Military Review

Strategic victory for the army of Yudenich near Erzurum

37
Erzerum battle


The Supreme Commander’s headquarters did not set offensive tasks for the 1915-1916 winter period to the headquarters of the Caucasian Army. The army was supposed to strengthen its defensive positions. In the autumn and winter of 1915, relative calm was established on the Caucasian front. The largest operation was the sending in November of General N.N. Baratov in western Persia (Hamadan operation). Russian troops operated successfully in Persia, securing the left flank of the Caucasian army. However, due to the introduction of troops into Persia, the Caucasian army now had to keep the front in 1500 km. Nikolay Yudenich created an army maneuverable reserve and paid great attention to the engineering equipment of the positions. The troops were provided with provisions and winter clothing. Sapper units repaired roads, laid new ones.

However, it was not possible to survive the winter. Bulgaria’s entry into the war on the side of the powers of the Central Bloc changed the strategic situation in favor of Turkey. Through the Bulgarian territory in the Ottoman Empire began to flow weapons, ammunition and ammunition for the Turkish army. There was a direct connection between Berlin and Istanbul. In addition, the Ottoman army, unexpectedly for allies with superiority in navy and the saturation of troops with modern weapons, destroyed the plans of England and France to capture the straits. The Dardanelles (Gallipoli) operation, which was carried out from February 19, 1915 to January 9, 1916, ended in complete defeat. In geopolitical and military-strategic terms, this victory of Turkey was even beneficial to Russia, because the British were not going to give in to the straits of St. Petersburg and undertook this operation to get ahead of the Russians. On the other hand, the Ottoman command was given the opportunity to transfer the liberated troops to the Caucasian front.

It is clear that the commander of the Caucasian army, Nikolai Nikolayevich, who has strategic thinking, could not but respond to this event. It was impossible to wait for the gain of the enemy and his new attack. We had to go on the offensive ourselves. Thus was born the idea of ​​breaking through the enemy front in the region of Erzerum and seizing this strategic fortress blocking the way to the internal regions of the Ottoman Empire. After the defeat of the 3 Army and the capture of Erzerum, Yudenich planned to occupy the important port city of Trabzon (Trabzon). The rate of the Supreme Commander agreed with the proposal of the headquarters of the Caucasian Army.

Strategic victory for the army of Yudenich near Erzurum

Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich and General Yudenich with the ranks of the headquarters of the Caucasian Army.

Forces of the parties. Preparation of the operation. In December 1915, the Caucasian Army included about 130 infantry battalions, more than 200 hundred cavalry, 52 militia squads, 20 sapper companies, 372 guns, 450 machine guns and aviation detachment of 9 cars. In total, the Caucasian army included about 180 thousand bayonets and sabers. The 3rd Turkish army includes 134 thousand bayonets and sabers with 122 field guns and 400 guns of fortress artillery. According to Russian intelligence, the Caucasian army had a slight advantage in the infantry, but in the field artillery it exceeded the Ottoman army by three times, and in the regular cavalry by 5 times. The Ottoman army had 40 cavalry squadrons and up to 10 thousand irregular Kurdish cavalry divided into 20 detachments. However, this advantage had to be realized, the Ottoman command had a powerful trump card - Erzurum fortified area.

Erzerum was the most important fortress of the Ottoman Empire. It was a well-fortified "gate" to the Passinskaya valley and the valley of the Euphrates River. The fortress was the most important communication center of the region, important routes converged here: to Batum, to Olty and Ardagan, from the Euphrates roads ran north to Trebizond and Rize, and south to Mush and Bitlis. Erzerum (or Erzurum) was the main control center and rear base of the 3 of the Turkish army, the fortress was tied together by the Turkish front in the Caucasus, allowed to maneuver forces and reserves. At the same time, the fortress was a powerful bridgehead, relying on which, the Ottoman Empire could conduct offensive operations in the Caucasus.

Erzerum before was a powerful fortress. But with the help of German fortifiers, the Turks modernized the old fortifications, built new ones, and increased the number of artillery and machine-gun firing points. As a result, by the end of 1915, Erzerum was a huge fortified area, where old and new fortifications were combined with natural factors (difficult to pass mountains), which made the fortress almost impregnable. In order to get to the Passinskaya valley, it was necessary to take powerful Keprikey positions. Behind them the path in a narrow place protected the fortress Hasan-Kala. From the north direction, the fortified settlements of Tortum, Veyichihas, Shaklyary, Kyzyl-Kilisa and Kosh closed the path to the fortress.


For the development of the Erzerum operation.

It was necessary to advance in the conditions of a difficultly predictable mountain winter. Nikolay Nikolayevich decided to break through the enemy defenses in three directions at once - Erzurum, Oltinsky and Bitlis. Three corps of the Caucasian army were to take part in the attack: the 2 and the Turkestan, the 1 and the 2. The main blow was struck in the direction of the village Kepri-Kay. Offensive prepared carefully. Each fighter received valenki, warm footworms, a sheepskin coat, quilted cotton trousers, a hat with a dangle button, a set of mittens and an overcoat. In case of the need for covert movement, the troops received a significant amount of white camouflage and white covers on their hats. The personnel of the 1 Caucasian Army Corps, which was to attack at high altitude, so that the sun would not blind its eyes, were given goggles. Taking into account that the area of ​​the upcoming battle was mostly treeless, and the supply of firewood was difficult, each soldier had to carry two logs with him to cook food and heat at night. In addition, in the equipment of an infantry company, thick poles and boards for the device for crossing non-freezing mountain streams and rivulets became mandatory. He learned a lot from the sad experience of the Ottoman soldiers, during the Sarikamish operation hundreds of Turkish soldiers got frostbite on their feet due to wet shoes.

At the same time, much attention was paid to meteorological observation. The meteorological department, which served as inspector of the army artillery, General Slyusarenko, constantly analyzed the state of the weather, and issued its recommendations. By the end of the year, 17 meteorological stations were deployed in the army’s location zone. In the army rear big road construction unfolded. From Kars to Merdeken from the summer of 1915, a narrow-gauge railway mounted on horseback was operated. A narrow-gauge railway was built from Sarykamysh to Karaurgan on steam traction. Army transports were replenished with pack animals - horses and camels.

Measures were taken to preserve the secret regrouping of troops. Mountain passes marching replenishment passed only at night, with the observance of blackout. In the area where it was planned to make a breakthrough, they carried out a demonstrative withdrawal of troops — the battalions took them to the rear during the day and returned at night. In order to misinform the enemy, rumors were spread about the preparation of an offensive operation by the Van detachment and the Baratov Persian Expeditionary Corps, together with British troops. In Persia, large purchases of food were carried out - grain, livestock (for meat portions), fodder and camels for transportation. And a few days before the start of the Erzerum operation, the commander of the 4 Caucasian Infantry Division was sent an urgent unencrypted telegram. There was an “order” in it about the concentration of a division near Sarykamysh and the transfer of its troops to Persia. But only one regiment of the division was transferred to the border Julfa. Where he made a demonstrative daily transition.

Moreover, the army headquarters began to distribute leave to officers from the front, and also massively allow officer wives to come to the theater of operations on the occasion of the New Year holidays. Until the very last moment, the content of the planned operation was not disclosed to the downstream headquarters. A few days before the onset of the offensive, the exit of all persons from the frontline zone was completely closed, which prevented Omani agents from informing the Turkish command of the full combat readiness of the Russian army and its latest preparations.

As a result, the headquarters of the Caucasian Army outplayed the Ottoman command at the stage of preparing the operation, and the Russian attack on Erzerum came as a complete surprise to the enemy. The Ottoman command of the winter offensive of the Russian troops did not expect, considering that in the winter on the Caucasian front there was an inevitable operational pause. Therefore, the first echelons of the troops liberated in the Dardanelles began to be transferred to Iraq. Khalil Bey's corps was transferred there from the Russian front. In Istanbul, by spring, they hoped to crush the British forces in Mesopotamia, and then with all their might to attack the Russian army. The Turks were so calm that the commander of the 3 of the Turkish army in general went to the capital.

Offensive. December 28 1915, the Russian army launched an offensive. The 2 th Turkestan Corps under the command of General Przhevalsky struck first. But he was nearly stopped by the strong Turkish defense of Mount Gai-Dag. The strong fortifications of the enemy had to be taken by assault by the forces of two divisions. Turkish troops rushed to the counter. But, they did not expect the Russian offensive, therefore the Turkish command threw their units into the battle hastily and separately. The Turkestan Corps, repelling the counter blows of the enemy troops, continued to gradually move forward, gradually turning in the direction of Erzerum. Russian troops captured the enemy’s position at Kizil-Kilis, and then went to the Kara-Gübek fortress, which covered the Gurdzhibogaz passage into the Erzurum valley. The left flank of the Ottoman defense crushed. For the Turkish troops, there was a threat of the Russian troops entering the flank and rear of the Keprikei position. The Turkish command had to withdraw troops from the right flank of the defense and redeploy units to the north.

Two days after the 2 of the Turkestan corps, part of the 2 of the Turkestan and 1 of the Caucasian corps launched an offensive. In addition, the De-Witt’s 4 Caucasian Corps and the Lyakhov Primorsk Group with the support of the Batumi detachment of ships delivered auxiliary strikes. Yudenich wanted to thwart the possible transfer of enemy forces from one direction to another and the delivery of reinforcements to sea communications.

The Turks were desperately defended. I must say that in this war, in contrast to a number of other previous Russian-Turkish wars, Turkish troops fought well, valiantly and skillfully. Particularly stubborn fighting took place in the valley of the Araks. In Keprikeyskikh positions the Turks had the most resistant resistance. The most convenient routes to Erzerum followed the Araks valley. During the fighting, both sides suffered heavy losses and exhausted a significant part of the reserve forces.

Yudenich threw part of the forces from the Oltinsky and Erzurum directions to the Mergemir Pass. This decision paid off. The Ottoman command left this section of the front without proper attention. In a strong snowstorm, the Russian soldiers from the avant-garde units of General Voloshin-Petrichenko and Vorobyov broke through the enemy defenses. Yudenich threw the Siberian Cossack brigade of General Raddats into a breakthrough from his reserve. The Cossacks were not stopped by 30-degree frost in the mountains, nor by snowbound roads. Turkish defense collapsed and on the right flank.

The Turkish troops, being under the threat of encirclement and extermination, ran, burning along the way villages and their own warehouses. The 4-I Caucasian Rifle Division oppressed the enemy along the northern bank of the Araks, preventing them from gaining a foothold in new positions. A division bypass detachment under the command of Captain Sorokin in a night battle captured the outskirts of the Kelender fortress. The garrison, having considered that before it considerable forces of the opponent, capitulated. On January 5, the Siberian Cossack brigade and the 3 Black Sea regiment of the Kuban regiment that had pulled out ahead approached Hasan-Kala (Hasankala) fortress. The next day, the Cossacks defeated the Turkish rearguard. The turmoil in the Turkish troops is evidenced by the fact that the Cossacks captured about 2 thousand soldiers from the 14 various regiments that were part of the 8 divisions. 3-I Turkish army was already half crushed. 7 (19) January Russian troops took Hasan-kala, not allowing the enemy to recover. The jumbled parts of the Turkish divisions rolled back to Erzerum.



Storm Erzerum. Russian troops went directly to Erzerum. The army achieved major success, and the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich already wanted to give the order to retreat to the starting lines. Like, the task is completed - 3-I Turkish army defeated and will not be able to attack in the coming months. But General Yudenich convinced him of the need to take the seemingly unassailable fortress of Erzerum. The commander took all the responsibility on himself. Of course, it was a big risk, but the risk was thought out. According to lieutenant colonel B.A. Steifon, General Yudenich was distinguished by a great rationality of his decisions: “In fact, every courageous maneuver of General Yudenich was a result of a deeply thought-out and quite accurately guessed situation. And mainly spiritual setting. The risk of General Yudenich is the courage of creative imagination, the courage that is characteristic of only great commanders. ”

Yudenich understood that it was almost impossible to take the strongholds of Erzerum on the move. Although this decision, in view of the successful offensive and frustration of the Turkish troops during the retreat, seemed right. The preliminary calculations showed that it was necessary to conduct artillery preparation for the assault, with a significant expenditure of shells. Soldiers needed to replenish their ammunition. Marines already had to save ammo. Army reserves were located in Kars, and their delivery took time. Therefore, the assault was postponed in order to conduct preliminary training. Yudenich himself conducted a reconnaissance of the fortress and, having convinced of the power of its bastions, ordered the preparation of an assault.

In the meantime, the remains of the defeated 3 Turkish army continued to flow into the fortress. The Turkish garrison was about 80 battalions. Erzerum fortress, well protected by nature, was a whole fortified area, deployed front to the east. The total length of the Erzerum defensive positions was 40 km. Her most vulnerable spots were the rear contours. Through them, the fortress could be blocked, but before that it was necessary to break into the Erzurum valley.

Army squadron conducted reconnaissance near and far approaches to the fortress. Yudenich ordered the creation of assault detachments — the advanced infantry formations on the main axes were given guns, additional machine guns and engineer units. Soldiers were trained in assault on the heights in their rear. Russian troops dislodged enemy forces from the surrounding villages, approaching the nearest approaches to the Turkish fortifications. The 2 Turkestan and 1 Caucasian Corps took part in the assault, and the Siberian and 2 Orenburg Cossack Brigades were left in reserve. In total, the operation involved up to 60 thousand soldiers, 166 field guns, 29 howitzers and a heavy 16 mortar division of 152 mm caliber. The commander planned to break through the front of the enemy on the northern right flank and, having made a detour of the most powerful enemy fortifications, strike the fortress from the western, rear side. Other enemy defense sectors were also hit, so that the Ottoman command could not reinforce some sectors at the expense of others.

Russian troops launched an assault on Erzurum on 29 in January (February 11) in 1916. At 2 hours the artillery preparation began. At the beginning of the assault, Yudenich decided to deliver the brunt of the night, when the psychological stability of the Turkish soldiers to the battle greatly weakened. In 23 hours, Russian troops launched an assault on enemy positions. During the day of fierce fighting, the Russian troops captured the northern part of the Gurdzhibogaz passage and the fort Dalan-gez. The Turkish fort captured an assault detachment under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Pirumov. A bloody battle began for the fort Dalan-gez. At dawn 1 February, Turkish troops launched a counterattack, concentrating on this sector to 100 guns. The defenders of the fort were cut off from their own, and they began to run out of ammunition. Five Turkish attacks beat off rifle-machine-gun fire. The sixth attack was repelled in hand-to-hand combat, bayonets and butts. Even the wounded stood before the seventh attack of the Ottoman troops, and the enemy was again repelled in a bayonet battle. By the beginning of the eighth Turkish attack, which could be the last, the situation was saved by an unknown hero - under enemy fire, in the evening twilight, he was able to ride ammunition on donkeys. Turkish attack repulsed. Of the 1400 soldiers and commanders of the heroic 153 Infantry Regiment defending the fort, only about 300 soldiers remained in the ranks, and most of them were injured. At night, the fort garrison strengthened, the wounded were taken out.

On the same day - February 1, there was a radical change in the battle for Erzerum. For two days, the fighters of the assault groups of the 1 of the Turkestan Corps took one stronghold of the enemy after another, seizing one impregnable fort after another. Russian infantry went to the most powerful and last bastion of the enemy on the northern flank - Fort Taft. 2 (14) in February, Kuban squadrons and arrows of the Turkestan Corps took the fort. The entire northern flank of the Ottoman system of fortifications was hacked and Russian troops began to go out to the rear of the 3 Army.

The air reconnaissance reported on the withdrawal of troops from Erzerum. Ottoman commanders threw all their forces to defend the Deboya position. Then Nikolai Nikolayevich gave the order to transfer to the disposal of the commander of the Przhevalsky Turkestan Corps, the column of generals Voloshin-Petrichenko and Vorobyov, as well as the Cossack cavalry of Radacza. At the same time, the 1 Caucasian Corps Kalitina increased pressure from the center. The Turkish resistance was finally broken, the Russian troops rushed into the deep rear, still defended forts turned into traps. The Turkish units began to hurry to throw forts and fortifications. They did not defend Erzurum either. The remains of the 3 Army rushed to flight. At 5 in the morning hours of February 4 (16) advanced units entered Erzerum. Parts of the enemy garrison, those who did not have time to escape, capitulated. 137 officers and about 8 Thousands of soldiers surrendered. Russian trophies have become up to 300 guns. Yudenich issued an order for the army, in which he expressed heartfelt thanks to all the fighters for the courageous execution of their military duty to the Fatherland. The commander personally presented awards to the heroes of the storming of Erzerum.


Assault on Erzerum Fortress. Source: Korsun N. Erzerum operation. M. 1938.

Results of the operation

During the offensive, the Russian army captured about 13 thousand prisoners, 9 flags and 327 guns. The Russian army threw the enemy to 100-150 km. The Turkish 3 Army was almost completely defeated and fled to Erzincan. During the Erzerum operation, she lost more than half of her initial composition: 66 thousand people killed and captured, 13 thousand prisoners. The military ability of the Russian troops, who had to overcome the fierce resistance of the enemy, relying on natural and man-made fortifications, harsh environmental conditions, says the number of their losses - 17 thousand people, i.e. approximately 10% army strength.

It was one of the biggest victories of the Russian army during the First World War. The Ottoman command was forced to urgently close the gap in the front, to transfer troops from other fronts, thereby easing the pressure on the British in Mesopotamia. The 2 Army began to be deployed to the Caucasian front. Russian troops were able to seize the most important Turkish port - Trabzon and continue the offensive in the western direction, deep into Turkey. Erzerum was a kind of "key" to Asia Minor, the only fortified area blocking the way further west. The Russian army opened the gates to the central regions of the Ottoman Empire, and there already the question could be raised about the Istanbul operation.

Under the influence of the Erzerum battle between the Russian Empire, Britain and France, an agreement was signed on the goals of the war of Russia in Asia Minor. The document delimited the spheres of influence of the Allied powers in the Ottoman Empire. The British and French were forced to recognize the straits and Western Armenia for Russia. True, in fact, they were not going to give them away. At that time, preparations for the February 1917 coup in full swing were in full swing, the West was aware of this and was actively involved in this matter.

Nikolai Nikolayevich himself was awarded the commander award - the Order of St.. George 2 degree: "In reward excellent performance, in exceptional conditions, brilliant military operation, culminating in the assault on the Virgin-Boyne position and fortress Erzerum 2 February 1916 of the year." Yudenich's commanding art received the highest praise among the commanders of the Russian imperial army and military theorists. General Maslovsky, a former quartermaster in the Caucasian Army, wrote: General Yudenich had extraordinary civil courage, composure in the most difficult moments and decisiveness. He always found the courage to take the necessary decision, taking upon himself and all the responsibility for him, as was the case in the Sarykamysh battles and the storming of Erzerum. Possessed an indestructible will. The determination to win by all means, by the will to win, General Yudenich penetrated, and this will, combined with the properties of his mind and character, showed in him the true traits of the commander. ”

Unfortunately, not everyone liked these qualities of Yudenich. So, determination and will helped Yudenich to confront "internal enemies" - N.N. Yanushkevich and General Khan Nakhichevansky, seconded to the headquarters of the Caucasian Front. As he wrote at M.K. Lemke: “Yudenich, unfortunately, is not a typical figure in our army, but one of the most sympathetic appeals attracting exceptions ... The efficiency of this person is not inferior to Alekseevskaya, simplicity and modesty make them even closer. At court, he is not particularly haunted, knowing his completely independent character and organic inability to bow. ”


Trophy Turkish gun in Erzurum taken by Russian troops.

Captured Turkish banners in Erzurum.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
"Only he is worthy of this life, who is always ready to die." One of the best generals of Russia during the First World War, Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich
Strategic victory for the army of Yudenich near Erzurum
Victories of Yudenich's army near Trapezund and Erzincan
Removal from command of the Caucasian front. Yudenich's army march to red Petrograd
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  1. Voskepar
    Voskepar 9 October 2013 09: 59 New
    +7
    Operationally. Yesterday I just asked to write about it.
    Thank))))

    As for Colonel Pirumov, for the native of the Karabakh village of Nakhichevanik, the war against the Turks lasted until 1921, until the Red Army entered Armenia. He was already arrested with the rank of major general and shot in Ryazan in 1921.
    1. predator.3
      predator.3 9 October 2013 15: 10 New
      +2
      ПAfter this operation, Yudenich had to be appointed commander of the Western Front, if you look at the couple with Brusilov in the summer you would do something!
  2. George
    George 9 October 2013 10: 23 New
    +5
    Thank you for continuing.
    By the beginning of the eighth Turkish attack, which could be the last, an unknown hero saved the situation - under enemy fire, in the evening twilight, he was able to deliver ammunition on donkeys.

    It is unfortunate that the name is unknown, how many of such unknown heroes are there?
  3. Gari
    Gari 9 October 2013 10: 52 New
    +8
    From the first days of the First World War, many Armenians, both Russian citizens and those living outside the Russian Empire, wanted to volunteer to serve in the Russian army. The formation of Armenian volunteer squads began in September and was mostly completed in late October – November 1914. In total, four squads were formed with a total number of up to 9 thousand soldiers and officers.
    Subsequently, the Armenian volunteer squads were converted into separate battalions, their number increased to six, and by mid-July 1917, at the suggestion of the Armenian public organizations of St. Petersburg and Tiflis, they were deployed in regiments.
    By October 1917, two Armenian divisions were already operating.
    On December 13, 1917, the new commander-in-chief of the Caucasus Front, Major General Yevgeny Lebedinsky formed a volunteer Armenian corps, the commander of which was appointed General Thomas Nazarbekov, and the head of staff was General Vyshinsky, Evgeny Evgenievich (former commander of the 13th Grenadier Erivan Regiment). At the request of the Armenian National Council, “General Dro” was appointed special commissioner under the commander in chief Nazarbekov.
    By the end of 1917, the Armenian corps was formed as follows:
    1st Division (commander General Aramyan);
    2nd Division (Colonel Movses Silikov);
    horse brigade (Colonel Gorganyan);
    West Armenian Division (Major General Andranik Ozanyan);
    Lori, Shushinsky, Akhalkalaki and Khazakh regiments.
    In addition, the Yezidi cavalry Dzhangir-Agi entered the corps.
    Always fought together and were Invincible!
  4. Gari
    Gari 9 October 2013 11: 05 New
    +5
    The results of the 1916 campaign on the Caucasus Front exceeded the expectations of the Russian command. Russian troops advanced deep into Turkey, capturing the most important and largest cities - Erzurum, Trebizond, Van, Erzincan and Bitlis. The Caucasian army fulfilled its main task - to protect the Caucasus from the invasion of the Turks on a huge front, the length of which by the end of 1916 exceeded 1000 miles.
    An occupation regime was established on the territories occupied by Russian troops in Western Armenia, and military administrative districts subordinate to the military command were created. In June 1916, the Russian government approved the “Provisional Regulation on the Management of the Regions Conquered from Turkey by the Law of War”, according to which the occupied territory was declared the interim governor-general of Turkish Armenia, directly subordinate to the main command of the Caucasian Army. If the war ended successfully for Russia, the Armenians who left their homes during the genocide would return to their native land. Already in the middle of 1916, the economic development of Turkish territory began: several branches of railways were built.
    1. Gari
      Gari 9 October 2013 11: 49 New
      +5
      West Armenian Division (Major General Andranik Ozanyan);
      Andranik met the First World War in Bulgaria, whose government, however, was inclined to an alliance with Germany against Russia, therefore, Andranik leaves Bulgaria with the last Russian ship and through Yalta, Tuapse, Poti gets to Tiflis, where on August 12, 1914 he meets with the assistant commander in chief of the Caucasian army General Myshlaevsky and declares his readiness to participate in a possible war against Turkey (Russia declared war on Turkey on November 2, 1914)
      The rich experience of military operations against the Turkish troops and thorough knowledge of the specifics of the future theater of military operations are in demand by the Russian command, and Andranik is instructed to form and lead the first volunteer Armenian squad (detachment). The team, formed from Armenians who did not have Russian citizenship, as well as Russian Armenians who were not subject to conscription, later distinguished as a part of Russian troops of the Caucasian Army in the battles for the capture of Van, Bitlis, Mush, in the battle of Dilman (April 1915). Andranik himself for personal courage in the battles of 1915-1916. He was awarded the St. George medal of the fourth degree, the St. George crosses of the fourth and third degrees, the orders of St. Stanislav of the second degree with swords and St. Vladimir of the fourth degree, [11] the Order of the Knight of the Legion of Honor (France) [12], the Order of the Battle Cross of the second degree ( Kingdom of Greece) and the Order of St. Gregory the Illuminator of the First Degree (Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin)
      In 1917, at the request of the Armenian National Council, Dro was appointed as a special commissioner under the commander in chief Nazarbekov. Later, the West Armenian Division under the command of Andranik also entered the Armenian corps. His popularity among the soldiers was so great that the Russian command awarded him the rank of major general and assigned the command of the division.
      1. George
        George 9 October 2013 12: 28 New
        +1
        Gari, Greetings!
        By the way, I read a lot about scouts of that (and early wars in the Caucasus) war, and among them the Armenians are the vast majority. Daring guys.
      2. smersh70
        smersh70 9 October 2013 13: 27 New
        +1
        [quote = Gari] West Armenian Division (Major General Andranik Ozanyan);
        Harry .. if possible, explain. Why did the Turks cut off one ear !!!! and read his order below ---
        ORDER ANDRANIK ORDER (DELIVERED BY OUR CORRESPONDENT)
        Head of the Armenian Special Shock Squad
        No. 640 November 19, 1918

        Varandinsky. Tizak, Khachinsky and Dzhevanshir military commanders, all commissars and the Armenian population.

        Upon receipt of this order to immediately suspend hostilities against the Tatars and Turks. The Allies demand that we immediately cease all hostilities. Representatives of the Allies, captains of English and French, came to me and said that it had already been decided not to allow war in the Caucasus. Turkish troops must retire. Baku and Batum are in the hands of the British, who are moving to Tiflis. All issues must be resolved at the Peace Congress. In a letter delivered to me by representatives of the Allies, the Commander-in-Chief of the English General Thomson warns that from now on, all hostile actions may badly respond to the decisions of the Armenian issue.
        Signed: Major General Andranik.
        We certify that with the true it is true: (signed) the Shusha diocesan chief, Bishop Vagan.
        Shusha Mayor Gerasim Melik-Shahnazaryan
        1. Gari
          Gari 10 October 2013 01: 01 New
          0
          Quote: smersh70
          Harry .. if possible, explain. Why did the Turks cut off one ear to him !!!! and

          what an ear, but where except for your sites about it it is not written that you are all the time trying to denigrate Our National Heroes
          1. smersh70
            smersh70 10 October 2013 10: 07 New
            +1
            Quote: Gari
            what an ear, but where except for your sites about it is not written

            During the fighting in Zybykh, in Zangezur, Andranik’s detachment was surrounded by militias led by the Sultan bey. After fierce fighting, the Dashnaks, having lost part of the militants, surrendered. Imminent death awaited them. But the fearless Armenian commander Andranik Odnoukhiy, kneeling in front of Sultan-bek, with tears in his eyes, begged only for his mercy. The penalty turned into a farce.
            Sultan bey, for fun, suggested Andranik to choose a worthy death for men, but if he does not consider himself to be such, then he should creep between his legs in front of captive Armenian soldiers. The legendary hero of Armenia, an ardent fighter for the restoration of Armenian statehood, he is the tsar general, he is an English agent, he is a friend of the Armenian Bolsheviks, he happily chose the latter. On all fours, to the laughter of the peasants, like a well-trained circus poodle, he slowly but gracefully walked between the boots of Sultan bey. And then the back with disgust, spitting on him, said: "Let this dog go, do not get your hands dirty about such a bastard."
            Sultan bey kept his word. the valiant General Andronicus survived, and his soldiers got what they deserved.
            And now, to this cowardly killer of children, a monument was secretly installed in the Russian city of Sochi. However, the city administration hastily demolished this scarecrow, knowing what the one-eared Andranik “distinguished” at the beginning of the 20th century and understanding how the installation of such a monument will affect the image of the city preparing to host the 2014 Olympics.
      3. smersh70
        smersh70 10 October 2013 10: 05 New
        -1
        A monument to the one-eared General Andranik Ozanyan, erected in the village of Volkonka in the Lazarevsky district of Sochi, stood only a few days. According to the Information Center of the newspaper of Armenians of Russia “Yerkramas”, late in the evening of May 27 it was dismantled at the initiative of the leadership of the local branch of the Union of Armenians of Russia under the leadership of Chairman Hrach Makeyan. It should be noted that the Sochi leadership of the SAR initially tried to prevent the erection of the monument, and therefore even attempted to donate it to the Armenian community of the city of Shakhty, Rostov Region, bearing the name “Andranik”.
        However, the initiators of the installation of the monument did not allow such sacrilege and erected a monument in the village. Witnesses of the dismantling of the monument do not call anything but shame what was happening. According to eyewitnesses, we give two main reasons that the leadership of the SAR called the need for demolition of the monument: - pressure from the leadership of the city of Sochi, which promised representatives of Turkey and Azerbaijan not to allow the installation of the monument. - pressure from the Central leadership of the Union of Armenians of Russia, which, in turn, was under pressure from the Kremlin.
        Demolition of a monument in the Lazarevsky district of the city of Sochi to the one-eared Armenian bandit and child killer Andranik
  5. ed65b
    ed65b 9 October 2013 11: 41 New
    +3
    That's how Russia bent down in the pose of the Greek warrior of the vaunted "batyrs". It has been and always will be. not warriors they are not warriors. laughing
    1. smile
      smile 9 October 2013 12: 41 New
      +5
      ed65b
      I do not agree. The Turks have always been a serious adversary, from the horror of the Ottomans, the whole of Europe trembled at one time — no wonder they were able to invade Europe and capture the Balkans at one time. No wonder they hit the teeth of the British and French when they tried to capture the straits during WWI ... It was just that the Russians were more serious warriors than the Turks ... everything and business. It’s a pity that some of our Turkic colleagues forget about it ... there, some already believe that Santa Claus played a trick on us here ... :)))
      1. George
        George 9 October 2013 13: 13 New
        +4
        Come on, Vladimir.
        Quote: smile
        The Turks have always been a serious adversary, from the horror of the Ottomans the whole of Europe trembled at one time

        This, in my opinion, only speaks of what we could do with Europe if we beat those who successfully beat them.
      2. Apollo
        Apollo 9 October 2013 19: 47 New
        +3
        Quote: smile
        I do not agree. The Turks have always been a serious adversary, from the horror of the Ottomans, the whole of Europe trembled at one time — no wonder they were able to invade Europe and capture the Balkans at one time. No wonder they hit the teeth of the British and French when they tried to capture the straits during 1MV. The Russians were simply more serious warriors than the Turks ... everything and business


        For accurate, meaningful and deep analysis +Vladimir good
    2. Pancho
      Pancho 9 October 2013 22: 11 New
      0
      Quote: ed65b
      in the pose of the Greek warrior of the vaunted "batyrs"

      Where did such an awareness of the poses of the Greek warriors come from?
  6. KEKS44
    KEKS44 9 October 2013 11: 55 New
    +4
    Russian Turks always beat.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 9 October 2013 13: 34 New
      +2
      Quote: KEKS44
      Russian Turks always beat.


      and in the end that)))) Lenin made friends with Ataturk .... Ataturk restored the Republic .... all these lands went to the Turks ... once again everyone threw the Armenians)))) .... and now normal relations between Russia and Turkey !!!!!! hi
      1. Arminian power
        Arminian power 10 October 2013 11: 12 New
        0
        There will be no more of this to be thrown, now our turn will be thrown to see who is more lucky. hi
        Quote: smersh70
        all these lands went to the Turks ... once again they threw all Armenians
  7. ed65b
    ed65b 9 October 2013 12: 12 New
    +1
    Yes, this applies to the southern neighbors in the USSR, and then they are getting old, but the fact is one.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 9 October 2013 13: 28 New
      0
      Quote: ed65b
      Yes, this applies to the southern neighbors in the USSR, and then they are getting old, but the fact is one.


      there is no mood again laughing et you to whom, if you please ask))))
      1. ed65b
        ed65b 9 October 2013 13: 32 New
        +3
        Quote: smersh70
        Quote: ed65b
        Yes, this applies to the southern neighbors in the USSR, and then they are getting old, but the fact is one.


        there is no mood again laughing et you to whom, if you please ask))))

        Smersh, this does not apply to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijanis do not yell at every corner about the evil and vile Uruses who have been occupying and drinking blood from the poor people. those to whom this applies me will understand we have more than once communicated with them on different branches.
  8. Gomunkul
    Gomunkul 9 October 2013 12: 15 New
    +1
    Under the influence of the Erzerum battle between the Russian Empire, Britain and France, an agreement was signed on the goals of the war of Russia in Asia Minor. The document delimited the spheres of influence of the Allied powers in the Ottoman Empire. The British and French were forced to recognize the straits and Western Armenia for Russia. True, in fact, they were not going to give them away. At that time, preparations for the February 1917 coup in full swing were in full swing, the West was aware of this and was actively involved in this matter.
    We always need to remember this! It is not worth waiting for immediate help from abroad, and when our authorities call them “our partners”, does it only cause one of me to feel disgust?
    hi
    1. smile
      smile 9 October 2013 12: 45 New
      0
      Gomunkul
      After the Munich speech of Pu, no one in the West experiences any illusions about how our leadership treats them. And the “partners” - well, that’s diplomatic etiquette — even we keep our language on this site (or rather, the moderators help us with this ... with a stick :)))) after all, speaking in plain text, it’s a scolding ... or a war. But without a war, it’s better than with it. :)))
  9. Dmitry 2246
    Dmitry 2246 9 October 2013 12: 29 New
    +1
    The victory was ensured by careful training of personnel, using all modern types of weapons. And most importantly, the genius of the command, which instilled confidence in the personnel.
    Turks are good soldiers and they have proved it on other fronts, the more an honor is a victory.
  10. barbiturate
    barbiturate 9 October 2013 14: 51 New
    +4
    we have always been good against the Turks, with varying success against the Austrians and just against the Germans in any way during the WWII. Unfortunately, the Turks were not the main enemy at all, and the front in the Caucasus did not decide anything for Russia. I don’t doubt the courage of the Turks as fighters, but I can tell by comparison that the best parts of the cadre army fought against the Germans and Austro-Hungarians, the whole guard could not do anything, they only lost such a shocking figure to the prisoners ...
    Even then it was clearly shown that it was not the force of the bayonet strike that decides, but the brains of the generals and the equipment of the troops applied to a good soldier, and with that we had oh and oh.
    1. Motors1991
      Motors1991 9 October 2013 15: 20 New
      +3
      Apart from the defeat of Samsonov’s army, in all other battles the losses of Russians and Germans are comparable. Therefore, the majority of Germans wanted to fight on the Western Front, where the ratio of killed and wounded was 1k 2,5 people in favor of the Germans at the beginning of the war and 1k 2 at the end of the war .Under the command of good generals, the Russian army is invincible, under the command of bad generals it is also invincible, but it costs a lot of blood. There is one problem, as they do not like good generals then, they don’t bend their necks.
      1. barbiturate
        barbiturate 9 October 2013 16: 28 New
        0
        I don’t know if there are invincible armies ...) but where do you get this opinion about the desire of the Germans to fight on the Western Front? According to my information, the Germans considered the eastern front a resort due to the almost complete absence of heavy artillery and shells from Russia. In the West, operations were unlike bloody for the Germans. The French army was rightly called the first sword in the fight against Germany. For example, in 1914, out of 8 German armies - 7 in the West and one (8th) from the militia in the East, and the result is known. In the remaining years of the struggle, the balance is also disappointing. Generally speaking, we are reluctant to talk about losses, and if we add prisoners as well, then simply indecent figures are not obtained in favor of the Russian Imperial Army ...
        1. Motors1991
          Motors1991 11 October 2013 15: 33 New
          0
          The Germans themselves spoke in the East, the army is fighting, and in the West a fire watch. As for artillery, it cannot solve all issues, the same Verdun, Osovets showed. The French had a strategy: artillery destroys, infantry takes. In fact, all the Allied offensives turned into meat grinders, the loss ratio I showed above. As for the Russian Front, it is at least twice as long as the West, while the Germans fought against the North and North-West fronts of the Russians and were still forced to support the pants to the Austrians in the South-West fr I repeat the outstanding achievements they could not achieve even in 1915 during the Great Retreat, when Russian gunners were allowed to shoot several shells a day. By 1917, the shell hunger had been overcome, but by that time the army had collapsed and more and more began to turn into an armed there’s a good book, The Heavy Division, by Lebedev, if I’m not mistaken, about the artillery division armed with six inch guns, so it describes the beginning of 1917 well, the next offensive, enough shells, expense It’s not limited. The Germans abandon the line of defense and simply leave, no one even knows how far they retreated ten or twenty kilometers, but the infantry, occupied by endless rallies, does not go forward. Empty German trenches are occupied by women from the strike battalion. After a few days the Germans return, the women are retreating. That's how the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th years was already fought. All very simply destroyed the army from the rear, just as in the 91st year a country called the USSR.
  11. Rapier
    Rapier 9 October 2013 14: 59 New
    +3
    Two of my relatives died near Erzorum in 1915.
  12. Voskepar
    Voskepar 9 October 2013 20: 43 New
    +2
    [quote = smersh70] [quote = Gari] West Armenian Division (Major General Andranik Ozanyan);
    Harry .. if possible, explain. Why did the Turks cut off one ear !!!! and read his order below ---
    ORDER ANDRANIK ORDER (DELIVERED BY OUR CORRESPONDENT)
    Head of the Armenian Special Shock Squad
    No. 640 November 19, 1918

    [/ Quote]
    Smersh, if you do not give the facts that the Turks cut off the ear of General Andranik Ozanyanyan, then I will consider you an idle talk and a provocateur on this site.
    But since I know that you will not bring, then YOU are such idle talk, provocateur, ...
    1. Gari
      Gari 10 October 2013 01: 03 New
      +2
      Quote: Voskepar
      But since I know that you will not bring, then YOU are such idle talk, provocateur, ...

      ++++++ So it is
  13. Voskepar
    Voskepar 9 October 2013 22: 31 New
    0
    The Transcaucasian Turks, I somehow do not care your minuses. I am waiting for the facts from you, but as always, how is it to get to the facts, then you will not be able to find you in the afternoon and with fire.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 10 October 2013 10: 10 New
      0
      Quote: Voskepar
      Transcaucasian Turks

      Is there such a nation laughing
      Andranik Ozanyan Torosi was born on February 25, 1865 in the village of Shapin-Garagisar in Turkey. He was educated at the Musheghyan school. First served in Turkey. Andranik was punished for betraying the military oath - his ear was cut off. For this he was nicknamed "One-Eared General."
      1. Arminian power
        Arminian power 10 October 2013 11: 06 New
        +1
        what are you wassat
        Quote: smersh70
        Is there such a nation
  14. pinecone
    pinecone 10 October 2013 00: 17 New
    0
    Quote: barbiturate
    I don’t know if there are invincible armies ...) but where do you get this opinion about the desire of the Germans to fight on the Western Front? According to my information, the Germans considered the eastern front a resort due to the almost complete absence of heavy artillery and shells from Russia. In the West, operations were unlike bloody for the Germans. The French army was rightly called the first sword in the fight against Germany. For example, in 1914, out of 8 German armies - 7 in the West and one (8th) from the militia in the East, and the result is known. In the remaining years of the struggle, the balance is also disappointing. Generally speaking, we are reluctant to talk about losses, and if we add prisoners as well, then simply indecent figures are not obtained in favor of the Russian Imperial Army ...


    “During the First World War, we became closely acquainted with the Russian tsarist army. I will cite a little-known but significant fact: our losses on the Eastern Front were much greater than the losses we suffered on the Western Front from 1914 to 1918.”

    General Gunther Blumentrit. From the article “Moscow Battle” published in the collection “Fatal Decisions”.
  15. pinecone
    pinecone 10 October 2013 00: 41 New
    +1
    The troops of the 5th Turkish Army stationed on the Gallipoli Peninsula were commanded by General Otto Liman von Sanders.
    1. vahatak
      vahatak 10 October 2013 02: 07 New
      +1
      Not only the 5th army. Most Turkish armies in WWI were commanded by German generals, and the Turkish Black Sea Fleet - commander of the Keben cruiser.
  16. Voskepar
    Voskepar 10 October 2013 11: 23 New
    -1
    Quote: smersh70
    Andranik Ozanyan Torosi was born on February 25, 1865 in the village of Shapin-Garagisar in Turkey. He was educated at the Musheghyan school. First served in Turkey. Andranik was punished for betraying the military oath - his ear was cut off. For this he was nicknamed "One-Eared General."

    Facts, not empty words, what are you used to
    In what year, where, photo?
  17. Voskepar
    Voskepar 10 October 2013 16: 30 New
    -2
    Transcaucasian Turks, this is not the site of the Azagitprom. I am waiting for the FACTS, and not a copy from my sites. Photo without an ear where?
    1. Apollo
      Apollo 10 October 2013 16: 36 New
      0
      Quote: Voskepar
      here is not the site of azagitprom


      Good afternoon, the representative of ArmenGitProm.
      Visitor comments for nickname vahatak more meaningful than yours.
  18. Pehmore
    Pehmore 10 October 2013 17: 45 New
    0
    The article is good. Only in it is about the Russian General Yudenich, about his talent, and you about one-eared. Who betrayed once, that betrayal and the second. Now it’s clear why Kamenev, when Yudenich came to Petrograd, got out of control. He clearly knew that this General was standing.
  19. Voskepar
    Voskepar 11 October 2013 01: 06 New
    -2
    Calm down or put it?

    "General Andranik shows the sword, a gift from Nubar Pasha in 1920, to John Mangassaryan in Los Angeles."
  20. Voskepar
    Voskepar 11 October 2013 01: 10 New
    -1
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 12 October 2013 16: 46 New
      +1
      Explicit Photoshop))))))))))
      Whose ear stuck ??))
      By the way, Melkonyan and others came to the funeral)))
      Ancient Armenian tradition))
  21. Voskepar
    Voskepar 11 October 2013 01: 31 New
    -1
    Quote: smersh70
    Quote: Gari
    what an ear, but where except for your sites about it is not written

    During the fighting in Zybykh, in Zangezur, Andranik’s detachment was surrounded by militias led by the Sultan bey. After fierce fighting, the Dashnaks, having lost part of the militants, surrendered. Imminent death awaited them. But the fearless Armenian commander Andranik Odnoukhiy, kneeling in front of Sultan-bek, with tears in his eyes, begged only for his mercy. The penalty turned into a farce.
    Sultan bey, for fun, suggested Andranik to choose a worthy death for men, but if he does not consider himself to be such, then he should creep between his legs in front of captive Armenian soldiers. The legendary hero of Armenia, an ardent fighter for the restoration of Armenian statehood, he is the tsar general, he is an English agent, he is a friend of the Armenian Bolsheviks, he happily chose the latter. On all fours, to the laughter of the peasants, like a well-trained circus poodle, he slowly but gracefully walked between the boots of Sultan bey. And then the back with disgust, spitting on him, said: "Let this dog go, do not get your hands dirty about such a bastard."
    Sultan bey kept his word. the valiant General Andronicus survived, and his soldiers got what they deserved.
    And now, to this cowardly killer of children, a monument was secretly installed in the Russian city of Sochi. However, the city administration hastily demolished this scarecrow, knowing what the one-eared Andranik “distinguished” at the beginning of the 20th century and understanding how the installation of such a monument will affect the image of the city preparing to host the 2014 Olympics.

    This is for dessert for you to just write nothing without facts:

  22. Voskepar
    Voskepar 11 October 2013 23: 47 New
    -1
    Well, shitty cyberascars, do you have minuses to put except cons, do you have any other arguments?
  23. Voskepar
    Voskepar 13 October 2013 00: 04 New
    0
    Quote: Yarbay
    Explicit Photoshop))))))))))
    Whose ear stuck ??))
    By the way, Melkonyan and others came to the funeral)))
    Ancient Armenian tradition))

    Rest, flawed.
    In our traditions, you like to let go.
    The video has already been set, and there you can see who licks.