How Kolchak's army broke through to the Volga

52
As a result of the spring offensive Russian Army Kolchak White broke through the Red East Front in the center, defeated the northern flank of the red edge; occupied vast territories, including the Izhevsk-Votkinsk district, Ufa and Bugulma, reached the approaches to Vyatka, Kazan, Samara, Orenburg.

The onset of the army of Kolchak



In February 1919, the Russian army under the command of Kolchak number of private operations could prepare a favorable starting position for the transition into a general offensive. So, the White Guards attacked the 2 of the Red Army and pressed its right flank towards Sarapul. This led to the withdrawal of the 2 Army to the Kama line. As a result, the left flank of the 5 Red Army in the Ufa area was open, and the right flank of the 3 Red Army retreated to the Okhansk.

Siberian Army. 4 March 1919, the Siberian army under the command of General Gaida launched a decisive offensive, striking the main blow between the cities of Okhansk and Osa, at the junction of the 3 and 2 of the Red armies. The 1 of the Central Siberian Corps Pepeliaev forced the Kama across the ice between the towns of Osa and Okhansky, while the 3 of the West Siberian Verzhbitsky Corps advanced to the south. 7 - 8 March White took the city Wasp and Okhansk, and continued to move along the line p. Kamy.

Siberian Army to develop the offensive, occupied large areas. However, its further movement was slow due to the enormity of space, poorly developed communications of the theater of military operations, the beginning of the spring thaw and increased resistance to the Red Army. 2-I red army suffered heavy losses, but retained combat capability, the breakthrough of the red front failed. After the work of the "Commission of Stalin - Dzerzhinsky," which investigated the causes of the so-called. The “Perm catastrophe”, the quantitative and qualitative reinforcement of the Red armies, the Reds were no longer what they were in December 1918. Retreating, they fought, preserved the combat effectiveness and integrity of the front.

In April 1919, the Whites established themselves again in the Izhevsk-Votkinsk region: on April 8 the Votkinsk plant was captured, on April 9 - Sarapul, and on April 13 - the Izhevsk factory. Kolchakites broke through in the direction of Yelabuga and Mamadysh. At the mouth of the Kama was directed white flotilla with the landing. Then White developed an offensive in the direction of Vyatka and Kotlas. However, the front of the red armies Kolchakites could not break through. On April 15, the extreme right-flank units of the Haida army entered the completely off-road and wild Pechora region in contact with small groups of the Northern White Front. However, this event, as previously noted, did not have any serious strategic consequences. The weak Northern Front could not provide any significant assistance to the Russian army of Kolchak. This was originally connected with the position of the Entente, which was not going to fight with Soviet Russia in full force.

In the second half of April Siberian Army still advancing. But its onslaught has weakened due to the increased resistance of the 3 th Red Army. The left flank of the army pushed Gajda right wing 2-th Red Army of the lower reaches of the river. Vyatki. A serious factor was the spring thaw, the lack of a developed network of roads, a huge territory. White corps were separated, lost contact with each other, could not coordinate their actions. Communications were greatly stretched, the advanced units lost the supply of ammunition, food, artillery stuck. The troops were overworked preceding jerk, it was not operational and strategic reserves, which develop early successes. Personnel hunger declared itself, officers died, there was no one to replace them. Replenishment, mainly of the peasants, had low combat capability, did not want to fight for the masters.

How Kolchak's army broke through to the Volga


Western army. Western Army under the Khanzhin March 6 1919 year launched an offensive in the general direction of Ufa, Samara and Kazan. Mikhail Khanzhin participated in the war with Japan, during the First World War he commanded an artillery brigade, an infantry division, and was an inspector of artillery of the 8 Army. He played a prominent role in the Lutsk (Brusilovsky) breakthrough and he was promoted to lieutenant general. Then the inspector of artillery of the Romanian front, the inspector general of artillery under the commander-in-chief. Khanzhin proved to be a talented artillery commander and a combined-arms commander.

The Khanzhin army offensive was more active and had serious results than the movement of the Siberian army. The strike force of the whites (Wojciechowski’s 2 Corps and the Golitsyn Urals Corps) attacked the junction between the inner flanks of the 3 and 5 Red armies, where there was an almost empty gap in 2 - 50 kilometers. This largely predetermined the continued success of Kolchak's army in the Spring Offensive.


Commander of the Western Army, Mikhail Vasilyevich Khanzhin

White hit the left flank 5-th Red Army (the left flank brigade 27-th Infantry Division), broke and threw red. White Guards, sharp bends to the south, along the highway traffic Birsk - Ufa became almost with impunity to cut the rear stretched both 5-divisions of the Red Army (27-rd and 26-th). The commander of the 5 Army Blumberg attempted to throw his divisions to a counterattack, but they were defeated by superior enemy forces. As a result, 4-5-day Battle Army was broken, the interaction of its troops violated, remnants of the army, divided into two groups, tried to cover two major areas - Menzelinsky and Bugulma.

On March 10, which broke through the front of the Red Army, the 2 Ufa Corps of Wojciechowski took Birsk on the run. Kolchak moved in a southerly direction, bypassing Ufa from the west. For several days they moved with impunity in the rear of the 5 st Red Army, crushing them. At the same time, the 6 th Ural Corps of General Sukin launched a frontal attack on the Ufa area. March 13 Corps General Golitsyn took Ufa, the Reds fled to the west, south of the railway Ufa - Samara. White could not surround them, however, they captured rich trophies, a lot of supplies and military equipment. 5-I army retreated, suffering heavy casualties by prisoners and fled. Many themselves surrendered to captivity and went over to the side of whites. 22 in March, whites took Menzelinsk, but then they left him and occupied 5 for the second time in April.

The Red Command, from 13 to the end of March, tried to rectify the situation by putting in reserves and separate units in the 5 Army sector, as well as concentrating and vigorous actions of the group on the left side of the 1 Army in the Sterlitamak region. This group launched an offensive on Ufa from the south. However, the situation could not be restored. March 18 on the left flank launched an offensive of the Southern Group of the Western Army and the troops of the Separate Orenburg Army Dutov. The fight in 35 kilometers south of Ufa was stubborn: the settlements changed hands several times. The outcome of the battle predetermined the transition to the side of the white Bashkir red cavalry regiment and the arrival of the Izhevsk brigade to this section. By April 2 the Reds retreated, April 5 took White Sterlitamak and launched an offensive against Orenburg.

The offensive in the central direction continued to develop successfully. April 7 Kolchak took Belebey, April 13 - Bugulma, April 15 - Buguruslan. On April 21, parts of Khanzhin came out to Kama, creating a threat to Chistopol. Soon they took it and created a threat to Kazan.

In the southern direction, the Orenburg Cossacks of 10 of April took Orsk, and the Ural Cossacks of General Tolstov of 17 of April occupied Lbishchensk and besieged Uralsk. Cossacks Dutov came to Orenburg, but got bogged down here. Cossacks and Bashkirs, mostly cavalry, failed to take a well-fortified city. And the Ural Cossacks got bogged down at its capital of ours, Uralsk. As a result, the selected Cossack cavalry, instead of going into the opening gap in the center, in the raid along the red rear, got stuck in Uralsk and Orenburg.

Thus, the Western Army Khanzhin carried out a strategic breakthrough of the center of the Eastern Red Front. And if this event did not cause the collapse of the entire Eastern Front of the Red Army and, accordingly, the catastrophic situation in the eastern direction, this was due primarily to the peculiarity of the civil war. The vast expanses of Russia were absorbed by the troops and both sides were maneuvering military operations by small detachments. The western army, as it moved forward, increasingly stretched its front. Having occupied 15 on April in Buguruslan, the army of Khanzhin stretched out already at the front in 250 – 300 km, having its right flank at the mouth of the r. Vyatka, and left - southeast of Buguruslan. On this front, five infantry divisions were fanned. Their striking power was falling all the time, and there were very few second-tier troops and strategic reserves. Whites made a deep breakthrough, but this did not affect or had little effect on the neighboring groups of troops. White had to put the troops in order, regroup them, tighten the rear, which gave time for red to gain time, to tighten new forces, reserves, to start a counter-maneuver.

In addition, the White Command did not abandon the idea of ​​connecting with the Northern Front. At the time of the breakthrough of the Western army in the center, it would be reasonable to strengthen Khanzhin at the expense of the Siberian army. But they did not. And the Cossack army - Orenburg and Ural, stuck in the south.


White propaganda poster "For Russia!" With the image of the Ural Cossack. White Eastern Front. 1919 year

Red actions

The Supreme Red Command took emergency measures to rectify the situation in the east of the country. A wave of recruits from politically active, conscientious fighters, from trade union members and volunteer workers was sent to the Eastern Front. The strategic reserve of the main command was also thrown in there - the 2-rifle division, two rifle brigades (10-th rifle division from Vyatka and 4-rifle division from Bryansk) and 22 ths. Also at the disposal of the Eastern Front was the 35-I Infantry Division, which was formed in Kazan. The 5 division from the Vyatka direction also pulled here.

This allowed by mid-April 1919 to begin changing the balance of forces on the Eastern Front in favor of the Red Army. So, on the Perm and Sarapul directions against 37 thousand of fighters of the Red Army acted 33 thousand of whites. In the central direction, in the area of ​​the front breakthrough, whites still had a significant advantage - 40 thousand soldiers against 24 thousand red troops. That is, the numerical inequality in forces was significantly reduced, instead of quadruple (more than 40 thousand against 10 thousand), which was at the beginning of the operation, decreased to almost double.

In the same period, the commander of the Southern Red Army Group (1, Turkestan and 4) Frunze carried out a number of regrouping of troops in order to strengthen their own position, create a reserve, strengthen the center of the Eastern Front, where the situation developed under the catastrophic scenario and prepare a counterattack of the Southern Group . As a result, the active actions of Frunze became prerequisites for the future successful counter-offensive of the Red Army. The 4 Army was weakened by the withdrawal of the 25 Rifle Division (first to the army group reserve), but received only a defensive mission. The Turkestan army was supposed to keep the Orenburg region and maintain contact with Turkestan, therefore it was reinforced by one brigade of the 25 division. The other two brigades of the 25 Division were transferred to Samara, the junction of the routes to Ufa and Orenburg, strengthening the Ufa-Samara sector. In the future, the 4 and Turkestan armies were supposed to restrain the attacks of the Orenburg and Ural armies of the enemy.

The difficult situation was on the site 1 th Red Army. Her right wing (24-Infantry Division) in early April, developed a successful attack on the Trinity. And the left wing sent three regiments to the Sterlitamak area and a brigade on Belebey to help the 5 Army. However, the enemy defeated a group of red troops in the Sterlitamak area, took it, and also prevented the brigade moved to Belebey, seizing it. The left flank of the 1 Army was weakened, and the fall of Belebey created a threat to the rear of the 1 Red Army. I had to stop the successfully developing offensive of the right flank of the 1 Army and quickly withdraw the 24 Division. While the remnants of the broken 20 th infantry division were holding back the enemy in the Belebei direction, the 24 th division was transferred to the area by forced marches. Departure 1-th army forced the Turkestan army also perform a partial regrouping ago and to 18 - 20 April its new front passed through Aktyubinsk - Elias - Exaltation of the Cross. And Frunze strengthened the position of his two armies by advancing a strategic reserve in the Orenburg-Buzuluk area.

Thus, Frunze began preparing and accumulating reserves for the future counter-offensive of the Red Army on the Eastern Front. 7 April the Eastern Front Command 1 outlined concentration-th Army near Buzuluk, Sharlyk to apply flanking counterattack on the enemy that Buguruslan and Samara. On April 9, the Eastern Front RVS expanded the operational capabilities of the Southern Group, including the 5 Army in its structure and giving Frunze complete freedom of action. The commander of the Southern Group had to regroup the troops and deliver a decisive blow to Kolchak's army before the end of the spring thaw or after it. On April 10, the Eastern Front RVS directive was issued, on which the Southern group was to strike at the north and defeat the enemy, who continued to push the 5 Red Army. At the same time, the Northern Group of Forces was formed as part of the 2 and 3 armies under the command of the 2 army commander Shorin. She was assigned the task of defeating the Siberian Army of Gaida. The boundary line between the North and South groups passed through the Birsk and Chistopol, the mouth of the Kama.

Results

As a result of the spring offensive Russian Army Kolchak White broke through the Red East Front in the center (position 5-Army), defeated the northern flank of the Eastern Front of red (severe loss of 2-th Red Army); occupied vast territories, including the Izhevsk-Votkinsk district, Ufa and Bugulma, reached the approaches to Vyatka, Kazan, Samara, Orenburg. Kolchakians captured a vast region with a population of more than 5 million.

The Soviet high command had to take emergency measures to stabilize the situation in the east of the country and organize a counter-offensive. “Flight to the Volga” (“Run to the Volga”) of Kolchak’s Russian army eased the position of Denikin’s army in the South of Russia (VSYUR). The strategic reserves of the Red Army were transferred to the Eastern Front, as well as the main replenishment, which helped Denikinians to win in the South of Russia and begin the march on Moscow.

In the military-strategic sense, it is worth noting the successful choice of the strike site - the junction of the 2 and 5 of the Red armies, which was practically naked. White also took advantage of the weakness of the 5 army - creating a quadruple superiority in the direction of the main attack. However, the White Command made a strategic mistake, inflicting two main blows - the Perm-Vyatka and Ufa-Samara sectors. In addition, in the future, two shock fists even more sprayed their forces, advancing in several directions at once. Corps and divisions lost contact, could not already establish interaction. As far as moving forward, the vast spaces of Russia simply swallowed the white army, it lost its shock power. The backbone of the army was thawing, Kolchak’s army was struck by personnel shortages, and new peasant reinforcements constantly worsened the fighting qualities of the Russian army. At the same time, the strength and resistance of the Reds grew. In its ranks there was a talented, tough and clever commander, a brilliant commander Frunze, he was able to regroup the forces of the Southern Army Group, began preparing a counterattack. In addition, do not forget the natural conditions - the period of spring thaw, which significantly impaired the ability to move.


Kolchak during a trip to the front with the son of the regiment. 1919
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  1. -12
    March 11 2019
    As a result of the spring offensive Russian army Kolchak white broke through the red Eastern Front in the center (the position of the 5th Army), defeated the northern flank of the red Eastern Front (heavy losses of the 2nd Red Army); occupied vast territories, including the Izhevsk-Votkinsk district, Ufa and Bugulma, reached the approaches to Vyatka, Kazan, Samara,

    The Russian Army fought for Russia, One and Indivisible , for the power of the people and did everything that she could.
    1. +10
      March 11 2019
      For the power of which people? For the power of the bourgeoisie, who grabbed French loans and therefore got into the WWI that was completely unnecessary for Russia.
      1. -2
        March 11 2019
        Quote: Aviator_
        For the power of the bourgeoisie, who grabbed French loans and therefore got into the WWI that was completely unnecessary for Russia.

        Despite the declared independence from the West, the Soviet Union, nevertheless, used foreign loans. To some extent, Western aid helped the USSR overcome the devastation, carry out industrialization and accelerate the victory over fascism.
        In the early years of Soviet power, there was no question of external loans, since the Bolsheviks were in a credit blockade due to the cancellation of the tsar’s debts. Meanwhile, at the end of the Civil War, exhausted Russia was in dire need of money and goods. Soon, the USSR began to receive short-term foreign loans, and by 1926 even an external public debt was accumulating in the region of 210 million dollars.
        In 1928, the USSR headed for industrialization. Internal resources were not enough, and therefore the government began to resort more actively to external loans. The vast majority of them were provided by private banks and companies under state guarantees. Such, for example, were Czechoslovak and German loans. In early 1934, Stalin, in an interview with the New York Times, touched on the topic of loans, noting that the amount of external public debt for 1932 was 1.4 billion rubles.
        1. +1
          March 11 2019
          Isolating a country is bad. But the development of the country according to its plans is guaranteed only with reliance on its own forces, otherwise there can be no talk of any independence. Even at the Genoa Conference of Soviet Russia, it was proposed to give all the loans of the tsarist time. Lenin wisely acted: he presented the bill to the Entente for the intervention and suggested that the question be considered settled: no one owed anything to anyone. The Entente stupidly demanded its own. This is how our country first came under sanctions. And only with Weimar Germany did we manage to agree on assistance to our country by technical personnel and technologies.
      2. -7
        March 11 2019
        Quote: Aviator_
        For the power of which people? For the power of the bourgeoisie, who grabbed French loans and therefore got into the WWI that was completely unnecessary for Russia.

        for power the people of Russiawhose will was trampled upon by usurpers
        Quote: Aviator_
        therefore, they entered the completely unnecessary Russian PMV

        They "climbed" in the same way as the USSR in WWII.
        1. +6
          March 11 2019
          Olgovich "for the power of the people of Russia, whose will was trampled upon by the usurpers."
          So much pathos.)))
          Olgovich "" They climbed "just like the USSR in WWII."
          Rare nonsense.))))
          1. -6
            March 11 2019
            Quote: Nagaibak
            Olgovich "" They climbed "just like the USSR in WWII."
            Rare nonsense.)

            Learn the history of your country.
            1. +3
              March 11 2019
              Olgovich "teach the History of your country."
              That's who would say.))))) Straight sensei on the site.))))
            2. -1
              March 11 2019
              Who and when attacked RI on the first of August 1914?
              1. 0
                March 12 2019
                Quote: Aviator_
                Who and when attacked RI on the first of August 1914 of the year?

                What's wrong with you?!belay request lol
                August 1, Germany.
                1. -1
                  March 12 2019
                  Sit down, two! On 2 of August the Germans occupied Kalisz, and on 4 of August the offensive of the Russian army on East Prussia began.
    2. +10
      March 11 2019
      The Russian Army fought for Russia, One and Indivisible, for the power of the people and did everything it could.
      "On the backs of the Russian workers and peasants, the Entente powers fought among themselves for the creation of small non-Soviet states from the former Russia, which could be turned into colonies, using them as a market for goods, as a source of cheap labor and as a supplier of cheap raw materials."
      This is from General Slashchev's article "Slogans of Russian patriotism in the service of France."
      From 1918 to 1920, "the armies" of Kaledin, Kornilov, Alekseev, Denikin, Krasnov, Kolchak, Yudenich, Wrangel fought "for Russia, United and Indivisible".
      On whom did these "fighters for the united and indivisible" rely, who "provided the rear" for them? What do we see?
      In the north - English, French, American and Canadian troops, which in the summer of 1918 captured Onega and Arkhangelsk. In the Far East, near the city of Vladivostok, Japanese troops landed, and then the troops of the British, American and French interventionists.
      In Baku and Turkestan - the British.
      By the summer of 1918, three quarters of the country's territory were in the hands of the interventionists. On part of the territory of Ukraine and the Caucasus, English and French troops took the place of the German.
      Squadrons of England, USA and France entered the Baltic and Black Seas. Obviously, with the aim of restoring "one and indivisible" and transferring power to the people.
      1. -5
        March 11 2019
        Quote: Decimam
        From 1918 to 1920, "the armies" of Kaledin, Kornilov, Alekseev, Denikin, Krasnov, Kolchak, Yudenich, Wrangel fought "for Russia, United and Indivisible".
        On whom did these "fighters for the united and indivisible" rely, who "provided the rear" for them? What we see


        And we see that:
        According to various estimates, more than 300 thousand foreign citizens representing more than a dozen nationalities fought on the side of the Red Army in the Civil War. The largest forces were Hungarians, Chinese and Latvians.
        The number of Chinese in the Red Army varies from 60 to 70 thousand people. The Chinese Red Army was also distinguished by extreme cruelty, their participation in punitive operations, detachments - a separate page in the history of the Civil War.

        The Latvian Rifle Division became the first regular division of the Red Army. At that time about 24 of thousands of people served in it.

        In the Red Army there were over 300 international military units, which included foreigners, including two inter-brigades, seven nationally mixed regiments, five regiments, where representatives of one nation served - Finns (three regiments), Czechs, Yugoslavs. But only from the Hungarians, of whom there were about 100 thousand people. The most prominent figure in the Civil War among the Hungarians was, of course, Bela Kun, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Southern Front, chairman of the Crimean Revolutionary Committee. One of the organizers of the Red Terror in the Crimea.
        1. +6
          March 11 2019
          The Red Army had over 300 international military units
          Did these units represent the interests of their governments? The governments of these countries supported the Bolsheviks, provided them with material and financial assistance under some kind of obligations on the part of the Bolsheviks?
          Have there been similar international formations in the white armies?
          1. +2
            March 11 2019
            Quote: Decimam
            Have there been similar international formations in the white armies?

            "... a gang of 600 Cossacks and Kyrgyz arrived in Topolnoye. They torture all the men remaining in the villages and rob property and take cattle ..."

            "The number of the enemy according to the testimony of the prisoner is 400 people, with 8 machine guns and all Poles"

            "Operational report of the Tomsk Revolutionary Committee on the organization of the military revolutionary headquarters, the arming of the workers and the transfer of Kolchak military units to the side of Soviet power in Tomsk on December 18, 1919 ...
            The first military unit that expressed its consent to go over to the side of the Soviets was the 1st Grenadier Battalion (Pepeliaevtsy), then registration went in the following order: Serbian detachment, .... Jewish self-defense company, Türko-Tatar detachment "(" Partisan movement in Western Siberia ").
        2. 0
          27 May 2019
          Quote: RUSS
          The Latvian Rifle Division became the first regular division of the Red Army. At that time about 24 of thousands of people served in it.

          Quote: RUSS
          five regiments, where representatives of one nation served - Finns (three regiments)
          - at that time, the state collapsed just yesterday, and in that yesterday they were subjects of the Russian Empire. So they are not really so direct foreigners (including Chinese).
          Here with Czechs / Hungarians - yes, these were really foreign nationals
      2. -9
        March 11 2019
        Quote: Decimam
        This is from a general article Slashcheva "Slogans of Russian patriotism in the service of France".

        it is for you an addict and an alcoholic authority. but not for normal people.
        Quote: Decimam
        In the north - English, French, American and Canadian troops, which in the summer of 1918 captured Onega and Arkhangelsk. In the Far East, near the city of Vladivostok, Japanese troops landed, and then the troops of the British, American and French interventionists.
        In Baku and Turkestan - the British

        before Brest betrayal, there was no one. then condemn the USSR for intervention against Iran (in alliance with ... imperialist England lol ) and its occupation in 1941, she was for the same reasons. that the intervention in Russia ..
        Quote: Decimam
        By the summer of 1918 year three quarters of the country's territory were in the hands of the interventionists.

        frank delirium fool -Do not comment. go to school, for starters.
        Quote: Decimam
        Obviously, with the aim of restoring "one and indivisible" and transferring power to the people.

        There was a world war with the Germans. which your fed gold. resources and manpower-captives. STILL condemn the USSR for the intervention against Iran, for the same reasons.
        1. +10
          March 11 2019
          Olgovich. I have written to you many times that I am placing my comment under yours not to discuss with you, but to see the opposite point of view. Therefore, do not bother to answer.
          As for the advice to go to school, go if you can. There, ask for a map showing the territories controlled by Soviet Russia in 1918 and numerous "fighters" "for a single and indivisible" controlled by the invaders.
          1. -9
            March 11 2019
            Quote: Decimam
            Olgovich. I have written to you many times that I am placing my comment under yours not to discuss with you, but to see the opposite point of view.

            So write it not to me, but DOWN.
            Quote: Decimam
            Therefore, do not bother to answer.
            As for the advice to go to school, go if you can. There, ask for a map that shows the territories controlled by Soviet Russia in 1918 and numerous "fighters" "for a single and indivisible", controlled interventionists.

            Op Pa Jump to the side started lol : you wrote that it was INTERVENTS controlled 2/3 of the country, now others ....

            PS once again I earnestly ask DO NOT RESPOND to me, otherwise I’m notified about the answer, I look and stumble upon you.
            Believe me, I don't feel any pleasure from these pearls about "3/4" and shit hi
            1. +6
              March 11 2019
              Olgovich, jumping to the side is a pure occupation of the urapatriots of the Romanian flood, do not attribute them to sane people.
              1. -5
                March 11 2019
                Quote: Decimam
                Olgovich, jumping to the side is a pure occupation of the urapatriots of the Romanian flood,

                You were poked in this jump
                Quote: Decimam
                no need to ascribe them to sane people.

                Sane - and not attributed to anything Yes
        2. +5
          March 11 2019
          Quote: Olgovich

          it is for you an addict and an alcoholic authority. but not for normal people.


          Well, if Slaschev is an addict and an alcoholic, then you, dear, have probably made yourself famous in the field of child molestation.
          1. -1
            March 12 2019
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Well, if Slashchev is an addict and an alcoholic, then You dear for sure glorified themselves in the field of child molestation.

            1. Speak on the TOPIC without touching my modest person. Leave the appeal "sweetest" for your partner, yes.
            2. Such a sweetheart was that he was not denied by anyone.
            1. -1
              March 12 2019
              Glory to God, the light did not converge upon you, dear. love As for the partner - do not judge people by yourself.
              1. -1
                March 13 2019
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Glory to God, the light did not converge upon you, dear. As for the partner - do not judge people by oneself.

                I judge you according to you. What does it mean .... me? fool request
                1. 0
                  March 13 2019
                  Yeah, you know me better than yourself laughing And you really have nothing to do with it, standing on the side. Well, why did you send me your portrait - fool , I said that I have a traditional orientation.
      3. -6
        March 11 2019
        There is no need to exaggerate the importance of the intervention, Lenin himself said, "that if the Entente countries could agree, they would not leave a" wet place "for the Bolsheviks"
        1. +4
          March 11 2019
          One should not underestimate the influence of intervention on the balance of power in a civil war. As for "if the Entente countries could agree," then two different issues should not be confused - the use of foreign support by the white movement and the use of the white movement by foreign intervention.
        2. +2
          March 11 2019
          Quote: RUSS
          if the Entente countries could agree

          It is almost impossible for bandits from different gangs to agree on who will rob the client.
          But the Bolsheviks played on this. Turkey with England, Japan with the USA, etc.
    3. +5
      March 11 2019
      Quote: Olgovich
      The Russian Army fought for Russia, One and Indivisible

      "None other than the internationalist Lenin stood guard over Russian national interests" (A.M. Romanov)

      Quote: Olgovich
      for the power of the people

      The people saw the exact opposite. It happens.
      1. -7
        March 11 2019
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        (A.M. Romanov)

        "authority", yes .... lol
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        The people saw the exact opposite. It happens.

        Are you people? belay lol
        1. +3
          March 11 2019
          Quote: Olgovich
          "authority", yes

          Authority, yes. For normal people, of course.

          Quote: Olgovich
          Are you people?

          Of course. But here I am not talking about myself. If you do not understand.
          1. +3
            March 11 2019
            I don’t know A.M. Romanov, but the people made their choice, sometimes choosing initially whites, but even a year was enough to recognize the guts of these fighters for united Russia.
          2. 0
            March 12 2019
            Quote: Sahar Medovich
            Authority, yes. For normal people, of course.

            For the abnormal
            Quote: Sahar Medovich
            Are you people?

            Of course.

            lol Then you to Napoleon. Nero and others. hi
            1. 0
              March 12 2019
              Quote: Olgovich
              For the abnormal

              For normal. Adequate. Erudite. Sober-minded.
              Quote: Olgovich
              Then you to Napoleon. Nero and others

              By the way - that is, to you?
    4. -3
      March 11 2019
      That war was not between two governments, political groups or supporters of different types of government, but between the states of the First and Third Worlds, Russia and anti-Russia cancer.
  2. +7
    March 11 2019
    English uniform
    Shoulder strap french
    Japanese tobacco,
    Omsk ruler.
    Chorus:
    Oh, my scumbag
    American,
    There will be no money
    I'll take it for sale!
    The uniform has been torn down
    Epaulet fell
    Tobacco smoked,
    The ruler was washed away.
    Omsk occupied
    Irkutsk taken away
    And with a scumbag
    Kolchak was taken.
    1920 (?)
    Sun Vishnevsky. The Red Fleet in Songs (Heroic Oratorio Poem). Sobr. Op., vol. 1, pp. 72-73. West Sun Vishnevsky in the early 20s.
    1. Sharaban
    The soldier is Russian
    Tunic - English,
    Boot - Japanese
    The ruler is Omsk.
    Oh, yes, my scumbag
    American!
    There will be no money
    I will sell a gun.
    Girls are coming
    Raising the skirts
    Czechs are behind them,
    Gnaw nuts.
    P.N. Krasnov. From the double-headed eagle to the red banner. Part 8. / The Last Days of the Russian Empire. T. 3. M., "Technomark", 1996. S. 393.
    2. Amur partisan
    Putting on the crown, taking the mace
    The ruler of Omsk feather to Moscow.
    Chorus:
    Ah my scumbag, you're a scumbag
    I am the whole of Russia and the chieftain.
    Greatcoat English, French uniform,
    Japanese tobacco, ruler of Omsk.
    Chorus:
    Ah, my sharaban completely crashed -
    Why am I in love with Entente? etc.
    Russian chanson: texts, notes, history / comp. and comm. Fima Giants; write. notes. text by O. A. Gubenko.
  3. +3
    March 11 2019
    The article clearly notes the inability of the Cossacks to strategic thinking: instead of going into a breakthrough, both the Ural and Orenburg Cossacks stood in front of their capitals - Ural and Orenburg. Respect to the author!
    1. +4
      March 11 2019
      “When the robberies began, and I asked to stop them, gene. Romanovsky answered me that robberies are the only incentive for the Cossacks to move forward: “Prohibit robberies, and no one will force them to go forward.” And the robberies, with the tacit connivance of the High Command, developed more and more. ”
      http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/shavelsky_gi/32.html Шавельский Г.И. Воспоминания последнего протопресвитера Русской армии и флота. Нью-Йорк, 1954
      1. -2
        March 11 2019
        Quote: tatra
        Prohibit robberies, and no one will force them to go forward. ” And the robberies, with the tacit connivance of the High Command, developed more and more. ”

        The working population, which once greeted the First Horse, now sends it after a curse, ”even the Revolutionary Military Council of the army was forced to admit. September 1. 1920st Horse goes through Ukraine. On the recent patrimony of Old Man Makhno.
        Only local residents, whom the Konarmeys “liberate”, for some reason do not show joy. Budyonnovtsy behave like real thugs. They rush into houses, beat and rape, rekviz and r ujut things. First of all, they are bandit in Jewish places.
        Budennovtsy are tired. The army had just left the Lvov encirclement. Ahead - new battles: The First Horse should be thrown against Wrangel, on the Southern Front.
        The dashing commander Semyon Budyonny loves his fighters. They earned the right to rest. Three days to plunder is a holy thing.
        True, some horsemen are so carried away by pogroms that they lag behind their units. The commissars have to force them out of the towns. Mocked - and will be ...
        1. +5
          March 11 2019
          Quote: RUSS
          Budyonnovtsy behave like real thugs.

          Not surprising. There were many Cossacks among the Budennovites, and after the spring of 1920, the former WHITE Cossacks.
          1. -2
            March 11 2019
            Quote: Sahar Medovich
            Not surprising. There were many Cossacks among the Budennovites, and after the spring of 1920, the former WHITE Cossacks.


            In the 1st horse there were not many Cossacks, but there was a lot of outright rabble.

            "Merged from peasants, partisans, Red Cossacks, Kalmyks, Circassians, bandits, led by commanders - tsarist soldiers who became generals, this strange First Cavalry Army was, first of all, deeply national and anti-communist. This one, fundamentally peasant, with hatred for the city , to the rich man, to the intellectual, the freeman was even thicker than in Tsaritsyn, kneaded dough. Not only Trotsky, but the most impoverished commissar of the intelligentsia, there was no place in her. Here 17 men, rebellious, robber to the devil, not to the devil with sabers. ”The steppe cavalry of the Budenovites of the Budenovites spoke of the communists only with complete contempt:“ Kamunists? Kamunists are bastards. We are not kamunists, we are Bolsheviks. we ourselves with a mustache, we know why we are fighting! We will break ourselves into a cake for our peasant power! - And the Budenovites drove communist commissars out of the First Horse Horse. "
            1. 0
              March 12 2019
              Quote: RUSS
              there was a lot of outright rabble.
              "Merged from partisan men, Red Cossacks, Kalmyks, Circassians, bandits

              The white army is right for you.
              Quote: RUSS
              And the Budenovites drove communist commissars from the First Horse. "

              Well - they didn’t let looting
        2. +3
          March 11 2019
          And what is this self-answer? Both Denikin and Krasnov wrote about the mass robberies of the White Cossacks in their memoirs. For 100 years the external and internal enemies of the Bolshevik Communists have had a maniacal passion for plundering Russia and robbing the Russian people.
  4. +4
    March 11 2019
    The fate of the hero of the occasion, General Khanzhin, was interesting ... "Khanzhin Mikhail Vasilyevich (17.10.1871/14.12.1961/20.4.1919, Samarkand -1893/1899/1904, Dzhambul, Kazakh SSR), Russian general of artillery (1905/4/28). Educated at the Mikhailovsky Art School (1905) and Mikhailovskaya Art. Academy (14.5.1909). Participant of the Russian-Japanese war of 9.8.1910-1. For military distinction he was awarded the Order of St. George, 42th degree. From 19.2.1914. II.19 and other headquarters officer, head of the training officers in the officers' artillery school. 19-7.7.1915 commander of the 3st division of the 11nd artillery brigade. 23.1.1915 was appointed commander of the 10.11.1915th artillery brigade, with which he entered the war. Proved himself to be a brave and managerial leader. only art., but also infantry formations; repeatedly acting commander of the 31.7.1915th infantry division. For the battles on 12/18.4.1916/8 he was awarded the Order of St. George, 1916rd degree, and for the battles on 19.12.1916-14.4.1917 January 1917 at Mevolavochi. Georgievsk weapons (4.7.1918). On 7/8.6/24.12.1918 he was appointed commander of the 14.7.1918th Infantry Division. From 26.8.1918/30.9.1918/1.1 inspector of artillery of the 20.6.1919th Army. he played a role in organizing the offensive of the Southwestern Front in 6.3.1919. On December 20.6.1919, 6.10.1919, he was appointed artillery inspector of the armies of the Romanian Front. After the February Revolution on April 4.1.1920, 1920, he was appointed as a field inspector general of artillery under the Supreme Commander-in-Chief. After the October Revolution he left for Siberia. Being in an illegal position after the uprising of the Czechoslovak corps in November. 29.8.1928, began the formation of white insurgent detachments in the south of the Urals. 19.6.1930/15.9.1945/10 received an order on the basis of the 1955th Ural Infantry formed by him. divisions to form the Ural Corps. XNUMX-XNUMX commander of the Ural AK (from XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX Ural separate corps; from XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX III Ural separate corps; from XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX III Ural AK). XNUMX-XNUMX Commander of the Western Separate Army on the Eastern Front. As part of the Ural, VIII Ufa and IX Volga corps, he began the spring offensive on XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX, took Ufa and Belebey. XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX replaced by the gene. K.V. Sakharov. XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX appointed to replace the general. A. Budberg as Minister of War in the government of A.V. Kolchak, remained in this post until XNUMX. In Jan. XNUMX left for China. XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX-XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX Head of the Far Eastern Department of the Regional Military District. After the occupation of Manchuria by the Soviet troops, he was arrested on September XNUMX, XNUMX by the SMERSH organs in Dairen. Spent XNUMX years in camps. In XNUMX he was in a local prison in Ukhta in the Komi ASSR. After his release he lived in Kazakhstan. "The most surprising thing is that for some reason his bloody Stalinist regime left him alive.)))
  5. +1
    March 11 2019
    Quote: Olgovich
    for the power of the people of Russia, whose will was violated by usurpers

    Aha! "Trampled". A fresh example is 2014, I have a referendum in Crimea. If it were not for our (people's) expression of will, would Crimea be Russian now?
  6. +1
    March 11 2019
    The worst thing for any people is a civil war. I am sorry for both white and red. To argue about the rightness of one or the other is meanness. These are my people and my story. I will simply draw conclusions from this catastrophe in order to prevent it in the future.
  7. +1
    March 12 2019
    Quote: RUSS
    Merged from guerrilla men, Red Cossacks, Kalmyks, Circassians, bandits, led by commanders - tsarist soldiers who became generals, this strange First Horse Army was primarily deeply national and anti-communist.

    Who wrote such a pearl? The author in the studio!
    1. +1
      March 12 2019
      Alexander Greene
      "Well who wrote this pearl? The author in the studio!"
      Please.))) The opinion of this person is given to us for the opinion of an expert on the 1st cavalry army.))) No wonder he didn’t indicate a quote for the quote. Our White Guards they are like that.)))) He wrote this mutt comrade:
      Roman Borisovich Gul (January 1 (13), 1896, Penza - June 30, 1986, New York) - Russian writer, emigrant, journalist, publicist, historian, critic, memoirist, public figure. Member of the Civil War as part of the White Movement, participant in the First Kuban (Ice) campaign of the Volunteer Army.
      1. +1
        March 12 2019
        Quote: Nagaibak
        Roman Borisovich Gul (January 1 (13), 1896, Penza - June 30, 1986, New York) - Russian writer, emigrant, journalist, publicist, historian, critic, memoirist, public figure. Member of the Civil War as part of the White Movement, participant in the First Kuban (Ice) campaign of the Volunteer Army.

        Thank you. I did not expect another, which author, such and pearl ..
  8. -2
    March 13 2019
    It’s a pity, it’s a pity that it was not possible then to crush the Red-bellied.
    1. +1
      March 14 2019
      Quote: wolf20032

      It’s a pity, it’s a pity that it was not possible then to crush the Red-bellied.

      Caution, the Toad can crush you ....

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