How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd

88
100 years ago, in April 1919, the White Finnish troops unexpectedly crossed the Russian-Finnish border in several places. Finns attacked Petrozavodsk. Finland claimed the whole of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula.

prehistory



After the February Revolution, Finnish society split: workers 'working groups, the Workers' and the Red Guard appeared in the work centers; and the bourgeois-nationalist part of Finnish society began to form its armed units (Schückcor - “guard corps”).

The provisional government of Russia restored the autonomy of Finland, but opposed its full independence. In July, 1917, the Finnish Diet adopted the “Law on Power”, which limited the competence of the Provisional Government to foreign and military policy. In response, Petrograd dispersed the Seym. In October 1917, new elections to the Sejm took place, where representatives of the bourgeoisie and nationalists took the lead.

After the October Revolution, the Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDPF) and the executive committee of the trade unions of Finland supported the Bolsheviks. In Finland, a general strike began, the Red Guard dispersed the squadrons, occupied important points, in many cities the power passed to the workers' councils. However, the Central Revolutionary Council, after the concessions of the Sejm, called on the workers to stop the strike. In December 1917, the Sejm declared Finland an independent state. The Soviet government recognized the independence of Finland. Security detachments became the main Finnish army. Finnish troops led by former Tsarist General Karl Gustav Mannerheim.

The revolution and the course towards independence split Finnish society. In January 1918, a bloody and brutal civil war began. The Red Guard captured Helsingfors and major industrial centers, railways ports. The north and most of central Finland remained in the hands of the whites — bourgeois-nationalist circles. The Reds had every chance of defeating the enemy: they controlled the main industrial centers, military factories and arsenals of the Russian army and fleet. However, they acted passively, indecisively, adhered to defensive tactics, did not nationalize banks, did not confiscate the land and forests of landowners and timber companies - leaving the sources in the hands of opponents, not deciding on the allocation of land to poor peasants. Decisive action was not taken to ensure state security, suppress the counter-revolution and the enemy underground.

Thus, the country and society split into two hostile parts. In March 1918, the Soviet government recognized the Finnish Socialist Labor Republic (FSRD). In turn, the White Finnish government received the support of the German Empire. The government of Lenin sympathized with the “red Finns”, but was afraid of Germany, and therefore declared neutrality. In addition, on the side of the White-Finnish government was also "neutral" Sweden. Thus, the Swedish fleet forced the Russians to abandon Åland along with all military assets and powerful artillery batteries. Eventually weapon and military property went to the Swedes and the White Finns. Then the Aland Islands captured the Germans.

It is worth noting that the Russian troops that still stood in Finland (the wreckage of the old tsarist army), and the large Russian community came under attack. This led to acts of genocide by the white finns. The Finns attacked and destroyed small units of the Russian army, which had already decomposed so much that it could not even defend. Finnish nationalists robbed, arrested and killed Russians. Also, white finns began to build concentration camps for the Reds. The Nazis sought to oust the Russians from Finland not only with direct terror, but also with the help of a boycott, direct insults, bullying, and deprivation of all civil rights. Moreover, almost all of the property acquired by the Russians was abandoned, lost.

In March 1918, the German fleet landed troops on the Aland Islands. In April, the Germans began the intervention in Finland. The command of the Baltic Fleet, in an emergency, conducted a unique operation to transfer ships from Helsingfors to Kronstadt (). 12 - April 13 Helsingfors stormed the Germans and the White Finns. The remaining Russian ships and vessels were captured by the Finns and Germans. All Russian sailors and soldiers arrested in the ranks of the Red Guard were shot. In late April, the White Finns took Vyborg. The mass executions of Russians were carried out in Vyborg. At the same time, officers, students of Russian educational institutions, who had no relation to the Reds, were also shot. Reprisals against the red Finns were on a class basis, and in respect of Russians - on a national basis. Across Finland, the White Finns killed several hundred Russian officers who did not support the Reds. And the property of Russian officers, merchants and businessmen was confiscated. The state property of Russia was also captured. In April, 1918, the White Finnish authorities seized Russian state property for 17,5 billion gold rubles.

The White Finns crushed the resistance of the Reds in the most severe way. Even those who kept weapons at home were subject to execution. White, ahead of the Bolsheviks, introduced the practice of concentration camps, where prisoners of red Finns were sent. By the beginning of May 1918, the entire territory of the Grand Duchy of Finland was in the hands of the White Finns. However, this was now not enough for the Finnish Nazis. They dreamed of "Great Finland".

How "Great Finland" planned to seize Petrograd

General Karl Gustav Emil Mannerheim. 1918

General Mannerheim stands to mark the start of the "War of Independence" in Tampere on January 30 of 1919

“Great Finland”

In March, 1918, at the height of the civil war in Finland, the head of the Finnish government, Svinhuvud, declared that Finland was ready to go to peace with Russia on “moderate conditions” - the white Finns demanded the transfer of Eastern Karelia, the entire Kola Peninsula and part of the Murmansk railway. The purpose of the invasion of the White Finns in Karelia and on the Kola Peninsula was not only territorial seizures, but material interests. During World War II, Murmansk was a major center for the transfer of weapons, various military equipment, equipment and foodstuffs delivered by the Allies along the Entente. Before the revolution, the authorities did not have time to take everything out and there were huge reserves in Murmansk that were of great value. The White Finns allied with the Germans planned to capture all this. General Mannerheim prepared an invasion plan for Soviet Russia to capture territory along the line Petsamo - Kola Peninsula - White Sea - Lake Onega - Svir River - Lake Ladoga. Mannerheim also put forward the project of liquidating Petrograd as the capital of Russia and turning the city with the district (Tsarskoe Selo, Gatchina, Oranienbaum, etc.) into a free “city-republic”.

18 March 1918 of the year in the settlement of Ukhta, captured by the Finns, the Provisional Committee for Eastern Karelia was assembled, which adopted resolutions on the accession of Eastern Karelia to Finland. At the end of April 1918, a detachment of white Finns moved to capture the port of Pechenga. At the request of the Murmansk Council, the British on the cruiser transferred the red detachment to Pechenga. The British at that time were not interested in seizing the White Finns, since the Finnish government was oriented toward Germany. In May, by joint efforts of the Red and British sailors, the Finnish attack on the Pechenga was repelled. Also managed to defend and Kandalaksha. As a result, the Russians, with the help of the British and French (they defended their strategic interests), managed to defend the Kola Peninsula from the White Finns.

In May 1918, Mannerheim’s bid published the decision of the Finnish government to declare war on Soviet Russia. Finnish authorities demanded to cover the losses caused by the civil war in Finland. At the expense of these “losses” to Finland they demanded to join East Karelia and the Murmansk region (Kola Peninsula).

True, the Second Reich intervened here. The Germans decided that the seizure of Petrograd would cause an explosion of patriotic feelings in Russia. What will be terminated Brest Peace, profitable to Berlin. That power can seize the opponents of the Bolsheviks, who again will start a war on the side of the Entente. Therefore, Berlin told the White Finnish government that Germany would not wage war for the interests of Finland with Soviet Russia, which signed the Brest Peace Treaty, and would not support the Finnish troops if they conduct military operations outside of Finland. The German government was preparing for the last decisive campaign on the Western (French) front, and did not want to aggravate the situation in the East.

Therefore, in late May - early June 1918, Berlin, in an ultimatum, demanded that Finland abandon the idea of ​​attacking Petrograd. Finnish "hawks" had to moderate their appetites. And the most active supporter of this plan, General Mannerheim, was dismissed. As a result, the baron had to go to Sweden. It is clear that the Finnish army was stopped not only by Germany. The Russian troops were concentrated on the Karelian Isthmus, the Reds had a rather strong Baltic Fleet. The Soviet ships located on the Kronstadt raid could, with artillery fire and the landing of assault forces, threaten the right flank of the Finnish army advancing on Petrograd. Also, Russian destroyers, patrol boats and submarines were located in Lake Ladoga, the formation of the Onega military flotilla began. Soviet hydroplanes patrolled over Ladoga and Onega lakes. As a result, during the navigation of 1918, the Finns did not dare to turn their heads on Ladoga and Onega.

In the summer of 1918, Finland and Soviet Russia began preliminary peace talks. The Finnish General Staff has prepared a draft border transfer on the Karelian Isthmus in exchange for good compensation in Eastern Karelia. Berlin supported this project. In fact, this plan anticipated what Stalin would later offer Finland to defend Leningrad on the eve of World War II.

In August, 1918, in the German capital, with the mediation of the German government, peace talks were held between Soviet Russia and Finland. The Finnish side refused to make peace with Russia. Then the Germans concluded an "Additional Agreement" to the Brest Treaty. According to him, the Soviet side promised to take all measures to remove the forces of the Entente from the Russian North. And Germany guaranteed that the Finns did not attack Russian territory and after the removal of the Entente troops in the North Russian power would be established. The Finnish side was outraged by this agreement, the Finns broke off negotiations. Berlin again warned Finland not to let the Finns attack Russia. As a result, the position of “neither war nor peace” was established on the Russian-Finnish border.


Belofin troops. 1918 year

Finnish cavalry. 1919 year

Finland goes on the offensive

Soon, Finland changed its patron. In October 1918, it was already obvious that Germany was losing the war, and the Finnish troops occupied the Rebol region in Karelia. In November 1918, the German Empire fell. Now Finland, with the support of the Entente, could start a war against Soviet Russia. In November, Mannerheim visited London, where he held informal talks with the British. In December, the Finnish parliament elected baron as regent (initially the Finns planned to establish a monarchy, Prince Frederick Karl von Hessen was a candidate for the throne), he actually became the dictator of Finland.

Immediately after the conclusion of a truce with Germany, Britain began to prepare for intervention in the Baltic. The British began to supply whites in the Baltics. In December, 1918, the British ships repeatedly bombarded the positions of the Red troops on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The balance of power in the Gulf of Finland was formally in favor of the Reds. However, first, the naval command was afraid to respond, for example, to the provocations of the Finns, since Moscow was afraid of the complication of "international relations", that is, the wrath of the Entente. Therefore, ship artillery was not used to strike at the positions of the Finnish troops on the coastal flank.

Secondly, many ships have become obsolete, most of the ships of the Baltic Fleet have not been repaired for a long time and physically could not leave their bases. They were inferior in speed and in armor to British ships. Thirdly, the situation with the staff was very bad. There was no order and discipline among the "little brothers", many of whom were anarchists. The old officers were dispersed, others were intimidated by the commissars. The training of new commanders, former midshipmen of accelerated releases, was unsatisfactory. The British fleet had new-built ships, well-trained and disciplined teams, with extensive combat experience. Therefore, the British quickly established control over the whole Gulf of Finland. The British captured two red destroyers from Revel, later they transferred them to the Estonians. Red fleet was blocked.

In January 1919, the Finnish army also occupied Porosozersky volost in Karelia. In February 1919, at the Versailles Peace Conference, the Finnish delegation demanded the whole of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula. From January to March 1919, Finnish troops conducted local hostilities in the areas of Rebola and Porosozero.

Under the leadership of Mannerheim, the Finns developed a campaign plan for Russia. The southern group (regular army) was to conduct an offensive in the direction of Olonets-Lodeinoe field. After the capture of this area, the Finns planned to develop an offensive on Petrograd. The northern group (security detachments, Swedish volunteers and immigrants from Karelia) advanced in the direction of Veshkelitsa-Kungozero-Syamozero. This campaign was coordinated with the White Army of Yudenich, which was based in Estonia. For help of the Finnish troops, Yudenich promised to give April 3 to Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula was ready to give after building a direct railway to Arkhangelsk. Both Yudenich and the Provisional Government of the Northern Region in Arkhangelsk agreed to the capture of Petrograd by the Finnish authorities. After the capture of Petrograd, the city was about to be brought under the authority of the Northwestern government of Yudenich.

The opponents of the campaign against Petrograd were the Finnish parliament (for financial reasons) and the British (for strategic reasons). The British reasonably believed that Petrograd was well protected, it was protected by a fleet, powerful coastal fortifications with artillery, and given the developed railway network, you can easily transfer reinforcements from the central part of Russia. And the defeat of the Finnish army near Petrograd could lead the Russians back to Helsinki.

21 - 22 April 1919, Finnish troops unexpectedly crossed the Russian border in several places. There were no Soviet troops in this area. Therefore, the Finns without seizure captured Vidlitsa, Tolox, Olonets and Veshkelitsu. The advanced Finnish units came to Petrozavodsk. The situation was critical: the Karelian region could fall in just a few days. From the north, in the direction of Kondopoga - Petrozavodsk, the British and white attacked. However, thanks to the stubborn resistance of the Red Army units on the approaches to Petrozavodsk in late April, the offensive of the Finnish army was halted.

2 May 1919, the Soviet Russia Council of Defense declared Petrozavodsk, Olonets and Cherepovets regions under siege. 4 May 1919 was announced the general mobilization of the Northeast region of Russia. May - June 1919, east and north of Lake Ladoga, were full of fighting. The Whitefin Olonets Army was advancing on Lodeynoye Pole. Small and poorly trained Red Army men restrained the onslaught of well-trained, armed and equipped White Finns, who also had a significant numerical advantage. Part of the Finnish forces managed to force Svir below Lodeynoye Pole. At the end of June 1919, the Red Army launched a counterattack. During the Vidlick operation (June 27 - July 8 1919), the Finnish army was defeated and retreated beyond the border line. The Red Army received an order not to pursue the enemy abroad.

Thus, Mannerheim's plans to organize a campaign against Petrograd through the Karelian Isthmus were destroyed. Officially, the First Soviet-Finnish War was ended on October 14 on 1920 by the signing of the Tartu Peace Treaty between the RSFSR and Finland. Russia ceded the Pechenga region to the Finns in the Arctic, the western part of the Rybachiy peninsula and most of the Middle Peninsula. However, the Finnish leadership did not abandon its plans to create a “Great Finland”, which was the main reason for three more Soviet-Finnish wars and brought Finland to Hitler’s camp.


The parade of Finnish troops. 1919 year
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88 comments
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  1. +6
    April 5 2019
    A very interesting photo and the history of the confrontation between the young Soviet government and Finnish nationalists.
    In vain, Lenin was in a hurry to recognize Finland in such conditions.
    And all the more amazed at the attempts to rehabilitate Mannerheim in St. Petersburg by his admirers ... this man’s hands to the elbow in the blood of the Russian people.
    1. +13
      April 5 2019
      SOVIET GOVERNMENT recognized Finland. and others on the outskirts of the former RUSSIAN EMPIRE because the temporary ones already destroyed the army and police, in addition, the temporary divided RUSSIA into zones of occupation by the Entente and the Japanese. Temporary Germans also cut the zone of occupation.
      It amazes me that even so, but they began to write about the Finns. After all, we are being rubbed about * peacefulness ... * of Finns, about * forced genocide of people * and other nonsense.
      Surely they will describe that Finland only OFFICIALLY declared war on the Soviet Union four times, this is in addition to numerous provocations.
      Very revealing finns * entered WWII. Perhaps this will be described without lies.
      Mannerheim was no different from the rest of the imperial generals. Although not many fell to the service of the Nazis
      1. -1
        April 5 2019
        The Soviet government directly sought to tear away national territories from Russia, was very afraid of violating agreements with its Western partners,
        The disciplined, well-organized troops of the new state formations under professional command, who successfully opposed the Reds, suddenly took off.
        As a result, the Reds were knocked out of the Baltic, and Finland rated the power of the Red Army so low that they even dared to declare war and dream of capture
        North and Petrograd
      2. -4
        April 7 2019
        what nonsense! 3,6 million Finns already declared war on 190 million of the USSR three times ?! It's about slipping three times on a banana peel and three times falling on the same knife! You brought Argentinean coke or what?
    2. -4
      April 7 2019
      all kindred peoples who, for a number of reasons beyond their control, found themselves outside of Russia and who are trying to unite in their ancestral lands are called nationalistic.
      All Karelia, like the peoples of the Kola Peninsula, have Finnish roots (it doesn’t even smell like Russia), all the peoples of the North belong to them.
  2. -26
    April 5 2019
    Well kapets. What a nonsense article. Finns are rightly fascists, Russian genocide in Finland. All facts are distorted. Here is an example of a fake article. It makes you sick of such a rewriting of history.
    1. +9
      April 5 2019
      all facts are distorted. Here is an example of a fake article. It makes you sick of such a rewriting of history.

      Fine smile if you feel sick then the article is correct.
      The genocide and massacre of the Russian population was on all the outskirts of Russia at that time, only our so-called partners and friends, in quotation marks, do not want to admit this ... do you feel sick of this truth.
      1. -24
        April 5 2019
        Well, that means the censor doesn’t have the correct articles on the Khokhlyat website as well?
        1. +8
          April 5 2019
          Well, that means the censor doesn’t have the correct articles on the Khokhlyat website as well?

          On the Khokhlyatsk site, we are thrown out of the forum for any disagreement with the horses .. smile
          At VO you have the opportunity to express your nausea and other signs of vomiting to all members of the forum ... and imagine you have to endure your urges ... democracy ... damn it for a soft spot.
          1. -17
            April 5 2019
            )))) there is nothing wrong with the word democracy. it translates - the power of the people. what is bad in the power of the people? Sometimes you need to read the sites of other neighboring countries to know what they think.
            1. +7
              April 5 2019
              There is no word in the word ... but as in the instrument there is ... smile
              What a sweet word is this Democracy ... in its name it is possible to bomb any country in the world that does not meet the norms of democracy ... impose sanctions on it ... to overthrow a legitimate government.
              In the name of democracy, much can be done that is not unlike what opponents of democracy do.
            2. +10
              April 5 2019
              Quote: Darth Ragozinus
              There is nothing wrong with the word democracy. Translated - the power of the people.

              Comrade Stalin also believed that democracy is the power of the people. But Comrade Roosevelt explained to him that democracy is the power of the AMERICAN people.
            3. +4
              April 5 2019
              Quote: Darth Ragozinus
              sometimes you need to read the sites of other neighboring countries to know what they think there.

              They think the way the Western masters order - look at the Ukrainian booth, and then you will understand that there are practically no adequate people there.
      2. -5
        April 5 2019
        The massacre was then in Russia, at first the killing of officers in Kronstadt and Petrograd, and in the same Helsingfors, then in Sevastopol, then in 1918 the Red Terror, then the Crimean massacres of Zemlyachki and Bela Kun, and more
        The revolution and the Civil War in general were a disaster for the Russian people, the consequences of which have not yet been overcome.
        By the way, a couple of years after these events, the Kronstadt rebels fled to Finland without fear of any Russian genocide, the native Reds were much worse
        1. +3
          April 6 2019
          Quote: 16329
          By the way, a couple of years after these events, the Kronstadt rebels fled to Finland without fear of any Russian genocide, the native Reds were much worse

          You forget to mention that during the Civil War there was a mutual annihilation of the population, and you didn’t look at nationality, but at belief - an example of the actions of Latvian shooters who were recognized as heroes of the Red Army. But in Finland, the local population exterminated the Russians on an ethnic basis, regardless of which of them held to which views. So do not equate the Finnish genocide in relation to the Russian people with the victims of our internal ideological tragedy - these are events of a different moral level.
          1. +2
            April 6 2019
            In any case, all these bloody events have one basis - the Russian revolution, which caused the collapse of the state and bloody events on its outskirts.
            And the Finns, in principle, are very harsh and cruel people, a landscape nation with a specific worldview, they were cruel to each other, even red to white, at least white to red finals, and the Russians just got into this bloody mix, and even many Finns and looked at as carriers of revolutionary ideas and did not try to figure out who is who really
            By the way, the actions of the Guard of the revolution = Latvian shooters have approximately the same roots
            In general, many foreigners distinguished themselves in the history of the Russian Revolution:
            And Austrian prisoners of war; firing howitzers at the Kremlin with seated junkers and Latvians and red Estonians and Finns, Chinese comrades, etc.
            1. +3
              April 6 2019
              And what prevented the Finns, as a token of gratitude for the freedom granted, at least as a human being, to those Russian people who fell victim to our revolution?
              Quote: 16329
              And Finns, in principle, are very harsh and cruel people,

              And sneaky, judging by their atrocities during World War II. Not all of course, but we have no right to forget this, at least from the point of view of historical truth.
              1. -5
                April 7 2019
                you need to know the story, not carry a blizzard! Finns took exactly as much as the USSR stole from them! and not a step further! This USSR meanly bombed still neutral Finland 25.06.41/500/XNUMX! Instead of throwing all the aircraft of the North-Western Front to fight against German troops, more than XNUMX bombers bombed Helsinki and ports!
                1. 0
                  April 8 2019
                  Quote: Vital
                  you need to know the story, not carry a blizzard! Finns took exactly as much as the USSR stole from them! and not a step further!

                  The USSR did not steal anything - it was the Bolsheviks who gave Finland independence and their statehood. Do you know anything from history at all, or are you just one of the modern "accusers"?

                  Quote: Vital
                  This USSR meanly bombed still neutral Finland 25.06.41/XNUMX/XNUMX!

                  Solonin overexcited? Learn why we attacked German troops in Finland not on June 22, but several days later:
                  Soviet intelligence recorded a stable presence of German military forces in Finnish territory. But since by the summer of 1941 the flow of German troops there only began to increase, the Soviet representatives who worked in Finland also naturally began to note this. Moreover, to Moscow the information that “the Germans are moving troops to Finland”, of course, came from different countries [4, p. 24 - 25, 78]. In particular, as the Soviet military attaché in Germany reported at the end of April, “flows of military transports from Germany to Finland are continuous, and recently information has been received on the transportation of military units” [Ibid., P. 116]. In total, by early May, according to Finnish data, about 13 thousand German soldiers were sent to the territory of the country from the Reich [5, S. 252].


                  Quote: Vital
                  Instead of throwing all the aircraft of the North-Western Front to fight against German troops, more than 500 bombers bombed Helsinki and ports!

                  So there were German troops there, and there was a very short distance to Leningrad, so they were destroyed so that the city would not be captured.
                  1. -4
                    April 9 2019
                    bullshit! No German troops as of June 22.06.41, XNUMX were in Finland, no need to lie!
                    1. +1
                      April 9 2019
                      Quote: Vital
                      No German troops as of June 22.06.41, XNUMX were in Finland, no need to lie!

                      Learn, dear liar:
                      Already on June 7, the Norwegian-Finnish border was crossed by units of the Nord Campaign Group, which, ten days later, was transformed into the SS division of Nord. On June 10, 1941, units of the 169th Wehrmacht infantry division began to land in the port of Pohyanmaa. At the same time, on June 10, officers from the Norwegian Army headquarters arrived in Rovaniemi (Finland) from Oslo (Norway), which included the 33rd and 36th Wehrmacht army corps and the Norway mountain rifle corps. Then in Finland began the first mobilization events - still partial.

                      https://topwar.ru/97180-kak-finlyandiya-ne-napadala-na-sovetskiy-soyuz.html
                      1. -4
                        April 10 2019
                        had it not been for the Soviet occupation of a part of Neutral Finland a year earlier, or when the Finns would not have let the Germans in, since they were in the sphere of British interests! All countries and peoples who have known "friendship in Russian" have joined the German ranks!
                      2. 0
                        April 10 2019
                        Quote: Vital
                        do not be the Soviet occupation of part of Neutral Finland a year earlier,

                        Did "neutral Finland" do this too?
                        During 1918-1922 Finns attacked the RSFSR twice. In order to prevent further conflicts, in 1922 an agreement was signed on the inviolability of the Soviet-Finnish border, according to the same document Finland received Petsamo or the Pecheneg region, the Rybachy peninsula and part of the Sredny peninsula. In the 1930s, Finland and the USSR signed the Nonaggression Pact. At the same time, relations between the states remained tense, the leaders of both countries feared mutual territorial claims.


                        Source: https://turvfinland.ru/sovetsko-finskaya-vojna-1939-1940/
        2. +1
          April 7 2019
          By the way, when the participants of the Kronstad uprising were evacuated to Finland in 1921, the Finnish press sharply opposed the placement of refugees in the countryside, fearing that the Russians would mix with the local Finnish population. As a result, the Kronstadters were placed in several camps with very strict conditions of detention: it was forbidden to leave the camp boundary under the threat of execution, communication with local residents was also strictly prohibited.
          The Finnish Senate decided to expel all former Russian citizens from the country, and during the spring and summer about 20 Russians were expelled from the country.
          In the Finnish press, where calls were often made to destroy the Russians. In March 1923, the newspaper Yulioppilaslechti published an article “Russafobia”, which stated that “if we love our country, we need to learn to hate its enemies ... Therefore, in the name of our honor and freedom, let our motto sound: Hatred and love! Death to the Russias, be they even red, even white. ”
    2. +3
      April 5 2019
      And what is not true in the article is that. Name at least one fact before posting bowel movements
      1. -8
        April 5 2019
        About genocide it is written there. There was no genocide. Bowel movement
        1. +7
          April 5 2019
          Well yes. I understood. They just shot it without genocide. I wanted to shoot cleanly. For the illiterate definition of genocide
          The extermination of certain groups of the population or entire peoples for political, racial, national, ethnic or religious reasons.
          1. -9
            April 5 2019
            Well, with this filing, the Civil War was also genocide. Then millions in the camps than not genocide. I’ll operate on your arguments. Do you remember who we were from 1924 to 1953? Nationality, remember. And how many people did not die by their death then.?
            1. +6
              April 5 2019
              So no one denies the genocide of the Civil period, only it was mutual. And it was not the Reds who started it, but the Czechoslovak Corps (part of the French army by the way), Denikin and Kolchak continued, the interventionists supported. And there were camps. And they sat in them for their deeds and were not guilty. But on the basis of nat signs in the USSR there was no repression before the Second World War. Stalin did not rule since 1924. Legally, he received legal power in 1941, in fact in 1936, before that there was a rather complicated coalition.
              1. +2
                April 6 2019
                In fact, the Czech corps reds decided to disarm at the request of the Germans as a result of the Brest Peace
                The Czechs, by the way, resisted the Germans and Ukrainian units in March 1918, together with the Soviet units
                The Czechs feared that they were red; after disarmament, they will be handed over to the Austrians with all the consequences for them, as for "traitors to the motherland" consequences
                1. 0
                  April 7 2019
                  Quote: 16329
                  Actually, the Czech Reds decided to disarm

                  Actually, most of them were already in Vladivostok, why did they return to the Volga?
                  1. +1
                    April 9 2019
                    Nobody came back, the Germans simply pressed on the Bolshevik government (Mirbakh communicated with Chicherin) and in April 1918 it delayed the evacuation of Czechs through Vladivostok and began to reflect on the possibility of evacuation through Murmansk
                    The Allies were afraid that the northern route could be intercepted by the Germans.
                    The Germans, of course, were not interested in the arrival of the forty-thousandth corps to the front in France
                    Thus, the Bolsheviks themselves first delayed the implementation of the agreement with the Czechs (March 1918, Penza) and then completely violated it
                    Order of Trotsky in May 1918 on the disarmament of the Czechs
                    1. 0
                      April 9 2019
                      In April - May 1918, the largest Czechoslovak units were in the areas of Penza - Syzran - Samara (8 thousand; por. S. Chechek), Chelyabinsk - Miass (8,8 thousand; regiment S. N. Wojciechowski), Novonikolaevsk - Art. Taiga (4,5 thousand; cap. R. Gaida), in Vladivostok (about 14 thousand; gen. M.K. Diterikhs), as well as Petropavlovsk-Kurgan-Omsk (cap. Syrova).
          2. +3
            April 5 2019
            Quote: evgic
            I wanted to shoot cleanly.

            Yeah, and purely in russkikh.A well, yes, even in the "red". And so, no one else. What kind of genocide is this?
        2. +9
          April 5 2019
          Quote: Darth Ragozinus
          About genocide it is written there. There was no genocide. Bowel movement

          That is, the Vyborg massacre - when it was not the Reds that were killed, but precisely the Russians - were there?
          1. -10
            April 5 2019
            There was a shooting of such a military and their accomplices. About 300-400 people. Civil war. True, it later turned out that some were clearly shot in vain.
            1. +2
              April 5 2019
              Quote: Darth Ragozinus
              the truth later it turned out that some were clearly shot in vain.

              I had to send for "living water" to correct the mistake, but alas, something did not work out.
              1. -6
                April 5 2019
                There was such a time. Centrifugal forces in the young state were strong. They shot not the Reds, but the military of the Tsar’s army. Most likely, the princes beat local pots on their heads and created a micro-republic. Then it was fashionable. Surely there was also small armed resistance to the central authorities. Therefore it was the army that was sent to establish a constitutional order. They covered the entire cell with assistants and cleaned it up tightly. Of course. But it was like that. Without trial and investigation. But it was not genocide.
            2. +4
              April 5 2019
              Quote: Darth Ragozinus
              There was a shooting of such a military and their accomplices

              Yes Yes Yes...
              Along with many hundreds of Russian families in the city of Vyborg, my family suffered a serious misfortune. Three of my nephews whom I raised as my children (they were orphans): Grigory Alexandrovich Mikhailov 23 years old, Andrei Alexandrovich Mikhailov 20 years old and Peter Alexandrovich Mikhailov 18 years old, died in vain and innocent victims at the hands of the Finnish White Guards. On the first day the Finnish White Guard entered Vyborg, they took their documents and went to register with the White Guard authorities. Unaware of any guilt, they walked boldly and trustingly, confident in the nobility and regularities of the actions of the White Guard. And they cruelly paid for their trust. Without any fault, they were shot by the White Guards. My wife later found them outside the Friedrichham Gate in a common pile of Russian martyrs.
              © Father Michael Uspensky, archpriest of the Vyborg Cathedral
              Also undoubted accomplices of the military were 12-year-old Sergey Bogdanov and 13-year-old Alexander Chubikov.
              1. -4
                April 5 2019
                Tell me the source of the information? Everywhere they write that there were several women and MINORS among the victims of the execution. Many ten-year-olds look older than me))) but I was already thirty. I didn’t check my passports before being executed. Was it? Participated? The execution. And the fact that they were still 18 was not interested in anyone. And women at that time played a significant role by the buzes.
                1. +1
                  April 6 2019
                  Everyone in Vybogra was seized, including junkers and youths, dragged to the ditch near the fortress wall and shot. all fell Russian. Russian means red-red means to the wall, they said
    3. +2
      April 6 2019
      You tell this to my great-grandmother, who, despite all the class contradictions with the Bolsheviks, so rushed to her daughter from Vyborg in May 1918, which she stopped only in St. Petersburg.
    4. 0
      April 7 2019
      This is for you at the Memorial, they were looking for victims of Stalinism, but they found victims of the Finns.
    5. -3
      April 7 2019
      here is a bunch of those who are ready to rush to protect workers in Catalonia and Granada, Poland, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Africa and the Middle East many times, in Afghanistan, to free Chechnya from the Chechens, in Ukraine from the Ukrainians , in Syria from the Syrians, in the Central African Republic, in Venezuela, in Libya ... who is the next to be released ?!
      1. 0
        April 8 2019
        Quote: Vital
        here is a bunch of those

        Do not be hysterical, but try to explain reasonably the Finnish atrocities against Russian people, regardless of their views, after the revolution.
        1. -3
          April 10 2019
          but didn’t the Russians deserve such an attitude towards themselves? Everything is back to square one! If the Reds mocked the bastard by one or another people, on occasion they answered accordingly, blood for blood!
          1. 0
            April 10 2019
            Quote: Vital
            If the Reds mocked the bastard by one or another people, on occasion they answered accordingly, blood for blood!

            Your historical illiteracy is simply amazing - it was the Reds who gave freedom to the people of Finland, and therefore they could not mock them, because it was another state in 1918.
  3. +8
    April 5 2019
    The enemies of the communists on the territory of the USSR are an anomaly of both the Soviet people and the pre-revolutionary people, and in general all the enemies of the communists in the world. It is impossible to imagine that the Finnish enemies of the Communists would rush to defend the Russian enemies of the Communists, but the Russian enemies of the Communists rush to defend the White Finns, who unleashed TWO wars during the Civil War in Russia - in 1918 and 1921 with the aim of seizing Russian territories by them. repression in Finland, when in just six months in 1918 almost 3% of the Finnish population were thrown into concentration camps, including.
    And with regard to the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939, they are always for the Finns, and against their country.
    1. -16
      April 5 2019
      This is where the legs of this article grow from. Soon 80 years of war with Finland. Now we will see on the TV set the bloodthirsty Finno Bandera with an unconventional orientation.
      1. +6
        April 5 2019
        Now we will see on TV the bloodthirsty Finno Bandera with an unconventional orientation.


        That's right ... there is nothing to participate in NATO exercises at the borders of RUSSIA and to take away children from Russian parents.
        1. -3
          April 5 2019
          Social alcoholics are bad parents wink
          1. +7
            April 5 2019
            Social work through the sale of selected children is a bad social work.
            Especially if the selected children are then given to non-traditional families.
            1. -8
              April 5 2019
              You embellish everything - they are sold to organs. What remains in a meat grinder and pies in R-kioski
      2. -5
        April 5 2019
        non-traditional bloodthirsty Finno Bandera.


        The problems of sexual orientation here concern many participants. Probably haven’t figured it out yet. So to say, there is no complete certainty wink
      3. +3
        April 5 2019
        Quote: Darth Ragozinus
        Now we see on the telly of the bloodthirsty Finno Bandera

        Well, yes, yes, there never were lahtarians, and the evil Russian Bolsheviks simply invented their atrocities ...
        1. +1
          April 6 2019
          Yes, of course they were, a harsh forested peasant nation, there was nothing to look for humanism there, it was possible to slice and slice, our peasant rebels, even in Russia, even in Ukraine, did not differ in delicacy or philanthropy either
          1. 0
            April 6 2019
            Quote: 16329
            could be cut and cut, our peasant rebels even in Russia, even in Ukraine, too, were not sensitive and philanthropic

            Firstly, we are talking about the Finnish nationalists-Nazis, whom everyone called "butchers" - lakhtars. Secondly, there were not only wild farmers, but also quite urban intellectuals. And in the third they committed atrocities on a national and political basis.
            1. +1
              April 6 2019
              You can call them lahtars, makhnovtsvmi, Antonovites - they are essentially just peasant people's insurgents, they always act under the leadership of the “national intelligentsia” and cut their opponents either for national or political reasons
              Currently, in such movements the main role is played by a “marginalized public” from the “popular milieu” led by local intellectuals
              In the conditions of a weakening or fall in central authority, such movements always appear and manage to mark bloody events
              Recall our recent history from Karabakh, Osh and the Baku events 1989-1990x, Chechnya and Dagestan 1995 - 1998 to the current Ukrainian events (Maidan, Odessa, volunteer battalions)
              Therefore, those who justify the revolutionaries and accept the revolutionary struggle must remember these "side effects" of the process of breaking the state machine
              1. 0
                April 7 2019
                Quote: 16329
                You can call them lahtars, makhnovtsvmi, Antonovites - the essence is one peasant people's rebels,

                Tell me, were you born that way, or did you graduate from any special courses? They explain to you that lakhtari are not wild, tucked-up peasants from forest farms, but quite educated people, representatives of all strata of the population. That to understand who they are at the level of the average person, you can simply read V Pikul "Out of a dead end". Who wants to know more, please, the whole Internet is in front of him. But you, with the stubbornness of a person with mental disabilities, are trying to convince everyone in your biased and biased point of view that lakhtari are white and fluffy patriots. And circumstances forced them to atrocate. That is, you deliberately try to mislead the public and impose your point of view. I see no point in further communication with you.
                1. +1
                  April 8 2019
                  I was born that way, and I read Pikul’s popular novel as a child, if you don’t understand what I basically wrote about how all radical movements manifest themselves during a period of political instability, then these are your problems
      4. -1
        April 6 2019
        And what to see them? -Well of them in the forests we have a lot
  4. +6
    April 5 2019
    Immediately after the conclusion of a truce with Germany, Britain began to prepare for intervention in the Baltic. The British began to supply whites in the Baltics. In December, 1918, the British ships repeatedly bombarded the positions of the Red troops on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The balance of power in the Gulf of Finland was formally in favor of the Reds. However, first, the naval command was afraid to respond, for example, to the provocations of the Finns, since Moscow was afraid of the complication of "international relations", that is, the wrath of the Entente. Therefore, ship artillery was not used to strike at the positions of the Finnish troops on the coastal flank.

    And the British and Finns were not shy. "On the night of December 5, 1918, the English cruiser" Kasandra "was blown up by a mine and sank. On December 14 and 15, British ships repeatedly fired at the red units on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland ..... In the conditions of the collapse of our fleet, the British quickly established dominance in everything Gulf of Finland.
    On December 25 and 26, not far from Revel, the destroyers Avtroil and Spartak surrendered to the English ships.
    This incident permanently discouraged the Red Warriors from going beyond the range of the guns of Fort Krasnaya Gorka. ”
    And what would happen if they didn’t have time to blow up Ino Fort?
    "It is important to note here the frankly aggressive actions of England against Soviet Russia, which began immediately after the end of World War I. It has now become fashionable to question the very fact of the Entente's intervention against our country. The events of 1919 in the Baltic eloquently demonstrate the degree of" peacefulness "of the then leading world power in relation to Soviet Russia ". https://www.proza.ru/2011/02/22/367
    1. -4
      April 5 2019
      In the pre-revolutionary years, more than 120 thousand Ingermanland Finns lived in the Petersburg province. In many places Finns made up the majority of the population (especially in Northern Ingermanland, near the old border with Finland). The presence of the national intelligentsia, a strong national identity contributed to the fact that during the period of revolutions and civil war, a relatively small people created their own national movement, put forward their own political slogans that could be realized within the framework of a democratic state.
      Immediately after the February Revolution on April 23, 1917, a national congress was held in Petrograd, in which more than 200 delegates representing all the parishes of Ingermanlandia participated. The permanent Central Ingermanland Commission is elected under the leadership of the rector of the Kolpan seminary and the editor of the Neva newspaper, Kaapre Tunni, who is close to the Socialist Revolutionaries in his political views. Most of the decisions of the first and second congresses concerned the reform of education. A complete translation of instruction into the native language was envisaged, which was implemented within a few months. The Germanic Third Congress, which took place after the Bolshevik formation in the places of compact residence of volost governments - local self-government bodies.
      However, the Bolsheviks do not allow them to power. The rural municipality councils did not begin to work, being replaced by committees of the poor, who are not respected by the majority of Finnish peasants. Food surplus and mobilization in the Red Army lead to armed confrontation. In the summer of 1918, the uprising peasants captured Volosovo and Vruda stations for several days. The uprising was attended by Russian, Finnish and Estonian peasants - residents of these places. The uprising was led by an Ingrian - captain of the Russian army P. Konto.
      In Koltushy, Finnish peasants for several days rendered armed resistance to the food detachments. This episode entered Finnish historiography as the “potato war” (perunasota). Thousands of Ingermanlanders flee to Finland. On January 31, 1919, an Interim Committee of Ingermanlandia was formed in Helsinki, headed by agronomist Professor Toycka. Later it includes the come to Suomi Capra Tunny. The idea of ​​helping compatriots found a warm response among the Finnish public, but a number of political reasons led to the fact that serious assistance was not provided to the Ingermanlanders. On March 26, 1919, the Ingermanland delegation held talks with Estonian President K. Päts and Commander-in-Chief J. Laidoner. The result of the negotiations was the decision to form a volunteer three-battalion regiment (1500 people) in Estonia, the weapons and uniforms of which were taken over by Estonia. The command staff was formed largely from the Finnish officers. The regiment was to take part in a joint offensive against Petrograd with the Northwest Army and Estonians.
      1. +8
        April 5 2019
        It’s not at all clear why you wrote it here. The fact that in the wake of the revolution a mass of local separatists has surfaced, everyone already knows, both in Siberia and the south. Yes, generally everywhere. Or they decided to drown for a new nation of Ingermanlads.
        1. +5
          April 5 2019
          Quote: evgic
          It’s not at all clear why you wrote it here. The fact that in the wake of the revolution a mass of local separatists has come up

          "But as for the Finns, the separatist movement arose earlier. In addition, on the side
          belofinnov fought well trained
          27th Jäger Battalion. Even before the revolution
          in Russia, a group of Finnish volunteers,
          dreamed of the independence of their homeland,
          by agreement with the German authorities about
          went military training in Loxstedt
          in Germany. Number of Finnish volunteers
          constantly increasing, and of them in May
          1916 Jaeger battalion was formed (light infantry battalion), which entered
          into the German imperial army. AT
          1916-1917 he fought in Courland
          against the Russian army ". Mann K., Jorgensen K. War in the Arctic. Combat operations of German troops in the Far North. 1939-1945." Chris Mann devoted his research to the relationship between Germany and Finland during the Winter War, the German invasion of Norway, its occupation and Arctic convoys. "The book begins just with the events described in the article. https://www.studmed.ru/mann-k-yorgensen-k-voyna-v-arktike-boevye-operacii-nemeckih-voysk-na-kraynem -severe-1939-1945_37df1db2d94.html
          1. +6
            April 5 2019
            Also known fact. Most Finnish generals during the war period 1939-40 and WWII from this battalion. I don’t understand what you want to say by this. Well, they wanted independence, the Soviet authorities granted it to them. The fact that the finals wanted more territories than they could expect is as far as
  5. +8
    April 5 2019
    They also dreamed of capturing Arkhangelsk in 1941. But in December 1941, the explosion of the first platinum of the BBK immediately in Povenets destroyed about 2 thousand drunken Finns (an armored battalion). They were washed away into Lake Onega. The front froze after that until 1944. My book "Ice Wall" is about these events.
    1. +1
      April 5 2019
      Quote: midshipman
      But in December 1941, the explosion of the first BBK platinum immediately in Povenets destroyed about 2 thousand drunk Finns (armored battalion).

      An interesting fact, very little known. Only the question arises - in the armored battalion cannot be 2 thousand people, apparently there were other units or it was not a battalion.
      1. +1
        April 6 2019
        The follower we had on Onega — its northern part — was a hole there and there was some historical place.
        But the places are beautiful
      2. 0
        April 6 2019
        Quote: ccsr
        An interesting fact, very little known.

        Reflected in the film-series "Military Intelligence. Northern Front".
        1. +1
          April 6 2019
          Quote: Paranoid50
          Reflected in the film-series "Military Intelligence. Northern Front".

          I didn’t watch it, as well as most of the current films about the war. There are classics - "The Living and the Dead" and "Hot Snow", and after them all modern popular prints are not very interesting.
    2. +1
      April 6 2019
      We have a follower on Onega. Well, I didn’t know that either. They didn’t lie down at the bottom of Onego, they didn’t go bad. If they wanted Karelia, get
  6. 0
    April 5 2019
    Quote: The same LYOKHA
    and select children from Russian parents.

    Well, here is the open question, they take the children for the jambs from everyone. In Komsomolskaya Pravda there was a journalistic investigation about one Russian mother ... I was stunned, her Finnish guardianship warned, installed cameras in the rooms (everything was fixed) and still she ran into ..
    And then she screams Russia save, help. Not everything is so simple ...
  7. 0
    April 5 2019
    Our relationship is not easy. On the one hand, they repeat everywhere how they fought off the evil USSR, on the other, they recognize the concentration camps for the Red Finns and consider them black spots of Finnish history.
  8. 0
    April 5 2019
    Let them learn Russian again. Useful. Although, how many have not met the Finns, they know him well laughing
  9. +1
    April 5 2019
    Secondly, many ships are already outdated, most of the ships of the Baltic Fleet have not been repaired for a long time and physically could not leave their bases. They were inferior in speed and armament to the British ships. Thirdly, the situation with the staff was very bad. There was no order and discipline among the "brothers," many of whom were anarchists. The old officers were dispersed, others were intimidated by the commissars. The training of new commanders, former midshipmen of expedited issues, was unsatisfactory

    On the other hand, the British, too, were not eager to fight in the Baltic. Help - yes. Fight with numerical superiority - yes. But to tear the veins and show the wonders of heroism - excuse me.
    In this respect, the battle of May 31.05.1919, XNUMX is indicative:
    In order to counter the English squadron that arrived in the Baltic, an active detachment (DOT) is being created consisting of the battleships Petropavlovsk and Andrey Pervozvanny, the cruiser Oleg, four destroyers and several other warships.

    The fighting against the English ships continued until the end of navigation the following 1919. Petropavlovsk took direct participation only once, on May 31, 1919, being near the Shepelevsky lighthouse, it covered the Azard destroyer, which had left for reconnaissance in Kopory Bay. Finding the enemy’s ships in the bay, Azard, firing back, began to retreat under the cover of artillery battleship and thereby put eight English destroyers on the attack. “Petropavlovsk”, opening fire with the main, and then anti-mine caliber and firing 16 305 mm and 94120 mm shells, repelled the attack, and the minimum approach of one of the destroyers to the dreadnought was less than 45 kb.
    © A.V. Skvortsov. Line ships of the Sevastopol type.
    8 destroyers against a lone battleship. It would seem - an ideal situation for attack and drowning. But no, they didn’t come closer to 45 kb of lime.
    The British captured Revel two red destroyers, later they handed them over to the Estonians.

    But for this - many thanks to citizen Raskolnikov: for the skillful planning of the operation and its clear implementation. / sarcasm off
    1. +1
      April 9 2019
      By the way, there is information that during this attack one of the British destroyers got hit and was not sunk just because the commander of the tower, naturally, “from the former” simply felt sorry for the World War allies
      In general, while conducting hostilities with the half-decomposed Red Fleet, the British managed to suffer serious losses, not only in mines, but also in direct clashes with bunker ships
  10. 0
    April 5 2019
    The question is not entirely about what happened to Finland after 1945, they left capitalism to them, and they took it to the economic part of the Department of Internal Affairs, and they produced weapons in the USSR (having access to almost secret developments) and issued disidets on demand, and their also
    1. +1
      April 5 2019
      In fact, according to all the royal treaties of Courland, the composition of Russia
      1. 0
        April 5 2019
        Kakoga horseradish nikitka gave Port Arthur
        1. +2
          April 6 2019
          Quote: goga13
          Kakoga horseradish nikitka gave Port Arthur

          Such as Hanko returned to Finland and destroyed the coastal defense of the Gulf of Finland. Kuznetsova dismissed, there was no one to protect the fleet. But Zhukov and Khrushchev hated the fleet.
          1. +1
            April 6 2019
            Quote: Amurets
            Kuznetsova dismissed, there was no one to protect the fleet.

            Kuznetsov is of course a legendary person, although his fate is tragic - this is a fact.
            Quote: Amurets
            But Zhukov and Khrushchev hated the fleet.

            I will not speak about Khrushchev, but in fact for what it was for Zhukov to love the fleet, if, according to the results of the Second World War, the fleet did not justify the hopes placed on him. And after the war, Zhukov had some complaints against naval commanders:
    2. +1
      April 9 2019
      So in general, traditionally, the Bolsheviks and Stalin personally had a good attitude towards Finland, after all youth, the RSDLP, the revolution, the Finnish support in the fight against the empire, and most likely there were certain secret arrangements
      That is why Finland received relatively mild conditions of surrender and then became a convenient economic partner of the USSR, and supplied ships, paper, clothes and shoes, agricultural products, and also resold Western technology
      In the 1970s, residents of Tallinn by local registration without a passport and currency exchange could take a ship for the weekend for 100 rubles traveling to Helsinki
  11. +2
    April 5 2019
    How many of these great 1 and Poland and Serbia and Romania and Finns, and even Moldovans
  12. -1
    April 6 2019
    Many thanks for the article - We need to know the story not from the transfer of the Izuver and the pervert - Pravdyuk with his hysteria and "holy" Mannerheim, but from such articles !.
    1. 0
      April 6 2019
      Quote: Ruger-para
      and pervert- Pravdyuk with his hysteria

      By the way, where did this rogue go, something has not flickered on screens for a long time, have it not died?
      1. 0
        April 6 2019
        The last program about Finland is just about how the Finns took independence and lived peacefully and the tyrant Stalin wanted to beat the Finns. There the truth has already surpassed itself
  13. 0
    April 7 2019
    In fact, an article about the betrayal of Mannerheim and the bourgeois government of Finland (in the recent past, subjects of the Republic of Ingushetia). And about the traitors contemporary to us: Medinsky (most of whose apparatus is thieves) and Mr. Ivanov (then head of the presidential apparatus!). We will not forget their participation in the idea, preparation and inauguration of the Mannerheim memorial plaque in St. Petersburg in 2016. It’s necessary to think of this, it’s necessary to commit such sacrilege!
    Alexander, thanks, we look forward to continuing.

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