Military Review

Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army

77

Arrival of an armored train of the 11th Red Army in Baku on April 28, 1920. In the picture: M. G. Efremov, A. I. Mikoyan, G. M. Musabekov, Kamo and others


Smoot. 1920 year. 100 years ago, at the end of April 1920, the Baku operation was carried out. The Red Army established Soviet power in Azerbaijan. The region was returned to Russian control. On April 28, the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed.

The general situation in Azerbaijan


After the overthrow of Soviet power in Baku in 1918, the city became the capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR), one of the "independent states" created during the "sovereignty parade" 1917-1918. ADR was divided into the Baku, Ganja, Zagatala provinces and the Karabakh governor general. In 1918, part of the territory of the republic was occupied by Turkish troops, in 1919 - British. Politically, the Muslim party Musavat (Equality) dominated the ADR. Therefore, in Soviet historiography, the political regime that existed in the ADR was usually called "Musavat".

All my short history ADR waged an unofficial war with Armenia. ADR and Armenia could not divide the disputed territories, where the population was mixed. The main hostilities were carried out by Armenian and Muslim-Azerbaijani militias, which were supported by states. Azerbaijan opposed the Armenian forces in Karabakh and Zangezur. The war was accompanied by ethnic cleansing, acts of genocide, forced displacement and mass exodus of the population.

The republic during the general Russian unrest experienced a deep political and socio-economic crisis. At first, the Musavatists tried to cling to the Ottoman Empire, but soon Turkey itself collapsed into turmoil, there was a civil war. The Turks were not up to the ADR. Moreover, Mustafa Kemal, who was fighting for a new Turkey and interested in financial and material support for Soviet Russia, supported the Bolsheviks. On April 26, 1920, Kemal announced that he was ready, together with the Soviet government, to fight against imperialist governments to free all the oppressed. Kemal pledged to influence Azerbaijan so that the republic became part of the circle of Soviet states, and asked Moscow for help to fight the imperialists (gold, weapon and ammunition).

Trying to rely on Britain also did not lead to success. The British brought troops into the republic, but after a general failure of the intervention in Russia, they were withdrawn from Azerbaijan. And without external support, Baku’s “independence” was a fiction. In addition, the Musavatist regime was digging a grave for itself with the war against the Armenians and the cold-hostile policy towards the white South of Russia. As soon as the shield of Denikin’s army collapsed, all the Transcaucasian “sovereign states” quickly collapsed.

Moscow offered Baku an alliance against Denikin, but the Musavatists categorically refused. In March 1920, in connection with the upcoming war with Poland, the Soviet government again tried to come to an agreement with Baku and restore oil supplies. Did not work out. Then they made a bet on a power operation. The situation was favorable, Kemal, a leading force in Turkey, supported Moscow.

Devastation and turmoil


The economy, the degradation of which began during the World War II, was in ruin. The rupture of economic ties with Russia and the general turmoil put the republic in a catastrophic state. Collapsed the main industry - the oil industry. Compared to 1913, oil production at the beginning of 1920 was 39%, refining - 34%. 18 out of 40 oil refineries worked. The industry has lost hundreds of millions of rubles in gold. The wages of Baku oil workers in October 1920 fell to 18% from the 1914 level. At the same time, hungry workers instead of 8 hours a day worked for 15-17 hours.

The second leading branch of the economy, agriculture, was also dying. Compared with the pre-war level, the area of ​​crops in 1920 decreased by 40%, under the vineyards - by a third, animal husbandry collapsed by 60-70%. Cotton crops almost disappeared. The irrigation system has declined. The country was seized by the food crisis. It was strengthened by the policies of the white government of southern Russia. Denikin imposed an economic blockade on Georgia and Azerbaijan, as he did not want to support local nationalists.

Thus, the socio-economic situation was catastrophic. The collapse of the national economy. Mass unemployment. A sharp drop in income, especially among low-income groups. An incredible increase in prices for food and essential goods. A sharp increase in social tension. All this was complicated by the war with Armenia, the huge flows of refugees that brought hunger and epidemics. In the counties there was a peasant war. The peasants seized landowner possessions, the feudal lords, with the support of the authorities, responded with terror. As a result, the ideas of the Bolsheviks were popular in the countryside. In addition, in conditions of weak power and turmoil, a mass of armed detachments and gangs operated. In fact, gangs were the power in many counties. The gangs included deserters, runaway criminals and local robbers, ruined feudal lords and peasants, refugees with no sources of livelihood, and representatives of nomadic tribes.

The Musavatist regime was in deep crisis. The Baku authorities could not solve the military-political crisis (war with Armenia), workers and peasants (land) issues, establish relations with Russia (white or red), restore the economy and restore order in the country. Parliament was busy with endless talking, discussions and disputes. The parties fought an endless war with each other, could not agree on any major issue. The authorities were overwhelmed by corruption, abuse, speculation and personal enrichment.

The army without military material support of Turkey quickly lost its combat effectiveness. The poor went to the soldiers, fleeing from hunger. They did not want to fight and deserted as soon as possible. The army almost collapsed due to mass desertion. Many parts of de facto existed only on paper or had only a small part of the staff. Disobedience and riots were commonplace. As a result, the April Revolution of 30 thousand. the ADR army was completely decomposed and could not provide any serious resistance. In addition, its main forces were concentrated in the Karabakh and Zangezur region, where they fought with the Armenians.

Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army

One of the leaders of the uprising in Baku, Chingiz Ildrym

April revolution


The underground in Azerbaijan were the Social Democratic parties and organizations that were in the Bolshevik position. Initially, they were weak, many activists were killed or thrown into prison during the terror. However, as the situation develops and problems in the country grow, their positions have strengthened. Azerbaijani Bolsheviks and supporters of the establishment of Soviet power in the country were supported by the Left Social Revolutionaries. In the spring of 1919, the Bolsheviks defeated their opponents (Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries) in workers' organizations. The leadership of the Baku working conference actually passed into the hands of the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks conducted active propaganda, published a large number of newspapers.

Gradually revolutionary sentiment penetrated the power structures and the army. So, metallurgical engineer Chingiz Ildrym, with the help of the parliamentary deputy socialist A. Karaev, became a member of the council under the Governor-General of Karabakh, and then chief assistant to the head of the Baku port and deputy chief of the military port. The revolutionaries actively acted in the garrison of Baku, on navy and even in counterintelligence.

Moscow supported the idea of ​​creating an independent socialist republic. On May 2, 1919, the All-Bakin Party Conference put forward the slogan: "Independent Soviet Azerbaijan." On July 19, at a joint meeting of the Politburo and the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.), It was decided to recognize Azerbaijan in the future as an independent Soviet republic.

Since October 1919, the Baku Party Conference headed for the preparation of an armed uprising. Money and weapons were brought from Baku to the North Caucasus and Astrakhan. On February 11-12, 1920, a congress of ADR communist organizations was held in Baku, which proclaimed the creation of the Azerbaijan Communist Party (Bolsheviks) - AKP (b). The congress aimed to prepare the workers and peasants for the overthrow of the existing regime.

The authorities responded with terror, trying to strengthen their power resources, but without much success. The government was in crisis and could not offer. The Baku government, learning about the preparations for the uprising and the Red Army in Dagestan, requested military assistance from the British and Georgia. They also asked to put pressure on Armenia to stop the hostilities in Karabakh and from there to transfer troops to the border with Dagestan, but without success.

In March 1920, preparations for the uprising intensified; issues of interaction between the rebels in the 11th Soviet Army, which operated in the North Caucasus in the Caspian Sea region, were considered. On April 24, the AKP (b) Baku Committee announced full combat readiness. An illegal issue of the AKP (b) body, the newspaper Novy Mir, was published, proclaiming: “Down with the Beksk-Khan government of Musavat!”, “Long live the Soviet government!”, “Long live the Soviet independent red Azerbaijan!” On April 26, the operational headquarters of the uprising was formed. On the night of April 26-27, the Bolsheviks revolted in Baku. The government was given an ultimatum on the transfer of power. The authorities discussed the issue of evacuation to Ganja to organize resistance there. However, the military declared the impossibility of armed struggle. The parliament convened at an emergency meeting transferred the power of the AKP (b) by a majority of votes, after which it dissolved.

The Interim Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan turned to Moscow with a proposal to create a fraternal union to fight the imperialists and asked for military assistance by sending troops of the Red Army. Already on April 28, the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was proclaimed.


The entry of the Red Army in Baku


Kirov, Mikoyan, Ordzhonikidze and Lewandowski among the Red Army soldiers and commanders of the 11th army at the railway station in Baku, May 1920.

Blitzkrieg of the 11th Soviet Army


Along with the uprising in Baku, units of the 11th army led by Mikhail Lewandowski (a former officer of the tsarist army) crossed the border of the republic. The operation was directly led by Kirov and Ordzhonikidze. Parts of the 11th Army were concentrated in the area of ​​Derbent. On the night of the uprising, a group of four armored trains with a landing party rushed to Azerbaijan. Before the Samura River, the stations of Yalama, Khudat stops were made. The soldiers destroyed telephone and telegraph wires. The barriers of the Azerbaijani army were easily shot down. No one showed strong resistance. As a result, armored trains rushed undetected and broke into Baku in the early morning of April 28. Following them were trains with infantry. On April 30, the main forces of the 11th Army entered Baku. Soon the Caspian flotilla arrived in Baku.

As a result of the one-day “blitzkrieg” of the 11th Army, Azerbaijan became Soviet. In general, the Baku operation was painless and almost bloodless. Only in some places of Baku did minor skirmishes occur. The Red Army has solved the problem of restoring Soviet power in the Baku province. It is worth noting that this event did not cause stubborn resistance and mass anti-Soviet movement in Baku and the region. In general, Azerbaijan and its people only benefited (in all respects: socio-economic, cultural, demographic) from returning to Russia.


Map source: https://bigenc.ru/
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1920 year

Battle of Rostov
The disaster of white Odessa
How Slashchev Crimea defended
Dono-Manych battle
The death of the Northern Army Miller
Why Western agent Kolchak is turned into a hero and martyr of Russia
The defeat of the army of Denikin in the battle of Tikhorets
How did the Ice Siberian campaign end
The fall of the White Kuban
Agony of White Novorossiysk
The death of the Kuban army
Denikin's resignation
Far Eastern Republic and the Japanese threat
Polish "liberation" campaign in Kiev
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  1. Arlen
    Arlen 1 May 2020 05: 16 New
    20
    At that time, two radiograms were sent from Baku. The first radio message said that "By the will of all workers and peasants in Azerbaijan, the local communist central committee declared the existing counter-revolutionary government deposed. Until a meeting of council representatives was convened, the administration passed to the temporary military revolutionary committee."
    In the second radiogram sent to Lenin, there was a proposal
    create a fraternal union to fight the imperialists and asked for military assistance by sending troops of the Red Army.

    PS Happy Holidays dear friends!
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 1 May 2020 05: 45 New
    -22
    It :
    The region was returned under control of Russia.

    as the author combines with this:
    "Long live the Soviet независимый red Azerbaijan! "
    ? belay
    AzSSR. by the way. never entered the RSFSR
    Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR), one of “Independent states"Created during the"parade of sovereignty»1917–1918

    There was no mention of a parade of sovereignty of independent states in 1917 (except for Finland). all independence -POST AFTER THE THIEF based on her Russophobic decisions.

    Their result is minus 5 million km2 from the territory of Russia.

    It is strange that the author does not know the basic facts.

    1. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 1 May 2020 06: 21 New
      18
      Quote: Olgovich
      There was no mention of a parade of sovereignty of independent states in 1917 (except for Finland). all independence-exclusively AFTER the thief on the basis of its Russophobic decisions.

      Where do you, bakers, get this nonsense?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 1 May 2020 06: 31 New
        -17
        Quote: Stroporez
        Where do you, bakers, get this nonsense?

        Go to the SCHOOL, sandblasting and you will learn finally the story its country.

        Shame ....
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 1 May 2020 12: 49 New
          14
          Quote: Olgovich
          go to SCHOOL
          For a long time they didn’t crawl at Olgych’s facts, it seems. Again about school I started whining. The anti-Soviet is always Russophobe, whatever he invents about himself, if only because he refuses the Russian people in mind and wisdom.
      2. Serg65
        Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 48 New
        -15
        Quote: Stroporez
        Where do you, bakers, get this nonsense?

        laughing I’m watching from the ban how you broke the chain, do you work out your 30 pieces of silver? Yes, by the way ..a Zyuganov has already issued his Communist Party as a foreign agent?
    2. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 1 May 2020 12: 47 New
      12
      Again Olgych got his mantras, deceitful and stupid.
      Quote: Olgovich
      The region was returned to Russian control.

      as the author combines with this:
      “Long live the Soviet Independent Red Azerbaijan!”
      That it was a slogan
      uprising
      Did Olgych not have enough intelligence to understand the Azerbaijani Bolsheviks, or "did he not notice"?
      Quote: Olgovich
      exclusively AFTER a thief based on her Russophobic decisions
      The deceit of this has long been taken apart.
    3. Looking for
      Looking for 1 May 2020 14: 48 New
      12
      Quote: Olgovich
      POST AFTER THE THIEF
      need to write the Great October Socialist Revolution.
      1. knn54
        knn54 1 May 2020 17: 46 New
        -5
        Before the formation of the USSR, in addition to the RSFSR, there were five independent socialist republics - the Ukrainian SSR, the BSSR, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, two people's republics - Khorezm and Bukhara, as well as the "buffer" FER.
        Autonomous republics do not count.
        The Great October Socialist Revolution until 1927 was referred to as the October Revolution.
    4. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 1 May 2020 15: 08 New
      14
      Quote: Olgovich
      There was no mention of a parade of sovereignty of independent states in 1917 (except for Finland). all independence-exclusively AFTER the thief on the basis of its Russophobic decisions.

      But there is information:
      - In the summer of 1915, the Germans captured the entire territory of Russian Poland. In November 1916 they created “independent” Poland in Warsaw, as a result of which the desertion of the Poles from the tsarist army accelerated sharply, and in Poland the national police, army units, and local self-government bodies were created.
      On March 17, 1917, the Provisional Government recognized independent Poland;
      2. As a result of the fighting of 1915-1916, the Russian Empire lost the territory of Courland, the current lands of Lithuania and Latvia. Then, in 1918, Estonia was occupied. The national intelligentsia there (without any Bolsheviks) created puppet (pro-German) nation-states, which were then joyfully recognized by the Entente;
      - In March 1917, power in the Don Cossack Army Region passed to the military government and the chieftain;
      - On March 2, 1917, the abdication of Nicholas II automatically broke the union between Russia and Finland. The “Grand Duchy of Finland” also had enormous autonomy under the tsar, about which Russian territories did not dare even dream of (its own constitution, parliament, currency, customs, etc.) Now Finland has become de facto independent. The Russian garrisons there were in a semi-siege position and TOTAL depended on the supply and grace of local authorities. In February 2, the Finns easily disarmed them and drove them out of Finland;
      - On March 25, 1917, the Provisional Government recognizes the Musical Executive Committee of Crimea;
      - April 1917 created the Kuban Council;
      - May 1917 the Union of Highlanders of the North Caucasus and Dagestan was formed;
      - June 1917, the Central Council was created in Belarus;
      - July 1917 the Bashkir government was elected;
      July 1917, the Alash party announces the autonomy of Kazakhstan;
      - September 1917 the declaration of the State Secretariat of Ukraine was published. It becomes de facto independent of Russia;
      -October 1917 the Siberian government was formed.
      ALL of these governments were created long before the Bolsheviks came to power.
      In addition, it was the czar who, in 1915, allowed the creation of Latvian national divisions.
      In the spring of 1917, the Provisional Government began to “Ukrainize” the army, creating entire army “Ukrainian” corps, which later became the basis for the formation of the Petlyura troops of “independent” Ukraine.
      In tsarist Russia, the formation of Polish divisions was under way (in full force, which later came under the rule of Pilsudski).
      The interim government allowed the formation of the Estonian Cossack (!!!) division, created from ethnic Estonians. It was she who later became the basis of the Estonian national army (S. Drozdov).
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 1 May 2020 19: 42 New
        -18
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        On March 17, 1917, the Provisional Government recognized independent Poland;

        lie decides CSS
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        2. As a result of the fighting of 1915-1916, the Russian Empire lost the territory of Courland, the current lands of Lithuania and Latvia. Then in 1918ode was also occupied by Estonia. The national intelligentsia there (without any Bolsheviks) created puppet (pro-German) nation-states, which were then joyfully recognized by the Entente;

        speech about 17 year. Got it, no?

        independence owls Estonia, Latvia recognized by the Bolsheviks
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        In March 1917, power in the Don Army Region passed to the military government and chieftain;

        в fool brains lol
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        On March 2, 1917, the abdication of Nicholas II automatically broke the union between Russia and Finland

        fool lol there was no "union" and the Finns ... did not know about it
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        April 1917, the Kuban Council was established;
        - May 1917 the Union of Highlanders of the North Caucasus and Dagestan was formed;
        - June 1917, the Central Council was created in Belarus;
        - July 1917 the Bashkir government was elected;
        July 1917, the Alash party announces the autonomy of Kazakhstan;

        This is nobody chosen by anyone. and NONE of them about INDEPENDENCE and did not stutter.
        About bel.rada, a bunch of clowns on it dancing, is not it a shame to write?
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        September 1917 the declaration of the State Secretariat of Ukraine was published. It becomes de facto independent of Russia;

        the secretariat is a PART of the EaP and APPROVED by it. And memorize the bald Karl, finally, about the "independence" that gave them the VP!
        uk. Nazi Savchenko, historian: "Before the thief, real power in Ukraine belonged to the VP"
        Quote: Sahar Medovich
        October 1917 the Siberian government was formed.

        Siberia, an integral part of Russia, is it.
        Got it, no?

        And cut your forehead: EVERYTHING, Absolutely ALL independence declared by the thief and on the basis of her dumb decreta
        1. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 2 May 2020 12: 30 New
          +4
          Quote: Olgovich
          EVERYTHING, absolutely ALL independence, are declared after the thief and on the basis of her stupid decrees

          Those. if these decrees were not, would Russia remain united and monolithic? Or would it be the same if the CSS did not recognize anyone's independence? Did they bring the revolution in a carriage under a bench? fool God, I remember, was also abolished by decree, right? lol Do not know how to lie - do not make the audience laugh in the courtroom!
          And cut it on your nose: ALL of these parades of sovereignty, as well as the demolition of the state apparatus of Russia, began after and because of what happened in February-March 1917. The Great October Revolution is also a consequence, a logical continuation of the February one. And no other way. stop
  3. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 10 New
    +1
    Was it at that time that Beria worked and had contacts with the British in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan?
    1. [comment-show]
      Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 1 May 2020 06: 18 New
      17
      Quote: Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 (Igor)

      Why are you so obsessed that the Soviet government to defraud ?!
      [/ comment-show] [comment-deleted]
      The comment was deleted.
      [/ comment-deleted]
  1. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 31 New
    0
    The Soviet government did nothing wrong to me and my family, on the contrary, I personally am very grateful for the free education! Of course, there were flaws and omissions, but free education for everyone, this is the main plus of the Soviet government, and Beria does not personify the Soviet government, this is the idol of many, including yours.
    1. apro
      apro 1 May 2020 07: 00 New
      +9
      Quote: Pessimist22
      and Beria does not personify Soviet power

      How's that?
      1. Pessimist22
        Pessimist22 1 May 2020 07: 56 New
        -2
        Like this! It is only slaves who are accustomed to seeing their master in one person, and people brought up on the slogan "Freedom! Equality! Brotherhood!" Power is personified with its people, who created the state.
        1. apro
          apro 1 May 2020 07: 58 New
          11
          Quote: Pessimist22
          Power personify with their people

          As I understand it, LPBeria is not part of the Soviet people? What is it like?
          1. Pessimist22
            Pessimist22 1 May 2020 08: 08 New
            -7
            Beria was convicted as an enemy of the people and deprived of all regalia and awards, by the sentence of a Soviet court.
            1. Serg65
              Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 54 New
              +3
              Quote: Pessimist22
              Beria was convicted as an enemy of the people and deprived of all regalia and awards, by the sentence of a Soviet court.

              what You have some strange attitude towards the Soviet regime ... Beria was convicted, Stalin was convicted, Zhukov was convicted, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov, Budyonny, Khrushchev was convicted, Brezhnev is branded ....... but at the same time
              Quote: Pessimist22
              The Soviet government did nothing wrong to me and my family, on the contrary, I personally am very grateful for the free education!

              So what is Soviet power for you?
            2. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 1 May 2020 10: 07 New
              +1
              Beria was convicted as an enemy of the people and deprived of all regalia and awards, by the sentence of a Soviet court.

              Is it possible to get acquainted with the materials of this court somewhere? The Pravda newspaper of that time should not be offered.
              1. knn54
                knn54 1 May 2020 19: 09 New
                -7
                Beria was killed in his own apartment. At the trial he was "portrayed" by a semi-literate (judging by the "handwritten" statement) clown.
                Lavrenty Pavlovich managed to graduate from a technical school and two courses of the Polytechnic Institute.
                And with Mikoyan, the only surviving of the 26 Baku commissars, a generally dark story.
              2. Kwas
                Kwas 18 June 2020 11: 30 New
                +1
                Quote: Aviator_
                The Pravda newspaper of that time should not be offered.
                Khrushchev's speech will not work? The newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" of the times of perestroika, the magazine "Ogonyok". Speeches by Soviet statesmen of the same time, transmission of the "voice of America". Won't work either? How fastidious you are!
      2. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 1 May 2020 13: 01 New
        +8
        Quote: apro
        apro (Oleg Frolov)

        Happy Holiday, Comrade! good drinks
        1. apro
          apro 1 May 2020 13: 06 New
          +8
          Quote: Stroporez
          Quote: apro
          apro (Oleg Frolov)

          Happy Holiday, Comrade! good drinks

          Thank you comrade.
        2. Graduate student
          Graduate student 1 May 2020 15: 50 New
          14
          Quote: Stroporez
          Happy Holiday, Comrade!

          Happy Holidays Comrades! drinks
  • apro
    apro 1 May 2020 06: 19 New
    0
    Quote: Pessimist22
    It was Beria in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan at that time

    Was he on his own initiative? Or did he go along the party line?
    1. Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 27 New
      0
      I read that he said something like that on the party line, but then in the Caucasus it was supervised by Mikoyan and he had no information, so on his own initiative, it was on these facts that the accusations of working for British intelligence were based, which, quite possibly, was recruited , and then he jumped over to the Communists. I kept wondering why the version of working for the British was so popular.
      1. apro
        apro 1 May 2020 06: 36 New
        11
        And was he a communist before joining the Musavat intelligence service? Was he engaged in party work before the revolution? And it’s very interesting that IVS Stalin had no questions for LPBeria. And you have appeared. Do you understand that you don’t read with your peers from Comrade Stalin?
        1. Pessimist22
          Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 47 New
          -6
          Well, for you, Beria and Stalin are infallible "holy" people, and as Comrade Beria, I have a habit of suspecting everyone, including the "holy" idols.
          1. apro
            apro 1 May 2020 06: 57 New
            +9
            Quote: Pessimist22
            Well this is for you Beria and Stalin are infallible "holy" people

            Only those who do nothing are sinless ....
      2. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 1 May 2020 06: 42 New
        +8
        Quote: Pessimist22
        I read that he said what kind of party line

        Well, yes ...., I read somewhere, heard something ... versions, damn it ... British intelligence, a sealed train car, your division.
        But it doesn’t occur to you that before writing such garbage, you need to at least think about it and recall the fact that, in general, Beria led and supervised the USSR’s nuclear project, I’m not talking about his posts during World War II.
        Mdyayaya, this is the level ... negative
        Threat. Take a basket, now you will collect cons good 2 of mine!
        1. Pessimist22
          Pessimist22 1 May 2020 07: 09 New
          +1
          Respected! Is your level a transition to a familiar 'you' with a stranger? You feel your level of education and upbringing. You talk about the pros and cons, I understand that this is important for you, if you touch on this topic, but I'm not here for the pluses and minuses, you can put more.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 1 May 2020 10: 34 New
            +2
            I do not like rudeness
        2. Serg65
          Serg65 1 May 2020 10: 14 New
          -11
          Quote: Stroporez
          Beria actually directed and oversaw the USSR’s nuclear project,

          what Beria was immediately born the head of a nuclear project? Vlasov was also an ardent communist, he signed death sentences against "enemies of the people", so what does this serve as an excuse for him?
      3. Serg65
        Serg65 1 May 2020 10: 10 New
        -8
        Quote: Pessimist22
        then in the Caucasus it was curated by Mikoyan

        Igor, Mikoyan was a small fry at that time, the Caucasus was overseen by Stalin! By the way, Stalin often teased Mikoyan about the 26 Baku commissars.
        Quote: Pessimist22
        it was on these facts that the allegations of work for British intelligence were based

        If we take into account the fact that the initiator of the XNUMXth anti-Stalinist congress was Mikoyan, then his testimony is worthless on a market day!
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 58 New
      +2
      Quote: apro
      Was he on his own initiative? Or did he go along the party line?

      By the party!
  • Serg65
    Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 50 New
    -7
    Quote: Pessimist22
    Was it at that time that Beria worked and had contacts with the British in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan?

    By the way, Beria worked on the instructions of the underground committee, but there are questions to Stalin and especially to Mikoyan !!!
    1. Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 1 May 2020 11: 16 New
      0
      Did you happen to work at that time not in the Central Committee of the CPSU or not in the leadership of the NKVD? and then speak so confidently, as if you did not have a version, but you yourself "sewed" the case on both.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 1 May 2020 12: 05 New
        -5
        I wasn’t in the Central Committee, I’m familiar with the NKVD in the image of the Special Department of the 80s bully
        Quote: Pessimist22
        speak so confidently as if you did not have a version, but you yourself personally "sewed" the case on both

        There are historical facts, there are memories of people close to this topic ...... there are inventions of the Khrushchev era ..... what suits you, you choose! I am based on the data of a large number of documents and books. hi
        1. Pessimist22
          Pessimist22 1 May 2020 12: 15 New
          -2
          I also have historical facts at the heart and build my version on them. You just speak so confidently about your version that I was reminded of one phrase about those who know everything for sure and those who always doubt everything.
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 1 May 2020 12: 47 New
            +4
            what Igor, the facts are different! The history of the CPSU of 1964 is a fact and the history of the CPSU (b) of 1946 is also a fact! But there is a huge gap between these facts and the impression that the USSR had two communist parties! Or suppose Serov’s memoirs, classified by him for many years, or Khrushchev’s memoirs, written for the American emigration, and those and other facts too, but what are different in content!
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 16 New
    +1
    During the reign of the IVS, the official version was that Beria worked in the special services of the ADR on the instructions of the Bolshevik underground.
    Here, of course, one must dig into the archives - British, Azerbaijani, Georgian, in order to establish the truth
  • Kwas
    Kwas 18 June 2020 11: 16 New
    +1
    Quote: Pessimist22
    Was it at that time that Beria worked and had contacts with the British in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan?

    On assignment and with knowledge, as an embedded agent.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 May 2020 06: 35 New
    10
    Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army

    Eh. We love the red word in the title of the article! Well, not a blitzkrieg - it's !!! Even a layman can understand !!!
    Is the Russian language so poor, and the military history is so crap that it’s clearly formulated the name of the work ....
    Sincerely, although it was worth making a link to the works of A. Shirokorad, from which much was borrowed.
    I have the honor!
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 1 May 2020 10: 31 New
      0
      Kotya, to you +: the author gave the wrong title
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 May 2020 13: 07 New
        -3
        Good day!
        Blitzkrieg is one of the techniques of operational art described in historical documents, which has a number of typical features for achieving a result!
        Here the headings are beautiful words, without a bit of content!
        In order not to crush the water in the mortar, I am sending it to Isaev, Patients and Slashchev or to search on the internet for the definition of “deep operation”!
        Regards, Kote!
    2. knn54
      knn54 1 May 2020 21: 02 New
      +1
      Blitz krieg-lightning war. The term (coined by the Germans at the beginning of the century) was popular in the years of WWII ..
      And the point is not in terms that can be calculated in days, weeks. Even months, the MAJOR victory is achieved before the enemy manages to mobilize and deploy his main military forces.
  • bobwings
    bobwings 1 May 2020 08: 31 New
    +5
    And yet ADR was the first but truly democratic state in the Muslim world, multi-party and with battles in parliament. With a multinational government in which there were Russians with Jews, reflecting the multiculturalism of this country.
    In other geopolitical conditions, this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 1 May 2020 10: 12 New
      +1
      In other geopolitical conditions, this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.

      What "others"? This is without oil reserves, or what?
      1. bobwings
        bobwings 1 May 2020 11: 13 New
        +3
        Without the expansion of the advice and claims of the Dashnaks.
    2. gsev
      gsev 1 May 2020 13: 03 New
      0
      Quote: bobwings
      this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.

      But throughout its history, she slaughtered Armenians and oppressed non-Azerbaijanis.
      1. bobwings
        bobwings 1 May 2020 14: 03 New
        0
        Oh, what ignorance of history.
        Read about the March events of 1918 in Baku. Thousands of Azerbaijanis killed by Dashnaks in the capital of their own country. On the Dashnak bayonets, the Bolshevik Shaumyan tried to maintain his power and this ended in a massive pogrom.
        And tell tales about how oppressed non-Azerbaijanis to someone else. I lived in Baku for 17 years.
        1. gsev
          gsev 1 May 2020 14: 30 New
          +2
          Quote: bobwings
          Thousands of Azerbaijanis killed by Dashnaks in the capital of their own country.

          And I only about that the Soviet government suppressed mutual genocide. In addition, under the tsar, there were few troops in Baku and the governor did not have enough strength to catch and shoot especially zealous rioters.
          1. bobwings
            bobwings 1 May 2020 14: 46 New
            -2
            Well, if genocide, then it’s very one-sided ... the Dashnaks killed thousands of peaceful Azerbaijanis, with virtually no casualties on their part, since there was practically no resistance. And I know about these events not from books, but from family stories, since the brother of my Jewish great-grandfather was also shot at the same time on the street.
            When the king was in Baku, it was calm, the turmoil began with 26 Baku commissars led by Shaumyan, who controlled the city with the help of the Dashnak detachments of Svrntstyan.
            1. Sugar Honeyovich
              Sugar Honeyovich 1 May 2020 15: 11 New
              +2
              Quote: bobwings
              When the king in Baku was calm,

              Massacre of 1905 With thousands of victims - "calm"?
              1. KARAKURT15
                KARAKURT15 1 May 2020 15: 52 New
                -1
                The Menshevik newspaper Our Voice described the picture of those days: “Corpses everywhere - mangled, mutilated, disfigured ... The Tazapir mosque was badly damaged by shelling ... In the courtyard of Section 6, a patrol found about 600 captured Muslim women with children, freed them and converted into the Muslim part of the city ... The broad masses are filled with anger and hatred, growing into a sense of fierce revenge, which is not so easy to cope. "
            2. gsev
              gsev 1 May 2020 20: 32 New
              0
              Quote: bobwings
              When the king in Baku was calm,

              https://nashasreda.ru/znaete-li-vy-chto-pogromy-armyanskogo-naseleniya-v-gorode-baku-osushhestvlyalis-v-1905-1918-i-v-1990-godax/ Ознакомьтесь с Историей Азербайджана. Знакомый с другом после 1 курса приехал на родину из Сибири в Нагорный Карабах и на следующий день попал на начало войны. Азербайджанцы его схватили и потащили расстреливать. Убежал из под расстрела, войну закончил офицером спецназа пройдя через операцию "Свадьба в горах". Причем сам ничего об этом не говорил. Знаю со слов его подчиненных.
              1000 killed Armenians in 1905, 20 in 000 by Turkish occupiers and Azerbaijani nationalists, 1918 deported from Baku in 200 by liberal democrats. I agree that the tragedy of Azerbaijanis is no less bitter. Concerning the Armenian genocide, there is an interesting source "Torn apart Armenia" with a description of the humiliation of the Kurdish, Turkish and German slave owners over their slaves. Written by an unfortunate woman whose family was killed and she herself was raped for several years. I would like to note that in Russia former war veterans from both sides are forced to live peacefully and even conduct a joint business.
              1. bobwings
                bobwings 1 May 2020 23: 43 New
                0
                Read this and think about what kind of people could be capable of such.
                https://ru.m.wikisource.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82_1918_%D0%B3._%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%83._%D0%90%D0%B7%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%B4%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%8B_%D0%B2_%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%85/%D0%93%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B0_I/%D0%94%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82_%E2%84%96_1_%E2%80%94_50
      2. Oquzyurd
        Oquzyurd 1 May 2020 15: 32 New
        -1
        Commentary, which has nothing to do with truth and human conscience.
        1. gsev
          gsev 1 May 2020 20: 41 New
          0
          Quote: Oquzyurd
          having nothing to do with truth and a human conscience.

          It is interesting to know how your conscience assesses the genocide organized in Turkey during the 1st World War.
          1. Oquzyurd
            Oquzyurd 1 May 2020 21: 26 New
            +1
            Accusations based on conversations, rumors, and politicized decisions of parliaments in some countries. I do not see a decision of international courts on this issue. Relying on sources and not having judicial opinions in my hands, I cannot call these events genocide. There was mutual murder, so how the First World War went. If you dig deeply, then all those who complain about the "genocide" started. Moreover, my conscience saw in Karabakh what atrocities the "suffering from genocide" are capable of, convincing me that it was rather the same they worked in the territories of eastern Turkey.
          2. Seal
            Seal 20 May 2020 18: 17 New
            0
            Apparently, in your opinion, we need to recognize the genocide of the Jews organized in the same period in Russia?
            The retreat of the army was accompanied by a massive forced eviction of Jews from the abandoned areas. In April-May 1915, Jews were evicted from the front-line districts of Kovno, Kurland (the Courland Germans, who greeted the German troops with jubilation, were left in Courland!), Suwalk and Grodno provinces. These refugees included about 200 elderly people, women and children. Some of them were put on freight cars and cattle cars, and they were transported, truly like cattle, without letting them out of the cars at the stations. The crying of children, the sobbing and groaning of mothers, the prayer chants of the elderly were in the air. Initially, Jews were taken to the deep rear in the left-bank Ukraine and in the eastern regions of Belarus, but in August 000 the Pale of Settlement had to be temporarily canceled and "Jewish refugees" were allowed into the internal Great Russian provinces during the war. I happened to see some of these refugees in the autumn and winter of 1915 in Saratov, and their stories about the "evacuation" could not be heard without indignation and pain.
            The eviction of Jews was forced and massive. On May 3, 1915, Jews with their wives and children were expelled from all of Courland. The Jews in Mittava were given a period of one day to leave. On May 5, Jews were expelled from Kovno and Ponevezh. On this day, tens of thousands of Jews were evicted from the Kovno province and the city of Kovno. The eviction was accompanied by robberies and violence. The “Jewish refugees,” as they were officially called in the newspapers, said that Lithuania had been plundered even before the arrival of German troops. The army, retreating, drove in front of itself masses of exhausted and ruined Jews. Jewish shops in the evacuated areas were taken over by Poles and Lithuanians. The hostages - rabbis and eminent members of Jewish communities - were threatened with execution or a gallows if the Jewish population, which remained despite the orders for evacuation in the evacuated cities and towns, would be friendly to the German troops.
            The military command wanted to attribute to the Jews their blame for the defeat of the Russian army as a result of their inability and their mistakes. In July 1915, military authorities banned all Jewish newspapers and magazines published in Poland and Lithuania under the pretext that Jewish traitors in Bible quotes printed in Jewish newspapers broadcast messages to German troops.
            The military newspaper Nash Vestnik, published by the headquarters of the North-Western Front, accused the Jews of the town of Kuzhi near Shavli of treason: they allegedly hid the Germans in the cellars of their houses, and therefore the retreating Russian troops were shelled from the hidden Germans and suffered heavy losses. This message of the Headquarters of the North-Western Front was repeated in the "Government Bulletin" (Petrograd) and pasted up as a sensational message in the streets.
            The retreat from Lithuania was the worst tragedy compared to the retreat on other sectors of the front. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers and carts blocked highways and country roads, driving away refugees of various nationalities - Lithuanians, Poles, Latvians, Jews. The entire population of Lithuania suffered from pogroms and violence, but the Jewish population suffered the most. In August and September 1915, pogroms of Jews were organized by retreating military units in the Vilnius, Vitebsk and Minsk provinces: many towns were looted and destroyed, hundreds of houses were burnt and destroyed, old men and children were killed and mutilated, women and girls were raped. Smorgon, Pastava, Krevo, Glubokoe, Dokshitsa, Lemeshkevichi were particularly affected. Soldiers and Cossacks, under the pretext of searching for Germans hidden by Jews, burst into houses, robbed, broke things, raped women. Jews fled to the woods. In the town of Plottsy, a group of Jewish soldiers in arms knocked out the Cossacks from the old synagogue, where they broke the ark, tore the Torah scrolls and raped the women. In Smorgon, a sick old man Sable was shot dead in front of children by a Cossack officer. In Minsk, the Cossacks drove women and girls into the forest and raped them.

            Is this something very different from the description of the eviction from the front line of the Armenians in Turkey in 1915?
      3. KARAKURT15
        KARAKURT15 1 May 2020 15: 35 New
        0
        It is not worth affirming something about which there is not even a slice of awareness.
        March events are interethnic clashes in March 1918, which led to thousands of victims, mainly among Muslims in Baku and other settlements of the Baku province. An active role in anti-Muslim pogroms was played by the armed units of the Armenian party “Dashnaktsutyun”. They killed both Azerbaijanis, and Lezghins, and Talysh ...
        30 thousand Azerbaijanis were killed in just 2 days!
        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%8B%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%B2_%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%83_(1918)

        http://1905.az/ru/%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%B4-%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%B4%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%B2-1918-%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0-%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2-3/
        1. bobwings
          bobwings 1 May 2020 17: 25 New
          +2
          As well as mountain Jews in Cuba.
    3. Zementbomber
      Zementbomber 2 May 2020 05: 53 New
      +1
      And yet ADR was the first but truly democratic state in the Muslim world, multi-party and with battles in parliament. With a multinational government in which there were Russians with Jews, reflecting the multiculturalism of this country.
      In other geopolitical conditions, this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.

      The presence of a multi-party system and gevalt in parliament are not in themselves proof of the existence of democracy. Won - in the PRC - is also a "multi-party system". And even under Chairman Mao was. Formally. There are more legal parties, EMNIS, than in the Republic of China (Taiwan). And in which of the two Chinas - democracy ?? That's the same ...
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 1 May 2020 10: 26 New
    +2
    Author, the word "blitzkrieg" evokes rejection in me: it reminds of the fascist attack on the Soviet Union
  • alone
    alone 1 May 2020 10: 56 New
    +9
    The author forgot to mention one important detail: the Azerbaijani Bolsheviks quite legally sat in the Azerbaijani parliament as a faction ... They were deputies ... the same Chingiz Ildrym was the Deputy Commander of the ADR Navy ... So, using the forces of the fleet, the faction gave an ultimatum to the Musavat government to surrender power To the Azerbaijani communists ... And so that there were no objections, the artillery of the navy was aimed at the parliament building, which was located next to the coast and was clearly visible from the sea ... Power was transferred to the communists, and they turned to Lenin to help them. That's all the fuss .. "Blitzkrieg"))))) this phrase is completely out of place ..
    1. Oquzyurd
      Oquzyurd 1 May 2020 13: 14 New
      -2
      The trouble with Azerbaijan was that at that time, almost all of the world's oil production was in Baku.
      The article is superficial, they did not disclose the events, and they probably will not disclose it, so as not to offend the fans of "Ararat"
      1. bobwings
        bobwings 1 May 2020 14: 51 New
        +6
        Of course ... otherwise you have to tell what the Dashnaks did shortly before in the city.
      2. Zementbomber
        Zementbomber 2 May 2020 06: 01 New
        +1
        The trouble with Azerbaijan was that at that time, almost all of the world's oil production was in Baku.

        OMG, what a nonsense !! negative
        I recommend that you read:
        http://istmat.info/node/43623
  • VicktorVR
    VicktorVR 1 May 2020 10: 58 New
    +3
    The parliament convened at an emergency meeting transferred the power of the AKP (b) by a majority of votes, after which it dissolved.

    What a nice parliament :)
    1. alone
      alone 1 May 2020 12: 19 New
      +3
      Quote: VicktorVR
      What a nice parliament :)

      Well, at gunpoint, there were no special options recourse
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 12 New
    0
    The article must be put MINUS!
    In fact, the author simply compiled materials from open sources (mainly Wikipedia) and quickly put them together using the "copy-paste" method.
    Well, for an essay in the 9th grade, maybe it would have worked - but for a serious military-historical article - no!
    It is immediately clear that the author did not work in the archives, did not read any works of general historical and special ones devoted to those events.
    It’s so schematic to convey the Baku operation without mentioning the heap of the most important events related to the Sovietization of Azerbaijan — well, I just don’t know !!
    In short, MINUS !!
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 21 New
    +2
    Quote: apro
    And was he a communist before joining the Musavat intelligence service? Was he engaged in party work before the revolution?

    At the time of the revolution, Beria was only 18 years old, so what kind of party work could he have been doing before the revolution ?? The kid was essentially. From the end of the 16th he attended a Marxist circle, in the spring of the 17th he joined the RSDLP (b). By the way, he himself wrote in his autobiography in 23 that he entered counterintelligence on the instructions of the Gummet party, a left-wing socialist organization that worked among the Caucasians and used in 18-19. in Baku, the influence is probably even greater than the Communist Party; and then "Gummet" joined the RCP (b)
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 25 New
    0
    Quote: bobwings
    And yet ADR was the first but truly democratic state in the Muslim world, multi-party and with battles in parliament.

    Democracy was there ... well, let's just say, rather short. One party "Musavat" dominated, the rest were, one might say, a dancer and did not play a big role.
    As for multinationality, throughout its short history the ADR fought with the Armenians and failed to settle the Armenian-Azerbaijani relations. And the position of the Russians in the ADR was not very enviable - it is enough to get acquainted with the archival materials. The fact that several Russians sat in parliament as "wedding generals" did not mean that the position of the Russians could be called good
  • Seal
    Seal 20 May 2020 18: 13 New
    0
    On the night of the uprising, a group of four armored trains with a landing party rushed to Azerbaijan.
    Why was this possible? So, did the Azerbaijani generals, seeing that the armored trains of the 11th Red Army were already standing on that side of the border under the pairs, had not guessed to give an order to dismantle the rails? Guessed. They gave an order. Rails dismantled. And reassembled. Under the assurances of the emissaries of Mustafa Kemal that the 11th Red Army, consisting of Volga Muslim Tatars, is in transit through Azerbaijan to help Muslim Turkey fight the Entente crusaders. And Azerbaijan’s attempts to prevent the Red Army are Azerbaijan’s attempts to prevent Turkey.
    As the Azerbaijani M.E. Rasulzade wrote:
    “A part of the Ottoman Turks operating in Baku involuntarily misled people with these words:“ The approaching Red Army is led by a Turk named Nijat-bek. The regiments of this army are made up of Turks. A large number of soldiers come from the Turks of the Volga region. This Army goes to the aid of Anatolia, fighting against deadly enemies. The resistance shown to this Army will be tantamount to hampering the salvation of Turkey. From the point of view of great Turkic unity and the Muslim community, this is tantamount to betrayal. " A day later, it turned out that all these high words were a bluff. It was just a political ploy. ”

    The former head of the organization to combat the counter-revolution of Azerbaijan, Nagy Sheikhzamanli, in his memoirs evaluated the role of the Turks in this way:
    “When the Red Army approached our northern borders, the Azerbaijani authorities ordered the governor of the city of Cuba to dismantle the rails for at least one kilometer. The governor executed this order the next day. However, the lying Khalil Bey deceived our general, saying: “My Pasha, the government dismantled the rails on the border. The Red Army will not be able to proceed from here to Anatolia to assist Ataturk. Please take appropriate action. ” The deceived Azerbaijani general ordered the restoration of the railway. "

    That is, in fact, we bought all Azerbaijan from Ataturk for 10 million rubles in gold, which "cost" a million times more expensive. The young Soviet republic received a source of oil that we badly needed, without which Soviet Russia would most likely not have survived. And then, relying on Azerbaijan, we occupied both Armenia and Georgia, restoring the borders of the Russian Empire in Transcaucasia in almost its original form.