Military Review

Our Kiev! How Budyonny’s army defeated the Poles

57
Our Kiev! How Budyonny’s army defeated the Poles

Smoot. 1920 year. 100 years ago, in June 1920, the Red Army defeated the Polish Army near Kiev. On June 5, the 1st Budenny Cavalry Army broke through the Polish front and defeated the enemy rear in Zhitomir and Berdichev. Under the threat of complete encirclement and death, the Polish troops left Kiev on the night of June 11.


To fight with the panes


The invasion of the Polish army to the west caused a wave of new mobilization in Soviet Russia. Soviet propaganda was embraced by concepts that until recently, internationalist revolutionaries had been throwing mud: Russia, the Russian people, and patriotism. Formerly tsarist generals and officers were actively involved in the Red Army. So, the former commander of the Southwestern Front and the supreme commander of the Provisional Government, Aleksey Brusilov, chaired a special meeting under the commander in chief of all the armed forces of the Soviet Republic, which worked out recommendations for strengthening the Red Army. Brusilov, together with other well-known generals, appealed to the officers: they were offered to forget the feuds and defend “Mother Russia”.

Thousands of officers who had previously maintained "neutrality", avoided the war, went to the recruiting stations. Some responded to the call of famous military leaders, others out of a sense of patriotism, others - tired of the uncertainty, and finding a reason: the fight against the traditional enemy, Poland. Also, part of the former White Guard prisoners were also attracted to the Soviet troops. At the same time, Trotsky mobilized among the workers and peasants.

In the rear of the Soviet South-Western Front, units of the VOKhR (Internal Security Forces of the Republic) operated under the command of F. Dzerzhinsky. The People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR was the head of the rear of the Southwestern Front and led the fight against the rebel and bandit movement in Ukraine. One of the main reasons for the success of the Polish army in April - May 1920 was the presence of numerous rebel groups and gangs in the rear of the Reds. Among them were Ukrainian nationalists, Socialist Revolutionaries, anarchists, monarchists, etc. Most of the chieftains and batiks were ordinary bandits. Dzerzhinsky declared a number of territories in martial law, emergency commissions received the rights of revolutionary military tribunals. Bandits and persons suspected of banditry were allowed into the expense without further ado. It is clear that many innocents have suffered.

At the same time, Iron Felix launched an ideological and educational work. At the rear headquarters, political and campaign cells were formed. Widely used educational conversations, lectures, rallies, so-called. village weeks. Distributed leaflets, posters, newspapers. The local population was brought up, carried out explanatory work and dragged to their side. As a result, Dzerzhinsky for the first time managed to turn the tide in Little Russia-Ukraine. The rear of the South-Western Front as a whole was "cleaned up" and strengthened. They fought against banditry for more than two years, but overall the situation stabilized.


Polish plane at the Kiev airport. 1920

The forces of the parties. Offensive plan


A pause in active hostilities allowed the Soviet command to restore the front in a southwestern direction. The parts previously broken up were put in order, replenished. Divisions from the Urals, Siberia, and the North Caucasus were hastily transferred to the western direction. Tens of thousands of soldiers arrived on the Western and Southwest Fronts. The most selected formations and units of the Red Army were thrown against the Poles. The 1st Horse Army of Budyonny came from the Caucasus, which was replenished by the Cossacks. The shock equestrian compound made the transition along the route Maykop - Rostov - Ekaterinoslav - Uman. On the way, the Budyonnovites defeated many gangs and Makhno detachments in Gulyaypol. The army consisted of four cavalry divisions (4th, 6th, 11th and 14th) and a special regiment. In total, over 16,5 thousand sabers, 48 ​​guns, over 300 machine guns, 22 armored vehicles, and 12 aircraft. The army attached a group of armored trains.

The 8th cavalry division formed from the Red Cossacks was removed from the Crimean direction. The powerful 12th Chapaev Infantry Division Kutyakov (25 thousand bayonets and sabers, 13 guns and more than 52 machine guns) was transferred to the 500th Army. It was one of the most powerful divisions of the Red Army. Also, the 45th rifle division of Yakir, the cavalry brigade of Kotovsky, the Bashkir cavalry brigade of Murtazin were transferred to the Kiev direction. Additional artillery forces were thrown south aviation. The front received more than 23 thousand rifles, more than 500 machine guns, more than 110 thousand sets of uniforms, a large number of ammunition.

The Southwestern Front was commanded by Alexander Egorov. During World War II, he commanded a battalion and regiment, was a lieutenant colonel of the imperial army. The front consisted of: the 12th Mezheninov’s army (opposite Kiev) consisting of 5 rifle, cavalry divisions and cavalry brigades, the 14th Uborevich’s army (southern section) — three rifle divisions and the 1st Cavalry army. The troops of the front totaled over 46 thousand bayonets and sabers, 245 guns and over 1400 machine guns. The 13th Army, which was part of the Southwestern Front, was in the Crimean direction.

The command of the Southwestern Front planned to deliver powerful converging attacks and defeat the enemy’s Kiev group (3rd and 6th armies). The strike group of the 12th Soviet Army was to force the Dnieper north of Kiev and occupy Korosten, preventing the Polish troops from fleeing to the northwest. On the left flank of the army, the Yakir group (two rifle divisions, Kotovsky’s cavalry brigade) attacked the White Church and Fastov. Yakir's group was supposed to bind and distract the enemy from the direction of the main attack. The decisive blow was to be delivered by Budenny's cavalry. The 1st Cavalry Army attacked Kazatin, Berdichev, and went behind the enemy’s Kiev group. At the same time, the 14th army of Uborevich was supposed to seize the area of ​​Vinnitsa - Zhmerynka.

The Polish Ukrainian Front was led by General Anthony Listovsky (at the same time commander of the 2nd Army). On the left flank, in the Kiev direction, stood the 3rd Army of General Rydz-Smigly; on the right flank, Vinnytsia, the 6th Army of General Ivashkevich-Rudoshansky. Polish troops totaled over 48 thousand people, 335 guns and about 1100 machine guns.

Thus, the forces of the opponents were approximately equal. However, Soviet troops had an advantage in cavalry (1: 2,7), aviation and superiority of forces in the direction of the main attack (1,5 times). In addition, the Red Army struck at the junction of the 3rd and 6th armies of the enemy. Here the Polish army had a weak spot due to the disbandment of the 2nd Army.


The unsuccessful start of the Kiev operation


May 26, 1920 the Red Army went on the offensive. The 12th Mezheninov’s army unsuccessfully tried to force the Dnieper north of Kiev. After six days of fighting, having met strong resistance from the enemy, the Reds stopped attacking. Soviet troops were able to occupy only a small bridgehead. At the same time, the Yakir group (Fastov group) and the 14th Uborevich army tried to break through the enemy’s defenses. However, they also did not succeed. The Polish forces launched a counterattack against the Fastov group and pushed the Reds back to their original positions.

The 1st Cavalry Army, having launched the offensive on May 27, initially also could not find a weak spot in the enemy’s defense. First, the Budyonnovsk soldiers engaged in battle with the rebels of Kurovsky, then on the 28th they advanced significantly and occupied Lipovets. Red armored trains burst into the station, shot Polish positions. The Polish armored train was damaged and barely left. But then the Poles counterattacked, on May 30 they recaptured Lipovets and threw back the Budyonnovites. Thus, the first attempt to advance the Red Army failed. After the unsuccessful May battles, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the front, Stalin sent a telegram to Budyonny. In it, the commander was asked to abandon the frontal attacks of enemy strong points, to bypass them.


Anthony Listovsky and Simon Petlyura. 1920

Budyonnovtsy break through the enemy defenses


Regrouping forces, tightening reserves and feeling for a weak spot in the enemy’s defense, the 1st Cavalry Army on June 5, 1920 suddenly broke through the Polish front in the area of ​​Samgorod and entered the operational space. The weather (heavy fog and rains) facilitated the maneuver of the red cavalry. The Poles tried to put up a barrier from the 13th Infantry Division, gathered reserves with several tanks. But the Budyonnovtsy did not get involved in the battle and simply bypassed the enemy. The march was swift, 10 hours after the start of the campaign, the Budyonnovites went to Kazatin, intercepting the railway, vital for the Poles, which connected the Kiev group with the rear. On June 6, Budyonnovtsy began to destroy the railway and eliminate small Polish garrisons at the stations.

Red cavalry wreaked havoc and destruction in the rear of the Polish army. For the first day of the raid, the cavalry marched 40 km, on the subsequent days another 60 km. The 1st Cavalry Army broke through to Zhitomir and Berdichev, on June 7, the 4th and 11th divisions occupied the cities. The headquarters of the Polish front was located in Zhitomir. He was defeated, disrupting communications and command of the Polish troops. In Berdichev, the Polish garrison put up stubborn resistance, but was defeated. In Berdichev, they destroyed a railway station, blew up front-line ammunition depots. Polish artillery was left without ammunition. Budyonny’s troops also liberated 7 thousand captured Red Army soldiers, thereby replenishing their ranks. The Poles tried to counterattack with their cavalry, but there were few of them. The Reds defeated the Polish horse group Savitsky. On June 9, the Budennovites moved east, to Fastov, where the Kotovsky brigade broke through.

Thus, the breakthrough of the Budyonny army led to the collapse of the Polish front. Attempts by the troops of the 3rd Polish Army and the 6th Ukrainian Division to push the enemy away from Zhytomyr and restore the front did not lead to success. The Kiev group of Poles was threatened with a blow from the rear and the environment. Meanwhile, other troops of the Southwestern Front went on the offensive. Fastovskaya group (44th and 45th divisions, Kotovsky’s cavalry brigade, VOKHX brigade) with the support of the Dnieper flotilla struck at the White Church. The Yakir group, covering the right flank of Budenny, on June 7–10 occupied Rzhischev, Tarash, Bila Tserkva, Tripoli and Fastov. Kotovsky’s team established contact with the Budennovites, captured Squira and intercepted the Kiev-Zhytomyr highway. The breakthrough of the Fastov Group was stopped by the Poles only near Vasilkov. Yakir's group was very scattered, lost its striking power.

At the same time, the strike group of the 12th Army crossed the Dnieper near Chernobyl and left the rear to the rear of the Polish troops in the Kiev region. On June 11, Soviet troops cut the Kiev-Korosten railway in the Borodyanka area. On June 9, the 12th Army began the battle for Kiev. The situation for the Polish group was hopeless. The 7th and 58th divisions of the 12th Army attacked in the forehead. Ships of the Dnieper flotilla fired on the city. From the north-west of the Poles, the strike group of the 12th Army — the 25th Division and the Bashkir Cavbrigade — circumvented. The 1st Cavalry Army was advancing from the rear - from the west. The Fast group attacked from the south. On the night of June 8–9, Polish troops began to clear their left-bank Dnieper bridgehead. By the evening of the 10th, the Poles finally left the bridgehead in front of Kiev and destroyed the permanent crossings. On the night of June 11, the Poles left Kiev and began to prepare crossings on the Irpen River. On June 12, the Red Army entered Kiev. Under the threat of complete encirclement and death, the Polish army quickly retreated from the Kiev region.

The Poles went to Korosten, and not to Zhytomyr, as suggested by the Soviet command. As a result of the 10th, the front command sent the red cavalry from the Khodorkov region back to Zhytomyr. Already on June 10, red cavalry again occupied Zhytomyr. Then the Soviet command tried to correct the mistake and moved the 1st Cavalry Army to intercept the enemy, to Radomyshl and Korosten, but it was too late. The 3rd Polish army escaped the "cauldron". From the north, units of two Polish divisions hit the redshields, providing a breakthrough for the 3rd Army. The Poles shot down the barriers of the 12th Army at Borodyanka and Irsha and broke through to Korosten.

On the southern flank, the 14th army of Uborevich defeated the Petliurists, occupied Zhmerinka, Gaysin, Vapnyarka, Tulchin and Nemirov. The 6th Polish Army retreated west. By June 17, the operation was completed. The front stabilized on the line Korosten - Berdichev - Kazatin - Vinnitsa. To the south of this line, in the interfluve of the Southern Bug and the Dniester, the Petliurists went west. The government of the UNR and Petlyura moved their headquarters from Vinnitsa to Proskurov, then to Kamenetz-Podolsky.

Thus, the Polish army suffered a major defeat, the Soviet troops liberated a significant territory of Little Russia. However, the Red Army failed to complete the encirclement and completely destroy the Polish Kiev group. The Polish army retreated successfully - mainly due to the mistakes of the Soviet command.

The Red Army could not develop success in the Kiev operation due to the lack of reserves and the advance of the Wrangel army in Northern Tavria. Possible reserves were directed to the Crimean Front. The failures of the Polish army were caused by the extension of the front, the lack of reserves, especially mobile ones. Part of the Polish troops from the Ukrainian front was transferred to Belarus. In addition, the Polish command refused wide mobilization in the Ukrainian army, which could strengthen the position of the Poles in the Kiev region.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1920 year

Battle of Rostov
The disaster of white Odessa
How Slashchev Crimea defended
Dono-Manych battle
The death of the Northern Army Miller
Why Western agent Kolchak is turned into a hero and martyr of Russia
The defeat of the army of Denikin in the battle of Tikhorets
How did the Ice Siberian campaign end
The fall of the White Kuban
Agony of White Novorossiysk
The death of the Kuban army
Denikin's resignation
Far Eastern Republic and the Japanese threat
Polish "liberation" campaign in Kiev
Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army
The battle for Belarus. May operation of the Red Army
War of the Russian Army Wrangel
The first victories of the Wrangel army
The defeat of the 13th Soviet Army in Northern Tavria
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 June 2020 06: 42 New
    -11
    The Soviet propaganda adopted the concepts that until recently revolutionaries-internationalists poured mud: Russia, the Russian people, patriotism.

    And where to go?

    The Polish proletarian and peasant with pleasure went to rob and kill their "class brothers", asserting Poland within the borders of 1772 and spitting on "the solidarity of the working people."

    Moreover, the Bolsheviks themselves abolished all the borders of Russia, abandoning the partitions of Poland that established them.

    It was necessary to turn to eternal concepts that always saved the country.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 11 June 2020 07: 28 New
      16
      olgovich
      Do not echo the author in the primitivization of what was in reality and outright distortion.
      In young SOVIET RUSSIA, they remembered very well how they SELLED their grandfathers, grandmothers, and remembered the mass flogging of peasants, and even lower ranks in the army. Until 1917 in the provincial cities there were streets on which * the vile estate * was forbidden to appear.
      In relation to the peasants and workers, even in the newspapers did not hesitate to print * a vile estate *.
      This is precisely what the Bolsheviks destroyed, albeit with excesses.
      Clever, and among the nobles there were those for whom the word HOMELAND is not an empty phrase, began to build a new state together with the PEOPLE.
      But do not forget those who said a lot of things and did a lot of things in the ranks of our enemies.
      Today we see this and it is very unfortunate that these enemies of the people are not only not judged, but even driven away from the state feeder.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 June 2020 08: 14 New
        +2
        Quote: Vasily50
        In young SOVIET RUSSIA, they remembered very well how they SELLED their grandfathers, grandmothers, and remembered the massive flogging of the peasants, and the lower ranks in the army.
        In 1904, on the occasion of the birth of Tsarevich Alexei’s heir, the Highest Manifesto was issued, which granted the peasants complete liberation from the rods. So, 43 years after the abolition of serfdom, the peasants were completely equated with other classes - at least in the field of the application of punishment to them. Nevertheless, not all were satisfied with the decree of the emperor. In 1912, discussions broke out about the return of rods and scourges in connection with the increasing incidence of hooliganism in the villages, but Nicholas II did not return to the old order. As for corporal punishment in the army and navy, even before the manifesto was released on August 5, 1904, they were excluded from the consequences of transferring to the category of penal soldiers and sailors both in peacetime and in wartime. (The source of information is the portal History.RF, https://histrf.ru/biblioteka/b/novyi-vzghliad-na-siechieniie-kak-v-rossiiskoi-impierii-otmienili-tieliesnyie-nakazaniia)
        1. gsev
          gsev 11 June 2020 09: 08 New
          +8
          Quote: tihonmarine
          The highest manifesto, which granted the peasants complete liberation from the rods.

          The manifesto does not mean the elimination of flogging. Grandmother born in 1907 told how the manager spotted her brother to death for trying to bring several potatoes from the field to a hungry sister. Only in the summer of 1917, when the manor of the landowner and the owner were expropriated, the flogging stopped. After 1991, a disdain for commoners reappeared in Russia. For example, on cool cars it was fashionable to install kenguryatniks at one time. In Australia, it is customary to strengthen the bumper because of the kangaroos that pop up in front of the car under the headlights. Kenguryatnik protected the car, and accordingly broke the obstacle. But on Russian roads, only pedestrian fellow citizens could be the victims of kenguryatniks. It took a special government order to ban kenguryatniks in Russia.
          1. Jünger
            Jünger 11 June 2020 10: 00 New
            -12
            Quote: gsev
            The manifesto does not mean the elimination of flogging. Grandmother born in 1907 told how the manager spotted her brother to death for trying to bring several potatoes from the field to a hungry sister.

            Didn't the manager of the almshouse or the orphan aid fund? I think no.
            For the theft of someone else’s property from someone else’s land or apartment they can generally be shot. And they’ll do it right. And it makes no difference to a potato taken away or a bag of gold. A thief, he is a thief.
            Spanking is a good thing. Physical effects are great for undeveloped natures. Her now to introduce.
            Quote: gsev
            . In Australia, it is customary to strengthen the bumper because of the kangaroos that pop up in front of the car under the headlights. Kenguryatnik protected the car, and accordingly broke the obstacle. But on Russian roads, only pedestrian fellow citizens could be the victims of kenguryatniks. It took a special government order to ban kenguryatniks in Russia.

            A rare snowstorm served with special pathos))
            1. Ryazan87
              Ryazan87 11 June 2020 12: 28 New
              -2
              April 17, 1863, on the day of his birth, Alexander II forbade the punishment of offenders with gauntlets, lashes, cats, drive through the ranks and impose stigmas. Only flogging was preserved by rods only for males.
              In this case, one must take into account the fact that after 1861 corporal punishment against peasants was carried out by decision of the volost judges elected ... from among the peasants:
              “The volost court has the power, according to such misconduct, to sentence the guilty: up to six days for community service, or up to three rubles in money recovery, or up to seven days in arrest, or, finally, persons from corporal punishment not seized - to punishment with rods up to twenty strokes. The imposition of penalties for each misconduct is at the discretion of the court itself. ”
              What kind of faces were they?
              The volost court did not have the right to sentence corporal punishment of elderly peasants who have reached the age of 60; peasants, "graduated from county schools, agricultural and equal to them, or higher education institutions." The following officers were released from corporal punishment: the volost foreman, his assistants, village wardens, members of the volost government, judges of the volost court, tax collectors and supervisors of bakeries. Later, in 1893, Nicholas II completely banned the flogging of women, in 1900 abolished corporal punishment for vagrancy, later for exiled settlers.
              So, the evil landowners lost power (which, incidentally, did not have in relation to 60% of the peasants, who were state, factory, specific, etc.), and the peasants flogged each other for a sweet soul.
              What is "savagery" for?
              "... in the Vokhrinsky volost of the Bronnitsky district of the Moscow province in December 1869, 42 arrears received 17 strokes with rods" for non-payment of taxes of treasury and levy due drunk and depraved life"." For some reason, the peasants did not like drunkards and loafers, for whom the community puffed up, such a strange thing.
              Or else, funny:
              "... On April 11, 1871, in the Borodino volost of Mozhaisk district of the Moscow province, the court heard the complaint of a peasant who ruined the wedding." On April 4, guests were gathered for a riot and ridicule and put a pile of manure on the dish. "The landlord offered 12 "They persisted in leaving the peasantry. Then they sent for the headman. He led the scoffers out, and leaving the yard, they knocked out the gate. The volost court sentenced everyone to 15 blows with rods."
              And then they started here the sacred stories about potatoes for a hungry sister ... he would have tried to steal them after 20 years from the collective farm field.
              1. Jünger
                Jünger 11 June 2020 14: 05 New
                -3
                In vain banned, in my opinion. For example, a woman stole something in a supermarket - what to do with her? Her husband, as it is now supposed to be, has no children at home from whom. She won’t be able to take a fine from her, put in prison for 15 days is also not an option.
                And so they would pour her a hundred rods so that the skin would not heal for a month and order.
                Or for example a youngster, an offender. He doesn’t understand a damn thing. And so I would understand easily.
                Therefore, we have no order in society and is not foreseen smile The women’s orders are divorced.
              2. gsev
                gsev 11 June 2020 14: 57 New
                +2
                Quote: Ryazanets87
                he would try to steal them after 20 years from the collective farm field.

                Those who failed to steal enough from the collective farm field in the village of Sibrovka doomed themselves and their families to starvation.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 11 June 2020 08: 15 New
        -13
        Quote: Vasily50
        Do not echo the author in the primitivization of what was in reality and outright distortion.

        The author simply cited FACTS, namely:
        The Soviet propaganda adopted the concepts that until recently revolutionaries-internationalists poured mud: Russia, the Russian people, patriotism.

        Can you refute them?

        No?

        Then why write?
        Quote: Vasily50
        In young SOVIET RUSSIA, they remembered very well how they SELLED their grandfathers, grandmothers, and remembered the mass flogging of peasants, and even lower ranks in the army. Until 1917 in the provincial cities there were streets on which * the vile estate * was forbidden to appear.
        In relation to the peasants and workers, even in the newspapers did not hesitate to print * a vile estate *.

        This is what side to Article?
        Quote: Vasily50
        Today we see this and it is very unfortunate that these enemies of the people are not only not judged, but even driven away from the state feeder.

        What does this have to do with to Article?
        I do not understand....
        1. 210ox
          210ox 11 June 2020 08: 52 New
          10
          Don’t you understand!? And it’s time to finally understand. That the young Red Army defeated the White Guard and others like them. It’s a pity the strength was not enough for the Poles. That would finish off this hyena.
          1. Starshina wmf
            Starshina wmf 11 June 2020 10: 16 New
            +4
            And Wrangel bitch ... ok, on the contrary, he decided to activate while the Reds fought with the Poles. Doesn’t this mean that. that they are traitors to the motherland. For example, take the situation when the Germans invaded us and all forces were thrown against them. At that time, an entire army of RUSSIANS would strike us in the rear.
        2. gsev
          gsev 11 June 2020 09: 19 New
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          Can you refute them?

          Have you compared white and red posters during the civil war? Often there were the same pictures and almost the same text, only the words red changed to white. Moreover, during the civil war about Great Russia and patriotism, neither white propaganda nor red propagated much. Everyone spoke of a happy life, the protection of personal property and personality, either after the victory of the whites or after the victory of the reds. The only reds painted the pictures more carefully and came up with a more witty text. On one white banner with the White Guards, legs could be mistaken for the tail of a mermaid. In the USSR, both white and red posters were kept in the museum of the revolution.
        3. Hantengri
          Hantengri 11 June 2020 10: 02 New
          +5
          Quote: Olgovich
          The author simply cited FACTS, namely:
          The Soviet propaganda adopted the concepts that until recently revolutionaries-internationalists poured mud: Russia, the Russian people, patriotism.

          Can you refute them?

          What do you propose to refute? Mr. Samsonov’s fantasies or the delirium of your mind inflamed with animal hatred for Soviet power?
          In my opinion, it is you, together with Mr. Samsonov, who should try to prove to us that your ideas with him, about what the internationalist revolutionaries thought, coincide with what they really thought.
          Although .. You, personally, can simply write the word "facts" CAPSOM a few times, because the magic CAPS turns any nonsense into irrefutable evidence!
      3. Basil50
        Basil50 11 June 2020 09: 33 New
        +5
        Something is wrong with those who for some reason believe unconditionally royal decrees and the fact that the magnanimous scribes of the time wrote.
        But they do not believe what was happening then in REALITY, which even the newspapers of that time wrote about.
        Well, they don’t believe everything, that in 1915 they didn’t hesitate to write about the * surplus appraisal * - when they removed the grain from the peasant yards and took away all the cattle, were dissatisfied with whole villages, regardless of age or gender.
        In the then media, with all the censorship, it was mentioned that on the front * the guilty * soldiers were tied up over trenches and this is in addition to * corporal punishment *
        They don’t believe it. But to read * the then * press apparently * they * interfere
        But they believe everything that they write abroad. And of course they believe everything that they lied about the SOVIET UNION, and today they lie about RUSSIA
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 11 June 2020 11: 20 New
          -5
          Quote: Vasily50
          Well, they don’t believe everything, 1915 year no longer embarrassed, they wrote about * the surplus appraisal * - when they removed the grain from the peasant yards and took away all the cattle,

          You don’t have to believe anyone or anything, you just need to KNOW that in reality there was no food prospect in ..... 1915, nor was there any raking of grain and cattle.

          Quote: Vasily50
          x they whipped whole villages, regardless of age or gender.

          Facts about 1915 - on the table!
          and this is the blessed 1932 in the USSR, without war:
          : In the Pleshakovsky collective farm, two authorized representatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan first applied the method of “interrogation with bias” that was widely spread throughout the district. At midnight they called to the komsod, first they questioned, and then they used torture: they put a pencil between their fingers and broke their joints, and then put a rope loop around their neck and led to the ice hole in the Don to sink ...

          At the Grachevsky collective farm authorized by the RK during interrogation hung the collective farmers by the neck to the ceiling, continued to interrogate the half-strangled, then on a belt he led to the river, kicked him on the road, put him on his knees on ice and continued interrogation ...

          At the Napolovsky collective farm, authorized RK Plotkin, during interrogation, forced to sit on a hot stove bench

          On the Kolundaevsky collective farm, collective farmers swollen to barefoot were forced to run in the snow for three hours.

          In the Arkhipovsky prison of the two collective farmers, Fomin and Krasnov, after nightly interrogation, they were taken three kilometers to the steppe, stripped naked in the snow and let, having ordered to run to a farm at a trot ...

          . The population was warned: whoever lets the evicted family go will himself be evicted with the family. 1090 families with a 20-degree frost day and day lived on the street around the clock. During the day, like shadows, they wandered around their enclosed houses, and at night they sought refuge from the cold in sheds. But according to the law established by the regional committee, they were not allowed to sleep there either! The chairmen of the village councils sent patrols through the streets, rummaging through the barns and driving the families of the collective farmers who were thrown out of the houses into the streets.

          I saw something that you can’t forget to death: in the Volokhov farm of the Lebyazhensky collective farm at night, in a breeze, in the cold, when even dogs hide from the cold, families thrown out of the houses burned bonfires on the alleys and sat near the fire. The children were wrapped in rags and laid on the ground thawed from the fire. A continuous cry of children stood over the alleys.

          A woman with a baby was evicted at the Bazkovsky collective farm. She walked around the farm all night and asked to be allowed to warm herself with the child. They didn’t let them in, fearing that they themselves would not be evicted. In the morning, the child froze in his mother’s arms.

          6. In the Lebyazhensk collective farm, they were put against the wall and shot past the head of the interrogated of shotguns.

          7. Ibid: rolled up in a row and trampled underfoot.

          10. At the Zatonskiy collective farm, an employee of an agitation column beat interrogated by a saber. In the same collective farm, they mocked the families of the Red Army, revealing the roofs of houses, ruining the stoves, forcing women to cohabit.

          11. In the Solontsov collective farm, a human corpse was brought into the premises of the Komsomol, they laid it on the table and in the same room the collective farmers were interrogated, threatening with execution.

          12. In the Upper-Chirk collective farm, the commander-in-chief put the interrogated bare-footed on a hot stove, and then beat and led them, barefoot, in the cold.

          14. In the same place: the interrogated collective farmer was put a stool on his head, covered with a fur coat on top, beaten and interrogated.

          15. At the Bazkovsky collective farm, they were undressed during interrogation, half-naked, released home, returned from halfway, and so on several times. etc.

          [/ b] This is Sholokhov about atrocities against peasants: "These examples can be infinitely multiplied.. These are not isolated cases of bends. "
          Do you hear or not?

          Quote: Vasily50
          They don’t believe it. But to read * the then * press apparently * they * interfere

          You read on Istmat the reports of the NKVD and the OGPU about the torture of peasants, there are no raids there!
          1. Jünger
            Jünger 11 June 2020 11: 47 New
            -7
            Quote: Olgovich
            Do you hear or not?

            Nope, they don’t hear, because it does not fit into their good picture of the world. The main thing is that Gagarin flew into space, and who was beaten there, shot and strangled is not the main thing. "This was all invented by Churchill in the year 18."
            The main thing is that they are a beacon of peace and a bastion of kindness.
        2. AU Ivanov.
          AU Ivanov. 11 June 2020 14: 43 New
          -2
          In 1915, food was not raked from the peasants, but bought at solid prices. And I’m not cleaning it up. They plundered the peasants, squeezing the last from them, including seed and agricultural implements by force of arms - the Bolsheviks. Peasant uprisings, which were four times as many in the reign of the Communists as for the whole reign of Nicholas II, did not arise out of nowhere.
  2. avia12005
    avia12005 11 June 2020 06: 52 New
    -5
    But isn’t it time to repeat the 1st Horseback raid in Ukraine ???
    1. Normal ok
      Normal ok 11 June 2020 07: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: avia12005
      But isn’t it time to repeat the 1st Horseback raid in Ukraine ???

      Could it be better to use the brain?
      1. avia12005
        avia12005 11 June 2020 10: 50 New
        -1
        Why involve him in the answer where he is not.
    2. revnagan
      revnagan 11 June 2020 09: 49 New
      0
      Quote: avia12005
      But isn’t it time to repeat the 1st Horseback raid in Ukraine ???

      Ready to head in person, riding a “combat couch”?
      1. avia12005
        avia12005 11 June 2020 10: 49 New
        -1
        Kohl remembered about the sofa, then you are special on it.
  3. apro
    apro 11 June 2020 07: 20 New
    +7
    To return Poland to the Baltic States Finland was actively opposed by the Russian White Guards and their accomplices, the Cossacks separatists, incapable of uniting the country, but capable of harming at every opportunity ...
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 11 June 2020 08: 21 New
      -8
      Quote: apro
      Return to the USSR, Poland, the Baltic States, Finland


      And they ... were there?

      The farther the weirder lol laughing
      Quote: apro
      Russian White Guards and their accomplices actively opposed the separatists Cossacks. incapable of uniting the country. but capable of harming at every opportunity ...

      Yes, we know, we know what prevents dancers yes

      And yes - it's the White Guards 1919 years brought Russia to 1991 year to the borders 17 century. fool

      This "they" cut off from Russia in 1917-1940 FIVE million km2?

      Lavrov, yes ....
      1. apro
        apro 11 June 2020 09: 00 New
        +9
        Once again ... scatter sneak.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 11 June 2020 11: 27 New
          -3
          Quote: apro
          Once again ... scatter sneak.


          I never complained about you, liar.

          and yes
          Quote: apro
          scat.
          yes
      2. gsev
        gsev 11 June 2020 09: 25 New
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        And they ... were there?

        The Red Guards and the Red Army in 1918-1921 fought for the return of Finland to the then Soviet Russia. If they had not fought and Mannerheim no military force had restrained the eastern border of Finland, perhaps now passed along the Yenisei. In some cartoons from the time of the revolution, Finland was drawn from the Baltic to the Yenisei.
      3. Andy
        Andy 11 June 2020 10: 01 New
        +3
        no, they were not ... there was no Yudenich with the Estonians advancing on the petrograd ... these are Bolshevik tales. True, the White ests paid well with the accomplice Yudenich, shot them with machine guns and scattered the defeated army into concentration camps. and it was in 1920!
        1. APIS
          APIS 13 June 2020 08: 30 New
          0
          It would be nice for the son of Olgin to remember who leaked his native Bessarabia to the Romanians.
        2. Oprichnik
          Oprichnik 17 June 2020 01: 03 New
          0
          It's strange to read a sort of evil barking. After all, they were Russian people, even if they were not right. But my uncles took revenge on this Toomaasaam in 1944 and wound up more than one hundred Estonians from the SS division on caterpillars and thinned them out of submachine guns. And today, these ests in NATO and NATO advanced units are some tens of kilometers from St. Petersburg and our other cities.
  4. knn54
    knn54 11 June 2020 08: 19 New
    +4
    The occupation of Kiev by the White Poles dramatically changed the mood of some former officers. The Bolsheviks in their eyes turned into a force that defended the territorial integrity of the country. On May 30, 1920, a group of generals of the Russian army, headed by former commander-in-chief and commander of the South-Western Front in World War I, Alexei Brusilov, and former military minister Alexei Polivanov, called on officers and generals to “forget all insults at a critical moment ... and voluntarily go with full selflessness and hunting for the Red Army ... and serving there not for fear, but for conscience, so that with our honest service, not sparing our lives, to defend Russia dear to us at all costs and prevent its plunder. " About 14 former generals and officers, including white officers who were released from camps and prisons, responded to him, which QUALITATELY reflected in the management of military units and formations.
    1. Andy
      Andy 11 June 2020 10: 04 New
      +5
      and now notice, the reds reflect the external enemy. and White actively helps him! An example is in the article of the Wrangel’s action, outside the article Yudenich in alliance with the Estonians near Petrograd
    2. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 11 June 2020 18: 10 New
      +2
      And a year earlier: “Yakhontov’s next speech became a form of scandal. It was an article“ What is the strength of the Bolshevik army ”, published on June 5, 1919 in New York in the Russian“ People’s Newspaper. ”It was read not only in the United States, but also in France, in Bulgaria, in China, wherever there were white emigrants. Naturally, officers read it with special attention. A wild wave of hatred then arose against the author ... Yakhontov wrote that the Red Army is strong because it protects its native country from the invasion of foreigners. That it fulfills, therefore, a national, patriotic task. Yakhontov also disproved the myth of emigration that the Red Army “does not have Russians” and that it consists of hired Latvians, Chinese, Hungarians, etc. Russia is a multinational country Yakhontov pointed out, and in her army there were always - including those at the highest posts - people with German, Polish, Tatar, Caucasian surnames. Yakhontov wrote that the increasing influx is explained by patriotism, and not by some kind of betrayal. to the Red Army of old officers. He suggested that many of them did not sympathize with the Soviet regime at all, but they went to the warrior's duty to defend their native land from an external enemy. Today’s Red Army, Viktor Aleksandrovich concluded, is simply tomorrow’s Russian Army.
      For white emigrants, especially for officers, this was unbearable. It turns out that the Reds are for Russia, but they are against? Civilians were also indignant, for the political conclusion was obvious from the article: if the Red Army is a national army, then the Bolshevik government should be considered national! "
      And after all, His Excellency was right! But in order to understand that he was right, many officers needed to wait for the occupation of Kiev by foreign enemies ...
  5. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 11 June 2020 08: 24 New
    +3
    Bandits and persons suspected of banditry were allowed into the expense without further ado. It is clear that many innocents have suffered.

    Well, how much can you repeat the whining of the late 80s about the "many innocent"? And the guilty, therefore, few?
  6. sanya
    sanya 11 June 2020 08: 59 New
    -8
    As I wrote earlier
    The White offensive in Ukraine along the rear of the Reds could lead to the complete defeat of the Reds and completely different results in the Civil War
    But White stubbornly attacked New Russia ...
    1. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 12 June 2020 09: 53 New
      +1
      Just as the White offensive in Ukraine could stall at the beginning and fail in the end ...
      1. sanya
        sanya 12 June 2020 17: 13 New
        0
        Stalled near Kakhovka when they ran into the shore and did not know what to do ...
        And in Ukraine there was every opportunity for a mobile war on the rear of the Reds, exactly the same thing that Makhno did during the White offensive on Moscow
        Slashchev said so that he wants to be the second Makhno
        1. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 12 June 2020 18: 08 New
          0
          Quote: sanya
          in Ukraine there were all possibilities

          In addition to the security of their own rear.
          1. sanya
            sanya 12 June 2020 21: 03 New
            0
            The one who takes the initiative wins such a war
  7. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 11 June 2020 10: 13 New
    +3
    The Red Army was unable to develop success in the Kiev operation due to the lack of reserves and Wrangel Army Offensive in Northern Tavria. Possible reserves were directed to the Crimean Front.

    For Wrangel and his soldiers, class interests won over the love of their homeland. They advanced along with the Poles.
    1. Jünger
      Jünger 11 June 2020 11: 07 New
      -10
      Quote: Kostadinov
      For Wrangel and his soldiers, class interests won over the love of their homeland. They advanced along with the Poles.

      Wrangel and his soldiers were smart and determined people. They were not amusing themselves with rattles and slogans, but understood that their Motherland was occupied. And the invaders are by no means the Entente with the Poles, and Ulyanov with the Bronstein and Apfelbaum.
      Therefore, first the liquidation of the Bronstein in the Kremlin in alliance with the devil, and then without any problems to crush the rebellious foreign suburbs.
      1. Sugar Honeyovich
        Sugar Honeyovich 11 June 2020 18: 16 New
        +1
        Quote: Junger
        first the liquidation of the Bronstein in the Kremlin in alliance with the devil, and then without any problems to crush the rebellious foreign suburbs.

        Unfortunately, it would not have been without problems. Before the foreign suburbs, the whites would have to crush Russia proper in the Tambov region, in Siberia, Ukraine, Kronstadt and many more. There is no way without an alliance with the devil! And then there would be a problem with this same hell-ally. And against him, you see, the Bolsheviks would have to call allies ...
        1. Jünger
          Jünger 11 June 2020 22: 15 New
          -5
          Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
          We are pushing Russia itself in the Tambov region, in Siberia, the Ukraine, and Kronstadt

          The Bolsheviks crushed in Kronstadt and in Siberia and in the Tambov region. Moreover, the legitimate authority would have managed. An intelligent Wrangel was a general and a politician, it’s a pity he hadn’t taken up the matter before.
          But to see Russia already had such a plan - right to hell for 70 years and beyond.
          1. Sugar Honeyovich
            Sugar Honeyovich 12 June 2020 07: 49 New
            0
            Quote: Junger
            The Bolsheviks also crushed in Kronstadt and in Siberia and in the Tambov region.

            Because they had massive support. And the whites (who are now unreasonably called the "legitimate authority") had massive opposition. Therefore, they would have to solve the same problems with much more difficulty than the Bolsheviks.
            Quote: Junger
            Intelligent Wrangel was a general and politician,

            But he was WHITE and that determined everything at that time. Yes, and other white generals and politicians were stupid, since they could not cope with the uprisings in their territories? wink
            1. Jünger
              Jünger 12 June 2020 11: 09 New
              -2
              Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
              And the whites (who are now unreasonably called the "legitimate authority") had massive opposition.

              This is nonsense. The overwhelming majority of the population was parallel to both. Who grabbed them and went.
              Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
              Yes, and other white generals and politicians were stupid, since they could not cope with the uprisings in their territories

              As a military they were at a high level. Politicians are crappy. Therefore, they purged. They didn’t know how to pour people's water into the ears like Leninists.
              1. Sugar Honeyovich
                Sugar Honeyovich 12 June 2020 14: 26 New
                +1
                Quote: Junger
                most of the population was in parallel on both. Who grabbed them and went.

                But some are more parallel. That’s why the whites cried that they could not cope with the Reds without foreign help. And about Siberia, they said that there their local peasants won. The Red Army can only announce the winner.
                And then many were able to pour urine into ears. Only Leninists were able to do something except. Therefore, the result.
  8. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 11 June 2020 11: 16 New
    +5
    Quote: Junger
    Quote: Kostadinov
    For Wrangel and his soldiers, class interests won over the love of their homeland. They advanced along with the Poles.

    Wrangel and his soldiers were smart and determined people. They were not amusing themselves with rattles and slogans, but understood that their Motherland was occupied. And the invaders are by no means the Entente with the Poles, and Ulyanov with the Bronstein and Apfelbaum.
    Therefore, first the liquidation of the Bronstein in the Kremlin in alliance with the devil, and then without any problems to crush the rebellious foreign suburbs.

    Thank you for your sincere recognition. I have no doubt that the "smart and decisive" just thought so and therefore went along with the white poles and traits to the dump of history where this company belongs.
    1. Jünger
      Jünger 11 June 2020 11: 35 New
      -11
      Quote: Kostadinov
      went along with the White Poles and traits to the dustbin of history where this company belongs.

      The whites remained true Russian Orthodox people, unlike the others who set off on the path of the international, and the flag of white Russia now flies over the Kremlin.
      So they did not bend and did not go to the landfill. And even more so, the White Poles did not go anywhere - they are still in place - in Warsaw, and with approximately the same ideology.
      But the Bolsheviks have already died and decomposed, taking with them tens of millions of Russians, and forever distorting the fate of Russia.
  9. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 11 June 2020 15: 21 New
    +3
    Quote: Junger
    Quote: Kostadinov
    went along with the White Poles and traits to the dustbin of history where this company belongs.

    The whites remained true Russian Orthodox people, unlike the others who set off on the path of the international, and the flag of white Russia now flies over the Kremlin.
    So they did not bend and did not go to the landfill. And even more so, the White Poles did not go anywhere - they are still in place - in Warsaw, and with approximately the same ideology.
    But the Bolsheviks have already died and decomposed, taking with them tens of millions of Russians, and forever distorting the fate of Russia.

    1. Today Wrangel and Petliura can be seen only in Kiev and Tiflis. Russia today is, as far as I know, the heir to the USSR, not the Russian Empire.
    2. There was nothing left of the White Poles and their great Rzhech polished from walrus to walrus. Modern independent Poland was revived twice from the ashes by Lenin and Stalin, but the White Poles lost it twice and now it is the governor general as part of the European Reich.
    3. Without the Bolsheviks, the Russians shared the fate of the Poles.
    1. Jünger
      Jünger 11 June 2020 16: 52 New
      -5
      Quote: Kostadinov
      1. Today Wrangel and Petliura can be seen only in Kiev and Tiflis.

      I don’t know about Petlyura - I’m not interested in it, but the monument to Wrangel stands in Kerch - this is Crimea, Russia. And in Serbia.
      Quote: Kostadinov
      Russia today is, as far as I know, the heir to the USSR, not the Russian Empire.

      That is, the state flag of the Russian Federation, which is the flag of the Russian Empire and a similar emblem, do not tell you anything? There are many more Komsomol members in the Kremlin, but they will die out soon.
      Quote: Kostadinov
      Nothing remained of the White Poles and their great Rzhech polished from walrus to walrus.

      Yes? Strange, like Poland has not died yet. And from sea to sea, she never visited.
      Quote: Kostadinov
      3. Without the Bolsheviks, the Russians shared the fate of the Poles.

      But for a thousand years Russia lived without the Apfelbaums and did not share anything. Grew and strengthened. She got in touch with the Bolsheviks and everything fell apart.
      1. Sugar Honeyovich
        Sugar Honeyovich 11 June 2020 18: 29 New
        +1
        Quote: Junger
        She got in touch with the Bolsheviks and everything fell apart.

        Having contacted the Bolsheviks, Russia, having crumbled, was restored. And everything fell in when she contacted the liberals.
        1. Jünger
          Jünger 11 June 2020 22: 22 New
          -5
          The first liberals were the Bolsheviks, who divorced female emancipation, abortion, divorce, godlessness, the rights of national minorities. This is called, my friend - terry liberalism. To the left, only same-sex marriages, but the Bolsheviks indulged in the beginning and pederasts, only at that time the society was not at all ready for such “feats” and the topic died out.
          Therefore, when leftists begin to throw the word "liberal", it looks stupid and funny. Similarly stupid your brethren use the word "fascist".
          1. Sugar Honeyovich
            Sugar Honeyovich 12 June 2020 07: 51 New
            +1
            Well, in this respect the Bolsheviks are not the first. The main thing is that Russia did not showered with them. And with them, she recovered.
            1. Jünger
              Jünger 12 June 2020 11: 06 New
              -3
              First, first. The first state in the world to legalize abortion - Sov. Russia. There is nowhere more liberal.
              And when in 1905 they launched an uprising with Japanese money in the rear of the warring army - didn’t they help the country to crumble? Therefore, when Russia poured, it is necessary to indicate who poured it. And here the Bolsheviks are in a prominent place. Thorough traitors and traitors to the Motherland from the very beginning to 1991.
              1. Sugar Honeyovich
                Sugar Honeyovich 12 June 2020 14: 33 New
                0
                Not the first ones. About abortion - legalized what existed underground, plus the killing of newborns. Civilized how appropriate it is to say. Humanized.
                Quote: Junger
                they in the rear of the warring army with Japanese money staged an uprising

                Yeah: "-Why are you rebelling? - We don’t know, they gave us three rubles each and told us to go smash." Bullshit.
                Quote: Junger
                Thorough traitors and traitors to the Motherland from the very beginning to 1991.

                For some reason, only patriots besides them did not appear. What a century ago, what now.
  10. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 11 June 2020 18: 11 New
    +4
    That is, the state flag of the Russian Federation, which is the flag of the Russian Empire and a similar emblem, do not tell you anything? There are many more Komsomol members in the Kremlin, but they will die out soon.

    Yes, please, right. The question is not the flag and coat of arms, but the fact that modern Russia, ideologically and politically, has nothing to do with either the USSR or the RSFSR. And in the Kremlin there are only beaten Komsomol members in Kotor; nothing remained of the Komsomol.
    Yes? Strange, like Poland has not died yet. And from sea to sea, she never visited.

    The Poles didn’t even die when they were beaten in the Russian Empire and when they lived in the governor general in the Nazi Reich and now when they turned into one of the 28 EU republics. Only the Polish state is neither then nor now.
    And then look at the map. The Commonwealth at the beginning of the 17th century from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Time was beating Poles in Moscow stood.
    But for a thousand years Russia lived without the Apfelbaums and did not share anything. Grew and strengthened. She got in touch with the Bolsheviks and everything fell apart.

    It cannot be said that it was only growing and growing stronger. In the 20th century, before the Bolsheviks, Russia was only beaten.
    The Bolsheviks took power because the Russian Empire was snapping, and not vice versa. They collected it, and when they disowned them, at the end of the 20th century, Russia began to squeak again.
    By the way, Apfelbaumov beat more in the empire and now in the Russian Federation. They led the economy and finance. Only with the Bolsheviks they were robbed of their money.
    1. pmkemcity
      pmkemcity 15 June 2020 12: 02 New
      0
      Quote: Kostadinov
      By the way, Apfelbaumov beat more in the empire and now in the Russian Federation.

      Do not believe the statistics! Apfelbaums now more often go to Moscow for yasak, and prefer to get into statistical records at the place of permanent residence.