Dono-Manych battle

Dono-Manych battle
M. B. Grekov. Battle of Yegorlykskaya


In January - early February 1920, the Red Army tried to “finish off” Denikin’s army in the Caucasus. However, she met fierce resistance and was thrown back. The first attempt to liberate the Caucasus failed.

General situation at the front


After the fall of Rostov and Novocherkassk, Denikin’s army retreated behind Don and Sal. The White Guards were able to repel the first attempts of the Red Army to break through behind the Don. The Reds were weary of previous offensives, bled of fighting, a strong epidemic of typhoid and desertion.

In early January 1920, the front ran along the Don to the village of Verkhne-Kurmoyarovskaya and from there, crossing the Tsaritsyn-Tikhoretskaya railway line, went along Sal to the Kalmyk steppes. The main forces of Denikin were located in the Rostov direction and in the center: the Separate Volunteer Corps of Kutepov and the Don Army of Sidorin. Behind Sal was the Caucasian army of Pokrovsky. Volunteers held the defense on the Azov-Bataisk section, where they expected a strike by the main enemy forces. Bataisk turned into a strong point. To the south of Bataisk there was a reserve - the Kuban corps. Don corps was located from the village of Olginskaya and further. White forces totaled about 60 thousand people with 450 guns and over 1180 machine guns.

On January 16, 1920, the Red Southeastern Front was transformed into the Caucasian Front under the command of Vasily Shorin (on January 24, it was temporarily replaced by Chief of Staff Fyodor Afanasyev, then the front was headed by Mikhail Tukhachevsky). The Caucasian front was tasked with smashing the North Caucasian White Army group and liberating the Caucasus. The front initially included: the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 1st Cavalry armies. On the Rostov axis were the 8th and 1st Cavalry armies, in the center - the 9th army, on the left flank - the 10th and 11th armies. The troops of the front totaled more than 70 thousand bayonets and sabers, about 600 guns and more than 2700 machine guns. That is, the Reds did not have decisive superiority in forces in the Caucasian direction. In addition, the Reds were weary and bloodless of the previous offensive, their communications were stretched, the railways were destroyed during the fighting. Therefore, the Red Army could not quickly restore, replenish the thinned units, send reinforcements, establish supplies weapons, ammunition and food.

Plans of the Soviet command


The area beyond the Don was a plain with a large number of lakes, bolts, streams and rivers, which strengthened the position of the defending White Guards and interfered with the maneuverable actions of the Reds. Also, the Reds underestimated the enemy, believed that it would be easy to “finish off” the previously defeated Denikins.

The Soviet command decided to force Don and Manych on the move, not wait for spring, not allowing the enemy to gain a foothold in these positions and restore strength. To occupy the Yeisk-Grand Duke line, to develop an offensive on Tikhoretskaya. The 1st Horse Army of Budenny received the task of defeating the volunteers, reaching the border of Yeisk, Kushchevskaya. The 8th army of Sokolnikov struck in the area of ​​Bataysk and Olginskaya, had to defeat the 3rd Don corps and go to the line Kushchevskaya, Mechetinskaya; Stepin’s 9th Army to defeat parts of the 2nd and 1st Don Corps, go to the Mechetinskaya, Velikoknyazheskaya line, then send the Dumenko horse corps to Tikhoretskaya; Pavlov’s 10th Army - defeat the 1st Kuban Corps and attack the Grand Duke. The 11th Army of Vasilenko attacked Torgovaya with their right flank. Other parts of the 11th Army attacked Divnoye, the Holy Cross, and Kizlyar, confronting the North Caucasus troops of General Erdeli. Thus, the main blow was delivered in a “joint” between volunteers who stood in the lower reaches of the Don and the Don. It was also the shortest direction to Ekaterinodar.


Dono-Manych operation


On January 17–18, 1920, units of the 1st Cavalry and the 8th Army tried to force the Don, but were not successful due to the early thaw and lack of crossing facilities. On January 19, the Reds were able to force the river and occupy Olginskaya, and the troops of the 8th Army - Sulin and Darievskaya. On January 20, the Reds attacked Bataysk, occupied by volunteers, but got stuck in a swampy area. The red cavalry could not turn around, and the volunteers successfully repelled the attacks on the forehead.

In the meantime, the white command, in order to eliminate the enemy’s breakthrough, transferred its reserve corps of General Toporkov to the Bataysk region (the remains of the 3rd corps of Shkuro, Barbovich’s cavalry brigade). The 4th Don Corps was also transferred to the battle area, which, after the death of Mamontov, was led by General Pavlov. The white cavalry stealthily concentrated and dealt a sudden blow to the enemy. Volunteers also counterattacked. The Budenovites, who did not expect a strong blow, were overturned. Parts of the 1st Cavalry and 8th armies were forced to abandon the already occupied bridgehead, to retreat beyond the Don. A day later, the Red Army again tried to advance, captured Olginsky, but after a counterattack of the white cavalry, again retreated behind the Don.

Soviet troops suffered significant casualties and lost over 20 guns. The divisions of the 8th Army (15th, 16th, 31st and 33rd) were badly battered. White morale, on the contrary, has risen. The failure of the 1st Cavalry and the 8th armies led to a conflict between the commander of Budyonny and the Commander Shorin. Budyonny shouted that his troops were thrown head-on into the well-fortified positions of the enemy, for which the cavalry was not intended. The terrain was unsuitable for the deployment of cavalry. The Front believed that the main reason for the failure was an unjustified pause in hostilities, when the troops, taking Novocherkassk and Rostov, walked and drank, which was also condoned by the commanders. Shorin noted that the Budyonnovtsy drowned their military glory in the wine cellars of Rostov. In addition, the command of the 1st Cavalry Army did not use all its forces. As a result, the front command was changed. Shorin was sent to Siberia, and from there they called the “winner of Kolchak” Tukhachevsky, who led the Caucasus Front. Prior to his arrival, Afanasyev was the front commander.


Commander of the Consolidated Horse Corps, General S. M. Toporkov


Commander of the cavalry brigade, combined cavalry division, General I. G. Barbovich

However, on the eastern flank of the Caucasian Front, the Reds were successful. The 9th and 10th armies crossed Don and Sal across the ice and reached the border of Starocherkasskaya, Bagaevskaya, Kholodny, Kargalskaya and Remontnoe. The Reds squeezed the 1st and 2nd Don corps, a weak Caucasian army. The Donets were thrown back for Manych, the 21st Infantry Division forced the river and captured Manych. There was a threat to the flank and rear of the main group of the Denikin army.

The Soviet command decided to transfer the main strike to the strip of the 9th army, to transfer the army of Budenny there and attack together with the horse corps of Dumenko. The 9th and 10th armies were to develop the offensive in the same direction. Having regrouped forces, on January 27-28, the troops of the Caucasian Front again went on the offensive. Budyonny’s army entered the Manych region. Dumenko's cavalry, together with the 23rd Infantry Division, struck from the Sporny area on Vesely, forced Manych and defeated the Don Infantry of the 2nd Corps. There was a threat of a breakthrough of the red cavalry in the rear of Denikin's army.

However, the white command was able to avoid disaster. In the region of Efremov, an urgent fist was formed from the 4th Don Corps, parts of the 1st and 2nd Don Corps. Toporkov’s corps was urgently put forward to the breakthrough area. Donets from three directions attacked the Dumenko corps and the 23rd division. The Reds retreated behind Manych. Then the whites hit Budyonnovtsy, who also retreated to Manych. As a result, the advance of the strike group of the Caucasian Front was frustrated. Volunteers also repelled new attempts by the Reds to advance in the Bataysk area. The fighting continued for several more days. January 31 - February 2, the Reds again tried to force Manych, but were discarded. On February 6, the offensive was stopped, the troops went on the defensive.

This failure caused a new controversy in the Soviet command. Shorin believed that the 1st Cavalry Army, after the first successful strike, was delayed for half a day without starting the pursuit of the enemy. And White managed to regroup. Voroshilov, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 1st Cavalry Army, had a different point of view: the fact was that the two horse groups (Budenny’s army and Dumenko’s corps) attacked separately, were not united under one command. As a result, Dumenko’s corps rushed forward, Budenny’s troops were only preparing to force Manych. This allowed White to defeat Dumenko and Budyonny separately.

Thus, the Red Army was able to fulfill only part of the task: the territory north of the Manych River was occupied, a bridgehead was created for the development of the North Caucasus strategic operation. The main goal was not achieved: the North Caucasian group of the White Army repelled the attack on Tikhoretskaya - Yekaterinodar, successfully counterattacked.

The main reasons for the failure of the Caucasian Front: the Reds did not have decisive superiority in power; attacked in divided directions, could not concentrate efforts on the main direction; poorly used the main striking force of the front - the Budyonny army, which was stuck in the marshy floodplain of the Don; Soviet armies were weary and bled of previous battles, had a significant shortage of manpower; cavalry and rifle divisions interacted poorly; the enemy was underestimated, the white command skillfully organized the actions of its cavalry, inflicted strong counterattacks.


The commander of the 4th Don Corps and shock mounted group of the Don Army, General A. A. Pavlov
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1920 year

Battle of Rostov
The disaster of white Odessa
How Slashchev Crimea defended
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

35 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Olgovich 3 February 2020 06: 52 New
    • 7
    • 20
    -13
    Red commanders from the article:
    Mikhail led the front Tukhachevsky

    It agrees VK VK Armed Forces of the USSR-a spy of all times and peoples: transferred the strategic plans of the USSR to Germany-shot
    under the command of Vasily Shorinа

    According to the VK of the USSR Armed Forces, a spy, a terrorist was shot in 1938.
    8-th Army Sokolnikovand hit
    -According to VK VK USSR 1937-conspirator-destroyed
    horse enclosure Dumenko to Tikhoretskaya
    ; According to the Revolutionary Tribunal - anti-Semite and anti-Soviet –– one of the first to be shot, already in 1920
    11-th Army Vasilenko their right flank

    According to the VK of the Armed Forces, the USSR is a spy, a terrorist is shot.

    Such "people" destroyed Russia ....
    1. Lamata 3 February 2020 08: 41 New
      • 14
      • 9
      +5
      Kill up the wall !!!!
    2. Alexander Suvorov 3 February 2020 08: 48 New
      • 18
      • 8
      +10
      Olgovich (Andrey)
      It agrees VK VK Armed Forces of the USSR-a spy of all times and peoples: transferred the strategic plans of the USSR to Germany-shot
      Chamber No. 6 in its repertoire. Not tired of posting the same crap ?!
      Learn the story, sometimes it’s useful.
      Such "people" destroyed Russia ....
      Well, yes, and types like Krasnov, Shkuro, Kolchak and Denikin saved her type ... laughing They especially distinguished themselves in saving Russia by wearing a German uniform.
      1. Alexey RA 3 February 2020 11: 34 New
        • 8
        • 6
        +2
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        Well, yes, but types like Krasnov, Shkuro, Kolchak and Denikin saved her type ... laughing They especially distinguished themselves in saving Russia by wearing a German uniform.

        Denikin is clearly superfluous here. Just Anton Ivanovich managed to resist, and, being an anti-communist, did not become a traitor to Russia.
        But Krasnov and Shkuro crossed this line. However, Krasnov is no stranger - he betrayed Russia back in 1918.
        1. Alexander Suvorov 3 February 2020 11: 36 New
          • 14
          • 7
          +7
          Alexey RA (Alexey)
          Denikin is clearly superfluous here.
          By no means.
          Just Anton Ivanovich managed to resist, and, being an anti-communist, did not become a traitor to Russia.
          And the call to the American president to fight the USSR is no longer considered a betrayal ?!
          1. Lister 4 February 2020 01: 32 New
            • 8
            • 2
            +6
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            And the call to the American president to fight the USSR is no longer considered a betrayal ?!

            it is strange that there is no answer in the style of the USSR or Bolshevik Russia is not the birthplace of Denikin, which means he is not a traitor and did not betray anyone. laughing
      2. denplot 3 February 2020 15: 02 New
        • 10
        • 4
        +6
        And Olgovich has nothing more to say, and so he repeats the same thing every time. Let it calm down - White lost. Lost then, lost now. The people did not follow them.
        1. Lister 4 February 2020 01: 33 New
          • 7
          • 1
          +6
          Quote: denplot
          Let it calm down - White lost

          Some people don’t want to accept this postulate
        2. Olgovich 4 February 2020 12: 55 New
          • 2
          • 8
          -6
          Quote: denplot
          And Olgovich say more there is nothing, that repeats every time the same.

          WHERE is this ... "one and the same"? belay

          One and the same sentence of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of the USSR - to these your SPIES, Fascists and DIVERSANTS-shooting and shame .. And your very names are great. Heroes, from article to article, -DIFFERENT!

          Got it, no?
          Quote: denplot
          Let it calm down - White lost

          White won -their banner RUSSIA fluttering over the country, returned their views on freedom, parties, etc., THEIR Russian monuments and Russian culture are restored and open to Russian people: the fact that the Bolsheviks were restored Ruthlessly DESTROYED: monuments of Borodino, Glory, Pozharsky, Nakhimov, Lazarev, the heroes of OV 1812 and 1914, etc., etc.
          1. denplot 4 February 2020 14: 28 New
            • 5
            • 1
            +4
            Olgovich, come to us in Peter and Kronshtadt, as well as Peterhof, Pavlovsk, Gatchina, Oranenbaum, and look at the monuments “destroyed” by the evil Bolsheviks, including the tsars. They were cherished in blockade like the apple of an eye. And after the war they restored right up to the double-headed eagles on the spiers. So you do not tell me about the "restored" Russian culture. How it is being "restored" after 1991, I see. And it was precisely under Soviet rule that Russian culture, like the culture of the peoples of the USSR, reached its highest peak. As for the flag over the Kremlin, it has nothing to do with the white movement, like the current government. By the way, we have a Soviet anthem.
            1. Olgovich 4 February 2020 14: 57 New
              • 1
              • 9
              -8
              Quote: denplot
              Olgovich, come to us in Peter and Kronshtadt, as well as Peterhof, Pavlovsk, Gatchina, Oranenbaum, and look at the monuments “destroyed” by the evil Bolsheviks, including the tsars. Their в the blockade was cherished like an apple an eye

              Peterhof, Pavlovsk .... saved in blockade ?! belay request
              You are not from St. Petersburg. no
              Quote: denplot
              So you do not tell me about the "restored" Russian culture

              If you are illiterate, it is NECESSARY to tell: the Bolsheviks destroyed the eyes, plundered TENS of THOUSAND monuments to RUSSIAN heroes and culture: the tombs of Pozharsky and Minin, more than half of the monuments and buildings of the KREMLYA, MAIN monuments of OV 1812 in Borodino, Moscow, Vladimir and Maloyros, Primal etc., the tombs of Bagration, Dokhturov, Nakhimov, Kornilov, Lazarev and the Russian Communist Party and others.

              There is a number!
              Quote: denplot
              And it was under Soviet rule that Russian culture, like the culture of the peoples of the USSR, reached its highest peak.

              Aha lol laughing
              About a faithful and devoted Stalinist friend,
              Enemies before whom tremble in fear.
              He will not change his love for the Motherland.
              As the best son, the country appreciates him.
              He dreams of spies, sworn villains,
              Always - naked smashing damask.
              Sunny Stalin led us
              And the motherland has become a country of heroes,
              Which were not born in tortured countries
              With the white king, with the sultans and khans.
              On the blue, far green borders.
              I praise the hero who sees and hears
              Like an enemy, in the darkness creeps towards us, breathes.
              I praise the hero’s courage and strength,
              Who fights enemies with an iron hand.
              I praise EzhovWhich
              The gap destroyed the serpent burrows
              Who stood up, threatening the unfinished enemies
              Guarding the country and its harvest. lol laughing
              Quote: denplot
              As for the flag over the Kremlin, it has nothing to do with the white movement,

              It state banner RUSSIA, under which fought RI and RR and Russian state (finally learn WHAT it is!)
              Quote: denplot
              By the way, we have a Soviet anthem.

              Yeah:
              Russia is our sacred state
              Russia is our beloved country
              .
              Mighty will great glory
              Your heritage for all time!
              !
              yes
              1. denplot 4 February 2020 15: 15 New
                • 5
                • 2
                +3
                I'm from Peter. Saved in Leningrad, Kronstadt and Oranienbaum. In Peterhof, Gatchina and Pavlovsk they saved what they could evacuate or hide. After the war they rebuilt, despite the fact that half the country was burned.
                For everything else, it is useless to explain to you. And one more thing, if not laziness, take a look at Shpakovsky’s response to my comment on the topic about the NKVD archives at 8:29 today. This is your ideological friend. I hope you are not like that.
                1. Olgovich 5 February 2020 09: 36 New
                  • 2
                  • 7
                  -5
                  Quote: denplot
                  I'm from Peter.

                  no Judging by the "preserved Peterhof lying
                  Quote: denplot
                  After the war they rebuilt, despite the fact that half the country was burned.

                  Is this a favor done, or what? Or just fulfilled the DEBT?
                  Quote: denplot
                  For everything else, it is useless to explain to you.

                  And you can’t explain anything: the listed FACTS of Bolshevik vandalism and barbarism in relation to Russian monuments to Russian heroes and Russian culture so blatantthat you can only remain silent in a rag ... yes

                  Or want to discuss EVERY demolished? Let's! Are you afraid

                  Correctly scared! yes
                2. ANB
                  ANB 7 February 2020 10: 24 New
                  • 1
                  • 0
                  +1
                  In Peterhof, everything is restored almost to the original. But there are not a single pump at the fountains.
          2. ANB
            ANB 7 February 2020 10: 22 New
            • 1
            • 0
            +1
            Nakhimov?
            Something tells me that the names of Suvorov and Nakhimov were highly respected under the Soviet regime.
            Unless smart people in the 20s went too far.
            Well, you yourself wrote that at 37 they turned out to be traitors and spies.
          3. Viktor123 April 15 2020 22: 39 New
            • 0
            • 0
            0
            Olgovich, be careful in terms. And then now you will still praise Vlasov ...
      3. rich 3 February 2020 15: 14 New
        • 6
        • 12
        -6
        Red, white. Turned the story branch into a rally. Go to the swamp and rally. We will figure it out without you. We are discussing an article here, not your factional showdown.
        1. Alexander Suvorov 3 February 2020 16: 21 New
          • 13
          • 6
          +7
          rich (dmitry)
          Go to the swamp and rally.
          Do not tell me what to do and I won’t tell you where to go!
          We are discussing an article here, not your factional showdown.
          So far, apart from hysterical comments, I have not seen any discussion from you.
          We’ll figure it out without you.
          But you correctly noticed this, without you we will figure it out.
          paСBorki.
          Learn to write wisely.
        2. Ryazan87 3 February 2020 20: 14 New
          • 1
          • 5
          -4
          Dmitry, support. Comments on articles about the civil war - at least bear the saints! Two lovers of “special olympiads” instantly while playing with their barrel-music stories about their political views.
      4. The comment was deleted.
    3. Astra wild 3 February 2020 17: 31 New
      • 7
      • 5
      +2
      Olgovich .. "Such" people "were destroyed by Russia" "I will correct you: they built ..
    4. karabass 3 February 2020 18: 03 New
      • 4
      • 2
      +2
      WHO COULD REVEAL! what notorious villains! but you can’t deceive the Soviet Government!
      1. vladcub 5 February 2020 12: 36 New
        • 1
        • 0
        +1
        But to use for personal gain has happened and often. Read Martirosyan and the Kremlin
    5. vladcub 3 February 2020 18: 17 New
      • 4
      • 1
      +3
      Olgovich, you listed different people, if you drop all the chatter into their biography, before rehabilitation and after, I like Dumenko
      1. vladcub 3 February 2020 19: 14 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        Minusovschik, agree that before the rehabilitation of all of the above, they carefully watered the mud, when N.S. Khrushchev decided to rehabilitate them, then of course they brought them a gloss. Dumenko was a great organizer and I like it about him. By the way V.I. For some reason, Lenin also appreciated Dumenko’s talent.
    6. Lamata 3 February 2020 18: 53 New
      • 4
      • 2
      +2
      I’ll add, from the point of view of today's legislation, it’s even scary to imagine who Stalin IV is. , I even squeezed my eyes shut.
      1. vladcub 3 February 2020 19: 20 New
        • 3
        • 1
        +2
        Quote: Lamata
        I’ll add, from the point of view of today's legislation, it’s even scary to imagine who Stalin IV is. , I even squeezed my eyes shut.

        I don’t screw up my eyes, but rather try, what did Stalin frighten you with? By the way, when they rehabilitate, they are governed not by today's law, but by then. Stalin did not violate the then Criminal Procedure Code
        1. Sergey Olegovich 4 February 2020 17: 27 New
          • 5
          • 2
          +3
          Stalin did not violate anything. Stalin, on the contrary, always acted within the law and demanded the same from others. And Stalin did not forgive those who roughly spit on the law. hi
  2. iouris 3 February 2020 13: 32 New
    • 3
    • 8
    -5
    Now both red and white are “ours.”
    1. rich 3 February 2020 15: 20 New
      • 4
      • 9
      -5
      Well said, iouris. And those and others are now part of our history, no matter who relates to them
      1. vladcub 3 February 2020 18: 22 New
        • 5
        • 3
        +2
        Comrade Rich, we must remember our story well so that this does not happen again
        1. rich 3 February 2020 18: 35 New
          • 4
          • 4
          0
          You are right, Svyatoslav
          The history of Russia is for the most part a tragedy of our people.
          She does not teach anything, but only punishes for ignorance of the lessons.V. Klyuchevsky
  3. Astra wild 3 February 2020 17: 49 New
    • 2
    • 2
    0
    Quote: Rich
    Well said, iouris. And those and others are now part of our history, no matter who relates to them

    Perhaps here you are almost right: the civil war is the bloody pages of our history. Not you and not I can not change our story
  4. Slavutich 3 February 2020 18: 20 New
    • 1
    • 1
    0
    "could not concentrate efforts on the main direction" - concentration of forces: the key to success everywhere!
  5. Slavutich 3 February 2020 18: 21 New
    • 1
    • 1
    0
    "could not concentrate efforts on the main direction" - concentration of forces: the key to success everywhere!
  6. vladcub 3 February 2020 18: 56 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    The idea of ​​Shorin is not without meaning: having superiority in the forces to strike at the enemy, he did not consolidate. History shows that if you give the enemy a foothold, then it is difficult to break through the defense.
    Perhaps Voroshilov was ALMOST right: Dumenko burst forward, and Budyonny was only going to force Manych, and White took advantage of this moment. True, K. E. doesn’t agree, but this is implied: if Dumenko obeyed S. M., victory would be ensured. Here I doubt