Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army


Arrival of an armored train of the 11th Red Army in Baku on April 28, 1920. In the picture: M. G. Efremov, A. I. Mikoyan, G. M. Musabekov, Kamo and others


Smoot. 1920 year. 100 years ago, at the end of April 1920, the Baku operation was carried out. The Red Army established Soviet power in Azerbaijan. The region was returned to Russian control. On April 28, the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed.

The general situation in Azerbaijan


After the overthrow of Soviet power in Baku in 1918, the city became the capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR), one of the "independent states" created during the "sovereignty parade" 1917-1918. ADR was divided into the Baku, Ganja, Zagatala provinces and the Karabakh governor general. In 1918, part of the territory of the republic was occupied by Turkish troops, in 1919 - British. Politically, the Muslim party Musavat (Equality) dominated the ADR. Therefore, in Soviet historiography, the political regime that existed in the ADR was usually called "Musavat".

All my short history ADR waged an unofficial war with Armenia. ADR and Armenia could not divide the disputed territories, where the population was mixed. The main hostilities were carried out by Armenian and Muslim-Azerbaijani militias, which were supported by states. Azerbaijan opposed the Armenian forces in Karabakh and Zangezur. The war was accompanied by ethnic cleansing, acts of genocide, forced displacement and mass exodus of the population.

The republic during the general Russian unrest experienced a deep political and socio-economic crisis. At first, the Musavatists tried to cling to the Ottoman Empire, but soon Turkey itself collapsed into turmoil, there was a civil war. The Turks were not up to the ADR. Moreover, Mustafa Kemal, who was fighting for a new Turkey and interested in financial and material support for Soviet Russia, supported the Bolsheviks. On April 26, 1920, Kemal announced that he was ready, together with the Soviet government, to fight against imperialist governments to free all the oppressed. Kemal pledged to influence Azerbaijan so that the republic became part of the circle of Soviet states, and asked Moscow for help to fight the imperialists (gold, weapon and ammunition).

Trying to rely on Britain also did not lead to success. The British brought troops into the republic, but after a general failure of the intervention in Russia, they were withdrawn from Azerbaijan. And without external support, Baku’s “independence” was a fiction. In addition, the Musavatist regime was digging a grave for itself with the war against the Armenians and the cold-hostile policy towards the white South of Russia. As soon as the shield of Denikin’s army collapsed, all the Transcaucasian “sovereign states” quickly collapsed.

Moscow offered Baku an alliance against Denikin, but the Musavatists categorically refused. In March 1920, in connection with the upcoming war with Poland, the Soviet government again tried to come to an agreement with Baku and restore oil supplies. Did not work out. Then they made a bet on a power operation. The situation was favorable, Kemal, a leading force in Turkey, supported Moscow.

Devastation and turmoil


The economy, the degradation of which began during the World War II, was in ruin. The rupture of economic ties with Russia and the general turmoil put the republic in a catastrophic state. Collapsed the main industry - the oil industry. Compared to 1913, oil production at the beginning of 1920 was 39%, refining - 34%. 18 out of 40 oil refineries worked. The industry has lost hundreds of millions of rubles in gold. The wages of Baku oil workers in October 1920 fell to 18% from the 1914 level. At the same time, hungry workers instead of 8 hours a day worked for 15-17 hours.

The second leading branch of the economy, agriculture, was also dying. Compared with the pre-war level, the area of ​​crops in 1920 decreased by 40%, under the vineyards - by a third, animal husbandry collapsed by 60-70%. Cotton crops almost disappeared. The irrigation system has declined. The country was seized by the food crisis. It was strengthened by the policies of the white government of southern Russia. Denikin imposed an economic blockade on Georgia and Azerbaijan, as he did not want to support local nationalists.

Thus, the socio-economic situation was catastrophic. The collapse of the national economy. Mass unemployment. A sharp drop in income, especially among low-income groups. An incredible increase in prices for food and essential goods. A sharp increase in social tension. All this was complicated by the war with Armenia, the huge flows of refugees that brought hunger and epidemics. In the counties there was a peasant war. The peasants seized landowner possessions, the feudal lords, with the support of the authorities, responded with terror. As a result, the ideas of the Bolsheviks were popular in the countryside. In addition, in conditions of weak power and turmoil, a mass of armed detachments and gangs operated. In fact, gangs were the power in many counties. The gangs included deserters, runaway criminals and local robbers, ruined feudal lords and peasants, refugees with no sources of livelihood, and representatives of nomadic tribes.

The Musavatist regime was in deep crisis. The Baku authorities could not solve the military-political crisis (war with Armenia), workers and peasants (land) issues, establish relations with Russia (white or red), restore the economy and restore order in the country. Parliament was busy with endless talking, discussions and disputes. The parties fought an endless war with each other, could not agree on any major issue. The authorities were overwhelmed by corruption, abuse, speculation and personal enrichment.

The army without military material support of Turkey quickly lost its combat effectiveness. The poor went to the soldiers, fleeing from hunger. They did not want to fight and deserted as soon as possible. The army almost collapsed due to mass desertion. Many parts of de facto existed only on paper or had only a small part of the staff. Disobedience and riots were commonplace. As a result, the April Revolution of 30 thousand. the ADR army was completely decomposed and could not provide any serious resistance. In addition, its main forces were concentrated in the Karabakh and Zangezur region, where they fought with the Armenians.

Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army

One of the leaders of the uprising in Baku, Chingiz Ildrym

April revolution


The underground in Azerbaijan were the Social Democratic parties and organizations that were in the Bolshevik position. Initially, they were weak, many activists were killed or thrown into prison during the terror. However, as the situation develops and problems in the country grow, their positions have strengthened. Azerbaijani Bolsheviks and supporters of the establishment of Soviet power in the country were supported by the Left Social Revolutionaries. In the spring of 1919, the Bolsheviks defeated their opponents (Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries) in workers' organizations. The leadership of the Baku working conference actually passed into the hands of the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks conducted active propaganda, published a large number of newspapers.

Gradually revolutionary sentiment penetrated the power structures and the army. So, metallurgical engineer Chingiz Ildrym, with the help of the parliamentary deputy socialist A. Karaev, became a member of the council under the Governor-General of Karabakh, and then chief assistant to the head of the Baku port and deputy chief of the military port. The revolutionaries actively acted in the garrison of Baku, on navy and even in counterintelligence.

Moscow supported the idea of ​​creating an independent socialist republic. On May 2, 1919, the All-Bakin Party Conference put forward the slogan: "Independent Soviet Azerbaijan." On July 19, at a joint meeting of the Politburo and the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.), It was decided to recognize Azerbaijan in the future as an independent Soviet republic.

Since October 1919, the Baku Party Conference headed for the preparation of an armed uprising. Money and weapons were brought from Baku to the North Caucasus and Astrakhan. On February 11-12, 1920, a congress of ADR communist organizations was held in Baku, which proclaimed the creation of the Azerbaijan Communist Party (Bolsheviks) - AKP (b). The congress aimed to prepare the workers and peasants for the overthrow of the existing regime.

The authorities responded with terror, trying to strengthen their power resources, but without much success. The government was in crisis and could not offer. The Baku government, learning about the preparations for the uprising and the Red Army in Dagestan, requested military assistance from the British and Georgia. They also asked to put pressure on Armenia to stop the hostilities in Karabakh and from there to transfer troops to the border with Dagestan, but without success.

In March 1920, preparations for the uprising intensified; issues of interaction between the rebels in the 11th Soviet Army, which operated in the North Caucasus in the Caspian Sea region, were considered. On April 24, the AKP (b) Baku Committee announced full combat readiness. An illegal issue of the AKP (b) body, the newspaper Novy Mir, was published, proclaiming: “Down with the Beksk-Khan government of Musavat!”, “Long live the Soviet government!”, “Long live the Soviet independent red Azerbaijan!” On April 26, the operational headquarters of the uprising was formed. On the night of April 26-27, the Bolsheviks revolted in Baku. The government was given an ultimatum on the transfer of power. The authorities discussed the issue of evacuation to Ganja to organize resistance there. However, the military declared the impossibility of armed struggle. The parliament convened at an emergency meeting transferred the power of the AKP (b) by a majority of votes, after which it dissolved.

The Interim Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan turned to Moscow with a proposal to create a fraternal union to fight the imperialists and asked for military assistance by sending troops of the Red Army. Already on April 28, the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was proclaimed.


The entry of the Red Army in Baku


Kirov, Mikoyan, Ordzhonikidze and Lewandowski among the Red Army soldiers and commanders of the 11th army at the railway station in Baku, May 1920.

Blitzkrieg of the 11th Soviet Army


Along with the uprising in Baku, units of the 11th army led by Mikhail Lewandowski (a former officer of the tsarist army) crossed the border of the republic. The operation was directly led by Kirov and Ordzhonikidze. Parts of the 11th Army were concentrated in the area of ​​Derbent. On the night of the uprising, a group of four armored trains with a landing party rushed to Azerbaijan. Before the Samura River, the stations of Yalama, Khudat stops were made. The soldiers destroyed telephone and telegraph wires. The barriers of the Azerbaijani army were easily shot down. No one showed strong resistance. As a result, armored trains rushed undetected and broke into Baku in the early morning of April 28. Following them were trains with infantry. On April 30, the main forces of the 11th Army entered Baku. Soon the Caspian flotilla arrived in Baku.

As a result of the one-day “blitzkrieg” of the 11th Army, Azerbaijan became Soviet. In general, the Baku operation was painless and almost bloodless. Only in some places of Baku did minor skirmishes occur. The Red Army has solved the problem of restoring Soviet power in the Baku province. It is worth noting that this event did not cause stubborn resistance and mass anti-Soviet movement in Baku and the region. In general, Azerbaijan and its people only benefited (in all respects: socio-economic, cultural, demographic) from returning to Russia.


Map source: https://bigenc.ru/
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

77 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Arlen 1 May 2020 05: 16 New
    • 25
    • 5
    +20
    At that time, two radiograms were sent from Baku. The first radiogram said: “By the will of all the workers and peasants of Azerbaijan, the local communist central committee declared the existing counter-revolutionary government deposed. Until the assembly of representatives of the soviets could be convened, the administration passed to the interim military-revolutionary committee."
    In the second radiogram sent to Lenin, there was a proposal
    create a fraternal union to fight the imperialists and asked for military assistance by sending troops of the Red Army.

    PS Happy Holidays dear friends!
  2. Olgovich 1 May 2020 05: 45 New
    • 11
    • 33
    -22
    It :
    The region was returned under control of Russia.

    as the author combines with this:
    "Long live the Soviet независимый red Azerbaijan! "
    ? belay
    AzSSR. by the way. never entered the RSFSR
    Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR), one of “Independent states"Created during the"parade of sovereignty»1917–1918

    There was no mention of a parade of sovereignty of independent states in 1917 (except for Finland). all independence -POST AFTER THE THIEF based on her Russophobic decisions.

    Their result is minus 5 million km2 from the territory of Russia.

    It is strange that the author does not know the basic facts.

    1. Sling cutter 1 May 2020 06: 21 New
      • 30
      • 12
      +18
      Quote: Olgovich
      There was no mention of a parade of sovereignty of independent states in 1917 (except for Finland). all independence-exclusively AFTER the thief on the basis of its Russophobic decisions.

      Where do you, bakers, get this nonsense?
      1. Olgovich 1 May 2020 06: 31 New
        • 12
        • 29
        -17
        Quote: Stroporez
        Where do you, bakers, get this nonsense?

        Go to the SCHOOL, sandblasting and you will learn finally the story its country.

        Shame ....
        1. Vladimir_2U 1 May 2020 12: 49 New
          • 19
          • 5
          +14
          Quote: Olgovich
          go to SCHOOL
          For a long time they didn’t crawl at Olgych’s facts, it seems. Again about school I started whining. The anti-Soviet is always Russophobe, whatever he invents about himself, if only because he refuses the Russian people in mind and wisdom.
      2. Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 48 New
        • 11
        • 26
        -15
        Quote: Stroporez
        Where do you, bakers, get this nonsense?

        laughing I’m watching from the ban how you broke the chain, do you work out your 30 pieces of silver? Yes, by the way ..a Zyuganov has already issued his Communist Party as a foreign agent?
    2. Vladimir_2U 1 May 2020 12: 47 New
      • 18
      • 6
      +12
      Again Olgych got his mantras, deceitful and stupid.
      Quote: Olgovich
      The region was returned to Russian control.

      as the author combines with this:
      “Long live the Soviet Independent Red Azerbaijan!”
      That it was a slogan
      uprising
      didn’t he understand the Azerbaijani Bolsheviks at Olgych, or "didn’t notice"?
      Quote: Olgovich
      exclusively AFTER a thief based on her Russophobic decisions
      The deceit of this has long been taken apart.
    3. Looking for 1 May 2020 14: 48 New
      • 15
      • 3
      +12
      Quote: Olgovich
      POST AFTER THE THIEF
      need to write the Great October Socialist Revolution.
      1. knn54 1 May 2020 17: 46 New
        • 5
        • 10
        -5
        Before the formation of the USSR, in addition to the RSFSR, there were five independent socialist republics — the Ukrainian SSR, BSSR, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, two national ones — Khorezm and Bukhara. And also a “buffer” FER.
        Autonomous republics do not count.
        The Great October Socialist Revolution until 1927 was referred to as the October Revolution.
    4. Sugar Honeyovich 1 May 2020 15: 08 New
      • 15
      • 1
      +14
      Quote: Olgovich
      There was no mention of a parade of sovereignty of independent states in 1917 (except for Finland). all independence-exclusively AFTER the thief on the basis of its Russophobic decisions.

      But there is information:
      - In the summer of 1915, the Germans captured the entire territory of Russian Poland. In November 1916 they created “independent” Poland in Warsaw, as a result of which the desertion of the Poles from the tsarist army accelerated sharply, and in Poland the national police, army units, and local self-government bodies were created.
      On March 17, 1917, the Provisional Government recognized independent Poland;
      2. As a result of the fighting of 1915-1916, the Russian Empire lost the territory of Courland, the current lands of Lithuania and Latvia. Then, in 1918, Estonia was occupied. The national intelligentsia there (without any Bolsheviks) created puppet (pro-German) nation-states, which were then joyfully recognized by the Entente;
      - In March 1917, power in the Don Cossack Army Region passed to the military government and the chieftain;
      - On March 2, 1917, the abdication of Nicholas II automatically broke the union between Russia and Finland. The “Grand Duchy of Finland” also had enormous autonomy under the tsar, about which Russian territories did not dare even dream of (its own constitution, parliament, currency, customs, etc.) Now Finland has become de facto independent. The Russian garrisons there were in a semi-siege position and TOTAL depended on the supply and grace of local authorities. In February 2, the Finns easily disarmed them and drove them out of Finland;
      - On March 25, 1917, the Provisional Government recognizes the Musical Executive Committee of Crimea;
      - April 1917 created the Kuban Council;
      - May 1917 the Union of Highlanders of the North Caucasus and Dagestan was formed;
      - June 1917, the Central Council was created in Belarus;
      - July 1917 the Bashkir government was elected;
      July 1917, the Alash party announces the autonomy of Kazakhstan;
      - September 1917 the declaration of the State Secretariat of Ukraine was published. It becomes de facto independent of Russia;
      -October 1917 the Siberian government was formed.
      ALL of these governments were created long before the Bolsheviks came to power.
      In addition, it was the czar who, in 1915, allowed the creation of Latvian national divisions.
      In the spring of 1917, the Provisional Government began to “Ukrainize” the army, creating entire army “Ukrainian” corps, which later became the basis for the formation of the Petlyura troops of “independent” Ukraine.
      In tsarist Russia, the formation of Polish divisions was under way (in full force, which later came under the rule of Pilsudski).
      The interim government allowed the formation of the Estonian Cossack (!!!) division, created from ethnic Estonians. It was she who later became the basis of the Estonian national army (S. Drozdov).
      1. Olgovich 1 May 2020 19: 42 New
        • 1
        • 19
        -18
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        On March 17, 1917, the Provisional Government recognized independent Poland;

        lie decides CSS
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        2. As a result of the fighting of 1915-1916, the Russian Empire lost the territory of Courland, the current lands of Lithuania and Latvia. Then in 1918ode was also occupied by Estonia. The national intelligentsia there (without any Bolsheviks) created puppet (pro-German) nation-states, which were then joyfully recognized by the Entente;

        speech about 17 year. Got it, no?

        independence owls Estonia, Latvia recognized by the Bolsheviks
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        In March 1917, power in the Don Army Region passed to the military government and chieftain;

        в fool brains lol
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        On March 2, 1917, the abdication of Nicholas II automatically broke the union between Russia and Finland

        fool lol there was no “union” and the Finns didn’t know about it ...
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        April 1917, the Kuban Council was established;
        - May 1917 the Union of Highlanders of the North Caucasus and Dagestan was formed;
        - June 1917, the Central Council was created in Belarus;
        - July 1917 the Bashkir government was elected;
        July 1917, the Alash party announces the autonomy of Kazakhstan;

        This is nobody chosen by anyone. and NONE of them about INDEPENDENCE and did not stutter.
        About bel.rada, a bunch of clowns on it dancing, is not it a shame to write?
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        September 1917 the declaration of the State Secretariat of Ukraine was published. It becomes de facto independent of Russia;

        secretariat - PART OF VP and APPROVED by him. And memorize the bald carla, finally about the “independence” that the VP gave them!
        Ukronikist Savchenko, historian: "Before the thief, the real power in Ukraine belonged to the VP"
        Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
        October 1917 the Siberian government was formed.

        Siberia, an integral part of Russia, is it.
        Got it, no?

        And cut your forehead: EVERYTHING, Absolutely ALL independence declared by the thief and on the basis of her dumb decreta
        1. Sugar Honeyovich 2 May 2020 12: 30 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          Quote: Olgovich
          EVERYTHING, absolutely ALL independence, are declared after the thief and on the basis of her stupid decrees

          Those. if these decrees were not, would Russia remain united and monolithic? Or would it be the same if the CSS did not recognize anyone's independence? Did they bring the revolution in a carriage under a bench? fool God, I remember, was also abolished by decree, right? lol Do not know how to lie - do not make the audience laugh in the courtroom!
          And cut it on your nose: ALL of these parades of sovereignty, as well as the demolition of the state apparatus of Russia, began after and because of what happened in February-March 1917. The Great October Revolution is also a consequence, a logical continuation of the February one. And no other way. stop
  3. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 10 New
    • 9
    • 8
    +1
    Was it at that time that Beria worked and had contacts with the British in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan?
    1. Sling cutter 1 May 2020 06: 18 New
      • 27
      • 10
      +17
      Quote: Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 (Igor)

      Why are you so obsessed that the Soviet government to defraud ?!
  1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 31 New
    • 8
    • 8
    0
    The Soviet government did nothing wrong to me and my family, on the contrary, I personally am very grateful for the free education! Of course, there were flaws and omissions, but free education for everyone, this is the main plus of the Soviet government, and Beria does not personify the Soviet government, this is the idol of many, including yours.
    1. apro 1 May 2020 07: 00 New
      • 13
      • 4
      +9
      Quote: Pessimist22
      and Beria does not personify Soviet power

      How's that?
      1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 07: 56 New
        • 5
        • 7
        -2
        Like this! It’s only slaves who are used to seeing their master in one person, and people brought up on the slogan “Freedom! Equality! Brotherhood!” Power personify with their people, who created the state.
        1. apro 1 May 2020 07: 58 New
          • 15
          • 4
          +11
          Quote: Pessimist22
          Power personify with their people

          As I understand it, LPBeria is not part of the Soviet people? What is it like?
          1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 08: 08 New
            • 5
            • 12
            -7
            Beria was convicted as an enemy of the people and deprived of all regalia and awards, by the sentence of a Soviet court.
            1. Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 54 New
              • 7
              • 4
              +3
              Quote: Pessimist22
              Beria was convicted as an enemy of the people and deprived of all regalia and awards, by the sentence of a Soviet court.

              what You have some strange attitude towards the Soviet regime ... Beria was convicted, Stalin was convicted, Zhukov was convicted, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov, Budyonny, Khrushchev was convicted, Brezhnev is branded ....... but at the same time
              Quote: Pessimist22
              The Soviet government did nothing wrong to me and my family, on the contrary, I personally am very grateful for the free education!

              So what is Soviet power for you?
            2. Aviator_ 1 May 2020 10: 07 New
              • 4
              • 3
              +1
              Beria was convicted as an enemy of the people and deprived of all regalia and awards, by the sentence of a Soviet court.

              Is it possible to get acquainted with the materials of this court somewhere? The newspaper "Pravda" of that time did not offer.
              1. knn54 1 May 2020 19: 09 New
                • 1
                • 8
                -7
                Beria was killed in his own apartment. At the trial he was "depicted" by a semi-literate (judging by his "own-hand" statement) clown.
                Lavrenty Pavlovich managed to graduate from a technical school and two courses of the Polytechnic Institute.
                And with Mikoyan, the only surviving of the 26 Baku commissars, a generally dark story.
              2. Kwas 18 June 2020 11: 30 New
                • 1
                • 0
                +1
                Quote: Aviator_
                The newspaper "Pravda" of that time did not offer.
                Khrushchev's speech is not suitable? The newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" during perestroika, the magazine "Spark". Speeches by Soviet statesmen of the same times, the transmission of the "voice of America." Also do not fit? How fastidious you are!
      2. Sling cutter 1 May 2020 13: 01 New
        • 13
        • 5
        +8
        Quote: apro
        apro (Oleg Frolov)

        Happy Holiday, Comrade! good drinks
        1. apro 1 May 2020 13: 06 New
          • 10
          • 2
          +8
          Quote: Stroporez
          Quote: apro
          apro (Oleg Frolov)

          Happy Holiday, Comrade! good drinks

          Thank you comrade.
        2. Graduate student 1 May 2020 15: 50 New
          • 15
          • 1
          +14
          Quote: Stroporez
          Happy Holiday, Comrade!

          Happy Holidays Comrades! drinks
  • apro 1 May 2020 06: 19 New
    • 4
    • 4
    0
    Quote: Pessimist22
    It was Beria in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan at that time

    Was he on his own initiative? Or did he go along the party line?
    1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 27 New
      • 2
      • 2
      0
      I read that he said something like that on the party line, but then in the Caucasus it was supervised by Mikoyan and he had no information, so on his own initiative, it was on these facts that the accusations of working for British intelligence were based, which, quite possibly, was recruited , and then he jumped over to the Communists. I kept wondering why the version of working for the British was so popular.
      1. apro 1 May 2020 06: 36 New
        • 15
        • 4
        +11
        And was he a communist before joining the Musavat intelligence service? Was he engaged in party work before the revolution? And it’s very interesting that IVS Stalin had no questions for LPBeria. And you have appeared. Do you understand that you don’t read with your peers from Comrade Stalin?
        1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 06: 47 New
          • 4
          • 10
          -6
          Well, for you, Beria and Stalin are infallible “holy” people, and I, like Beria, have the habit of suspecting everyone, including “holy” idols.
          1. apro 1 May 2020 06: 57 New
            • 12
            • 3
            +9
            Quote: Pessimist22
            Well, this is for you Beria and Stalin infallible "holy" people

            Only those who do nothing are sinless ....
      2. Sling cutter 1 May 2020 06: 42 New
        • 18
        • 10
        +8
        Quote: Pessimist22
        I read that he said what kind of party line

        Well, yes ...., I read somewhere, heard something ... versions, damn it ... British intelligence, a sealed train car, your division.
        But it doesn’t occur to you that before writing such garbage, you need to at least think about it and recall the fact that, in general, Beria led and supervised the USSR’s nuclear project, I’m not talking about his posts during World War II.
        Mdyayaya, this is the level ... negative
        Threat. Take a basket, now you will collect cons good 2 of mine!
        1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 07: 09 New
          • 7
          • 6
          +1
          Respected! Is your level a transition to the familiar “you” with a stranger? You feel your level of education and upbringing. You talk about the pros and cons, I understand that this is important for you if you touch on this topic, but I'm not here for the minuses and pluses, you can put more.
          1. Astra wild 1 May 2020 10: 34 New
            • 2
            • 0
            +2
            I do not like rudeness
        2. Serg65 1 May 2020 10: 14 New
          • 6
          • 17
          -11
          Quote: Stroporez
          Beria actually directed and oversaw the USSR’s nuclear project,

          what Beria was immediately born the head of a nuclear project? Vlasov was the same ardent Communist, he signed death sentences for “enemies of the people”, so does that justify him?
      3. Serg65 1 May 2020 10: 10 New
        • 8
        • 16
        -8
        Quote: Pessimist22
        then in the Caucasus it was curated by Mikoyan

        Igor, Mikoyan was a small fry at that time, the Caucasus was overseen by Stalin! By the way, Stalin often teased Mikoyan about the 26 Baku commissars.
        Quote: Pessimist22
        it was on these facts that the allegations of work for British intelligence were based

        If we take into account the fact that the initiator of the XNUMXth anti-Stalinist congress was Mikoyan, then his testimony is worthless on a market day!
    2. Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 58 New
      • 6
      • 4
      +2
      Quote: apro
      Was he on his own initiative? Or did he go along the party line?

      By the party!
  • Serg65 1 May 2020 09: 50 New
    • 7
    • 14
    -7
    Quote: Pessimist22
    Was it at that time that Beria worked and had contacts with the British in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan?

    By the way, Beria worked on the instructions of the underground committee, but there are questions to Stalin and especially to Mikoyan !!!
    1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 11: 16 New
      • 1
      • 1
      0
      By chance, at that time, you were not working in the Central Committee of the CPSU or not in the leadership of the NKVD? otherwise you speak so confidently, as if you didn’t have a version, and you yourself personally “sewed” the case on both.
      1. Serg65 1 May 2020 12: 05 New
        • 6
        • 11
        -5
        I wasn’t in the Central Committee, I’m familiar with the NKVD in the image of the Special Department of the 80s bully
        Quote: Pessimist22
        speak so confidently, as if you didn’t have a version, and you yourself personally “sewed” the matter

        There are historical facts, there are memories of people close to this topic ...... there are inventions of the Khrushchev era ..... what suits you, you choose! I am based on the data of a large number of documents and books. hi
        1. Pessimist22 1 May 2020 12: 15 New
          • 1
          • 3
          -2
          I also have historical facts at the heart and build my version on them. You just speak so confidently about your version that I was reminded of one phrase about those who know everything for sure and those who always doubt everything.
          1. Serg65 1 May 2020 12: 47 New
            • 7
            • 3
            +4
            what Igor, the facts are different! The history of the CPSU of 1964 is a fact and the history of the CPSU (b) of 1946 is also a fact! But there is a huge gap between these facts and the impression that the USSR had two communist parties! Or suppose Serov’s memoirs, classified by him for many years, or Khrushchev’s memoirs, written for the American emigration, and those and other facts too, but what are different in content!
  • Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 16 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    During the reign of the IVS, the official version was that Beria worked in the special services of the ADR on the instructions of the Bolshevik underground.
    Here, of course, one must dig into the archives - British, Azerbaijani, Georgian, in order to establish the truth
  • Kwas 18 June 2020 11: 16 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    Quote: Pessimist22
    Was it at that time that Beria worked and had contacts with the British in the Masavatist intelligence of Azerbaijan?

    On assignment and with knowledge, as an embedded agent.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 May 2020 06: 35 New
    • 14
    • 4
    +10
    Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army

    Eh. We love the red word in the title of the article! Well, not a blitzkrieg - it's !!! Even a layman can understand !!!
    Is the Russian language so poor, and the military history is so crap that it’s clearly formulated the name of the work ....
    Sincerely, although it was worth making a link to the works of A. Shirokorad, from which much was borrowed.
    I have the honor!
    1. Astra wild 1 May 2020 10: 31 New
      • 3
      • 3
      0
      Kotya, to you +: the author gave the wrong title
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 May 2020 13: 07 New
        • 2
        • 5
        -3
        Good day!
        Blitzkrieg is one of the techniques of operational art described in historical documents, which has a number of typical features for achieving a result!
        Here the headings are beautiful words, without a bit of content!
        In order not to crush the water in the mortar, I am sending it to Isaev, Patients and Slashchev or to search on the internet for the definition of “deep operation”!
        Regards, Kote!
    2. knn54 1 May 2020 21: 02 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      Blitz krieg-lightning war. The term (coined by the Germans at the beginning of the century) was popular in the years of WWII ..
      And the point is not in terms that can be calculated in days, weeks. Even months, the MAJOR victory is achieved before the enemy manages to mobilize and deploy his main military forces.
  • bobwings 1 May 2020 08: 31 New
    • 7
    • 2
    +5
    And yet ADR was the first but truly democratic state in the Muslim world, multi-party and with battles in parliament. With a multinational government in which there were Russians with Jews, reflecting the multiculturalism of this country.
    In other geopolitical conditions, this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.
    1. Aviator_ 1 May 2020 10: 12 New
      • 3
      • 2
      +1
      In other geopolitical conditions, this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.

      What are the "others"? Is it without oil reserves, or what?
      1. bobwings 1 May 2020 11: 13 New
        • 4
        • 1
        +3
        Without the expansion of the advice and claims of the Dashnaks.
    2. gsev 1 May 2020 13: 03 New
      • 3
      • 3
      0
      Quote: bobwings
      this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.

      But throughout its history, she slaughtered Armenians and oppressed non-Azerbaijanis.
      1. bobwings 1 May 2020 14: 03 New
        • 2
        • 2
        0
        Oh, what ignorance of history.
        Read about the March events of 1918 in Baku. Thousands of Azerbaijanis killed by Dashnaks in the capital of their own country. On the Dashnak bayonets, the Bolshevik Shaumyan tried to maintain his power and this ended in a massive pogrom.
        And tell tales about how oppressed non-Azerbaijanis to someone else. I lived in Baku for 17 years.
        1. gsev 1 May 2020 14: 30 New
          • 3
          • 1
          +2
          Quote: bobwings
          Thousands of Azerbaijanis killed by Dashnaks in the capital of their own country.

          And I only about that the Soviet government suppressed mutual genocide. In addition, under the tsar, there were few troops in Baku and the governor did not have enough strength to catch and shoot especially zealous rioters.
          1. bobwings 1 May 2020 14: 46 New
            • 2
            • 4
            -2
            Well, if genocide, then it’s very one-sided ... the Dashnaks killed thousands of peaceful Azerbaijanis, with virtually no casualties on their part, since there was practically no resistance. And I know about these events not from books, but from family stories, since the brother of my Jewish great-grandfather was also shot at the same time on the street.
            When the king was in Baku, it was calm, the turmoil began with 26 Baku commissars led by Shaumyan, who controlled the city with the help of the Dashnak detachments of Svrntstyan.
            1. Sugar Honeyovich 1 May 2020 15: 11 New
              • 2
              • 0
              +2
              Quote: bobwings
              When the king in Baku was calm,

              The massacre of 1905. With thousands of victims - "calm"?
              1. KARAKURT15 1 May 2020 15: 52 New
                • 0
                • 1
                -1
                The Menshevik newspaper Our Voice described the picture of those days: “Corpses everywhere - mangled, mutilated, disfigured ... The Tazapir mosque was badly damaged by shelling ... In the courtyard of Section 6, a patrol found about 600 captured Muslim women with children, freed them and converted into the Muslim part of the city ... The broad masses are filled with anger and hatred, growing into a sense of fierce revenge, which is not so easy to cope. "
            2. gsev 1 May 2020 20: 32 New
              • 0
              • 0
              0
              Quote: bobwings
              When the king in Baku was calm,

              https://nashasreda.ru/znaete-li-vy-chto-pogromy-armyanskogo-naseleniya-v-gorode-baku-osushhestvlyalis-v-1905-1918-i-v-1990-godax/ Ознакомьтесь с Историей Азербайджана. Знакомый с другом после 1 курса приехал на родину из Сибири в Нагорный Карабах и на следующий день попал на начало войны. Азербайджанцы его схватили и потащили расстреливать. Убежал из под расстрела, войну закончил офицером спецназа пройдя через операцию "Свадьба в горах". Причем сам ничего об этом не говорил. Знаю со слов его подчиненных.
              1000 killed Armenians in 1905, 20 in 000 from Turkish occupiers and Azerbaijani nationalists, 1918 deported from Baku in 200 by liberal democrats. I agree that the tragedy of Azerbaijanis is no less bitter. Regarding the Armenian Genocide, there is an interesting source “Torn Armenia” describing the bullying of Kurdish, Turkish and German slaveholders over their slaves. It was written by an unfortunate woman whose family was killed and raped for several years. I note that in Russia, former participants in the war on both sides are forced to live peacefully and even conduct joint business.
              1. bobwings 1 May 2020 23: 43 New
                • 0
                • 0
                0
                Read this and think about what kind of people could be capable of such.
                https://ru.m.wikisource.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82_1918_%D0%B3._%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%83._%D0%90%D0%B7%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%B4%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%8B_%D0%B2_%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%85/%D0%93%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B0_I/%D0%94%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82_%E2%84%96_1_%E2%80%94_50
      2. Oquzyurd 1 May 2020 15: 32 New
        • 1
        • 2
        -1
        Commentary, which has nothing to do with truth and human conscience.
        1. gsev 1 May 2020 20: 41 New
          • 1
          • 1
          0
          Quote: Oquzyurd
          having nothing to do with truth and a human conscience.

          It is interesting to know how your conscience assesses the genocide organized in Turkey during the 1st World War.
          1. Oquzyurd 1 May 2020 21: 26 New
            • 1
            • 0
            +1
            Accusations based on conversations, rumors, and politicized decisions of parliaments in some countries. I do not see the decisions of international courts on this issue. Relying on sources and not having judicial opinions in my hands, I cannot call these events genocide. There was mutual murder, how the first world war went on. If you dig deep, then all those who complain of "genocide" started. Especially since my conscience saw in Karabakh what atrocities "genocide sufferers" are capable of, convincing me that the same thing is more likely they worked in the territories of eastern Tour ii.
          2. Seal 20 May 2020 18: 17 New
            • 0
            • 0
            0
            Apparently, in your opinion, we need to recognize the genocide of the Jews organized in the same period in Russia?
            The retreat of the army was accompanied by a massive forced eviction of Jews from the abandoned areas. In April-May 1915, Jews were evicted from the frontline areas of the Koven, Kurland (Kurland Germans who rejoiced with German troops were left in Courland!), Suvalka and Grodno provinces. Among these refugees were about 200 old people, women and children. Some of them were put in freight cars and cattle cars, and they were carried, truly like cattle, without letting go of the cars at the stations. Cries of children, sobs and moans of mothers, prayer songs of the elderly stood in the air. Initially, Jews were taken to the deep rear in the left-bank Ukraine and in the eastern regions of Belarus, but in August 000 they still had to temporarily cancel the settled line and the "Jewish refugees" were allowed into the inner Great Russian provinces during the war. I had to see some of these refugees in the fall and winter of 1915 in Saratov, and their stories about the "evacuation" could not be heard without indignation and pain.
            The eviction of Jews was forced and massive. On May 3, 1915, Jews with wives and children were expelled from all of Courland. Jews in Mittava were given a one-day check-out period. On May 5, Jews were expelled from Kovno and Ponevezh. On this day, tens of thousands of Jews were evicted from the Kovno province and the city of Kovno. The eviction was accompanied by robberies and violence. “Jewish refugees,” as they were officially called in the newspapers, said that Lithuania had been sacked even before the arrival of German troops. The army, retreating, drove in front of itself the masses of exhausted and devastated Jews. Jewish shops in the evacuated areas were captured by Poles and Lithuanians. The hostages - rabbis and eminent members of the Jewish communities - were threatened with execution or gallows if the Jewish population, who remained contrary to orders for evacuation in the evacuated cities and towns, received friendly German troops.
            The military command wanted to attribute to the Jews their blame for the defeat of the Russian army as a result of their inability and their mistakes. In July 1915, military authorities banned all Jewish newspapers and magazines published in Poland and Lithuania under the pretext that Jewish traitors in Bible quotes printed in Jewish newspapers broadcast messages to German troops.
            The military newspaper "Our Herald", published by the headquarters of the North-Western Front, accused the Jews of the town of Kuzhi near Shavli of treason: they allegedly hid the Germans in the cellars of their houses, and therefore the retreating Russian troops were shelled by the hidden Germans and suffered heavy losses. This message of the Headquarters of the North-Western Front was repeated in the Government Gazette (Petrograd) and posted as a sensational message in the streets.
            The retreat from Lithuania was the worst tragedy compared to the retreat on other sectors of the front. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers and carts blocked highways and country roads, driving away refugees of various nationalities - Lithuanians, Poles, Latvians, Jews. The entire population of Lithuania suffered from pogroms and violence, but the Jewish population suffered the most. In August and September 1915, pogroms of Jews were organized by retreating military units in the Vilnius, Vitebsk and Minsk provinces: many towns were looted and destroyed, hundreds of houses were burnt and destroyed, old men and children were killed and mutilated, women and girls were raped. Smorgon, Pastava, Krevo, Glubokoe, Dokshitsa, Lemeshkevichi were particularly affected. Soldiers and Cossacks, under the pretext of searching for Germans hidden by Jews, burst into houses, robbed, broke things, raped women. Jews fled to the woods. In the town of Plottsy, a group of Jewish soldiers in arms knocked out the Cossacks from the old synagogue, where they broke the ark, tore the Torah scrolls and raped the women. In Smorgon, a sick old man Sable was shot dead in front of children by a Cossack officer. In Minsk, the Cossacks drove women and girls into the forest and raped them.

            Is this something very different from the description of the eviction from the front line of the Armenians in Turkey in 1915?
      3. KARAKURT15 1 May 2020 15: 35 New
        • 2
        • 2
        0
        It is not worth affirming something about which there is not even a slice of awareness.
        March events are interethnic clashes in March 1918, which led to thousands of victims, mainly among Muslims in Baku and other settlements of the Baku province. An active role in anti-Muslim pogroms was played by the armed units of the Armenian party “Dashnaktsutyun”. They killed both Azerbaijanis, and Lezghins, and Talysh ...
        30 thousand Azerbaijanis were killed in just 2 days!
        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%8B%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%B2_%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%83_(1918)

        http://1905.az/ru/%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%B4-%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%B4%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%B2-1918-%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0-%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2-3/
        1. bobwings 1 May 2020 17: 25 New
          • 2
          • 0
          +2
          As well as mountain Jews in Cuba.
    3. Zementbomber 2 May 2020 05: 53 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      And yet ADR was the first but truly democratic state in the Muslim world, multi-party and with battles in parliament. With a multinational government in which there were Russians with Jews, reflecting the multiculturalism of this country.
      In other geopolitical conditions, this country could become the pearl of the Caucasus.

      The presence of a multiparty system and gevalt in parliament are not in themselves evidence of the existence of democracy. Vaughn - in the PRC - is also a "multi-party system." And even with Chairman Mao was. Formally. It is quite legal parties - EMNIS, more than in the Republic of China (Taiwan). And in which of the two Chinas is democracy ?? That's the same ...
  • Astra wild 1 May 2020 10: 26 New
    • 3
    • 1
    +2
    The author, I have the word "blitzkrieg" causes rejection: recalls the fascist attack on the Soviet Union
  • alone 1 May 2020 10: 56 New
    • 9
    • 0
    +9
    The author forgot to mention one important detail: the Azerbaijani Bolsheviks were quite legally sitting in the Azerbaijani parliament as a faction .. They were deputies .. The same Chingiz Ildrym was Deputy Commander of the Navy ADR .. So, using the forces of the fleet, the faction passed an ultimatum to the Musavat government to hand over power Azerbaijani Communists .. And so that there would be no objection, morphlot artillery was aimed at the parliament building, which was located near the shore and was clearly visible from the sea ... Power was transferred to the Communists, and they Lenin's brother help im.vot and all the fuss .. "Blitzkrieg"))))) is a phrase at all out of place ..
    1. Oquzyurd 1 May 2020 13: 14 New
      • 3
      • 5
      -2
      The trouble with Azerbaijan was that at that time, almost all of the world's oil production was in Baku.
      The article is superficial, they didn’t reveal the events, and they probably wouldn’t open it, so as not to offend the fans of “Ararat”
      1. bobwings 1 May 2020 14: 51 New
        • 6
        • 0
        +6
        Of course ... otherwise you have to tell what the Dashnaks did shortly before in the city.
      2. Zementbomber 2 May 2020 06: 01 New
        • 2
        • 1
        +1
        The trouble with Azerbaijan was that at that time, almost all of the world's oil production was in Baku.

        OMG, what a nonsense !! negative
        I recommend that you read:
        http://istmat.info/node/43623
  • VicktorVR 1 May 2020 10: 58 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    The parliament convened at an emergency meeting transferred the power of the AKP (b) by a majority of votes, after which it dissolved.

    What a nice parliament :)
    1. alone 1 May 2020 12: 19 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      Quote: VicktorVR
      What a nice parliament :)

      Well, at gunpoint, there were no special options recourse
  • Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 12 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    The article must be put MINUS!
    In fact, the author simply compiled materials from open sources (mainly Wikipedia) and quickly compiled them using the copy-paste method.
    Well, for an essay in the 9th grade, maybe it would have worked - but for a serious military-historical article - no!
    It is immediately clear that the author did not work in the archives, did not read any works of general historical and special ones devoted to those events.
    It’s so schematic to convey the Baku operation without mentioning the heap of the most important events related to the Sovietization of Azerbaijan — well, I just don’t know !!
    In short, MINUS !!
  • Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 21 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    Quote: apro
    And was he a communist before joining the Musavat intelligence service? Was he engaged in party work before the revolution?

    At the time of the revolution, Beria was only 18 years old, so what kind of party work could he do before the revolution ?? The kid was essentially. From the end of the 16th he attended a Marxist circle, in the spring of the 17th he joined the RSDLP (b). By the way, he wrote in his autobiography in the 23rd that he entered counterintelligence on the instructions of the Gummet party, a left-wing socialist organization that worked among Caucasians and was used in 18-19. in Baku, the influence is probably even greater than the Communist Party; and then Gummet joined the RCP (b)
  • Sergey Oreshin 1 May 2020 21: 25 New
    • 1
    • 1
    0
    Quote: bobwings
    And yet ADR was the first but truly democratic state in the Muslim world, multi-party and with battles in parliament.

    Democracy was there ... well, let’s say, kutsaya pretty. One party was dominated by Musavat, the rest were, one might say, at a dance and did not play a big role.
    As for multinationality, the ADR fought with the Armenians throughout its short history and failed to resolve the Armenian-Azerbaijani relations. And the position of the Russians in the ADR was not very enviable - it is enough to familiarize yourself with archival materials. The fact that several Russians were sitting in parliament as "wedding generals" did not at all mean that the position of the Russians could be called good
  • Seal 20 May 2020 18: 13 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    On the night of the uprising, a group of four armored trains with a landing party rushed to Azerbaijan.
    Why was this possible? So, did the Azerbaijani generals, seeing that the armored trains of the 11th Red Army were already standing on that side of the border under the pairs, had not guessed to give an order to dismantle the rails? Guessed. They gave an order. Rails dismantled. And reassembled. Under the assurances of the emissaries of Mustafa Kemal that the 11th Red Army, consisting of Volga Muslim Tatars, is in transit through Azerbaijan to help Muslim Turkey fight the Entente crusaders. And Azerbaijan’s attempts to prevent the Red Army are Azerbaijan’s attempts to prevent Turkey.
    As the Azerbaijani M.E. Rasulzade wrote:
    “A part of the Ottoman Turks operating in Baku involuntarily misled people with these words:“ The approaching Red Army is led by a Turk named Nijat-bek. The regiments of this army are made up of Turks. A large number of soldiers come from the Turks of the Volga region. This Army goes to the aid of Anatolia, fighting against deadly enemies. The resistance shown to this Army will be tantamount to hampering the salvation of Turkey. From the point of view of great Turkic unity and the Muslim community, this is tantamount to betrayal. " A day later, it turned out that all these high words were a bluff. It was just a political ploy. ”

    The former head of the organization to combat the counter-revolution of Azerbaijan, Nagy Sheikhzamanli, in his memoirs evaluated the role of the Turks in this way:
    “When the Red Army approached our northern borders, the Azerbaijani authorities ordered the governor of the city of Cuba to dismantle the rails for at least one kilometer. The governor executed this order the next day. However, the lying Khalil Bey deceived our general, saying: “My Pasha, the government dismantled the rails on the border. The Red Army will not be able to proceed from here to Anatolia to assist Ataturk. Please take appropriate action. ” The deceived Azerbaijani general ordered the restoration of the railway. "

    That is, in fact, we bought all Azerbaijan from Ataturk for 10 million rubles in gold, which "cost" a million times more expensive. The young Soviet republic received a source of oil that we badly needed, without which Soviet Russia would most likely not have survived. And then, relying on Azerbaijan, we occupied both Armenia and Georgia, restoring the borders of the Russian Empire in Transcaucasia in almost its original form.