed.
              Well, how about ... For people like you, at least pee into God's eyes all God's dew, so chtoli?
              "Also, the behavior of Kirill himself during the February Revolution caused criticism of the Romanovs. He announced his support for the revolution and with his military unit went over to the side of the State Duma. He even put on a red bow."
              Moreover, he removed the Guards Naval Crew, which he commanded from the guard of Tsarskoye Selo, where at that moment the Nikolashka family was and went at the head of this very crew to St. Petersburg to take the oath of office to the Provisional Government. But for you, this is a secret behind seven seals, isn't it?
              Olgovich, stop getting off heavy drugs already, they destroy brain cells, if you have any.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 5 October 2019 09: 01
                -3
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                Well, how about ... For people like you, at least pee in the eyes all God's dew, so chtoli?

                Your eyes are yours to judge. lol
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                "Also, the behavior of Kirill himself during the February Revolution caused criticism of the Romanovs. He announced his support for the revolution and with his military unit went over to the side of the State Duma. He even put on a red bow."

                Empty CHAW-without sources, witnesses, etc ..
                Rear Admiral Zelenetsky, a former captain of the imperial yacht Standart, who accompanied the Grand Duke to the Taurus Palace, stated that:
                not only on the Grand Duke, but not on any sailor of these there were no bowsabout what he truly knows, because he personally examined the system of guards sailors in the barracks.

                former comrade of the Chairman of the State Duma S. T. Varun-Secret, standing next to Rodzianko:
                The Grand Duke entered, accompanied by two officers; all three were dressed in uniform - in black overcoats, with headpieces threaded under shoulder straps - and not one of them wore no bows or any unformed differences. ”

                Colonel Engelhardt, also a member of the State Duma:

                At the head of the Guards crew appeared Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich. He came into my office, contrary to existing stories, he has there was no red bow on his shoulder ".


                Now about the goal: Lieutenant General Mosolov:

                Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, at the head of the Guards crew he commanded, went to the Duma, hoping to contribute to thisestablishing order in the capital and saving the Dynasty at a critical moment. This attempt did not find support and remained inconclusive. ”
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                Olgovich, stop getting off heavy drugs already, they destroy brain cells, if you have any.

                Advice for advice: read something more than dumb comms. agitation - so as not to look at least funny.
        2. apro
          apro 4 October 2019 13: 46
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          Got it

          I did not quite understand your idea ... it turns out that both VILenin and IVStalin received real power as a result of the February bourgeois coup, did they enter the government of the bourgeois Russian republic? Or did they continue to struggle with the bourgeois provisional government? I don’t understand your idea ..
          1. Alexander Suvorov
            Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 14: 05
            +6
            I do not quite understand your idea ...
            Don't even try. To understand the monarchy can only be the same monarchy on the whole head. They live in another dimension and see history only in the pink snot about the Constituent Assembly and the rivers of milk in the jelly banks under the Tsar Father. Moreover, they themselves cannot really determine who they are monarchists or the Februaryists who overthrew them. It is absolutely useless to explain that the tsar was overthrown by those who would later be called the "white movement"; they stubbornly ignore the fact that the tsar was overthrown by his own entourage, including members of the Romanov family itself. They simply ignore this FACT, BUT instead they squeeze quotations from the articles of Lenin and Stalin, allegedly proving the leading role of the Bolsheviks in the February coup. In general, complete and complete surrealism in the monarchical madhouse. lol
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 4 October 2019 19: 27
              +4
              Quite right. This Romanian singer of the monarchist "one and indivisible" lives in his own world, in no way connected with reality.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 5 October 2019 09: 05
            -1
            Quote: apro
            I do not quite understand your idea ... it turns out and VILenin and IVStalin received real power as a result of the February bourgeois coup?

            WHERE is it with me? belay
            Quote: apro
            did they enter the government of the bourgeois Russian republic? Or did they continue the struggle with the bourgeois interim government? I do not understand your idea ..

            Stalin clearly writes about this in a short course: while the BOLSHWIKI carried out (and implemented) Feb. the revolution , the Soviets captured the Mensheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries, etc.
        3. sd000016
          sd000016 6 October 2019 20: 24
          +2
          In February 17, the Bolsheviks did not lead anything or anyone, contrary to Stalin's statement, and had no influence on the events that were taking place. Details in the four-volume book of the historian O. Ayrapetov "Participation of the Russian Empire in the First World War (1914-1917). Volume 4. 1917. Disintegration. M. Kuchkovo Pole. 2015."
      2. antivirus
        antivirus 5 October 2019 11: 02
        +1
        bathhouse for the lousy, and they were better in Estonia - there they left, from Petrograd, with hairbrushes.
  3. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 4 October 2019 08: 28
    +3
    There is an opinion that, militarily, the Civil War in Russia, from the point of view of military art, is a rollback. Few equipment and modern weapons, huge distances, reincarnation of cavalry, etc.
    But, at the same time, the use (in limited quantities) of the latest weapons: aviation and tanks.
    The use of tanks in this theater of civil war is especially interesting.
    1. DimanC
      DimanC 4 October 2019 09: 51
      +5
      So modern weapons and nowhere to come from in essence. There was no aircraft construction, automobile construction and tank construction of its own. Even machine guns - and those produced crumbs against the background of Western countries. All "innovations" were brought from abroad in the form of assistance to the RIA during WWI, or to whites directly during the Civil War. Yes, and there was no "reincarnation" of cavalry either - it was actively used in WWI as well, there simply weren't such large military formations, such as horse armies. The question here is that the specifics of the war itself, including the density of troops, communications, etc., determined this character of the war. On the other hand, the Reds gained tremendous experience in carrying out "permanent mobilization" (A. Isaev wrote about this in some detail), which was then useful to the leadership of the USSR to restore the army during the summer-autumn battles of 1941.
      1. Edward Vashchenko
        Edward Vashchenko 4 October 2019 10: 41
        +1
        This is what we are talking about. hi
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 4 October 2019 10: 57
      +3
      Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
      It is believed that, militarily, the Civil War in Russia, from the point of view of military art, is a rollback.

      And we know the author of this opinion. smile
      The Civil War is not a real war, because it was a war without artillery, without aviation, without tanks, without mortars. Without all this, what is this serious war? It was a special war, not modern. We were poorly armed, poorly dressed, poorly fed, but still we defeated the enemy, who had much more weapons, who was much better armed, because here the spirit mainly played a role.
      So, what prevented our commanding assembly from waging a war in Finland in a new way, not in the type of civil war, but in a new way? In my opinion, the cult of tradition and experience of the civil war interfered. As our command structure is regarded: have you participated in the civil war? No, I did not participate. Go away. Did he participate? Participated. Give him here, he has a lot of experience and more.
      I must say, of course, the experience of the civil war is very valuable, the traditions of the civil war are also valuable, but they are completely insufficient. This is precisely the cult of the tradition and experience of the civil war that must be put to an end, and it prevented our command personnel from immediately reorganizing themselves in a new way, on the tracks of modern war.
      Not the last person we have is comrade commander, the first one, if you want, in terms of the civil war, he has a lot of experience, he is a respected, honest person, but he still can’t adapt to a new modern way. He does not understand that it is impossible to immediately conduct an attack without artillery processing. He sometimes leads the shelves with a bang. If a war is waged like this, it means ruining the matter, whether it will be personnel or not, the first class will ruin anyway. If the enemy sits in the trenches, has artillery, tanks, then he will undoubtedly defeat.
      The traditions and experience of the civil war are completely inadequate, and whoever considers them sufficient will surely die. The commander who believes that he can fight and win, relying only on the experience of the civil war, will die as a commander.

      However, the author of the previous quote walked around Hassan with Khalkhin Gol:
      ... for the entire existence of Soviet power, we have not yet waged a real modern war. Small episodes in Manchuria, near the lake. Hassan or in Mongolia - this is nonsense, this is not war, these are individual episodes on the spot, strictly limited. Japan was afraid to start a war, we also did not want this, and some test of strength on a patch showed that Japan had failed. They had 2-3 divisions and we have 2-3 divisions in Mongolia, the same number on Hassan. Our army has not yet waged a real, serious war.
    3. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 4 October 2019 14: 50
      +3
      Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
      It is believed that, militarily, the Civil War in Russia, from the point of view of military art, is a rollback.

      However, in 1941, Halder mentioned Budyonny as the author of a new method in military art, which the Germans adopted for themselves ...
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 October 2019 16: 01
        +2
        Interesting ... Halder did not read.
        Igor, if it's not difficult, drop the link where you can find his statement about Budyonny. The fact is that the methods of warfare that Budyonny used during the Civil War were completely outdated by 1941, which, in fact, was proved by the "honorable" resignation given to Budenny - Stalin. I mean the resignation from the direct leadership of the fighting of the Red Army. And, in my opinion, Halder's statement sounds somewhat strange against the background of the actions of Guderian and Rommel in France. hi
        1. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 4 October 2019 17: 31
          +2
          "War Diary", entry dated 23.06.1941/12681/2, For example, here: https://itexts.net/avtor-franc-galder/25.07.1941-voennyy-dnevnik-franc-galder/read/page-XNUMX.html. On July XNUMX, XNUMX, he wrote: "Before Army Group South, the enemy was at its best in matters of general leadership and offensive operations of an operational scale. Before Army Groups Center and North, the enemy showed himself from a bad side in this respect." It was Budyonny who was in command in the south.
          It’s more correct to say: the equipment with which they fought in the civilian (carts) is outdated. But the Germans understood the principle correctly.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 4 October 2019 19: 44
            +1
            Thank you, Igor, I’ll take a look at your leisure somehow. But your idea is clear and so. hi
    4. Catfish
      Catfish 4 October 2019 16: 21
      +3
      Good afternoon, Edward. hi

      Remember, there was such a very good film "We are from Kronstadt", there it is very clearly shown how from the tank Mark "Female" used in a "limited number" (one piece), brave revolutionary sailors flashed their heels. And the situation was saved by only one comfrey infantryman who thrust a grenade under the track of the tank. This is me about the purely psychological impact of even a "limited" amount of unfamiliar weapons on people who first encountered such a technique.
      1. Edward Vashchenko
        Edward Vashchenko 4 October 2019 20: 51
        +1
        Constantine
        good evening,
        I remember the film, the contents are forgotten.
        I completely agree with you. hi
  4. Moore
    Moore 5 October 2019 09: 07
    +3
    It is funny that the local "monarchists-patrons of the throne" delicately do not notice the fact of trade in imperial territories by the "Saviors of the Fatherland".
    Here, I remember. someone spoke about the brilliant foreign policy of tsarist Russia, which allowed the creation of a powerful allied coalition, where RI did not enter the debtor-patient supplier of cannon fodder, but equal among equals? Yes Yes.
    What did the Angles do with your favorite "liberators" - their allies? Fed up, sent the Bolsheviks to drive. The "liberators" began to win - the tap was closed for them. The Bolsheviks began to win - they threw military trash to the "liberators". Well, even in Riga, just in case, they knocked on the narcissistic head of Bermont-Avalov, so that he would sit on the priest evenly and not suddenly climb onto Velikiye Luki - he would have been.
    The "loyal allies" had two tasks: to kill as many Russian people as possible and to tear apart the Russian state. When they partially succeeded, and the "liberators" where they were late, where they officially recognized the limitrophes as self-appointed, these "liberators" were merged in the most cynical way. How many of them perished in concentration camps or were simply killed in the streets of their own self-recognized free estooon "allies" - no one really knows - only from St. Petersburg there were ten thousand refugees ...