Agony of White Novorossiysk

Agony of White Novorossiysk

I.A. Vladimirov. The flight of the bourgeoisie from Novorossiysk. 1920


Smoot. 1920 year.100 years ago, the Red Army liberated the North Caucasus from the White Guards. On March 17, 1920, the Red Army took Yekaterinodar and Grozny, on May 22 and 24 - Maykop and Vladikavkaz, on March 27 - Novorossiysk. Denikin's troops in the region were finally defeated, their remnants were evacuated to the Crimea.

Retreat to the sea


March 16, 1920 the troops of the White Don and Kuban armies were concentrated at Yekaterinodar. The headquarters and the South Russian government were evacuated to Novorossiysk. Around Yekaterinodar there were prepared positions; there were enough troops for the defense of the city. However, the Cossack units completely lost their fighting spirit and combat effectiveness. The Reds on March 17 began shelling, and the Kubans, and the Dones fled after them. Entire divisions were removed from positions, plundered stocks of vodka, vodka and wine, got drunk and fled. The Reds themselves did not expect to see this and stood almost the whole day near the city. Then, without a fight, they took Ekaterinodar and the crossings.

On March 17, 1920, Denikin ordered the withdrawal of troops beyond the Kuban and Laba, and the destruction of all crossings. In fact, the Cossack units fled already on the 16th and completed the crossing of the 17th. The crossings, which were not taken care of during the stampede, were in the hands of the enemy. March 18, actually breaking through from the environment, forced the Kuban and the Volunteer Corps. The commander of the Don Army, General Sidorin, who arrived at Headquarters, reported on the complete decomposition of the Don units and that they were unlikely to want to evacuate to Crimea. He proposed retreating south, to the mountain passes and further to Georgia. As a result, the meeting of the Don commanders and the Don faction of the High Circle decided to withdraw according to the Stavka plan.

As the situation worsened at the front, it became apparent that all troops, not to mention their artillery, property, horses, various supplies, could not be evacuated through the only Novorossiysk port. In addition, the evacuation of the wounded and sick, refugees, continued. Denikin decided to withdraw troops to Taman. Already in the March 17 directive, Denikin instructed the Volunteer Corps not only to defend the lower reaches of the Kuban, but also to partially cover the Taman Peninsula in the Temryuk area. The peninsula, covered by water barriers, was convenient for defense, the fleet could cover it all the way there with its artillery. The width of the Kerch Strait is insignificant, and the transport flotilla The Kerch port was quite large and could be easily strengthened. The commander-in-chief ordered to pull together transports to Kerch.

The departure to Taman was supposed to be in the future, and the Stavka demanded to keep the p. Kuban. However, the 4th Don Corps (which had previously abandoned its positions at Yekaterinodar), which used to be the main striking force of the Don Army and stood beyond the river above Yekaterinodar, immediately rushed off and fled to the west. On March 20, the Commander-in-Chief of the All-Union Socialist Liberation Union gave his last battle order in the Kuban: the Kuban army, which had already abandoned the line of the Laba and Belaya rivers, to stay on the Kurga river; Don Army and Volunteer Corps defend the line of the Kuban River from the mouth of the Kurga to the Sea of ​​Azov; parts of the Volunteer Corps take Taman and cover the road from Temryuk.

This order could not execute any connection. The situation is completely out of control. Completely demoralized Kuban units ran along mountain roads on Tuapse. The Kuban Rada and the chieftain, on the basis of the last decision of the Supreme Circle, demanded a complete break with the white command. As a result, the Red Army crossed the river without a fight. Kuban in the Yekaterinodar region and cut the front of the Don army. Starikov’s 4th Don Corps fled east to join the Kuban. Two other Don corps (1st and 3rd) fled towards Novorossiysk. Many Cossacks threw weapon and went over to the side of the rebels or the Reds. Command and control was lost. The echelon of the commander of the Don army simply went west in the crowd of refugees into which the army had turned.

Volunteers (they were the only ones more or less retained combat effectiveness) were extremely annoyed by this situation. They feared that running Cossacks and crowds of refugees would cut them off from Novorossiysk. They also feared that if they retired to Taman, then an uncontrolled avalanche of refugees would simply crush them and upset any defense. And this is in a situation where the Reds were running out. As a result, volunteers and donors had to abandon the retreat to Taman. The volunteer corps weakened its left flank and directed all efforts to control the Crimean - Tunnel railway line to Novorossiysk. March 23, the "green" captured Anapa and the village of Gostogaevskaya. The indecisive attempts of the white cavalry to return these points under their control were unsuccessful. On the same day, the red cavalry crossed the Kuban, entered Gostogaevskaya and headed to Anapa. The cavalry was followed by infantry. On March 24, the Reds cut off Denikin’s retreat to Taman.

March 22, the Reds occupied the station Abinskaya and moved to the Crimean. All roads were clogged with carts, wagons, various abandoned property. Impenetrable dirt impeded movement. Therefore, both white and red moved along the railway. The artillery that fettered the movement was left. On March 25, volunteers, two Don corps and one Kuban division were located in the Crimean region. Under light pressure of the Reds, the White fled to Novorossiysk.

It is worth noting that the Red Army has lost mobility due to the sheer mass of refugees who have flooded the roads, and the spring thaw. The Soviet command was unable to use the complete decomposition and decline of the enemy’s fighting ability to completely destroy and capture the army of Denikin. The Red Cavalry could not maneuver and usually simply followed the enemy, collecting the backward and surrendering along the way. Some immediately joined the ranks of the Red Army.


The situation in Novorossiysk


When the Commander-in-Chief of the All-Union Socialist Liberation Union moved to Novorossiysk, the city was under panic and, as Denikin recalled,

“Was a military camp and a rear nativity scene. Its streets were literally crowded with young and healthy deserter warriors. They committed atrocities, held rallies that resembled the first months of the revolution, with the same elementary understanding of events, with the same demagogy and hysteria. Only the composition of the protesters was different: instead of the "comrade of soldiers" there were officers. "

Thousands of officers, real or self-proclaimed, of various "governments", many of which did not fight, and have recently crowded the rear in Yekaterinodar, Rostov, Novocherkassk and other cities, have now crowded Novorossiysk. They created their own organizations, tried to capture transports. Denikin ordered the closure of this initiative, introduced military courts and the registration of persons liable for military service. He stated that those who evade accounting will be left to their own devices. Several front-line units of volunteers were transferred to the city, and they established relative order.

Meanwhile, new crowds of refugees and Cossacks poured into Novorossiysk. Typhus still mowed people. So, the Markov division in a short time lost two commanders - General Timanovsky (in December 1919) and Colonel Bleish (in March 1920).

Evacuation


There were still many white troops near Novorossiysk, but they completely lost their combat potential. Denikin decided to concentrate his efforts on the evacuation of the most persistent, undecomposed parts. However, even for this limited purpose, the courts were not enough. Steamboats that regularly transported refugees abroad, were quarantined for a long time, delayed. The white fleet with a base in Sevastopol, as during the disaster in Odessa, delayed sending ships. Referring to the need to repair ships, the lack of coal, etc. In fact, the ships were again held back in case of their own evacuation. The fact was that in the Crimean rear, many did not believe in the reliability of the Slashchev corps, which defended the passages to the peninsula. If the Reds were able to overturn the sugars, and the Crimea would have become worse for Novorossiysk for white traps, from there it was still possible to escape to the mountains and Georgia.

The salvation for many volunteers was the arrival of the British squadron under the command of Admiral Seymour. Admiral agreed to Denikin’s requests to take people, but said that he could take no more than 5-6 thousand people on warships. Intervened the head of the Entente military mission in southern Russia, General Holman, and assured that they would take out more. At the same time, General Bridge was visited by Denikin with a message from the British government. According to London, the position of the whites was hopeless, and the evacuation to the Crimea was not feasible. The British offered their mediation in concluding a truce with the Bolsheviks. Denikin refused.

Holman fulfilled his promise. The British squadron took about 8 thousand people. In addition, British ships covered the loading of other ships with their artillery, shelling the mountains and preventing the Reds from approaching the city. On the shore, the evacuation was provided by the 2nd battalion of Scottish riflemen. At the same time, transports began to approach. The evacuation commission of General Vyazmitinov allocated the first transports for the Volunteer Corps and Kuban. The remaining vessels arrived were intended for the donors. The remaining artillery, horses, supplies and equipment were abandoned. All railways in the city area were packed with trains, here, white threw three armored trains. In Novorossiysk, warehouses with military property were burned, oil tanks and explosives were blown up. It was the agony of the White Army.

Denikin wrote in his memoirs that Novorossiysk, filled in excess,

“Flooded with human waves, buzzed like a ravaged beehive. There was a struggle for a "place on the ship" - a struggle for salvation ... Many human dramas took place on the hocks of the city during these terrible days. A lot of bestial feelings poured out in the face of impending danger, when naked passions drowned out conscience and man became a fierce foe to man. ”

There was not enough transport for the entire Don army. Sidorin was offered to take up troops near the city and hold out for a day or two until the ships approached. Or break through the coast in Tuapse. The road was closed by several thousand fighters of the Black Sea Red Army (formerly “green”), but their fighting efficiency was extremely low. In Tuapse, there were warehouses of supplies, it was possible to connect with the Kubans and there it was possible to redirect the transports going to Novorossiysk, or send ships after they were unloaded in the Crimea. However, Sidorin could no longer lead his troops into battle. Many Don units have already ceased to obey the commanders, lost their organization and mixed into uncontrollable crowds. Part of the Cossacks tried to break through to the transport themselves. The other part fell into prostration, the Cossacks reached the "end", learned that there was no further way, and dropped their hands. Burned bonfires, smashed property, shops, warehouses, got drunk. As a result, several thousand Cossacks, led by Sidorin, landed on British ships. Later, Don commanders will declare "the betrayal of the Don army."

General Kutepov, commander of the Volunteer Corps, was appointed chief of defense of Novorossiysk. Volunteers covered the city and defended themselves from the crowds of refugees in the port. Many citizens, even those who had the right to land, could not get to the ships. On March 25, the Red Army, with the help of partisans, pushed Denikin's troops away from the Tunnel station and through the pass reached the suburban station Gaiduk. On the 26th, Kutepov reported that it was no longer possible to remain in the city. A spontaneous uprising could have begun in the city; the Reds were on the way. Volunteers could no longer hold on. It was decided to leave Novorossiysk at night.

The ship was loaded all night. On the morning of March 27, ships with the White Guards left Novorossiysk. Almost the entire Volunteer Corps, the Kuban and four Don divisions were loaded onto transports. They took part of the refugees associated with the army. Denikin and his headquarters, as well as the command of the Don Army, were landed on the auxiliary cruiser Tsarevich Georgiy and the destroyer Captain Saken. The last was the 3rd Drozdovsky regiment, which was the rearguard and covered the evacuation, on the destroyer Pylyky. In total, about 30 thousand people were taken to Crimea. The remaining donors and a small part of the volunteers who did not get on the ships moved ashore to Gelendzhik and Tuapse. Part of the Cossacks surrendered and joined the Red Army, which on March 27, 1920 entered the city.


British Tanks VSYUR (Mk.V and Mk.A.) captured by the Red Army in 1920 near Novorossiysk
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  1. 210ox 19 March 2020 07: 44 New
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    The worthy death of these gentlemen, divorced from reality.
    1. Aviator_ 19 March 2020 08: 10 New
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      They fled because they were afraid of responsibility for what they had done.
      1. Diana Ilyina 19 March 2020 08: 25 New
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        Aviator_ (Sergey)
        They fled because they were afraid of responsibility for what they had done.

        And also in order not to take away "acquired by overwork". And all this vile modern liberals call the "color of the nation"? Correctly, grandfather Lenin said about them that this is not the color of the nation, but a kind of smelly substance.
        They got exactly what they deserve.
        Our modern bourgeoisie thinks they are smarter and take their capital to offshore. Naive fool they don’t want to understand the simple truth that Western capitalists need them right up to the moment when they help to rob Russia and if a miracle happens and they are trampled from Russia, nobody in the West will need them, and all their property will be quickly confiscated, as it’s illegally acquired , there have already been examples.
        1. Reptiloid 19 March 2020 12: 21 New
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          It’s always incomprehensible to me when they talk about the loss of ““ gene pool. ”” For a red word. Hackneyed phrase.
          Subsequent development of the country, Victory in the Second World War, restoration of the country --- proof of the opposite.
        2. Nikolai Korovin 22 May 2020 14: 42 New
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          Well, it’s not only the withdrawal of capital to offshore that they bring out the acquired overwork. There are relatively few of them. Quite wide sections of the population warm the belly in Antalya and then also on acquired by overwork. I found myself somehow, for quite some time, in the same ward in a hospital with such a citizen. I’m with a reason, and he just wanted to lie down a bit in a calm environment. The hospital was not bad. It was in the summer. I started talking about the holidays - here, I say, they are forced to share, they don’t give more than two weeks in summer. Snorted: “Who works in the summer at all?” In the summer, we can relax well. - That is, apparently, offhand, he rests from the works of the righteous for 3 months in his native land and 3 months over the hill. And there are many. They didn’t make large capital, but they nevertheless secured a permanent rest. And 20 years younger than me. He’s healthy, you can carry water on him. In the late Soviet era, he was an employee of the beer front immediately after the culinary college. I did not believe how much he raked, but with a pencil in his hands he proved everything thoroughly.
      2. Miki noj 21 March 2020 20: 22 New
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        And on whom there were no atrocities joined the Red Army.
        1. Pilat2009 16 May 2020 11: 34 New
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          Quote: Miki noj
          And on whom there were no atrocities joined the Red Army

          And then they were dispossessed, shot and became enemies of the people
  2. Nikolaevich I 19 March 2020 08: 58 New
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    However, the Cossack units completely lost their fighting spirit and combat effectiveness. The Reds on March 17 began shelling, and the Kubans, and the Dones fled after them. Entire divisions were removed from positions, plundered stocks of vodka, vodka and wine, got drunk and fled. The Reds themselves did not expect to see this, and they stood by the city almost the whole day. Then, without a fight, they took Ekaterinodar and the crossings.Mdaaa ... it’s even inconvenient to think of whose “descendants” they are, having formed the “now numerous” Cossack troops, wandering around the expanses of Russia in stripes, “Ataman-Yesaul” epaulets, with tin “georges” on their chests ... lol repeat
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Varyag_0711 19 March 2020 09: 12 New
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      About mummified Cossacks, the topic is simply inexhaustible.

      There is only one question, for what achievements are their shoulder straps and pendants on the chest ...?
      1. Varyag_0711 19 March 2020 09: 19 New
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        How do you like the kit? From the badge of the Soviet guard to epaulettes with crowns ...

        And most importantly, the priest must be sure, because how without blessing then?
        1. bober1982 19 March 2020 10: 08 New
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          Quote: Varyag_0711
          From the badge of the Soviet guard to epaulettes with crowns ...

          Grandfather was interested, maybe because he looked serious and solid. But, the grandfather stuck on himself, of course too much.
          Judging by the epaulettes - a major general with a “uniform” (a bend on the pursuit), but the epaulets themselves are certainly fantastic, for some reason stuck to the crown.
          Judging by the "order" levels, he has the following awards (if he only has one, of course) - three "sand" medals, a "medal of the 70th anniversary of the Soviet Army," which you can believe in general.
          Signs and badges are stuck of course randomly - a civilian “float”, a parachutist’s badge (this is the level of the cadet, cling to it), a Guard badge, which is attached almost to the shoulder, etc.
          Cute grandfather, plastic glasses spoil the picture, it was necessary to put crystal wine glasses, it would be even more respectable.
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. bober1982 19 March 2020 10: 40 New
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              Quote: Alexander Suvorov
              Guess who it is?

              I find it difficult to say anything, some kind of "turkey pout".
            2. 210ox 19 March 2020 10: 46 New
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              Sent a Cossack?
            3. AK1972 19 March 2020 12: 02 New
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              Thanks for the wonderful poem, Alexander, have fun. So after all, who is this marshal of Cossack troops — a Hero of the Soviet Union?
              1. Alexander Suvorov 19 March 2020 12: 44 New
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                Alexei, to tell the truth, I myself don’t know who it is. The question asked just like that, for humor. It’s just to me, as a descendant of the Don Cossacks, that it’s both sad and funny to look at these mummers.
                The most paradoxical thing is that in the Cossack troops established in the current Russian Federation, the highest rank is the Cossack general with such a shoulder strap
                But who is this clown in the photo, I honestly and most interesting.
            4. Miki noj 21 March 2020 20: 32 New
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              They are harmless faleristy.
      2. Phil77 19 March 2020 14: 16 New
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        Good afternoon! I’m very interested in one question: these characters, they themselves realize that they have a look that is simply frankly idiotic? Although, if they allow themselves to appear in public with all these .... regalia? They like themselves!
        1. mat-vey 19 March 2020 14: 51 New
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          My father called them clowns - in my opinion, he had every right. His grandfather was one of those Cossacks who were sent to Paris on the 10th anniversary of the War of 1812.
        2. rich 19 March 2020 15: 24 New
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          You will laugh, but this is not an ordinary mummer. This Ukrainian official is Yogo High Excellency the Supreme є Single Otaman of the Cossack of Zaporozhy Koshovy ’the Supreme Otaman of the entire Ukrainian Cossack’ Marshal Dmitry Sagaidak. belay
          The network turned out to be quite a few pictures in which the icon resembling the Star of a Hero of the Soviet Union is decorated with the tunic of the Supreme Ataman of the "Cossacks of Zaporizhzhya" Dmitry Sagaidak. There are pictures where the chieftain with Alexei Poroshenko, the father of Petro Poroshenko .. The picture is signed as follows: "Marshal Sagaidak gave the floor to the Honorary Cossack Hero of the Ukrainian Cossacks of Ukraine, Commander-in-Chief Alexei Poroshenko.
          Father of the president of Ukraine, commander general? From Star Wars or what? Yes, even in the field of the agricultural industry ... repeat No wonder they say that an apple does not fall far from an apple tree. You can verify this on the page of ex-President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko on Facebook his photo with his father. Noteworthy are the numerous awards that flaunted on the chest of 82-year-old Alexei Poroshenko. Among them were the Star of the Hero of Ukraine and the Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union.


          First, bloggers doubted the authenticity of the pictures, deciding that the card was tweaked in Photoshop. But in other photos, Alexei Poroshenko was also discovered with two gold stars.
          Well, he received the Hero of Ukraine in 2009, as a former engineer of mechanization of labor-intensive processes in agriculture, who managed to raise our miraculous president. But what was the Hero of the Soviet Union given to him for? There is no such thing in the official lists of the awarded. Everything turned out to be much simpler. Such an almost exact copy of the Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union in Ukraine has been awarded to each other for several years by those who call themselves "Zaporozhye Cossacks" .. This is a new sign of the Hero of the Ukrainian Cossacks

          In general, typical for Ukraine Makhnovshchina yes
          1. Jarserge 20 March 2020 10: 31 New
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            Stunned ..... A friend wrote at one time in the city of Kryvyi Rih ataman of the Cossacks was a subject named Aganesyan
      3. Lexus 19 March 2020 22: 38 New
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        About mummified Cossacks, the topic is simply inexhaustible.

        The namesake, they, as the contents of the need, did not have time to scoop out, and again it completely stinks. lol
        There is only one question, for what achievements are their shoulder straps and pendants on the chest ...?

        Empty always on baubles and chaos greedy. The clip is old, but nothing has changed since then ... For the better, at least. The “king”, however, is dreaming of re-creating the Kholuy cohort. To build another cordon from the people ... from worthless idiots ... but with whips.
  3. andrew42 19 March 2020 10: 43 New
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    Thanks to the author. A good article, such a whole, without smearing porridge on a plate. Only now, despite my personal rejection of “crisp” Russia, reading is still painful. Agony of the country (I do not mean the state, but Russian society). In such wars, as a rule, the best on both sides die, principled, honest, each in his own way. The degradation of the Cossacks is also shown in all its glory, and this is sad. It has long been not those who survived in the steppes between Moscow and kicking, not those who have "no extradition from the Don." An objective assessment has still not been given to this war. We are still there, in that very Civil War, we were returned there in 1991. Yes, the Bolsheviks saved the country, but a terrible price was paid in one way or another - the extermination of the Russian people, including the mutual, colossal loss of the gene pool, the loss of many traditions. I believe that someday in our country an honest monument to that Civil War will be erected, something like this: two brothers with identical faces chopping each other with drafts, one behind them smug gold-strikers with invaders, the other behind Commissioner a la Yasha Sverdlov with Chinese guard, and on the sides of the woman sobbing and rummaging around the street children. Despite the importance of the goal - social justice, one cannot help but realize the terrible price of the destruction of the then Russian world.
  4. Looking for 19 March 2020 14: 45 New
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    "poor" Olgovich !!!
  5. w70
    w70 19 March 2020 20: 21 New
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    If the White Army were commanded by Wrangel, kirdyk would have come as a red-bellied seam
    1. Alexander Greene 19 March 2020 20: 39 New
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      Quote: w70
      If the White Army were commanded by Wrangel, kirdyk would have come as a red-bellied seam

      Do not entertain yourself with illusions. In civil wars, not generals win, win ideologies.
    2. Aviator_ 19 March 2020 21: 02 New
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      He already commanded it in the Crimea. With a known result.
    3. nickname7 21 March 2020 09: 08 New
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      Wrangel would have commanded, red-bellied seams would have come kirdyk

      Stupidity. First commanders, this tacticswho could only spend the resources supplied by the country, the irreplaceable resource was spent ineptly, which led to exhaustion and loss. Secondly, white planted olden days, i.e. estate system gentlemen and the mob, the population no longer wanted to be discriminated against by the mob. Thirdly, whites swore allegiance to foreign countries and fragmented forces. Having become traitors, the whites lost their legitimacy. Also, less than half of the tsarist officers did not want to betray their homeland and switched to the side of the Bolsheviks, reinforcing the latter.
      And the Reds were headed by politicians, this strategists they thought of resources. Including the Reds defended their homeland and controlled the central and industrial areas, their victory was a matter of time.
  6. Starshina wmf 20 March 2020 18: 20 New
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    “But the Cossacks of the 3rd Kalmyk regiment did not accept the Reds’s offer of surrender during the evacuation, together with the 3rd Drozdovsky regiment they covered the retreat and landing on ships. P. Kutepov.
    And the 3rd Kalmyk regiment was left white on the shore and was entirely captured. Many Kalmyk Cossacks, along with the families following the convoy of the regiment, were executed by the Red Army. Particularly severe was the reprisal against the officers of the regiment. More fortunate was the 80th Zyungarsky regiment, which conducted rear-guard battles. He in Adler covered up the departure and loading onto the ships of the Don Cossacks. Most of the Don regiments, pressed to the shore, accepted the conditions of surrender and surrendered to units of the Red Army. The 80th Zyungar Regiment did not accept these conditions, did not lay down its arms, and in full force, along with the remnants of the Don units, was evacuated to Crimea. As eyewitnesses recalled, the 80th Zyungarsky was loaded onto steamboats under a funeral march. In Crimea, the 80th Zyungarsky regiment in parade passed before the commander of the All-Union Supreme Council of Regions P.N. Wrangel, because among the evacuated from Novorossiysk and Adler, besides this regiment, there was not a single whole and armed unit. "So wrote Valery Dronov.
    1. nickname7 21 March 2020 09: 22 New
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      Particularly severe was the reprisal against officers of the regiment

      Want to blame the Reds for reprisals? But the whites began to kill and execute the first, then the escalation of the conflict began. In general, the tsarist regime was very cruel, drill and corporal punishment were terrible. Under the tsar, punishment was used with gauntlets, 8-10 thousand strokes each, the poor man was tied to the butts and led through the ranks, at 6 thousand, death came, and then the body was carried on a cart and beat another 2 thousand strokes. That was the time. The Bolsheviks inherited this system, but they did not have punishments with rods and gauntlets.
      1. Pilat2009 16 May 2020 11: 47 New
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        Quote: nickname7
        When the king was punished with gauntlets, 8-10 thousand strokes

        This was used until the mid-1800s and the severity was greatly exaggerated. Recently there was an article about the Osip soldier, I don’t remember the name of the hero of the Caucasian wars. I completely survived 1000 gauntlets for the escape. And remembering the damned tsarist regime, ask how many were executed under the tsar and the Bolsheviks Communists. And in what conditions did the exiled terrorists live?
      2. Starshina wmf 15 June 2020 12: 18 New
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        I’m not going to blame anyone. The civil war is the most wrong. Just a fact. how whites treated other parts. when they saved their skin.