Polish "liberation" campaign in Kiev

Polish "liberation" campaign in Kiev

Polish-Ukrainian troops enter Kiev. Khreshchatyk, 1920


100 years ago, in April 1920, the Polish army went on the offensive. The Polish army, with the support of the Petliurists, occupied Right-Bank Ukraine and captured Kiev.

General situation


In the early spring of 1920, it seemed that Soviet Russia defeated its main opponents. All the main opponents were defeated, almost all the white armies were destroyed. There was only the Wrangel’s army in the Crimea, which at that time was not considered a strong threat, the small forces of the Petliurites in the Kamenetz-Podolsk area, and the troops of the Kappelites and Semenovites in Transbaikalia. Finland’s attempts to capture Karelia have already failed.

Thus, the remnants of the anti-Bolshevik forces were no longer taken seriously. It was only necessary to concentrate forces in order to extinguish the last foci of unrest. True, the peasant war was still blazing, but it was already a matter of restoring order and the rule of law within the country.

Excessive compounds began to be disbanded or transferred to the so-called position. labor armies, which were used to overcome the devastation, to restore the national economy. Some units were engaged in the fight against banditry. The most combat-ready units, if necessary, were transferred to dangerous directions. The first labor army was formed in January 1920 on the basis of the 3rd Soviet Army on the Eastern Front (1st Revolutionary Labor Army). Then began the formation of the Ukrainian labor army. In February, from the units of the 7th Army they began to create the Petrograd Labor Army, in March the 8th Army of the Caucasian Front was reorganized into the Caucasian Labor Army, etc.

To avoid the recurrence of mass uprisings in the Cossack regions, the Soviet government began to pursue a more flexible policy. Ordinary Cossacks were transferred from the "reactionary" class to the "working people". During the new arrival of the Red Army in the Don, Kuban and Terek, mass genocide no longer repeated. Cossacks were allowed to preserve some traditions and decals. Cossacks have already been mobilized into the Red Army to fight the Wrangel and Poles.


Front line on January 28, 1920

"Great Poland"


From the very beginning of the restoration of the Polish state, it took an extremely hostile position towards Soviet Russia. Polish ruling circles planned to use the turmoil in Russia to create a new Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, to capture the eastern regions up to the Western Dvina and the Dnieper. In January 1919, the Poles and the Reds clashed in a battle for Vilna. In February 1919, a continuous Soviet-Polish front arose in Belarus, from the Neman River to the Pripyat River. In March 1919, Polish troops captured Pinsk and Slonim. Then negotiations began, the Polish side proposed to establish a border on the basis of self-determination of the population of the disputed territories. Moscow agreed. In April 1919, Polish troops again went on the offensive, captured Lida, Novogrudok and Baranovichi. In August, the Poles captured Minsk, the Red Army withdrew beyond the Berezina River. Here the front has stabilized.

While the Entente supported the white generals, Kolchak and Denikin advanced, Pilsudsky paused. Although the moment for the campaign of the Polish army in Kiev and Moscow was the most favorable. The main and best forces of the Red Army were connected by battles with the white armies. However, Warsaw was afraid that if the White Guards took Moscow, they would pursue a policy of "united and indivisible Russia." That is, Poland will not receive anything. Therefore, the Polish leadership was waiting. In the winter of 1919, it became clear that the White Army had lost. When the White Guards retreated from the territory of Podolia, Polish troops quietly captured Proskurovsky, Mogilev-Podolsky and Starokonstantinovsky districts (Kamenetz-Podolsky Uyezd was occupied in November 1919).

Pilsudski decided that the most opportune moment had come for the offensive of the Polish army. Poland prepared a powerful, well-armed army, the backbone of which were experienced World War II soldiers. Formed strong cavalry. The Entente, especially France, actively helped the Poles. 1500 guns, about 2800 machine guns, hundreds of thousands of rifles, about 700 aircraft, 200 armored cars, 3 million outfits, trucks, ammunition, etc. were handed over to the Polish army. French officers helped train the troops. At the beginning of 1920, mobilization was carried out, new volunteers from abroad arrived, the total number of the Polish Army was brought up to 700 thousand people.

Pilsudski needed a victorious war to strengthen his role as “leader of the nation”, to distract the people from internal problems. In Warsaw, it was believed that Soviet Russia, although it defeated the White Movement, had emerged from the Civil War as greatly weakened, bloodless. A peasant war was fought in the rear of the Red Army, in White and Little Russia, the Petliurites, the Makhnovists, and the Wrangel army were “splintering”. You can speak with Moscow in the language of ultimatums, use the law of power. In Ukraine, they wanted to create a dependent buffer state, a raw materials appendage and a sales market for Greater Poland. Completely dependent on the mercy of Warsaw, the Ukrainian regime, which cannot exist without the help of the Poles and will always be afraid of Soviet Russia. Petlyura promised Pilsudsky that he would form 200 thousand in Ukraine. the army. Warsaw also wanted to bring Romania and Latvia to the war with Russia, but these states took a wait and see attitude.


Jozef Pilsudski in Minsk. Xnumx

Polish front


In early 1920, the Polish Front intensified. In the northern direction, between Pripyat and Dvina, there were three armies (1st, 4th and reserve, operational group). In the south direction, from the Dnieper to Pripyat, there were three armies (6th, 2nd and 3rd). In January 1920, Polish troops under the command of Edward Rydz-Smigly took Dvinsk with an unexpected blow. The city was handed over to the Latvian authorities. Then came a new lull. Rare skirmishes and skirmishes occurred when some dashing Polish nobleman wanted to show dare.

In March 1920, the Red Army was planning an offensive, but the Poles were the first to strike. March 5-6, the Polish army went on the offensive in Belarus, captured Mozyr, Kalinkovichi, Rogachev and Rechitsa. Poles intercepted strategic communications Zhytomyr - Orsha. The attempts of the Western Front under the command of Gittis (the 15th Army of Cork and the 16th Army of Sollogub) to counterattack were unsuccessful. Failed to recapture the mozyr. The 12th and 14th Soviet armies under the command of Mezheninov and Uborevich, who were part of the South-Western Front under the command of Egorov, tried to attack in Ukraine, but without success.

At the same time, Soviet-Polish contacts continued. The Polish side demanded that Moscow abandon all claims to the lands that belonged to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth before its first partition in 1772. Agree to establish a “security line." A precondition for starting peace negotiations with Moscow near Warsaw was the withdrawal of the Soviet armies from the lands that were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1772. The Poles agreed to start negotiations on the borders on April 10, 1920 in Borisov, but they did not take place.

Meanwhile, the situation in the rear of the Red Army worsened. A new wave of uprisings began in Little Russia (Ukraine). On the one hand, the former freemen did not want to return to peaceful life. On the other, the Bolsheviks again began a tough surplus-appraisal, began to disarm the peasants. Again went on a detachment of various chieftains and batiks. In the camps near Vinnitsa, Galician arrows, dissatisfied with their position, rebelled, who in the early 1920s switched over to the Reds. The uprising of the Galician army led to the intensification of the local rebel movement. To suppress the rebellion and riots, part of the forces of the 14th Soviet Army and front reserves were sent to the rear.

The moment for the offensive of the Polish Army was the most favorable. On April 21, 1920, Pilsudski entered into an agreement with Petliura on joint actions against the Red Army. The conditions were difficult. The leadership of the UNR at that time had neither its territory nor a full-fledged army (Ukrainian divisions were formed in the Polish occupation zone), so there was no choice. In fact, the border of 1772 was affirmed. Behind Poland remained Volyn, Galicia and Kholmshchina. In military operations against Soviet Russia, Ukrainian troops had to obey the Polish command. The agreement provided for the inviolability of Polish land tenure in the future territories of the Ukrainian People’s Republic. The Polish side recognized the Ukrainian state (in a very circumcised form) under the leadership of the ataman Petlyura. The Poles promised military assistance in the capture of Kiev, the supply of Petlyura troops. By military agreement, the Poles promised to conduct an offensive on their own only to the Dnieper. Further to Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav, Odessa, Donbass, the UPR troops had to advance independently. Ataman Tyutyunnik, the commander of the "Rebel Army", (former commander of the "army" of Ataman Grigoryev) also joined the Union of Poles and Petliurists. He recognized the primacy of Petliura and received the rank of general-coronary army of the UPR.


The commander of the 2nd Army, Polish General Anthony Listovsky (left) and Simon Petliura (right) after the conclusion of the alliance of Poland with the Petliurists

Kiev operation


On April 17, 1920, the Commander-in-Chief and First Marshal of Poland Pilsudski issued a secret order on the Kiev offensive operation. They planned to start the operation on April 25th. Seven infantry divisions and one cavalry division advanced in the Kiev direction, and three infantry divisions in the Odessa direction. On April 25, 1920, the Polish army and Petliurites launched an offensive against Kiev. In Belarus, the Poles did not advance, the front remained along the Berezina.

The Polish campaign against Kiev began under the loud slogan "For our and your freedom!" Pilsudski declared that the war is being waged against the "invaders, robbers and robbers" and for the "liberation" of Ukraine. About 65 thousand Poles participated in the offensive (there were about 140 thousand people in the Ukrainian direction) and 15 thousand Petliurites. In the Chernobyl region, the offensive was supported by the detachments of ataman Bulakh-Balakhovich (2 thousand soldiers) and Struk (1 thousand). Polish troops were advancing under the direct command of Pilsudski: the 6th army attacked from Proskurov on Zhmerynka, Vinnitsa and Mogilev-Podolsky; The 2nd Army attacked Kazatin-Fastov-Kiev, cutting off parts of the 14th Soviet Army from the 12th, 3rd Army delivered the main blow to Zhytomyr and Korosten.

Soviet troops were greatly inferior in number - only about 15,5 thousand people directly at the front (only about 55 thousand people). The Red Army was seriously inferior in the number of guns, machine guns and armored vehicles. In addition, the Reds were weakened by uprisings in the rear and did not expect a large-scale invasion. The main miscalculation of the Soviet supreme command was that its strategists were waiting for the Polish strike together with the Latvian army in the northeast. Therefore, the main forces were concentrated in Belarus (over 70 thousand bayonets and sabers), reinforcements from Siberia and the Caucasus went there. In late April, the Red Army planned to strike in Belarus in the direction of Lida - Vilna. However, by the beginning of the Polish offensive, the troops had not yet been transferred; they were on the march.

Therefore, the Poles quite easily broke into the red front, which was not continuous. Selected Polish units, soldiers who previously served in the German army, attacked in the main directions. Another selected part of the Polish Army was the part of the general army of General Galler (“Gallerchiki”), which the Entente formed in France and in 1919 transferred to Poland for the war with Soviet Russia. In the auxiliary areas, Petliurists and local “green” rebels joined them.

The red front collapsed. Soviet troops retreated with virtually no resistance. Parts scattered at a great distance from each other lost communication and control, it was necessary to withdraw and rearrange them. The victorious march of the Polish army began. On April 26, the Poles occupied Zhytomyr, on the 27th - Berdichev and Kazatin. In the southern sector, the 6th Polish Army of General Vaclav Ivashkevich captured Vinnitsa, Bar and Zhmerynka. In the northern section, the Poles captured Chernobyl and reached the Dnieper at Pripyat. As a result, the Polish army entered the line Chernobyl - Kazatin - Vinnitsa - the Romanian border. In the very first days 10 thousand Red Army soldiers were captured. True, the Poles failed to encircle and completely destroy the 12th Soviet Army. Separate parts fell into the "cauldrons", but the Poles did not have the strength and ability to create a stable environment ring. So, the 58th and 7th rifle divisions were blocked, but they were able to successfully break out of the surrounding areas.

In the very south the cavalry of the chieftain Tyutyunnik was advancing. The rebels occupied Balta, allied with the rebel Galician cavalry regiment Sheparovich. Then Tyutyunnik's cavalry took Voznesensk and began to threaten Odessa and Nikolaev. Those Galicians who were in the zone of attack of the Polish units fell from the fire and into the fire. Supporters of independent Galicia Pilsudski was not needed. They were disarmed and sent to Polish concentration camps, where most died of starvation, disease and abuse.

Soviet troops continued to withdraw with little or no resistance. Polish troops during the invasion suffered minimal losses. May 6, 1920 the Poles occupied the White Church, went to Kiev. The command of the 12th Army planned to give battle for the capital of Ukraine and wait for the approach of units of the 1st Cavalry Army from the North Caucasus. However, the demoralized troops at the sight of the evacuation of command and command structures panicked and began to withdraw. The advanced Polish units, boarding ordinary trams, entered the center of Kiev, sowing a great panic among the garrison of the city. The Reds left Kiev without a fight. On May 7, the Poles and Petliurists occupied Kiev. The Poles crossed the Dnieper and captured a small bridgehead on the left bank, up to 15 km deep. On May 9, Pilsudski held a Polish victory parade in Kiev with emphasized pomp. Thus, the Polish army captured Right-Bank Ukraine.

On the Dnieper, Polish troops stopped. They planned to gain a foothold in the occupied territory, to tighten the rear. It was also necessary to resolve the issue of further actions. In early May, Britain again proposed, through its mediation, to begin peace negotiations on peace, to establish the Polish border of Soviet Russia according to the so-called. Curzon lines. Soviet troops were supposed to stop the offensive in the Caucasus, preserve the independence of Georgia and Armenia, stop the hostilities against Crimea. The question of Crimea was to be resolved through negotiations with Wrangel, with the future honorary surrender of the peninsula, the free travel abroad of all comers and the amnesty of those who stay in Russia.

Meanwhile, the Soviet leadership was conducting a new mobilization. The Polish front became the main one. New formations, units, and reserves were transferred here. The Soviet command began preparations for a counteroffensive.
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  1. apro April 10 2020 05: 27 New
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    The centennial of the Soviet-Polish war against the background of the current state of affairs in the western direction looks somewhat similar ... only in Moscow there are no forces to turn this situation around ..
  2. The leader of the Redskins April 10 2020 06: 20 New
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    Thank. The material, although succinctly filed, is intelligible.
  3. Olgovich April 10 2020 06: 31 New
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    Polish side demanded from Moscow renounce all claims on lands that belonged to the Commonwealth until its first division in 1772. Agree to establish a “security line." The precondition for the start of peace negotiations with Moscow Warsaw was the withdrawal of Soviet armies from the lands that were part of the Commonwealth until 1772.

    Sorry. the author does not write. based on WHAT she demanded ....

    she demanded it strictly in accordance with ... so-called By a decree of 1918 the so-called Bolshevik so-called SNK "On ... non-recognition of all sections of Poland. those. ACKNOWLEDGING the borders of 1772. Koi were before the first section.

    The Bolsheviks themselves ... DENIED the internationally recognized borders of Russia, then what questions ... to others?

    From the very beginning of the restoration of the Polish state, it took an extremely hostile position towards Soviet Russia.

    not so: Poland had no complaints against Russia - it was advancing on the Bolsheviks recognized state USSR and the BSSR

    In the early spring of 1920, it seemed that Soviet Russia defeated its main opponents. almost all white armies destroyed
    victims of these so-called there were FIVE times more “victories” over their fellow citizens than the country lost in the World War II against the German invaders, against which the Bolshevik fighters so violently opposed the terrible victims of World War II fool
    Kolchak and Denikin were advancing, Pilsudski took a break. Although the moment for the campaign of the Polish army in Kiev and Moscow was the most favorable. The main and best forces of the Red Army were connected by battles with the white armies. However, Warsaw was afraid that if the White Guards took Moscow, they would pursue a policy of "united and indivisible Russia." That is, Poland will not receive anything. Therefore, the Polish leadership was waiting.

    touching unity of Polish and Bolshevik Russophobes yes
    . the author does not agree: the Pilsudsky SPAS of the Reds during the Russian liberation campaign against Moscow in 1919: he entered into a truce with the Bolsheviks and they were able to transfer combat units of all non-Russians (Latvians, Estonians, Ukrainians) from the Polish front to fight Russia.

    The same thing happened in 1920 ....
    1. Anika April 10 2020 07: 04 New
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      So it says why Pilsudsky saved the Reds, so to speak, because if he was afraid if the whites returned, Poland would again depart to Russia with legal rights, that’s all nobility!
      1. Octopus April 10 2020 07: 34 New
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        Quote: Anika
        because if he was afraid if the whites returned, Poland would again depart to Russia legally, that's all nobleness!

        You're right. The idea of ​​a single and indivisible was insanity and to a very large extent became the cause of the defeat of the white cause.
        1. apro April 10 2020 08: 12 New
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          Quote: Octopus
          The idea of ​​one and indivisible was insanity

          Well, it depends on what sauce to serve ... if everything would be as it should be. Then yes ....
          1. Octopus April 10 2020 08: 21 New
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            Quote: apro
            if it were all as before. yes ....

            What does "as before" mean? A crumbling empire will naturally lose to any national liberation movement in the colonies.
            One of the brilliant finds of Lenin and the Bolsheviks - this movement was used to the benefit of their cause. And then a new, red empire strangled all these republics, incredibly quickly regaining (relative) military power, much faster than the young national republics, most of them, were able to form a full-fledged state.
            1. apro April 10 2020 08: 25 New
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              Quote: Octopus
              What it means

              And this means that the Zhidbolsheviks fought for the single and indivisible. And the Russian White Guards do not understand why they fought ...
              1. Octopus April 10 2020 08: 31 New
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                This means that wars are won by politicians, not generals.
                1. apro April 10 2020 13: 36 New
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                  Quote: Octopus
                  This means that wars are won by politicians, not generals.

                  If the generals are fighting without public goals, they are just criminals. I understand
                  1. Octopus April 10 2020 13: 41 New
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                    Quote: apro
                    If generals fight without public goals

                    No idea what you mean. There may be a lot of discussion about the public goals of the White Army, the Black Baron, but the execution was certainly unsuccessful.
                    1. apro April 10 2020 13: 49 New
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                      And also the short-sighted ones ... for society what did the generals offer?
                      1. Octopus April 10 2020 13: 55 New
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                        Miscellaneous. Who is the tsar-father, who founded the foundation, who is generally a Cossack republic.

                        This is one of the problems.
              2. rich April 10 2020 16: 00 New
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                apro (Oleg Frolov): .. the Jews of the Bolsheviks ...

                Like this and without thinking about the consequences, you Oleg inflicted a mortal insult to two "influential" VO factions - the Bolshevik Communists and the Israeli lobby. Now their members will coordinate their actions in PM and begin to minus you. repeat
                1. apro April 10 2020 16: 05 New
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                  Rich.da is normal. So more clearly ... I don’t understand what is insulting in this word. Moreover, for the Jews the Jewish Bolsheviks are enemies.
            2. Olgovich April 10 2020 09: 23 New
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              Quote: Octopus
              A crumbling empire will naturally lose to any national liberation movement in the colonies.

              this nonsense about .... Russia? belay lol
              1. Octopus April 10 2020 09: 24 New
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                About Russia (the one and indivisible) of the 18th year. Do you have any objections?
                1. Olgovich April 10 2020 09: 38 New
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                  Quote: Octopus
                  About Russia (the one and indivisible) of the 18th year. Do you have any objections?

                  And what is unclear:
                  this rave-About Russia?
                  ? request
                  1. Octopus April 10 2020 09: 40 New
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                    Quote: Olgovich
                    And what is unclear:

                    Do you not agree that national and not only autonomies began to fall off from Russia of the 18th year?
                    1. Olgovich April 10 2020 09: 42 New
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                      Quote: Octopus
                      Do you not agree that national and not only autonomies began to fall off from Russia of the 18th year?

                      From Russia, nothing fell off, from SNK, yes.
                      1. Octopus April 10 2020 09: 44 New
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                        And, that is, Mannerheim, the UPR, the Transcaucasia — are they all also one and indivisible against the Bolsheviks? Well, OK.
                      2. Olgovich April 10 2020 09: 55 New
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                        Quote: Octopus
                        A, i.e Mannerheim, the UPR, the Transcaucasus - are they also all united and indivisible against the Bolsheviks? Well, OK.

                        What is the bad habit of “saying” for others?
                        They fell off ALREADY collapsed thief country.
                        ALL independence after the thief.

                        The Russian state in 1918, 1919 successfully coped with unimportant low-power unres and Georgia
                      3. Octopus April 10 2020 10: 17 New
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                        Is it Kolchak and Denikin, have they dealt with all this? Oh well.
                      4. Olgovich April 10 2020 10: 18 New
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                        Quote: Octopus
                        Is it Kolchak and Denikin, have they dealt with all this? Oh well.

                        Oh well yes
                    2. Sugar Honeyovich April 11 2020 08: 55 New
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                      Quote: Olgovich
                      The Russian state in 1918, 1919 successfully coped with unimportant low-power unres and Georgia

                      What prevented the same Kolchak (“the Supreme Ruler of Russia) from simply declaring the Bolshevik decree invalid? And thereby re-creating a united Russia? No, the Whites had some kind of negotiations with these“ insignificant weak ”, they listened to their conditions ...
                      And they dealt with them like with a spring: if you click on it, it compresses, release it, it again ... angry
                2. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 10: 27 New
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                  Another bullshit from Olgych. Already in the year 17, under the Provisional Government, the nationalist republics peered around.
                3. ser56 April 10 2020 18: 13 New
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                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  looked around on each side.

                  So what ? decided to leave only after the Bolshevik coup - see Ukraine, first of all ...
                4. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 19: 26 New
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                  And then
                  On August 14, 1914, after victory in the war, he promised to unite the Kingdom of Poland with the Polish lands, which will be taken from Germany and Austria-Hungary, into an autonomous state in a union with the Russian Empire [6].
                  Nicky himself gave an excellent reason for separatism, the same Finns after 1906 only obeyed military rule. There is nothing to say about Transcaucasia. If the Armenians were even afraid of the Turks, then the rest started right after the February revolution.
                  On March 16 (29), 1917, the Provisional Government of Russia recognized Poland’s right to independence subject to a “free military alliance” with Russia. [4] AT

                  The abdication of Nicholas II from the throne on March 2, 1917 automatically terminated the personal union with the Grand Duchy of Finland. On March 7 (20), 1917, the Provisional Government issued an Act approving the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Finland, returning to Finland all the rights of the times of autonomy and repealing all restrictions of the period of Russification.

                  In late June - early July, negotiations were held in Kiev with a delegation of the Provisional Government - Minister of War and Naval A.F. Kerensky, Minister of Foreign Affairs M.I. Tereshchenko, Minister of Post and Telegraph I.G. Tsereteli, to which Minister of Railways also joined Messages N.V. Nekrasov. Following the talks, the delegation stated that the Provisional Government would not object to the autonomy of Ukraine .... The negotiations ended with an agreement based on mutual concessions. The most significant step towards the Rada on the part of the delegation was the recognition of the right to self-determination for "every people." Wherein delegation without agreement with the government recognized the territorial claims of the Rada on 9 Russian provinces[14]. These actions caused a government crisis in Petrograd: on July 2 (15), all cadet ministers resigned in protest.
                  Not a word about the Bolsheviks.
                5. ser56 April 10 2020 20: 21 New
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                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  Nicky himself gave an excellent occasion to separatism,

                  you do not understand the text well - IN2 acted ahead of the curve - to give a carrot, which, incidentally, the Middle Powers also used ... request
                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  to an autonomous state in a union with the Russian Empire

                  and where is separatism? IN2 is not the Bolsheviks - he did not give the right to exit, but gave his crown ... request

                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  then the rest after right after the February revolution began to move.

                  whose slogan is the right of nations to self-determination? repeat
                  Incidentally, IN2 is not responsible for the after revolution, but for it - yes! request
                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  Not a word about the Bolsheviks.

                  read Vicki further ... I note that the VP did not give the Russian provinces, but the Bolsheviks gave ... request
                6. Vladimir_2U April 11 2020 06: 32 New
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                  Judging by the meaningless set of words under the guise of arguments, in your comment, judging by your rating, you are either a foolish person or a troll, I see no reason to discuss something with such characters.
                7. ser56 April 11 2020 16: 45 New
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                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  I don’t see any reason to discuss something with such characters.

                  eka abstruse said bully maybe everything is easier - merged? recourse
          2. Sugar Honeyovich April 11 2020 08: 48 New
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            Quote: ser56
            decided to leave only after the Bolshevik coup - see Ukraine

            "On March 22, the Provisional Government issued a decree abolishing all national and religious restrictions in Russia. ... for a number of nationalities - for Ukrainians, Poles, Latvians, Lithuanians, etc. - this act was the starting point for the rapid development of the separatist movement that had long existed in the bud and created on the ruins of the Russian Empire of independent national states.
            ... In Ukraine, this process came to light very sharply and sharply, giving an example for Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia, Armenia, etc. The political struggle in Kiev in the spring and summer of 1917 was marked by such a rapid growth of the Ukrainian national movement that it started on March 17, 1917 - first as a purely national public organization uniting all Ukrainians - the Ukrainian Central Council ....
            The Ukrainian "national liberation movement" in the first months of 1917 developed by leaps and bounds. The Central Council enjoyed great success among Ukrainian peasants and soldiers. "(Flight)
          3. ser56 April 11 2020 16: 47 New
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            Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
            the creation on the ruins of the Russian Empire of independent national states.

            who argues, but legally recognized by the Bolsheviks! request
          4. gsev 24 June 2020 13: 42 New
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            Quote: Sugar Honeyovich
            The Central Council enjoyed great success among Ukrainian peasants and soldiers. "(Flight)

            In fact, Ukraine was dominated by leftist views: Bolshevik, Anarchist or Left SR. Ukrainian nationalism was fed and defended first by German and then Polish occupiers and was always an instrument of foreign forces. For example, take the food blockade of the Crimea. She thwarted the possibility of delivering Western food to Russia through Ukraine. But it was organized under the pressure of pro-Turkish forces and had the goal of lowering the income of Ukrainian peasants and forcing Ukrainians to go into service to Turkey and the Muslim East.
  • Alexey RA April 10 2020 10: 42 New
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    Quote: Octopus
    You're right. The idea of ​​a single and indivisible was insanity and to a very large extent became the cause of the defeat of the white cause.

    The most interesting thing is that the opposite idea of ​​maximum autonomy up to self-determination also became the cause of defeat - Krasnov and Cossack hatskrayniki generally will not let lie. smile
    1. Octopus April 10 2020 10: 50 New
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      Quote: Alexey RA
      maximum autonomy up to self-determination also became the cause of defeat - Krasnov and Cossack hatskrayniki as a whole will not let lie.

      Defeat for them. They did not understand that Russia was dead, and the Empire was alive. His Imperial Highness, quoted below, honestly explains this.

      It would seem, what does the 2014 year have to do with it?
  • Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 08: 13 New
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    What a liar Olgych, as usual, however, stupid, but cunning. And he brought, like, Decree and inserted only one line with a tattered, well, from myself stupidity bloodied and false:
    Quote: Olgovich
    and on the basis of WHAT she demanded ....
    she demanded it strictly in accordance with ... the so-called By a decree of 1918 the so-called Bolshevik so-called SNK "On ... non-recognition of all sections of Poland. Ie RECOGNIZED the borders of 1772 .. koi were before the first section.
    The Bolsheviks themselves ... DENIED the internationally recognized borders of Russia, then what questions ... to others?
    And the text of the Decree regarding Poland read:
    Art. 3. All treaties and acts concluded by the government of the former Russian Empire with governments of the kingdom of Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian empiresconcerning the sections of Poland, in view of their contradictions to the principle of self-determination of nations .. for the brotherhood of peoples, etc ..., - are canceled hereby irrevocably.
    Art. 4. All secret agreements, agreements and obligations concluded, but not published in the manner prescribed for such acts, by the former government of Russia with the governments of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the states, as part of the last members, are canceled irrevocably in the implementation of the proclamation of the decree: Council of People’s Commissars of October 28, 1917 "On Peace" (Collected Uzak., No. 1, Art. 2) principles.
    It is quite obvious, but not to Olgych, of course, that these treaties concerned the borders of Russia and Prussia and Austria-Weng. Imp. carried out in divided Poland, and in no way could the Kingdom of Poland and Russia proper be referred to the borders between autonomy! And there is no mention of Soviet Russia returning to Poland the lands it lost after 1867! So Olgych brehlo, as usual.
    1. Olgovich April 10 2020 09: 29 New
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      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      What a liar Olgych, as usual, however, is not

      MATA fan, you’ve been told repeatedly and a long time ago: until you apologize, I don’t communicate (disdain) and do not read.

      Sending, sending you, and you all .... pester and pester ... belay

      What, absolutely no pride? request
      1. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 10: 17 New
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        Oh, Olgych is indignant, dissatisfied, afraid of curses, demands an apology, maybe he will still need flowers and a cake?
        Quote: Olgovich
        not so: Poland had no complaints against Russia - it attacked the states of the USSR and the BSSR recognized by the Bolsheviks

        Of course, no complaints, is Poland even without complaints?
        At the beginning of the winter of 1918, in connection with the revolution in Germany, German troops left the territory of Belarus. On December 10, the Red Army entered Minsk. But on December 30, 1918 Warsaw declared to Moscow that the offensive of the Red Army in Lithuania and Belarus was an aggressive act against Poland, therefore, "the Polish government will prepare to protect the territories inhabited by the Polish nation." Moscow replied that its troops never entered territory that could be “considered as belonging to the Polish Republic”
        Olgych so reverently "protects the battlefield hyena", it is already enviable.
        Quote: Olgovich
        victims of these so-called there were FIVE times more “victories” over their fellow citizens than the country lost in the World War II against the German invaders, against which the Bolshevik fighters so violently opposed the terrible victims of World War II
        Of course, the victims of the Czechs, Kolchakism, seed production, invaders, "greens", and even Slashchev-Krymsky, not to mention typhoid and Spaniard, Olgych recorded as victims of the Bolsheviks.
        Quote: Olgovich
        The Pilsudsk SPAS of the Reds during the Russian liberation campaign against Moscow in 1919: he entered into a truce with the Bolsheviks and they were able to transfer combat units of all non-Russians (Latvians, Estonians, Ukrainians) from the Polish front to the struggle against Russia.
        Directly saved, by kindness of soul, food to the Poles was blocked:
        In October, units of the Red Army launched a counterattack on the city, but were defeated. After that, the fighting subsided until the beginning of next year: the parties entered into a truce. This was explained by the reluctance of the Entente countries and A. I. Denikin to support plans for further Polish expansion.
        Well and very well, the Bolsheviks managed to take advantage of Polish and other co-operation as needed.
        Quote: Olgovich
        The same thing happened in 1920 ....
        Well, in the previous episode, still this way Poles can be presented with darlings, but is that what? In the year 20, the Bolsheviks were saved again? The Bolsheviks dreamed, they were saved like the Poles, savior - the mouse drowned in a stone.
        Pilsudski intended to develop success, surround and destroy the remaining troops of the Western Front at Navahrudak. However, the Polish units weakened in battles could not fulfill this order, and the Red Army troops were able to regroup and organize the defense.
        1. Olgovich April 10 2020 10: 27 New
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          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          Oh, Olgych is indignant, dissatisfied, afraid of curses, demands an apology, maybe he will still need flowers and a cake?

          belay lol
          No feelings listed above except disgust.

          And you are again and again intrusively imposing request

          What, no pride? belay

          I earnestly ask you not to answer me: otherwise I open the “answers”, and there ... Vi negative
          1. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 10: 33 New
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            So drag flowers, or not? Olgich let his Russophobic temperance temper. And then Vlasov, for example, justified his betrayal by “hatred of the Bolsheviks”, and he himself served German Nazis. And in general, I do not recall a word against either England, the United States, or even Poland openly Russophobic, from Olgych.
            1. Olgovich April 10 2020 11: 31 New
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              Quote: Vladimir_2U
              drag or not on

              leave me alone ....
              yes
              1. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 11: 46 New
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                How cute, the anti-Soviet and Russophobe covers his vulnerable nature with a Soviet poster.
                1. ser56 April 10 2020 18: 15 New
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                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  How cute, anti-Soviet and Russophobe p

                  you despise and for the cause .... request
                  1. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 19: 16 New
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                    Quote: ser56
                    you despise and for the cause .... request
                    Olgych despises? He’s just afraid to enter into a discussion, that’s all, but do you know why? Because he was repeatedly poked into the insolent fight of quotes. Yes, what to go far:
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    she demanded it strictly in accordance with ... the so-called By a decree of 1918 the so-called Bolshevik so-called SNK "On ... non-recognition of all sections of Poland. those. ACKNOWLEDGING the borders of 1772. Koi were before the first section.
                    So try to find the Decree to which Olgych refers, by his "quote" "link" so-called. Previously, he even ate quotes, but one could find a document from them, now even this is afraid. Although you seem to have such weakness too.
                    1. ser56 April 10 2020 20: 16 New
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                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      Afraid to just enter into a discussion

                      discussion and abuse is different .... repeat
                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      Here try to find the Decree to which Olgych refers

                      if necessary, I will find ... but do you agree with the fact of the document itself? Or its content?
                      By the way - you could politely ask your opponent, sort of corny ... repeat
                    2. Vladimir_2U April 11 2020 06: 12 New
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                      Quote: ser56
                      discussion and abuse is different ...

                      Well, yes, yes, you don’t know how frankly rude Olgych was, they didn’t besiege him by the time, including by poking his nose, with sarcastic comments.
                      Quote: ser56
                      if necessary, I will find ... but do you agree with the fact of the document itself? Or its content?
                      What to look for? If you are not completely blinded, you can read it in my commentary, more precisely, those points that concern Poland. And the entire contextual search document from my comment is easy to find, and from the "comment" of Olgych is impossible. And what kind of stupidity? I have cited paragraphs from the document, how can I dispute its existence ?!
                      Quote: ser56
                      By the way - you could politely ask your opponent, sort of corny ...
                      Sorry, the very fact of Olgych’s most shameful manner doesn’t even tear quotes, but simply gives a few loosely coupled words as an example, he speaks of his complete disregard for the opponent. This is even if his frank rudeness in his earlier comments is not taken into account.
                    3. ser56 April 11 2020 16: 33 New
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                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      you don’t know how frankly Hamil Olgych,

                      you would be responsible for yourself ... request
                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      You, if not completely blinded

                      you definitely badly raised .... so nothing at the mirror ...
                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      more precisely, those points that concern Poland

                      however, you did not understand them and began to appeal to the administrative border of the Privislyansk provinces ... request
                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      how can i dispute its existence ?!

                      you have a self-prop ... crying
                      Quote: Vladimir_2U
                      Excuse me,
                      you did not answer the question ... hi usually this is how children get laid with insults ... request
  • ser56 April 10 2020 18: 22 New
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    Quote: Vladimir_2U
    Kingdom of Poland

    “Since 1887, the most used phrases become the“ provinces of the Privislinsky Territory ”,“ the Privislinsky Provinces ”and“ the Privislinsky Territory ”, and in January 1897, Nicholas II ordered that the use of the names“ Kingdom of Poland ”and“ Province of the Kingdom of Poland ”be limited to cases emergency " request
    Quote: Vladimir_2U
    in no way could the Kingdom of Poland and Russia proper be mentioned about the borders between autonomy!

    "The powers of the interim government ceased with the promulgation of the Organic Statute (February 26, 1832), which abolished the coronation of emperors by Polish kings, the special Polish army and the Sejm, and declared the Kingdom of Poland an organic part of the Russian Empire."
    What can be the borders in a single state? what are you talking about? request
    1. Vladimir_2U April 10 2020 19: 10 New
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      Quote: ser56
      "The Kingdom of Poland" and "the province of the Kingdom of Poland" was limited to cases of extreme necessity "
      And so, is that all? I will continue, nothing, support your weakened hand, so ck.
      and in January 1897, Nicholas II ordered that the use of the names “Kingdom of Poland” and “provinces of the Kingdom of Poland” be limited to cases of emergency, although these names have not been removed from the Code of Laws
      I, in principle, do not mind, just the Privislenia provinces / region require clarification, and the Kingdom of Poland is immediately clear.
      Quote: ser56
      What can be the borders in a single state? what are you talking about?
      Administrative boundaries, no? For which the CIS countries drew borders, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were divided, for example, what might be the borders in a state, albeit in a federal one. Autonomy by which is determined, for example, the Principality of Finland (great). It seems like a single state (haha) with Russia, but its own currency went.
      1. ser56 April 10 2020 20: 13 New
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        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        I will support your weakened hand

        did your parents raise you so badly?
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        require clarification, and the Kingdom of Poland is immediately understandable.

        if you, then these are your problems ... request I think that contemporaries and IN2 knew better what to call ...
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        Administrative boundaries, no?

        then what was your question about? Do you want to discuss internal borders with a foreign state? request

        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        According to which the CIS countries check

        it didn’t end in good ... request as in the case of Finland ... and in both cases, the sheer fault of the Bolsheviks / Communists ... did not think, with ... hi
        1. Vladimir_2U April 11 2020 06: 29 New
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          Quote: ser56
          did your parents raise you so badly?
          You are rude on the move.
          Quote: ser56
          if you, then these are your problems ...
          You immediately doubt my mental abilities.
          Quote: ser56
          Do you want to discuss internal borders with a foreign state?
          And now I doubt your mental abilities. I wrote about this that the Decree to which Olgych “refers” did not give any right to expand Poland at the expense of Russia, because it concerned only the external borders of the Republic of Ingushetia. So you are either not at all smart, or troll.
          Quote: ser56
          it didn’t end in good ... request, as in the case of Finland ... and in both cases, the blame for the Bolsheviks / Communists ... didn’t
          Yes, and as Olga, you seem to imagine that only you can use the search.
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          On March 16 (29), 1917, the Provisional Government of Russia recognized Poland’s right to independence subject to a “free military alliance” with Russia. [4] AT

          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          The abdication of Nicholas II from the throne on March 2, 1917 automatically terminated the personal union with the Grand Duchy of Finland. On March 7 (20), 1917, the Provisional Government issued an Act approving the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Finland, returning to Finland all the rights of the times of autonomy and repealing all restrictions of the period of Russification.
          By the way, judging by your rating, you are either idiotic, or a troll, or someone’s fake account, it makes no sense to argue with such characters.
          1. ser56 April 11 2020 16: 42 New
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            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            You are rude on the move.

            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            support your weakened hands

            look in the mirror ... repeat
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            You immediately doubt my mental abilities.

            alas, you give the basis for such conclusions ... request
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            The decree to which Olgych "refers" did not give any right to expand Poland at the expense of Russia, because it concerned only the external borders of the Republic of Ingushetia.

            1) you have confirmed my thesis - see above.
            2) I express my opinion - as soon as the external borders of the state are canceled, they can be reinstalled ... That is what Olgovich said, but it’s difficult for you .... request
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            So you are either not at all smart, or troll.

            My answer is - against my background you are poorly educated and badly educated ... request I deign to communicate with you for relaxation on self-isolation ... repeat

            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            automatically terminated

            Not at all - that is why Finland wanted to receive recognition from the Bolsheviks and received ... request
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            By the way, judging by your rating, you are either idiotic,

            Who is interested in the majority opinion? mediocrity is always more .... hi
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            point to argue

            I do not argue with you, I flog you with the rods of knowledge ... repeat
  • Basil50 April 10 2020 06: 47 New
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    Author. Well, and what will be the government created from the faithful servants of the Austrians and Germans?
    The army, the government and then the country to the Poles were created by the Austrians and Germans. And at first they created an army, then a government, and only then they began to cut territories.
    For centuries, the Poles, with their national showers, have been spoiling their neighbors as best they could. Then they are outraged by the division of their own country.
    The Austrians and Germans carried out the assimilation of the Poles, they simply hung up those who disagreed, but hated the RUSSIANS, who preserved both the language and culture and even the self-government of Poland.
    However, the Poles in their kooky are not original, they are the most rabid.
    1. Anika April 10 2020 07: 06 New
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      As they removed it from the language, somewhere earlier I wrote the same koment in YouTube, all the Poles were divided, they were assimilated, Russia retained their national identity, and for some reason they did not see the current, not Germans, Austrians,
  • svp67 April 10 2020 07: 19 New
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    And the most interesting ... the Poles are talking so beautifully about the battle for Warsaw, when they stopped the "hordes" of the Bolsheviks, accusing them of all sins, including the desire to enslave Poland, as they forget what they managed to do before that .. .
    01.01.19/06.01.19/XNUMX Polish troops occupy the Lithuanian capital Vilnius (Vilnius), but success is short-lived and the first clash of Polish units with the Red Army takes place on XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX. Polish troops knocked out of Vilna.
    From February to August, Poland’s forces are occupied: Pinsk, Lida, Baranovichi, Vilno, Grodno, ZUNR forces are defeated (Eastern Galicia is occupied), Molodechno, Slutsk, Minsk and Bobruisk.
    In the 20th year, the Polish campaign in Kiev ....
    1. Octopus April 10 2020 07: 35 New
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      Quote: svp67
      From February to August, Poland’s forces are occupied: Pinsk, Lida, Baranovichi, Vilno, Grodno, ZUNR forces are defeated (Eastern Galicia is occupied), Molodechno, Slutsk, Minsk and Bobruisk.
      In the 20th year, the Polish campaign in Kiev ....

      Yeah. What is the question?
      1. svp67 April 10 2020 07: 36 New
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        Quote: Octopus
        Yeah. What is the question?

        The question is, who started the first “trip” then?
        1. Octopus April 10 2020 07: 37 New
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          What does all these places have to do with Soviet Russia?
          1. svp67 April 10 2020 07: 40 New
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            Quote: Octopus
            What does all these places have to do with Soviet Russia?

            Yes, direct, since the territories on which the Poles attacked were in alliance with Soviet Russia
            1. Octopus April 10 2020 07: 43 New
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              Quote: svp67
              were allied with Soviet Russia

              Is there a contractor?
              1. svp67 April 10 2020 07: 45 New
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                Quote: Octopus
                Is there a contractor?

                But yak ... a mustache is recorded and signaled. And the originals are in the archives
                1. Octopus April 10 2020 07: 46 New
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                  In more detail, if not difficult.
  • Ros 56 April 10 2020 07: 44 New
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    From my youth I was amazed at how it happened that after defeating the White Guards and the 14 states of the Entente, ours were so blundered in the 20th with the Poles.
    1. Octopus April 10 2020 07: 48 New
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      Quote: Ros 56
      smashing the White Guards

      These themselves are evil Pinocchio.
      Quote: Ros 56
      and 14 Entente states

      Are you kidding me? The Entente fought with its old enemies, spoiled the pro-German states of Eastern Europe, including Poland. When they got tired of it, they curled up and left.
    2. Anika April 10 2020 07: 57 New
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      Can you imagine if Poland entered the USSR !? Perhaps they would have helped the Communists in Bavaria, and there you look and it was really possible to carry out a world revolution!
      1. A.TOR April 10 2020 15: 27 New
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        God save us from this
        1. A.TOR April 10 2020 15: 27 New
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          and saved, however
  • Aleksandr72 April 10 2020 08: 02 New
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    “And now, when all these advantages and all this help were lost and abandoned, England, leading France behind it, offers to guarantee the integrity of Poland - that same Poland, which only six months ago with the greed of a hyena took part in the robbery and destruction of the Czechoslovak state” .U. Churchill - "World War II"

    Churchill, an anti-communist and Russophobe, knew what he was writing about, calling Poland a hyena. Since its independence in 1918, this state began to actively prepare for war with all its neighbors and tore up everyone who was unlucky to have borders with it. At the same time, Poland, as a real hyena, tried to attack an enemy who was weak and defenseless (well, or the one who was considered such).
    In Warsaw, it was believed that Soviet Russia, although it defeated the White Movement, had emerged from the Civil War as greatly weakened, bloodless.
    “But they miscalculated a little, and if they hadn’t wanted the trotsky’s and his followers, who passionately wanted to transfer the fire of the revolution to Europe with the bayonets of the Red Army and then fan the fire of the world revolution and the adventurism of Tukhachevsky, who was eager for Warsaw no matter what, forgetting about at the rear and supply, and who believed that he was fighting against a "classically heterogeneous" enemy (in practice, it apparently meant that the enemy soldiers - "peasants and workers, forcibly dressed in their overcoats" would turn their bayonets against their own bourgeois), then the "Miracle on the Vistula" would not have happened .
    The Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Romanov (aka Sandro), who had no illusions about the Bolsheviks, nor any reason to love them, wrote about this:
    When in the early spring of 1920 I saw the headlines of French newspapers announcing the Pilsudski triumphal march through the wheat fields of Little Russia, something inside me could not stand it, and I forgot that a year has not passed since the day my brothers were shot. I just thought: "The Poles are about to take Kiev! The eternal enemies of Russia are about to cut off the empire from its western borders!" I did not dare to express myself openly, but, listening to the absurd chatter of the refugees and looking at their faces, I wholeheartedly wished the Red Army victory.
    It doesn’t matter that I was a grand duke. I was a Russian officer who took an oath to defend the Fatherland from its enemies. I was the grandson of a man who threatened to plow the streets of Warsaw if the Poles once again dare to violate the unity of his empire. Suddenly, a phrase came to mind of my very same ancestor seventy-two years ago. Right on the report of the "outrageous actions" of the former Russian artillery officer Bakunin, who in Saxony led the crowds of German revolutionaries to storm the fortress, Emperor Nicholas I wrote in arshine letters: "Hurray to our gunners!"
    The similarity of mine and its reaction struck me. I felt the same when the red commander Budyonny defeated the Pilsudski legions and drove him to Warsaw. This time, compliments were addressed to the Russian cavalry, but otherwise little has changed since my grandfather.
    “But you seem to forget,” objected my faithful secretary, “that, among other things, the victory of Budyonny means the end of the hopes of the White Army in Crimea.
    His fair remark did not shake my convictions. It was clear to me then, in the turbulent summer of the twentieth year, as it is clear now, in a calm thirty-third, that in order to achieve a decisive victory over the Poles, the Soviet government did everything that any truly popular government would have to do. No matter how ironic it seems that the unity of the Russian state has to be defended by the participants of the Third International, the fact remains that from that very day the Soviets are forced to pursue a purely national policy, which is nothing but a centuries-old policy begun by Ivan the Terrible, framed by Peter the Great and reached the peak under Nicholas I: to defend the borders of the state at all costs and step by step to break through to the natural borders in the west! Now I’m sure that even my sons will see the day when not only the ridiculous independence of the Baltic republics comes to an end, but Bessarabia and Poland will be conquered by Russia, and cartographers will have to work hard to draw borders in the Far East.
    1. Octopus April 10 2020 08: 16 New
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      Quote: Aleksandr72
      Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Romanov (aka Sandro), who had no illusions about the Bolsheviks, as well as no reason to love them,

      Quote: Aleksandr72
      I did not dare to express myself openly, but, listening to the absurd chatter of the refugees and looking at their faces, I wholeheartedly wished the Red Army victory.

      Yes Yes. His imperial highness reminds the slobber that the picture of good white / bad reds is too simplistic.
  • Moskovit April 10 2020 08: 49 New
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    And 10 years ago there was another event related to the Poles. Due to the tyranny of the head of the Polish Air Force, Andrzej Blasik, people died ....

    On April 10, 2010 at 8.41 a Tu-154M crashed while landing with a Polish delegation, which was heading to Katyn for mourning events dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the execution of Polish officers. All 96 people on board died: 8 crew members and 88 passengers, including Polish President Lech Kaczynski, his wife Maria, the last president of the Republic of Poland in exile, Ryszard Kaczorowski, deputies and senators, military leaders.
    1. Aviator_ April 10 2020 09: 34 New
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      people died ....

      Of the people in the Tu-154M crashed by tyranny, there were only crew members. Do you really think Polish politicians?
  • tatra April 10 2020 09: 27 New
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    The enemies of the Communists on the territory of the USSR are not just enemies of the Soviet government and socialism, namely enemies of their country and people, the history of their country. It is impossible to imagine that the enemies of the Communists in other countries of the world for the sake of the enemies of the Communists in the USSR would slander the history of their country. And the enemies of the Communists in the USSR rush to defend the White Poles, who unleashed the Soviet-Polish war in order to seize the Russian territories, who threw tens of thousands of Russian citizens to concentration camps, not only the Red Army, but also the White Guards. How they expose Stalin for the "crime" that in 1939 he returned the Russian lands captured by the Poles to our country.
  • Operator April 10 2020 09: 57 New
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    Thank God that with the future campaign of the Republic of Armenia to the West, we will no longer be bound by ideological dogmas about "proletarian" or "Slavic" unity.
  • Tarasios April 10 2020 15: 32 New
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    "In Ukraine, they wanted to create a dependent buffer state, a raw materials appendage and a sales market for Greater Poland. The Ukrainian regime, completely dependent on the mercy of Warsaw, which could not exist without the help of the Poles and would always be afraid of Soviet Russia."
    - as if for a hundred years nothing has changed;))
  • Kostadinov April 14 2020 12: 45 New
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    Sorry. the author does not write. based on WHAT she demanded ....
    she demanded it strictly in accordance with ... the so-called By a decree of 1918 the so-called Bolshevik so-called SNK "On ... non-recognition of all sections of Poland. Ie RECOGNIZED the borders of 1772 .. koi were before the first section.

    The non-recognition of the partition of Poland does not mean recognition of its borders in 1772 or in all previous years. This means that the Bolsheviks only recognize the right of the Polish people to self-determination and the creation of their own state. But this does not in any way abrogate the right of all other neighboring peoples to self-determination - Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians, and so on.
    In addition, the Bolsheviks never beat against the right of peoples to revolution and to voluntary unification (for example, in the USSR), which is also self-determination.
  • Sergey Oreshin April 22 2020 13: 56 New
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    The article is frankly weak! The independent work of a military historian is not here.
    The author simply copied and compiled some materials from open sources (Wikipedia and several books of the scientific journal).
    As an essay for the 9th grade will go, as a serious study - no!
  • Sergey Oreshin April 22 2020 14: 02 New
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    Quote: Ros 56
    how did it happen that smashing the White Guards

    Read the memoirs of Vasily Chuikov "Tempered youth in battles" about his participation in the Civil War and you won’t be surprised. In short, the future marshal wrote that the Krasnoyarsk and Kolchakites were frankly weak in terms of combat training, but when the unit where the young Chuykov served was transferred to the Western Front and they encountered the Poles, then after the very first battles they realized that the enemy was very serious, not like Kolchak
  • Sergey Oreshin April 22 2020 14: 07 New
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    Quote: Anika
    not Germans, Austrians,

    The Germans actually the Poles also hated how healthy they were. And the older generation and now is very cool. Another thing is that Prussia was a very developed industrial state and the standard of living in Prussian Poland was very high, which somewhat compensated for the "second-rate" position of the Poles under the rule of the Hohenzollern
    Well, as for Austria-Hungary, the Poles lived there best of all objectively. In Austrian Poland, the Poles had a de facto bunch of political and economic privileges, the Polish elite was very well integrated into the system of the Habsburg monarchy, and in general, the Habsburgs and Poles coexisted mutually.
  • Sergey Oreshin April 22 2020 14: 09 New
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    Quote: Anika
    Perhaps they would help the communists in Bavaria

    From Poland to Bavaria it is very far, and the Bavarian Soviet Republic has been defeated for a year now. But they could have tried to go to Berlin, well, or at least to Koenigsberg in a successful scenario. Like in that song "Give Warsaw - Give Berlin!"