Far Eastern Republic and the Japanese threat


People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic on the streets of Vladivostok. 1922 year


100 years ago, in April 1920, the Far Eastern Republic (FER) was established. Formally, it was an independent democratic state, but in fact it was a buffer favorable to Moscow between Soviet Russia and Japan. Thanks to the FER, the Soviet government managed to avoid a dangerous full-scale war with the Japanese Empire and eliminate the last forces of the White movement in the Far East, which were left without serious external support. This was a serious political victory of the Bolsheviks.

General situation


After the defeat of the white armies of Kolchak and the execution of the “supreme ruler” from Baikal to the Pacific Ocean in 1920, a mishmash of governments, authorities and anarchy reigned. On January 31, 1920, an uprising took place in Vladivostok, which led to the fall of power of General Rozanov, who was subordinate to the Kolchak government. The interventionists remained neutral. Rozanov fled to Japan. The interim government of the Far East came to power - the Primorsky regional zemstvo government. The coalition government of the Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, Zemstvo and Bolsheviks. The white units located in Primorye went over to the side of the new government. Another armed force was the red partisan formations of Sergei Lazo. The former White Guards and the Reds hated each other, but the presence of a third force, the Japanese, forced them to remain neutral.

The Vladivostok government was not opposed to the creation of a democratic buffer republic, but considered itself a power, other governments did not recognize. Local Bolsheviks split on this issue. The members of the Far Eastern Bureau created by Moscow in Vladivostok were I. G. Kushnarev, S. G. Lazo and P. M. Nikiforov. In the Vladivostok group, Kushnaryov spoke for the buffer, and Lazo opposed. The red partisans of Lazo simply proposed cutting out all the "bourgeoisie", without any coalitions. But in Vladivostok they were in the minority, in addition, the Japanese troops interfered. The partisans also occupied Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk and other cities of the Amur Region, where they established their regional "governments" and military-revolutionary headquarters. They did not recognize the Vladivostok government. Waged their war for the establishment of Soviet power.

The White Cossacks and the remnants of Kolchakites under General Semenov sat in Chita. Before his arrest, Kolchak handed over to him “the entirety of military and civil power” in eastern Russia. They pressed on the “Chita jam” from two sides: from the west - the East Siberian Soviet Army, from the east - partisans of the East Trans-Baikal Front under the command of Zhuravlev. As a result, the Semenovites (about 20 thousand bayonets and sabers) fought on two fronts: west of Chita and in the areas of Sretensk and Nerchinsk.

The presence of foreign troops in the Far East and Siberia has lost visible legitimacy. In February 1920, a truce was signed between the Soviet government and the Czechoslovak command. Foreign contingents, including Czechs, Poles, Americans, etc., began to withdraw to Vladivostok, and from there they were taken home. During this period, the West decided that the White Cause lost and was not worth the investment. It is necessary to gradually establish ties with the Soviet Republic.

Only Japan led its policy. The Japanese did not want to leave the Far East, still hoping to tear away part of the territory of Russia in their favor, and control the other part with the help of puppet buffer governments. In particular, the Japanese supported the Chita government of the Russian eastern outskirts, headed by Ataman Semenov. Under his command was a fully operational Far Eastern army, which included the remnants of the Kappelites-Kolchakites. The Japanese wanted with the help of Semenovites to create a “black buffer” from Chita to Primorye.

Interestingly, the United States, leaving the Russian Far East, initially untied the Japanese hands. At the end of January 1920, the Americans handed over a memorandum to the Japanese, which stated that Washington would not mind if Japan unilaterally stationed troops in Siberia and continued to provide assistance in operations along the Trans-Siberian Railway and the CER. Although Japan was a competitor to the United States in the Asia-Pacific region, at this stage Washington supported the expansion of the Japanese in the Far East. But in the future, the Americans will help Moscow oust the Japanese from the Far East.


[center] Map source: https://bigenc.ru/

The creation of the Far Eastern Front and the advance of the People's Revolutionary Army


After the liquidation of the regime and the army of Kolchak, Soviet troops (5th Army) stopped in the Baikal region. Its further advance to the east could cause a war with a powerful adversary - the Japanese Empire. The Soviet Republic was in a difficult situation - the war with the White Guards in the south, the war with Poland in the west, the war with Finland in the northwest. It was also impossible to fight Japan with a powerful army and navy. It was necessary to gain time while the “land is burning” under the interventionists and White Guards in the Far East. Build up strength, complete the defeat of the enemy in the European part of Russia, and then go on the offensive in the east of the country.

There were other objective reasons for this step. In the winter of 1919-1920 The Red Army made a powerful leap to the east. However, the occupied territory had to be restored and cleaned up there. The state of Western Siberia, that is, the rear of the Soviet troops, was terrible. Industry, transport and supply systems are destroyed. Cities were threatened by hunger. The typhoid epidemic was raging. Entire villages, trains and military units died out. Thousands of people lay in hospital beds in cities (this was a real epidemic, not the “Chinese virus” of 2020). The peasant war continued to rage. Partisanism and "green" gangs walked with might and main in the taiga.

Thus, before going beyond Lake Baikal, it was necessary to restore elementary order in Siberia. The Bolsheviks simply did not have the strength to establish Soviet power in Transbaikalia and the Far East. Not to mention the war with the Japanese, who had a strong, disciplined army. The formation of the FER solved this problem. Moscow was gaining time for a future decisive offensive in the East. In the meantime, the White Guards could be restrained or even smashed by the army of the Russian Far East. At the same time, prospects for negotiations with the West opened up. The Entente is now supposedly agreeing with the democratic government of the Far Eastern Democratic Republic, to evacuate military and diplomatic missions, and its occupation contingents. Western capitals that advocated for “human rights” were formally satisfied with the establishment of a parliamentary republic.

Based on the current situation, Moscow decided to establish an intermediate state east of Lake Baikal - the Far Eastern People’s Republic (FER). This allowed the gradual liberation of Transbaikalia, Amur Region and Primorye from interventionists and White Guards. On the other hand, non-communist forces (Irkutsk Political Center, Socialist-Revolutionaries) wanted to create a parliamentary republic free from the "dictatorship of the proletariat." The Socialist-Revolutionaries and other parties hoped that the creation of a democratic republic would save the eastern part of Russia from the Japanese occupation and from the power of the Bolsheviks.

To guide the work in March 1920, the Far Eastern Bureau of the RCP (B.) Was specially formed, whose members, A. A. Shiryamov, A. M. Krasnoshchekov and N. K. Goncharov, were sent to Verkhneudinsk (modern Ulan-Ude) to organize new state. FER was proclaimed on April 6, 1920 by the Constituent Congress of Workers of the Baikal Region. The congress adopted a constitution according to which power belonged to the working people. The capital was Verkhneudinsk. The government was headed by Alexander Krasnoshchekov. The supreme authority was the People’s Assembly of the Far Eastern Democratic Republic (National Council of the Far East), it was created on the basis of elections for a period of two years. In between the sessions, the Presidium of the National Council of the FER worked. The popular assembly was multi-party: the communists and the adjacent peasant fraction (majority), the fraction of prosperous peasants (kulaks), Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, Cadets, people's socialists and the Buryat-Mongol fraction. The National Assembly elected the government.

At the time of its establishment, the FER included the Amur, Transbaikal, Kamchatka, Primorsky and Sakhalin regions. However, the de facto FER government did not have power over much of the territory. In Transbaikalia the white government of Semenov settled. In the Amur Region, Primorye and Kamchatka, local pro-Soviet autonomous governments operated - the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers, Peasants, Soldiers and Cossack Deputies with a center in Blagoveshchensk, the Provisional Government of the Primorsky Regional Zemstvo Administration with a center in Vladivostok. Part of the territory of the Far East, including Northern Sakhalin, was occupied by Japanese troops. As a result, the FER leadership initially controlled only the western part of the Trans-Baikal region. Only in August 1920, the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers, Peasants, Soldiers and Cossack Deputies of the Amur Region obeyed the FER government.

Soviet Russia recognized the FER in May 1920 and provided it with political, financial, material, personnel and military assistance. On the basis of the East Siberian Soviet Army (it was formed on the basis of the People's Revolutionary Army of the Irkutsk Political Center, from partisans, insurgents, labor squads and surrendered Kolchakites of Eastern Siberia) in March 1920 they created the People's Revolutionary Army (NRA) of Baikal region, in April - the NRA Transbaikalia, in May - NRA FDA. The 5th Soviet Army strengthened it from the rear, there were no problems with command personnel (Soviet) and weapons, all the depots of the fallen Kolchak army remained in the hands of the Reds. The main objective of the NRA was the return of the Far East of Soviet Russia and the destruction of the whites in Transbaikalia and Amur. The size of the army in the fall of 1920 was about 100 thousand people. The army was led by Heinrich Eiche, a former tsarist officer who, after the revolution, joined the Red Army, commanded a regiment, brigade, 26th Infantry Division and 5th Soviet Army on the Eastern Front.

At the beginning of March 1920, the East Siberian Army suppressed the Semenovites and occupied the Baikal region with the city of Verkhneudinsky. This city became the capital of the Far East. In April - early May 1920, the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Democratic Republic Eihe made two attempts to drive out the Far Eastern army of Semenov from Transbaikalia (Chita operations). On the eastern flank, units of the Amur Front were advancing under the command of Shilov, which was formed on the basis of the partisan East Transbaikal Front and included the districts of Olovyannaya, Nerchinsk, Nerchinsky Plant, Sretensk and Blagoveshchensk (from May - and Khabarovsk). However, the NRA was unable to take Chita. On the one hand, the Reds did not have decisive superiority in these operations, the forces were approximately equal. On the other hand, the Kappelites were selected troops of the White Army, and the first attempts of the Reds to eliminate the “Chita jam” were repulsed. In addition, the White Guards were supported by Japanese troops (5th Infantry Division), they occupied the main communications, which hindered the actions of the Reds, who could not fight the Japanese.

Far Eastern Republic and the Japanese threat

Coat of arms of the FER


Flag of dvr

Japanese invasion


As a reason for aggression, the Japanese used the "Nikolaev incident" - a conflict between the red partisans and Japanese troops in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur in mid-March 1920. During the collapse of the Kolchak regime, some partisan detachments led by Lazo moved to Vladivostok, others to the lower reaches of the Amur. These formations were led by Yakov Tryapitsyn, a former tsarist officer, Soviet and partisan commander, and Lebedeva-Kiyashko. In February, parts of Tryapitsyn occupied Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, where they proclaimed the creation of the Far Eastern Soviet Republic as part of the lower reaches of the Amur, Sakhalin, Okhotsk and Kamchatka. The Red Army of the Nikolaev district is formed.

On March 11-12, 1920, a local Japanese detachment, with the support of the local Japanese community, attacked Tryapitsyn’s troops. The Reds lost about 150 killed, over 500 wounded. Tryapitsyn himself was wounded, his deputy Mizin and Chief of Staff Naumov died. However, the red partisans quickly came to their senses, pulled up reinforcements, gained numerical superiority and completely destroyed the Japanese garrison by March 15. Died and the Japanese colony.

The news of this massacre shocked Japan and was used by the military-political leadership as a pretext for a full-scale invasion. On the night of April 4-5, 1920, the Japanese attacked the Reds in the Far East. The Japanese defeated the red partisans from Vladivostok to Khabarovsk. On the Lower Amur, Tryapitsyn evacuated Nikolaevsk and burned the city. The Japanese occupied North Sakhalin. In the region, occupying Japanese power is being established. Only in Vladivostok killed about 7 thousand military and civilians. Among the dead was the famous Bolshevik and the red commander Seryi Lazo. Japan introduced an army into the Russian Far East - over 170 thousand bayonets. True, the Japanese did not disperse their forces; they did not go deep into the Russian territory outside the main communications. But all the main points and communication centers occupied their garrisons.


The Nikolaev Front of the Red Army (March 18, 1920). Deputy commander - Dmitry Buzin (Beach), commander - Yakov Ivanovich Tryapitsyn, adjutant - A. Volkov
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

41 comment
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Far B April 8 2020 05: 18 New
    • 13
    • 1
    +12
    FER is one of those unobvious, absolutely brilliant decisions that allowed the Bolsheviks to ultimately win the Civil War. The country, in a ring of classically alien and therefore doubly invincible enemies, in the end not only did not lose, but won, retaining almost all the territories belonging to the empire. Bravo!
    1. mat-vey April 8 2020 05: 22 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Are you by any chance not from the Far East? I have ancestors from my father from there .. One of the founders of Dmitriyevka is the first immigrant.
      1. Far B April 8 2020 06: 02 New
        • 6
        • 1
        +5
        From the Far. Aboriginal Primorsky. True, in recent years it has been dragging across different regions - EAO, Sakhalin, Kolyma. Now - the north of Habcrai. But note - everything on the Far East laughing I generally did not go anywhere outside the Far East. Yes, and why? I haven’t seen Kamchatka and Chukotka and Yakutia (and now Transbaikalia and Buryatia have added as well). So, in my age, our Far Eastern beauties are enough for the eyes.
        Seriously Dmitriyevka? Seaside? If so, then almost fellow countrymen according to their ancestors))) Mine - Chernihivka))) 11 kilometers distance. Greetings hi
        1. mat-vey April 8 2020 06: 10 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          Quote: Far In
          Chernihivka))) 11 kilometers distance.

          My father talked about "going" to weddings and celebrations with my grandfather (my great-grandfather) to friends in Chernihiv, but dimly - just like sitting on my grandfather’s neck ... They left the East to Siberia in the second half of the 30s, to Listvyanka on one street with Leonov ...
          Great-grandfather had a golden checker - the reward of Lazo ... Partisanil ..
          1. Moskovit April 8 2020 09: 12 New
            • 2
            • 0
            +2
            Listvyanka across Russia does not count! )). My relatives live Listvyanka in the Novosibirsk region, I have been there more than once.
            And mother was born in Kuibyshevka East. Now Belogorsk. So also the roots with the Far East)
            1. mat-vey April 8 2020 10: 13 New
              • 0
              • 2
              -2
              Quote: Moskovit
              Listvyanka across Russia does not count! )).

              And what, according to Leonov, lived in all?
              1. Moskovit April 8 2020 11: 29 New
                • 1
                • 0
                +1
                And even two!
                1. mat-vey April 8 2020 11: 31 New
                  • 0
                  • 0
                  0
                  Have you heard about Gagarin? Not about the prince?
    2. DMB 75 April 8 2020 05: 47 New
      • 11
      • 2
      +9
      I agree with you, Mikhail - the FER in my opinion is both a forced and ingenious measure of the Bolsheviks at that time. The Soviet government saved itself from a direct clash with Japan, the situation in international relations changed, although the Japanese refused to recognize the FER government and continued to help the chieftain Semenov. The Far Eastern Republic fully completed the tasks in its creation. In history, this entity, called the “buffer”, was a successful move in resolving international conflicts in s Civil voyny.Sozdav DDA, the Bolsheviks got a break to end the civil war and to transfer forces to the Far East, finally establishing the Soviet power there.
      1. Uncle lee April 8 2020 06: 09 New
        • 6
        • 1
        +5
        We have known this song since childhood!
        1. 210ox April 8 2020 11: 30 New
          • 3
          • 0
          +3
          Good afternoon, Vladimir hi By the way, this is the "March of Siberian shooters" with new words ..
          1. Uncle lee April 8 2020 11: 42 New
            • 3
            • 0
            +3
            Dmitriy hi Then many songs were sung in a new way!
            We still don’t realize much
            Pets of the Leninist victory,
            And the songs are new
            We’re singing in the old way
            How grandmothers and grandfathers taught us
            S. Yesenin
      2. Octopus April 8 2020 06: 09 New
        • 9
        • 2
        +7
        Quote: DMB 75
        The Far Eastern Republic fully fulfilled its tasks when it was created. In history, this formation, called the “buffer,” was a successful move in resolving international conflicts in the conditions of the Civil War. Having created the Far Eastern Front, the Bolsheviks got a respite to end the Civil War and transfer forces to the Far East, having finally established Soviet power there.

        You are absolutely right.
        I add that on the side of the Bolsheviks irreconcilable imperialist contradictions also played. The departure of the Japanese from the Far East was greatly facilitated by the Americans, dissatisfied with Japanese expansionism.
      3. fuxila April 8 2020 12: 26 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        Most of the researchers who had to read really agree that FER is a necessary measure. True, there is another opinion, for example, of the Far Eastern historian Levkin. He writes: "... it is highly doubtful that Japan decided to go to war ... After all, it was forced to withdraw troops from the Amur Region, which restored Soviet power, could not do anything on Lower Amur, where Soviet power was restored, that is where the interventionists were beaten, without looking back at the so-called "international opinion" ... In reality, the creation of the Far Eastern Front caused the protraction of the Russian Civil War and military intervention in the south of the Russian Far East for 2,5 years. " (Lyovkin. It was, but the past was not overgrown ... S. 44-45)
        In his opinion, the “pseudo-Bolsheviks”, led by Tobelson-Krasnoshchekov and Trotsky, who stood behind them, were behind the creation of the FER.
    3. Just two days ago, I finished reading V. Pikul's "Three Ages of Okinan-san." About relations between Russia and Japan at the turn of the century. At the end of the novel, this republic is also mentioned - the "buffer".
    4. Lynx2000 April 8 2020 14: 17 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      Skvirsky Boris Yevseyevich, a leader of the Far Eastern Democratic Republic, was a representative of the RSFSR and the USSR in the USA until 1933.
      The Far East of those times was like a layer cake from south to north: Japanese-white-red-white-red-Americans (see film "The Head of Chukotka").
      For example, in Kamchatka, the Japanese had concessions for catching and processing salmon fish until the 30s.
  2. Octopus April 8 2020 06: 04 New
    • 5
    • 2
    +3
    Wow. Usually missed materials on the topic of GV.

    It turns out that Mr. Samsonov is able to post articles neutral in style. Suddenly.
  3. Aleksandr72 April 8 2020 07: 09 New
    • 7
    • 2
    +5
    On March 11-12, 1920, a local Japanese detachment, with the support of the local Japanese community, attacked Tryapitsyn’s troops. The Reds lost about 150 killed, over 500 wounded. Tryapitsyn himself was wounded, his deputy Mizin and Chief of Staff Naumov died. However, the red partisans quickly came to their senses, pulled up reinforcements, gained numerical superiority and completely destroyed the Japanese garrison by March 15. Died and the Japanese colony.
    The news of this massacre shocked Japan and was used by the military-political leadership as a pretext for a full-scale invasion

    I would not call it a slaughterhouse. The Japanese were the first to attack and rake themselves. Although it all depends on the point of view and goals - the Japanese wanted a "casus belli" for the subsequent occupation of the Far East and organized it. I would like to continue to the article.
  4. Olgovich April 8 2020 07: 18 New
    • 11
    • 15
    -4
    Government FDA headed by Alexander Krasnoshchekov.

    This Bolshevik turned out to be .... a Japanese SPY, saboteur and fascist: in 1937, on the basis of a decision of the USSR Armed Forces destroyed
    FDA led the army Heinrich Eiche

    Arrested in 1938, he turned out to be a Latvian counter-revolutionary and nationalist, crippled and thrown into camps.
    In February parts Tryapitsyna occupied Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, where they proclaimed the creation of the Far Eastern Soviet Republic as part of the lower reaches of the Amur, Sakhalin, Okhotsk and Kamchatka. The Red Army of the Nikolaev district is formed.

    March 11-12, 1920, a local Japanese detachment supported by the local Japanese community attacked troops of Tryapitsyna.


    How can you write a lot about events without saying a word of truth?

    After the occupation of Nikolaevsk, Tryapitsyn staged a RESCUE of the townspeople.

    Tryapitsyn demanded from the Japanese, with whom he had agreed beforehand on neutrality -disarmthan provoked the beginning of the fighting.

    The Reds defeated: all the Japanese were cut out, all the jails in prison, a huge number of townspeople who were simply hunted ..

    Later Tryapitsyn. before retreat-burned ALL the city (97%).

    The beast, which has lost all edges from blood, was condemned and shot their own shortly after retreating from the ruins of Nikolaevsk.

    even in 1923 the population of the city was only third from the pre-Bolshevik period ....
    1. Far B April 8 2020 08: 20 New
      • 8
      • 2
      +6
      In the part of Tryapitsyn, this was not hidden either in the Soviet (including Stalin) or in the post-Soviet times. Companion messed up. For which the ogreb. But you don’t think that it’s normal to give everyone according to his deeds, and the Bolsheviks were much more consistent in this than your beloved so-called representatives white movement?
      1. Olgovich April 8 2020 09: 13 New
        • 7
        • 18
        -11
        Quote: Far In
        But you don’t think that it’s normal to give to everyone according to his deeds,

        it seems! yes -that's why the Bolsheviks disappeared and NOBODY stood up for their power in 91g, and, first of all .... their party
        Quote: Far In
        the Bolsheviks were much more consistent,


        Exactly! yes : a gang of Bolsheviks of the People’s Commissar of the NKVD of the USSR destroyed berries of a gang of Bolsheviks Zinovlev-Kmenev, a gang of Bolsheviks of the People’s Commissar of the NKVD of the USSR Yezhova sequentially destroyed a gang of Bolsheviks of the People’s Commissar of the NKVD Berries, a gang of Bolsheviks of the People’s Commissar of the NKVD Beria, destroyed a gang of People’s Commissar Beria Yevova Band ! yes

        So who ... is a real Bolshevik, otherwise I will become entangled in your endless Bolshevik gangs and their bandits belay recourse request
        1. Vladimir_2U April 8 2020 11: 04 New
          • 8
          • 2
          +6
          Quote: Olgovich
          therefore, the Bolsheviks disappeared and NOBODY stood up for their power in 91g,
          A rare case when Olgych almost does not breach, almost, since they did not get up in '91 because they did not expect that idiots and freaks would come in the center of Moscow. Who now does not regret it? Then didn’t get up either? Yes, it was too late.
          Quote: Olgovich
          So who ... is a real Bolshevik, otherwise I will become entangled in your endless Bolshevik gangs and their bandits
          Well, yes, under the fool only remains to work, he was about retribution for the crimes, but unfortunately they were, and he: "I'm confused in gangs." Like the ghouls of Kolchak, Semyonov and the uninvited samurai, this is not to be confused, they are all “citizens” of him ..
        2. Far B April 9 2020 00: 51 New
          • 2
          • 1
          +1
          The United Russia gang of Sechin-Miller destroyed the United Russia gang of Ulyukaev, etc., etc. Fuck you logic. Burn on.
          1. Olgovich April 9 2020 07: 20 New
            • 2
            • 7
            -5
            Quote: Far In
            Gang United Russia party Sechin-Miller destroyed a gang of United Russia party Ulyukaev, etc., etc. Fuck you logic. Burn on.

            1. Who OFFICIALLY called them a "gang"? belay
            2. Where are the destroyed-shot Ulyukaevites. by the way, NAME them all. AND? lol
            3. Gangsters your Bolsheviks from your The Politburo (FULL first composition), the Central Committee (85%), the leadership of the army, the Government (all the first SoC) were named Supreme Court, Prosecutor of the USSR and personally comrade Stalin etc.: "Zinoviev’s gang", "Berry’s gang" (People's Commissar, by the way, the NKVD of the USSR, Commissioner of State Security 1st rank), etc. -That they said, not me.

            5. So you answer to simplest question (to which, however, None of the Bolsheviks have yet answered belay lol ) WHO is a real Bolshevik, otherwise I will become entangled in your endless Bolshevik gangs?
            Unable"? lol
            That's the same: do not you talk about the "sequence" yes
            1. Far B April 9 2020 07: 45 New
              • 2
              • 1
              +1
              A similar question: who is the real edros? Everywhere there are anointed ones, oh, the noblest of the noble laughing Regarding your favorite decisions of the courts of all instances: in the 90s, even krasnov and his skin were rehabilitated. Burn on, Cornet.
              1. Olgovich April 9 2020 08: 57 New
                • 2
                • 6
                -4
                Quote: Far In
                A similar question: who is the real edros?

                Those. answer the simplest question WHO is a real Bolshevik, you are NOT IN CONDITION.
                But .... drown for them! belay lol
                Disgrace ....

                Edros-I side, like yours higher party, military and government Bolsheviks recognized in the USSR bandits, agents of the Gestapo, SS and Reichsphere
                Quote: Far In
                Regarding your favorite decisions of the courts of all instances: in the 90s, even krasnov and his skin were rehabilitated.

                Oh, you are not only a coward, but also ignorant: no one has rehabilitated them.
                But some of the shot Bolsheviks began to rehabilitate already ... with1938 g (while continuing to shoot the following Bolshevik bandits) -by 1991

                Go to school. in Google and think about why it’s so hard for you to answer SIMPLE questions lol
                1. Far B April 10 2020 00: 37 New
                  • 0
                  • 0
                  0
                  I apologize, I am offended: these two have been denied rehabilitation. Only von Pannwitz has been rehabilitated. For some reason, in my head I would remember exactly the opposite))) Although, that Krasnov and Shkuro, that von Panwitz is one Satan, they went through one case.
                  1. Olgovich April 10 2020 07: 03 New
                    • 2
                    • 5
                    -3
                    Quote: Far In
                    I apologize, I am offended: these two are denied rehabilitation

                    it’s okay.
                    Quote: Far In
                    Although, that Krasnov and Shkuro, that von Panwitz is one Satan,.

                    Pancewitz-Pure German
    2. gsev April 8 2020 16: 59 New
      • 3
      • 1
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      How can you write a lot about events without saying a word of truth?

      The Nikolaev incident was a consequence of the events of March 1, 1919 in Korea. Then, in response to the peaceful demonstrations of Koreans demanding independence, the Japanese responded with massive repression, executing unarmed women and children. Tryapitsyn in response to the Japanese attack gave them an adequate response. It was the tough, uncompromising struggle with the Japanese and their proteges in Primorye that kept Primorye within Russia. It was difficult for the Japanese to wage war in Korea, Manchuria and Russia at the same time. It is interesting to compare Spuria Ligustin, the legendary centurion of Rome, who is recognized as a symbol of the valor of the Roman warrior and writer Reuben Fraerman, whose military valor is not inferior to the Roman, but which is known for the book “Wild Dog of the Dingo” .. Ligustin delivered a fiery speech calling for discipline, so that the former honored the commanders agreed to go to the service as ordinary soldiers, for which he was appointed an officer. Fraerman, a participant in the Nikolaev incident, the commissar of the partisan detachment marched from Nikolaevsk to Yakutsk, and in 1941 he volunteered as an ordinary soldier without pathos speeches.
    3. gsev 8 June 2020 20: 50 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      Quote: Olgovich

      Later Tryapitsyn. before the retreat, I already burned the WHOLE city (97%).

      Moscow also burned down in 1812. In March 1919, the Japanese massacred unarmed demonstrators in Korea. The Korean partisans, unlike the Russian partisans in Primorye, refused to surrender their weapons and went to the mountains. Moreover, in Korea, the descendants of the Far Eastern partisans are considered national heroes.
  5. Alex 1970 April 8 2020 08: 18 New
    • 5
    • 1
    +4
    Ah civilian, grandmother and grandfather are relatives from Transbaikalia, from Unda and Zhuravlev, in the novel by Dauria are mentioned. So they told how families split in irreconcilable hostility. My grandfather's cousin left with Semenov, first to Harbin from there to the United States. And my grandmother was almost blown away with the whole family. How many years have passed, and still the civil tragedy does not leave our country.
    1. fuxila April 8 2020 10: 45 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Quote: Alex 1970
      Ah civilian, grandmother and grandfather are relatives from Transbaikalia, from Unda and Zhuravlev, in the novel by Dauria are mentioned. So they told how families split in irreconcilable hostility.

      I will give you, as a Trans-Baikal and almost a fellow countryman, another interesting example of the separation of a Trans-Baikal family ... Ataman Semyonov had an assistant - General Lev Vlasyevsky, in 1946 he went along with the ataman in one case and was shot. And his grand-nephew Stanislav Vaslievich Vlasyevsky works at our institute. "During his career in the field of education, science and technology in railway transport, Vlasyevsky SV was awarded the industry marks" Honorary Railway Worker "," Honorary Worker of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation "," 200 years of transport education in Russia "," 30 years Baikal-Amur Railway. "He was awarded the honorary title of" The Best Inventor of the Railway Transport. "Awarded the honorary diplomas of the Governor of the Khabarovsk Territory, the Minister of Energy of Russia and the Head of the Far Eastern Railway. he waited with the nominal hours of the Minister of Railways and the head of the Far Eastern Railway. "
      1. Alex 1970 April 8 2020 11: 56 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        I am not Transbaikal, I was born in Karaganda and lived there for 27 years, now I live in Russia, and I have a father from Karaganda. His mother and my own grandmother dispossessed were sent to Kazakhstan in 1927, they are from the Lipetsk region and Rostov, Cossacks. And on the mother’s side, on the contrary, the whole life is poor. And my parents met in the restoration of Tashkent after the earthquake in 1966. On Komsomol trips went volunteers. These are the fates. Therefore, I say "Oh civil"
      2. Alex 1970 April 8 2020 11: 57 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        Although I visited Transbaikalia more than once. A lot of relatives!
  6. Aviator_ April 8 2020 09: 07 New
    • 5
    • 1
    +4
    Father, while in Changchun during the Korean War, told the episode that a former white man looking at their uniform in the bazaar said: “They returned to the epaulettes, but they almost shot me in Irkutsk in 1920” - to which he was it is said - "so return and you to the country" - "I can’t, there are many sins," he answered.
    On the mother’s side, I am a Far Easterner, my mother is from Kraskino (Novokievsk until 1938). That was such winter fishing on Ussuri in the 50s.
    1. fuxila April 8 2020 15: 43 New
      • 1
      • 0
      +1
      On the mother’s side, I am a Far Easterner, my mother is from Kraskino (Novokievsk until 1938).

      He was at work in Kraskino. Before the revolution, the tract Novo-Kievskoe was called. It is located near the junction of three borders: Russian, Korean and Chinese, because there has always been a lot of military units, including the famous Primorsky Dragoon Regiment and it is also the birthplace of the respected Colonel Kvachkov.
      1. Aviator_ April 8 2020 15: 51 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        there was always a lot of military units

        Everything flows, everything changes - in Orenburg there was one flight and one navigational school, an anti-aircraft school, a mass of military units, two training grounds - Totsky and Donguz. Everything except the polygons has disappeared, it is surprising that the polygons are preserved.
  7. Aviator_ April 8 2020 09: 10 New
    • 3
    • 1
    +2
    Fishing on Ussuri
  8. tatra April 8 2020 10: 29 New
    • 6
    • 6
    0
    The external and internal enemies of the Bolshevik communists unleashed the Civil War, dismembered Russia, and the guilt for unleashing the war and all its victims, their dismemberment of Russia, cowardly blamed on the Bolshevik communists.
    The external and internal enemies of the Bolshevik Communists attacked the USSR in 1941, killed 26 million Soviet people, and blamed the Bolshevik Communists for blaming the war and all its victims of the Soviet people.
    The internal enemies of the Bolshevik Communists seized the USSR, divided it among themselves, and the guilty blame for this was blamed on the Bolshevik Communists, including Lenin, and the external enemies of the Bolshevik Communists attributed themselves to "victory over the USSR."
    The anti-Soviet "history" is not even just a lie and slander, it is surrealism, contrary to all logic and common sense.
  9. Sugar Honeyovich April 8 2020 14: 22 New
    • 5
    • 1
    +4
    "Kazanka is one of the first settlements in the Suchanskaya Valley among the virgin Ussuri taiga. Its" founding fathers "had to rally into a strong and friendly agricultural community in order to survive and tear the land from under centuries-old pine trees, cedars and larch trees. She very soon it grew into a large and rich village, which became a stronghold in the further colonization of the region. “Stodesyatinniks” -Kazankites, who received 100 acres of land for a man’s soul, leased soft land to newcomers from the neighboring village of Khmelnitskaya until they raise their goals Well, the Chinese and Koreans, who did not have Russian citizenship, and, consequently, the right to land.

    In this state of affairs, the October Revolution could not cause great delight in Kazanka .... And the worst fears of Kazan reference men were confirmed. In April 1918, the Fourth Far Eastern Congress of Soviets decided on a general redistribution of the lands of the Cossacks and the “centennials”, and not only in favor of the Russian “Doleviks” (having 15 acres per eater), but also Koreans and Chinese. .... It seemed to the old-timers a monstrous injustice: they say, a lot of them, parasites, eager for someone else's soft land ...

    Soviet power in the entire Far East fell .... There was no talk of any redistribution of land, complete freedom reigned in trade and private initiative.
    Was Kazanka pleased with such a turn that without spilling even a drop of blood for a white matter, was able to calmly reap its fruits? She was very able and loved to trade, she knew how and loved to count and count money, her well-fed peasants in their economic estimates and grip looked more like free American farmers than their slaughtered and impoverished classmates in European Russia. The official publication “Asian Russia” (1914) notes: “Providing information on the prosperity of the Amur peasants is also the information of savings banks, indicating that in the Amur and Primorsky regions the rural population is a better contributor than in other provinces and regions, despite the small the number of these cash desks "...
    They took money from savings books mainly for the purchase of agricultural equipment from the same Americans - the International Harvesting Machines Company in Russia, formed by American shareholders, had more than two hundred warehouses and stores in Eastern Siberia and the Far East
    Thus, there was a certain material base for mutual understanding between the Far Eastern prosperous peasantry and General Greves personally sent here by US President Woodrow Wilson at the head of the expeditionary force. The only question was whether the gravitational pull of the American dollar would prevail, the strength of market ties over national ties, whether the inhabitants of rich trading villages like Kazanka would understand the language of mutual benefit.
    The answer was not long in coming. December 15, 1918 Kazanka revolted. She rose under the red banner for the power of the Soviets and carried away all the surrounding villages. With the speed of the forest fire, the partisan movement swept the Suchan valley, and then all of Primorye.
    Least of all this speech can be explained by personal resentment or personal revenge of Kazan. The combat operations of the interventionists on the Ussuri front bypassed Kazanka, and the punishers had never visited it - there was no reason.
    And it is in vain to seek an explanation directly in the economy. The impoverishment of the masses, usually preceding the armed uprising of the people, was not noticeable in Kazanka. On the contrary, in the autumn of 1918 the village very profitably sold the harvest to visitors to the harvesters. There was no reason to doubt that prosperity would continue in the near future, at least. What are the Kazan residents unsatisfied with?
    To many. To many. Vladivostok has become a stranger to a great many beautiful foreign uniforms. In the market, however, English, American, Japanese, French, Italian, Czechoslovak officers, and sometimes soldiers for each squirrel and sable skin gave two to three times more than ordinary buyers, but even this self-confident manner of taking without bargaining as follows, for some reason did not like. And then there are the stories of neighbors on the counter that last week an American sailor in the port shot a Russian boy, that several Japanese in front of everyone in broad daylight beat the decrepit old Korean with rifle butts to death, that the locals should now, when the tram enters a foreign military man, to get up and give him a place that in the villages where the Japanese garrisons are located, the commandant’s orders are pasted up, instructing the Russians to stop, take off their cap, bow and say “hello!” when meeting the Japanese the radio station on Russky Ostrov was handed over to the Americans that state-owned warehouses were being transported to Japan, that dozens of Red Guard prisoners were shot daily in Khabarovsk, that the Kalmykov yellow train stopped on the bridge over the Amur at night, and there the personal guard of the ataman cuts and throws Caucasian at-arms with daggers and sabers into the river prisoners who are tired of torturing, that ... - But you never know what much now hear in the city? To them, Kazan citizens, what is the matter? Their village stands on the edge, they do not rob it, they do not shoot at their youngsters, they do not beat their old people, they do not force their wives and daughters, Kalmyk people take their train for a walk. As for the state property, then just do not snatch it, if the opportunity presents itself. What is their sadness to him? That's how it is, but only the gentle rustle of dollars and yen for some reason no longer amused the rumor, and - what an obsession! - increasingly it seemed to the peasants that they were counting not rubles, not dollars and not yens, but Judas silver coins. "(F.F. Nesterov," The Connection of Times)

    This is to why and how the Reds won.
  10. MA3UTA April 10 2020 12: 57 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    An interesting fact.
    Sergey Lazo, an Moldavian from an ancient noble family, a hero of revolutionary events in the Far East,
    studied at the Chisinau gymnasium, which was previously graduated by a no less famous figure, a supporter of monarchism, and one of the murderers of Rasputin - a nobleman Purishkevich