Military Review

The death of the Northern Army Miller

61

Icebreaker Kozma Minin with white refugees in Norway


100 years ago, in February 1920, Miller’s white Northern Army crashed and ceased to exist. On February 21, the Red Army entered Arkhangelsk. The remnants of the White Guards fled by sea to Norway.

General situation


In August 1919, Entente forces (mainly the British) were evacuated from Arkhangelsk. Considering that to remain in the Arkhangelsk region was a suicide for the 20th Northern Army, the British command proposed to evacuate it to another front - to Yudenich or Denikin. The option of relocation to Murmansk was also considered. There were large reserves, it was possible to advance in the Petrozavodsk direction, helping Belofinns and Yudenich. There was an ice-free sea in the rear, so in case of failure it was relatively easy to retreat to Finland and Norway.

Staying in Arkhangelsk was not practical. The Northern Front rested on the support of the Allies. They supplied the white Northern Army. The Arkhangelsk province could not feed the white army for a long time, supply it with everything necessary, there was no developed industry. In the event of a military failure, the army was doomed to disaster. There was nowhere to retreat. After the completion of navigation, the sea froze. In white fleet not enough ships and coal. Because of food transportation, there were no more than 1-2 icebreakers in Arkhangelsk, and coal would not always be on them. The crews of the ships supported the Bolsheviks and were unreliable. A retreat to Murmansk by land in the harsh local conditions and impassability is practically impossible, especially for units that were far away, on Pechora or Pinega. And Murmansk itself was not a fortress; timely measures to strengthen the Murmansk sector were not taken. Moreover, the most unreliable units were sent there. The rear was unreliable, the socialists, including the Bolsheviks, had strong positions among the people. In the troops, pro-Soviet uprisings often took place.

The command of the white army held a military meeting. Almost all regiment commanders spoke in favor of evacuating with the British to another front, or at least to Murmansk. It was proposed to withdraw the most reliable and combat-ready units there. However, the headquarters of the commander of the troops of the Northern Region General Miller decided to stay in Arkhangelsk. The fact was that it was a time of maximum success for the White Army in Russia. Kolchak still fought, Denikin broke through to Moscow, and Yudenich was preparing the offensive. In the North, the White Guards also successfully attacked. It seemed a little more, and the White Army would take up. In such a situation, throwing the North seemed a big military-political mistake.

As a result, it was decided to stay and fight alone. At the front, the situation was stable at first. In September 1919, the Northern Army went on the offensive and won a number of victories, occupied new territories. The Red Army in the Arkhangelsk sector, which was secondary, did not expect the White Guards to attack after the British left and consisted of weak parts. Soldiers often deserted, surrendered, went over to the white side. True, having become white, they were still an unstable element, they easily succumbed to socialist propaganda, rebelled, and sided with the Reds. In October 1919, Kolchak abolished the provisional government of the Northern Region and appointed General Miller as the head of the region with dictatorial powers. Democracy is over.

The death of the Northern Army Miller

Tank Mark V in Arkhangelsk, analogue tankused by the armed forces of the Northern Region

On the road to disaster


While the armies of Kolchak, Yudenich, Tolstov, Dutov and Denikin were dying, it was calm on the Northern Front. General Eugene Miller proved to be a good staffer and manager. Miller was from a noble family, he graduated from the Nikolaev Cadet Corps and the Nikolaev Cavalry School. He served in the guard, then graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff and became a staff officer. In World War I he was the chief of staff of the 5th and 12th armies, and commander of the corps.

Miller enjoyed great popularity and authority among the population of the Northern Region and in the troops. He was able to create a supply system for troops, established the search and storage of stocks that the British abandoned. Reorganized the headquarters. As a result, almost until the fall of the Northern Front, White did not experience any special supply problems. Local resources were also used. There was little bread, its delivery was normalized. But fish, venison, and game were plentiful, so there was no hunger. The northern region had its own stable currency, rubles were issued and provided by the British Bank. The population, in comparison with other regions of Russia, where there was a war and the front could go back and forth several times, lived relatively well. The monetary maintenance of soldiers and officers was high, their families were provided.

At the front, the situation was also initially favorable. The northern army was significantly increased: by the beginning of 1920, there were over 54 thousand people with 161 guns and 1,6 thousand machine guns, plus about 10 thousand militias. There was also a flotilla of the Arctic Ocean: the battleship Chesma (formerly Poltava), several destroyers, minesweepers, hydrographic vessels, icebreakers and a number of other auxiliary vessels. The White Guards were still advancing by inertia. Winter, fettered the swamps, gave freedom of maneuver for the white detachments. The White Guards occupied large areas in Pinega, Mezen, Pechora, and entered the territory of the Yarensky and Ust-Sysolsky counties of the Vologda province. It is clear that in many respects these successes were connected with the fact that the Northern Front was secondary for Moscow. The successes of Miller's army did not threaten the vital centers of Soviet Russia and were temporary. Therefore, while the Red Army was in a decisive battle with the Denikins, almost no attention was paid to the Northern Army. Some units were withdrawn from the North to more important fronts, and the rest were of poor combat quality. Yes, and replenishment was practically not sent here. In some areas, as in Pinega, the Soviet command itself left its position.

However, this imaginary well-being soon ended. The population of a large part of the Arkhangelsk province could not for a long time contain a large army, the number of which was constantly growing. As the "successes" at the front, the front line stretched, and the combat stability of the units was still low. Quality was exchanged for quantity, resorting to extensive mobilization in order to maintain a quantitative advantage over the Reds on the entire front. The economically weak Northern region, deprived of food and military assistance from the Entente, was doomed to collapse.

With the collapse of other white fronts, the reliability of the troops (a large part of the soldiers were former Red Army soldiers) fell significantly. The number of deserters increased. Many went into reconnaissance and did not return, abandoned advanced posts and guards. Red propaganda intensified. The soldiers were told that they could atone for the extradition of officers, the opening of the front and the transition to the side of the people. The soldiers were urged to stop the senseless massacre, to dump the power of the counter-revolutionaries. The officers were offered to stop being mercenaries of their own and foreign capital, to switch to service in the Red Army.

White guerrillas showed themselves poorly. They fought well on the front lines, near their villages. But when transferred to other areas, on the defensive, their fighting qualities fell sharply. The partisans did not recognize discipline, drank, fought with local residents, easily succumbed to the Socialist Revolutionary propaganda. The difficult situation was in the white fleet. All ship crews were on the side of the Bolsheviks. Ammunition had to be unloaded from the battleship Chesma, fearing rebellion. Of the 400 crew, half were transferred ashore, sent to the security service with unusable rifles. But soon the crew grew to the previous strength and retained its Bolshevik attitude. The sailors did not hide their moods and waited for the arrival of the Red Army. It was a real "red stronghold" in the camp of the enemy. Officers in every way tried to escape from the ship until they were killed.

In river and lake fleets, formed from armed steamboats and barges, under the command of Captain 1st Rank Georgy Chaplin, the situation was slightly better. Chaplin surrounded himself with young naval officers and at first successfully operated on the Dvina. The flotilla actively supported the advance of the ground forces in the fall of 1919, and did not allow the Reds to take control of the Dvina after the British left. But with the onset of winter, the flotilla arose, and sea rifle companies were formed from the crews. However, they quickly decomposed and became hotbeds of red propaganda among the ground forces.

The socialist revolutionaries also intensified. They in the Northern region were in quite legal positions. Eserov was headed by the chairman of the provincial zemstvo council P.P. Skomorokhov. Until September 1919, he was part of the third provisional government of the Northern Region. An energetic and strong-willed man, Skomorokhov stood in left positions and was inclined to defeatism. He crushed the zemstvo and a significant part of the Social Revolutionary party. Skomorokhov actively criticized the government, its economic and military policy. He promoted the idea of ​​"reconciliation" with the Bolsheviks. Among the soldiers were the Social Revolutionaries, and many supporters in the troops found defeatist positions.

The White Guards received an information blow from the West. There were reports in the press about the lifting of the economic blockade and trade with Soviet Russia. It was concluded that, since Western countries are lifting the blockade, then further war is meaningless. Local trading cooperatives, hoping for future profits, began to actively support the left Skomorokhov in order to make peace with the Bolsheviks more quickly. Thus, the fighting spirit of the Northern Army was sharpened from all sides.


1 ruble of the Northern region of 1919. An analogue of the banknote of the Russian Empire

The collapse of the Northern Army


At the beginning of 1920, when troops from other fronts were liberated, the Soviet command decided that it was time to put an end to Miller’s Northern Army. The main strike force of the red Northern Front in the Arkhangelsk direction was the 6th Soviet Army under the command of Alexander Samoilo. The red commander was a former tsarist general, graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff, and served in staff posts. After October, he sided with the Bolsheviks, participated in negotiations with the Germans in Brest-Litovsk, and fought on the Western and Northern Fronts.

The blow to the White Army was inflicted not only from the front, but also from the rear. On February 3, 1920, the opening of the provincial Zemsky assembly was scheduled. Before that, the government was criticized. The government temporarily resigned. Miller urged the ministers to temporarily remain in place until a new government was formed. At this time, the Zemsky assembly opened. His leader was Skomorokhov. Economic issues were immediately forgotten, the meeting resulted in a stormy political rally against the government. The question of the desirability of further struggle was raised. Leftist defeatists insisted on an immediate peace with the Bolsheviks, calling for the arrest of counterrevolutionary officers. Through newspapers and rumors, this wave immediately covered the whole of society and the army. Miller summoned the leaders of the Zemsky assembly to him. Skomorokhov said that the commander-in-chief must submit to the will of the people if the people speak out for peace. The assembly grew more and more heated and adopted a declaration in which the government was declared counter-revolutionary and deposed, and all power passed to the Zemsky assembly, which was to form a new government. The situation in Arkhangelsk was tense.

At the same time, when Arkhangelsk was swept by political unrest, the Red Army attacked in the Dvinsky district. The positions of the White Guards were plowed by artillery, the 4th Northern Regiment and the Shenkur battalion could not stand the blow of the superior forces of the Reds and began to retreat. The Reds threw fresh forces into the breakthrough. On February 4, Miller spoke in the Assembly and, with the support of the City Duma, Zemstvo representatives from defensive positions, was able to calm the situation in Arkhangelsk. The declaration of deposition of the government was canceled and appealed to the troops to continue the struggle. The formation of a new government has begun.

Meanwhile, the situation at the front continued to deteriorate. The battle begun on the Dvina became common. The battle was especially stubborn in the Seletsky fortified area, where the 7th Northern Regiment, composed of partisan-Tarasovites who defended their villages, stood. They stood to their deaths and, with their perseverance, helped the troops of the Dvinsky district, who backed up under the blows of the Reds, to stop at new positions. However, on the night of February 8, part of the 3rd Northern Regiment raised an uprising in the Zheleznodorozhny District. At the same time, the Reds attacked in this area. The rebels and the Reds crushed the remnants of the regiment. As a result, in one of the most important sectors, the front was broken. This was the beginning of a general disaster.


Commander of the Northern Army Eugene-Ludwig Karlovich Miller (1867-1939)


Russian and Soviet military leader, participant in the First World and Civil Wars, commander of the 6th Soviet Army Alexander Alexandrovich Samoilo

General disaster and evacuation


The threat at the front made the political community of Arkhangelsk forget about grievances and ambitions; on February 14, 1920 a new government was formed (the fifth composition). It did not matter anymore. The government only managed to issue a defense appeal and hold several meetings. The Soviet command proposed peace, promised the inviolability of officers.

At the front, disaster developed. White tried to close the gap, but the units thrown into battle were unreliable and scattered. The retreat continued. The Reds took Plesetskaya station and created a threat to the surroundings of the Seletsky fortified area. The 7th Northern Regiment, which stubbornly defended this fortified area, was ordered to withdraw. But the soldiers of this regiment, made up of local partisans, refused to leave their homes and simply fled to their homes. A company remained from the best regiment of the army. At this time, the remaining units against the backdrop of defeat at the front quickly fell apart. In Arkhangelsk itself, sailors openly conducted propaganda among the soldiers of spare parts.

However, the command believed that, although the fall of Arkhangelsk is inevitable, there is still time. The front will hold out for some time. Therefore, the city lived an ordinary life, no evacuation was announced. Only counterintelligence and the operations department of the headquarters on foot began to move to Murmansk, but because of deep snow they moved extremely slowly. And then on February 18 the catastrophe became complete. The front collapsed. Units in the main directions threw positions, surrendered, local residents went home. Only groups of “irreconcilable” remained, who independently began to leave towards Murmansk. At the same time, the Reds could not immediately enter Arkhangelsk. Due to impassability and low organization, Soviet troops lingered. Between Arkhangelsk and the front line a zone of 200-300 km was formed, where the disarmament of the white units, "fraternities", meetings took place, and fledging soldiers of the Northern Army were caught.

At that moment, there were three icebreakers in Arkhangelsk. "Canada" and "Ivan Susanin" were 60 km from the city on the pier "Economy", where they loaded with coal. Some of the refugees were sent there. The icebreaker Kozma Minin, recalled halfway to Murmansk by a radiogram, came directly to Arkhangelsk. The team was unreliable, so a group of naval officers immediately took control of the ship. The Minin and the Yaroslavna military yacht, which the icebreaker took in tow, were loaded by Commander Miller himself, his headquarters, members of the northern government of various compositions, various famous people, sick and wounded, Danish volunteers, members of White Guard families. Miller transferred power to Arkhangelsk to the workers' executive committee; crowds of workers and sailors with red flags roamed in the city. Raised the red flag and the battleship "Chesma". On February 19, the Minin began its campaign. Having reached the “Economy”, they planned to load coal and attach two more icebreakers. But there were already red flags fluttering. The marina and icebreakers were captured by the rebels. Ice officers ran to the Minin.

Coming into the White Sea, the ships reached the ice. The ice fields were so powerful that I had to abandon Yaroslavna. The icebreaker took on board people from the yacht (there were 1100 people on board), coal, food and one 102-mm gun, and the empty Yaroslavna was left in the ice. She was rescued, she became part of the Soviet flotilla as a watchman (since 1924 - "Thieves"). On February 20, the icebreakers Sibiryakov, Rusanov, and Taimyr noticed in the ice; they left Arkhangelsk to Murmansk on February 15, but were stuck, unable to break through further. There was no confidence in the reliability of their crews, so the officers and officials were transferred to Minin and they took part of the coal.

On February 21, a chase was revealed. The Red forces occupied Arkhangelsk, the Canada icebreaker was sent in pursuit. The red icebreaker opened fire. Minin replied. The White Guards were lucky, they were the first to achieve a successful shot. “Canada” got hit, turned around and left. The ice began to move. All four icebreakers resumed their campaign. But soon three icebreakers, intentionally or accidentally, lagged behind the Minin. Then the Minin was again jammed with ice. Meanwhile, the purpose of the path has changed. On February 21 in Murmansk, under the influence of news of the fall of the death of the Northern Army and the fall of Arkhangelsk, an uprising began. The white units scattered and opened the front in the Murmansk sector. Therefore, “Minin”, when the ice broke, moved to Norway. Already in Norwegian waters we met the Lomonosov steamboat, on which some officers, a detachment of Belgian volunteers and two English pilots fled from Murmansk. A group of Arkhangelsk refugees was transplanted to Lomonosov.

On February 26, 1920, Minin and Lomonosov arrived at the Norwegian port of Tromsø. On March 3, Minin and Lomonosov left Tromsø, and on March 6 arrived in Hommelvik. On March 20, the Russians were interned in a camp near Trondheim. Altogether, over 600 people were interned, some of the sick and wounded remained in Tromsø, some returned to Russia, some refugees who had money and connections in other countries left for Finland, France and England. It is worth noting that the Norwegians welcomed the Russian refugees in a very friendly manner, treated and fed for free, covered them with gifts, gave out benefits for the period of finding a new place in life. Miller soon left for France, where he became the chief commissioner for military and naval affairs of General Wrangel in Paris.

The rest of Miller’s army ceased to exist. The Reds occupied Onega on February 26, Pinega on February 29, and Murmansk on March 13. After the collapse of the army, part of the officers and soldiers (about 1,5 thousand people) in the Murmansk sector, not wanting to surrender, moved to Finland. After two weeks of hike without roads, through the taiga and swamps, they nevertheless reached Finnish territory. In the Arkhangelsk direction, the remote eastern sections (Pechora, Mezensky, Pinezhsky) after breaking through the front, the Reds in the central direction were in the rear of the enemy and were doomed to captivity. The troops of the Dvinsky district, which according to staff plans were to connect with Zheleznodorozhny to move to Murmansk, could not do this. The remnants of the units began to withdraw to Arkhangelsk, but the Soviet troops had already occupied it and the White capitulated. The troops of the Zheleznodorozhny district and those who left Arkhangelsk themselves shawled to Murmansk (about 1,5 thousand people). But there was an uprising in Onega, White had to break through. February 27, they reached the station of Soroki on the Murmansk railway, and then they learned that the Murmansk section of the front also collapsed. They were waiting for the red armored trains and infantry. The extremely difficult 400-kilometer campaign was in vain, the White Guards entered into negotiations and surrendered.

Thus, the white Northern army of Miller ceased to exist. The northern region existed only with the support of Britain and because of the secondary nature of this direction. Miller’s army did not threaten the vital centers of Soviet Russia, therefore, while the Red Army smashed the enemy on other fronts, the white North existed. As soon as the threat in the northwest and south disappeared, the Reds launched a decisive offensive, and the Northern Army collapsed.





Icebreaker Kozma Minin in Norway
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, https://vaga-land.livejournal.com/
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Smoot. 1920 year

Battle of Rostov
The disaster of white Odessa
How Slashchev Crimea defended
Dono-Manych battle
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 5 February 2020 05: 33
    15
    Thank you Alexander for the article ... hi I liked the pictures ... here they are what the Russian people were in the civil war ... one people on opposite sides of the barricades.
    The amazing fate of General Samoilo survived both wars and the purge of 1937 ... died his death.
    In 1963, a book of memoirs of Samoilo: “Two Lives” was published in Leningrad.
    On November 8, 1963, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Samoilo died, celebrating his 94th birthday, surviving it for only 4 days.
    https://www.proza.ru/2018/09/12/978
    1. APIS
      APIS 5 February 2020 09: 11
      12
      What a bummer for Olga's son - the tsar general lived to old age and died in his bed
      1. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 09: 21
        11
        Now he will say something like the fact that the Bolsheviks simply forgot to shoot him in the confusion ... laughing laughing laughing
      2. Sneaky Urus
        Sneaky Urus 5 February 2020 13: 04
        -11 qualifying.
        nothing personal, pure statistics on tsarist generals in the service of the Bolsheviks:
        In total, 164 generals voluntarily entered the service of the Reds. 35 of them were shot, 25 were sentenced to different terms of imprisonment (not counting those who were in prison and then shot, they are included in the list of shot people), the fate of 35 people is unknown, 14 people switched to the white side, or fled abroad , 2 executed by white, 31 people died before the outbreak of great terror. In general, did not fall under repression (did not receive a term, were not sent to exile) - 15 people.

        laughing
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 13: 39
          +5
          Sneaky Urus (Igor)
          nothing personal, pure statistics on tsarist generals in the service of the Bolsheviks:
          And the thoughts that it is possible those who were shot and there was something to shoot for, you probably do not have ?!
          1. karabass
            karabass 6 February 2020 20: 44
            0
            Amazing your comments! Can I find out anything about you? Age, profession and what do you want to tell?
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 7 February 2020 08: 08
              0
              Sorry, why do you need it ?!
              1. karabass
                karabass 7 February 2020 13: 22
                0
                Judging by your comments, either you have lived a lot, or you are leftist views, a communist or anarchist, I can not figure it out, so I'm tormented! And they don’t look like an old man or a communist either! Is it really a nationalist? also not quite, nor how I can not understand who you are
                Best regards
          2. Sneaky Urus
            Sneaky Urus 11 February 2020 11: 51
            -2
            only one thought arises - those who ended up in the Cheka were repressed, that is, almost all those who served in the Red Army, whom they managed to reach. There is a reference book by Ganin "The Corps of General Staff Officers". Here you can see the years of life of the General Staff officers who served in the Red Army. Suspiciously many ended their lives in 1937. Not otherwise, all traitors. "But, excuse me, how did he serve in the Purification?" (Dog's heart)
        2. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 6 February 2020 15: 28
          +3
          Quote: Sneaky Urus
          164 generals volunteered for service in red

          And the rest? By mobilization?
          Quote: Sneaky Urus
          2 executed by white

          Three. And the fourth did not live to be executed.
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 5 February 2020 09: 46
      0
      skill with 161 guns and 1,6 thousand machine guns, plus about 10 thousand militias.

      PERFORMANCE !!! shot red? killed and deliberately ganged up against the new government. they were not called up, forcibly put under arms-10 thousand innocent victims in 1937 are ready. All according to the lists of 1919-20
    3. Arlen
      Arlen 5 February 2020 12: 32
      13
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      one people on opposite sides of the barricades

      Here is what Lenin said in the article:
      COMMERCIAL WORKERS! GOING TO THE LAST, DECISIVE BATTLE!
      The Anglo-Japanese capitalists want to restore the power of the landowners and capitalists in Russia in order to share the booty that was stolen in the war, to enslave the Russian workers and peasants to Anglo-French capital, to take interest from them but for multi-billion dollar loans, to extinguish the fire of the socialist revolution that began at us and more and more threatening to spread to the whole world. The beasts of Anglo-Japanese imperialism do not have the strength to occupy and conquer Russia. Even Germany neighboring us lacks such forces, as its “experience” with Ukraine has proved. Anglo-Japanese hoped to take us by surprise. They did not succeed. The workers of St. Petersburg, followed by Moscow, and beyond Moscow and the entire industrial central region, are rising more amicably, more insistently, more and more masses, more wholeheartedly. This is the guarantee of our victory.

      Anglo-Japanese capitalist predators, having gone on a campaign against peaceful Russia, are counting on their alliance with the internal enemy of Soviet power. We know well who this inner enemy is. These are capitalists, landowners, kulaks, their sons, who hate the power of workers and labor peasants, peasants who do not drink the blood of their fellow villagers.

      A wave of kulak uprisings spills across Russia. Fist furiously hates Soviet power and is ready to strangle, cut hundreds of thousands of workers. If the kulaks could win, we know very well that they would mercilessly slaughter hundreds of thousands of workers, entering into an alliance with the landlords and capitalists, restoring hard labor for the workers, canceling the 8-hour work day, returning factories and plants under the yoke of the capitalists.
    4. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 6 February 2020 09: 34
      +4
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      The amazing fate of General Samoilo survived both wars and the purge of 1937 ... died his death.

      Like many other royal and white generals
  2. svp67
    svp67 5 February 2020 06: 13
    16
    Thanks. What a TRAGEDY, how did we create it ourselves? Do today's "those in power" understand what and how those "those in power" did wrong, what brought the people to the Civil War, so as not to make the same mistakes? Something I do not have confidence in this today, moreover, I am sure that the Civil War is still going on ... and I am ready to go back to the active phase
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 07: 20
      10
      svp67 (Sergey)
      Do today's "those in power" understand what and how those "those in power" did wrong, what brought the people to the Civil War, so as not to make the same mistakes?
      I am sure that they do not understand, or understand, but as always they rely on Russian chance. But it was the wild, uncontrolled stratification of society into the poor and the rich that led to the revolution.
      Something I don’t have confidence in today, moreover, I’m sure that the Civil War is still ongoing ... and I’m ready to move on to the active phase again
      To do this, you do not have to be a visionary, just look at the comments in the topics about the civil war, everything is clearer than clear. So yes, the civil war was far from over.
      1. Same lech
        Same lech 5 February 2020 07: 42
        +7
        But it was the wild, uncontrolled stratification of society into the poor and the rich that led to the revolution.

        To be precise, the war led to the revolution, which became the catalyst for an even more wild stratification of the people into rich and poor.
        So it was in 1905, so it was in 1917.
        Of course, the systemic contradictions of the new type of capitalism in Russia remained the same as before 1917 ... so I'm sure sooner or later we will step on the same rake again ... I hope the authorities in the person of Putin understand this.
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 08: 07
          13
          The same LEKHA (Alexey)
          I hope the government in the person of Putin understands this.
          Something I, recently, strongly doubt it.
          If the stratification will continue to grow in geometric progression, then I am afraid we will have very bad times. Classical Russian revolt, senseless and merciless, has not been canceled yet. As if to our nouveau riche it didn’t backfire and sideways!
          1. apro
            apro 5 February 2020 08: 26
            0
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            Classical Russian revolt, senseless and merciless, has not been canceled yet.

            Riot is not possible today. Everything in the system ... there is a slow and systematic process of cleansing the territory. There is no active element. Revolution? There are no ideas that can unite and direct. Capitalism today suits the majority.
            1. bober1982
              bober1982 5 February 2020 08: 41
              -3
              Quote: apro
              Riot is not possible today. Everything in the system

              Yes, that’s all right, these individual individuals are engaged in incitement. Who will rebel and why? To Ukraine - please jump and shoot.
              Judge for yourself what to arrange unrest - a new jeep, a cozy cottage, a cheeseburger, overseas holidays, shrimp beer, soulful songs of Cord, the start of a new football season (Russia-Yayaya, in the quarter finals!), And other pleasures of life.
              1. Alexander Suvorov
                Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 09: 10
                +7
                bober1982 (vladimir)
                Judge for yourself what to arrange unrest - a new jeep, a cozy cottage, a cheeseburger, overseas holidays, shrimp beer, soulful songs of Cord, the start of a new football season (Russia-Yayaya, in the quarter finals!), And other pleasures of life.
                Are you now specifically about yourself or about the whole nation ?!
                I’m looking out the window and directly seeing a string of jeeps, on which simple hard workers came to earn their 20-30 tyrov a month, of which 10 will go to a communal apartment, and the rest you need to feed your family. I’m wondering all the time, do you even live in Russia? I can say right away that inside the MKAD is definitely not Russia!
                And your personal well-being does not need to be passed on to the whole people, and if the peasants read what you write here, they will straighten your face so that your mother will not recognize it.
                1. bober1982
                  bober1982 5 February 2020 09: 13
                  -4
                  Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                  your face will be so straightened that your mother will not recognize.

                  And you are cocky, immediately dissolve your fists.
                  1. Looking for
                    Looking for 5 February 2020 16: 42
                    +6
                    Yes. Just like that. And if you had let it go before, then people like you. olgovich and Co wouldn’t be here.
                    1. bober1982
                      bober1982 5 February 2020 17: 33
                      -5
                      The line from the machine gun for all your comrades is to give, and scatter like cockroaches, it's you, everyone here is so brave. We must take an example from the Chinese comrades. As I said burry - Do not be almond.
                2. George Karpov
                  George Karpov 5 February 2020 16: 31
                  -5
                  And here I am, specifically about myself. I work at the factory, my salary is 30 thousand. The apartment costs 8 thousand + two children, my wife has 14 thousand. Salary, well, go to the barricades, why there is no desire! Why's that?
          2. Gene84
            Gene84 5 February 2020 15: 24
            12
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            As if to our nouveau riche it didn’t backfire and sideways!

            so they themselves are to blame. look at their offspring! behave worse than noble children in pre-revolutionary Russia!
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 5 February 2020 08: 06
      -9
      What a TRAGEDY, how did it happen that we ourselves created it?


      A terrible tragedy, of course ....

      Then the World War went on, the worst in History. All forces, all material resources states are focused on fighting an external enemy, which causes great, enormous hardships in the rear, weakening the country.

      And those opponents of the state who did not have not a single a chance in PEACE time (which they themselves recognized), speculating on military hardships, taking advantage of the weakening of the country, saw their chance.

      Their motto was, in fact: The worse the country, the .... better for us! "The more defeats, the higher the chances of revolution, and, therefore,need more defeats to your country!

      The country made a mistake: during the war, it should not allow itself the luxury of being tolerant of such things: ice axes in Switzerland, the destruction of ideological traitors in the rear - this is the medicine that the state did not use then, but which it took full advantage in WWII.
      Stalin knew this terrible danger very well and did not allow this: he used ice axes and in October 1941 he shot potential "revolutionaries" of the WWI era ...
      Quote: svp67
      Do today's "those in power" understand what and how those "those in power" did wrong, what brought the people to the Civil War?

      There is no world war today

      And before her there was no mention of GV ...
      1. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 08: 32
        +8
        Olgovich (Andrey)
        Their motto was, in fact: The worse the country, the .... better for us! "The more defeats, the higher the chances of revolution, and, therefore, need more defeats for their country!
        As I understand it, are you talking about balabol from the interim government and the US ?! Yes, it was they who destroyed the front, but some, by their meagerness, attribute all sins to the Bolsheviks.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 5 February 2020 12: 28
        15
        Quote: Olgovich
        And those opponents of the state who did not have a single chance in PEACE time (which they themselves recognized), speculating on military hardships, taking advantage of the weakening of the country, saw their chance.

        Ek you Guchkov, Milyukov, Lvov, Alekseeva and other "elite" wink
        Or did you mean that a party of 20 people, a third of which either sat or emigrated, spread the multi-million Empire into one person? But then questions already arise about the state of this Empire - well, what had the country had to be brought to in order for a miserable bunch of conspirators to arrange this.
        Quote: Olgovich
        Stalin knew this terrible danger very well and did not allow this: he used ice axes and in October 1941 he shot potential "revolutionaries" of the WWII era

        I just see the picture "October 1941 Malenkov, Zhukov and Kalinin demand Stalin's resignation from the post of Secretary General". laughing
        In the background of the painting, the pince-nez is carnishing predatoryly.
        1. karabass
          karabass 6 February 2020 20: 52
          +1
          20 communists ?! This is a discovery for me! 000 ready for armed struggle and death? Even today's state would not have a chance! Kvachkov and the company were not found. 20 is not a miserable bunch, ISIS had 000 at first
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 7 February 2020 17: 46
            0
            Quote: karabass
            20 communists ?! This is a discovery for me! 000 ready for armed struggle and death? Even today's state would not have a chance!

            Against the background of the same Social Revolutionaries (60 thousand in 1905, a million in 1917), the Bolsheviks were a small marginal party.
            And how dashingly the Socialist-Revolutionary battle worked - the Grand Duke, the Minister of the Interior ... ICH, all this was done under the guidance of an agent of the Security Department. smile
      3. Sugar Honeyovich
        Sugar Honeyovich 6 February 2020 16: 04
        0
        Quote: Olgovich
        The country made a mistake: during the war, it should not allow itself the luxury of being tolerant of such things: ice axes in Switzerland, the destruction of ideological traitors in the rear

        The only trouble is that ice axes were more needed not in Switzerland, but somewhere closer to the Winter Palace. And the so-called. The "ideological enemies" at that time were, in essence, the whole country.
      4. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 7 February 2020 17: 52
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        The country made a mistake: during the war, it should not allow itself the luxury of being tolerant of such things: ice axes in Switzerland, the destruction of ideological traitors in the rear - this is the medicine that the state did not use then, but which it took full advantage of during WWII.

        Are you suggesting "headquarters fire"? wink
        You remember - who was among the main organizers of the February Revolution, after which everything rolled back and forth. And by whose efforts the situation in Petrograd was brought to critical.
        Nikolai would have to clean up not only the military-industrial elite who dreamed of power, but also the Surname itself - "Tsar Kiryukh", for example. Alas, this needed a different Nikolai. And even the founder of St. Petersburg.
  3. bober1982
    bober1982 5 February 2020 08: 13
    -8
    The author exaggerates when he claims that General Miller has established an army supply system after the British refused to help. And, all the successes of the Northern Army were directly related to the support of the British, as soon as this help ceased - a disaster for Miller was inevitable and fleeting, which happened. There was no chance even for resistance.
    General Miller himself evokes a feeling of deep respect, an honest man.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 08: 43
      16
      bober1982 (vladimir)
      General Miller himself evokes a feeling of deep respect, an honest man.
      It evokes nothing but contempt. A traitor who gave the country to be plundered by the British. Here you can see the crushers, so all whites are just the ideal of "nobility and honor", but in reality they are traitors who sold the country to foreign invaders.
      1. Sergey Olegovich
        Sergey Olegovich 5 February 2020 08: 51
        12
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        all whites, well, the ideal of "nobility and honor" is straightforward, but in actual fact traitors who sold the country to foreign invaders.

        But none of them admits this and is trying to whitewash the betrayal and intervention, oddly enough, with the "betrayal of the Bolsheviks" and an attempt to protect foreign interests, drawing analogies with the occupation of Iran in 1941.
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 09: 02
          14
          Sergei hi , that's for sure. The Bolsheviks are to blame for all the sins of the bakers and that’s it, period. They recognize neither logic nor reason of reason, especially the patient of ward No. 6. In general, the clinic is full. Who brought the country to collapse? Who, through their inaction and connivance, has led to the fact that almost billion-dollar fortunes have profited from deliveries to the army? The people were poor, and the rich, stupefied by free money, fooled so that the modern children of the oligarchs could not even dream of. A feast during the plague, the country is bursting at the seams, the soldiers do not want to fight, because they realized that they were not fighting for Russia, but because a handful of thieves had the opportunity of wild supernatural life on the lives of these very soldiers.
          So what? Did all the Bolsheviks do this? And then, when this idiot was removed, what did the talkers from the VP do ?! Other than empty boltology and portfolio sharing, nothing! More precisely, they finished off the fact that the Tsarek did not have time to finish it. And again, according to the bakers, the Bolsheviks are to blame ... request
          In general, insanity grew stronger, and the schiz quietly mowed Olgovich jambs ... laughing
          1. Gene84
            Gene84 5 February 2020 15: 33
            +7
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            The Bolsheviks are to blame for all the sins of the bakers and that’s it, period. They recognize neither logic nor reason of reason, especially the patient of ward No. 6. In general, the clinic is full. Who brought the country to collapse? Who, through their inaction and connivance, brought to the point that almost billion-dollar fortunes made money on supplies to the army?

            sometimes it seems to me that in some people the head is just a decorative application to the body. looking at alternatives who accuse the Bolsheviks of all mortal sins, I begin to understand that nothing human is alien to God. he has a great sense of humor.
      2. bober1982
        bober1982 5 February 2020 09: 01
        -2
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        He arouses nothing but contempt

        Alexander, out of curiosity - does anyone of the generals and officers of the White Movement NOT cause contempt? There are such?
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 09: 18
          12
          bober1982 (vladimir)
          Alexander, out of curiosity - does anyone of the generals and officers of the White Movement NOT cause contempt? There are such?
          Slashchev, Samoilo, and many many other truly honest officers who eventually admitted their mistakes and who ultimately remained faithful to Russia and served it faithfully to the end! But this is definitely not about whites, there is no honor, nobility, no conscience, some traitors like Krasnov, Shkuro, Kolchak, Denikin and others.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 5 February 2020 12: 36
            12
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            Samoilo

            Samoilo was not a day in the White movement. First, he was the head of the military commission of the Soviet delegation at the talks in Brest-Litovsk, and then fought in the North (with a brief break in 1919, when Samoilo was sent to the Eastern Front).
            PMSM, of all the "former" Samoilo got the simplest and clearest in terms of attitude to the enemy area - he fought mainly with the invaders. Moreover, the war in the North went on "in an adult way" - up to the use of chemical warfare agents and magnetic mines.
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 14: 14
              +5
              And will Mehmandarov and Shikhlinsky fit?
              1. Gene84
                Gene84 5 February 2020 15: 48
                15
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                Mehmandarov

                which is Samed-Bek Sadikh-Bek oglu? will not work, the whites will call him "tumbleweed" because of his service first in the imperial army, then in the Azerbaijani national army, and later on with the Bolsheviks.
                Shikhlinsky will be the same.
                Here is a list of true generals:
                Lieutenant General Baron Alexander Alexandrovich von Taube, was captured by Kolchak. in response to offers of cooperation with whites and Czechoslovakians, he said the following words: "My gray hair and shell-shocked legs do not allow me to go in my declining years to the camp of the invaders and enemies of working Russia." died shackled in solitary confinement from typhus.
                generals A.P. Nikolayev, A.V. Sobolev, A.V. Stankevich, all of them died from the hands of the White Guard.
      3. antivirus
        antivirus 5 February 2020 09: 51
        -6
        the intervention took place to pay or export unpaid stocks. delivered to PMV.
        The British left as soon as they figured out the money - they left the noble in Murman and Arch-ke
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 5 February 2020 09: 57
          +4
          antivirus
          the intervention took place to pay or export unpaid stocks. delivered to PMV.
          What are you ?! I really didn’t think that the Germans and Japanese delivered something to us during the WWII ... laughing
          The British left as soon as they figured out the money - they left the noble in Murman and Arch-ke
          Well, of course, they left, the Red Army has nothing to do with it ... laughing
          Do not write nonsense, never arrogant Saxons themselves did not leave from anywhere, until they kicked them out of the ass!
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 5 February 2020 18: 57
            -5
            they were helped to leave, but the interventionists were satisfied with the minimum program
            EXACTLY IN THE NORTH
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 5 February 2020 08: 34
    +8
    Good article. Only
    The population of a large part of the Arkhangelsk province could not contain a large army for a long time,

    Naturally, you won't last long on abandoned British stocks, and for some reason the locals don't want to keep whites forever. Here the land issue was not as acute as in the south of Russia, where both Denikin and then Wrangel tried to voice an economic program, of course, unsuccessfully, since the "Decree on Land" was the most powerful move of the Bolsheviks in the Civil War. There is a small flaw in the article - it is not clear from it what economic measures the white government tried to take on its territory.
    1. Arlen
      Arlen 5 February 2020 21: 56
      +5
      Quote: Aviator_
      There is a slight drawback of the article - it is not clear from it what economic measures the White government was trying to take on its territory.

      Your comment on the article was very interesting to me. Indeed, there are very few, practically no or no works related to the economy of the government of the Northern Region during the civil war.
      In general terms, here's what I managed to find:
      The government of General Miller allocated funds for educational actions to rationalize agriculture and crafts, but these actions did not bring any results.
      Peasant cooperation was encouraged, but in the conditions of military mobilization it proved to be useless. The lumberjack cooperatives barely covered the demand for firewood in the Northern Region.
      And also the names of the books are suitable, as it seems to me to your remark:
      White North. 1918 - 1920: memoirs and documents. Issue 1. Arkhangelsk. IPP "Pravda Severa". 1993.
      Provincial "counter-revolution" [White movement and civil war in the Russian North]
      Novikova Lyudmila Gennadyevna.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 6 February 2020 08: 14
        0
        Thank you, be sure to look at the material.
  5. Sergey Olegovich
    Sergey Olegovich 5 February 2020 08: 42
    15
    General Eugene Miller proved to be a good staffer and manager

    Miller enjoyed great popularity and authority among the population of the Northern Region and in the troops

    They were all like that. All were good managers, good generals, all enjoyed authority. And they lost the war.
  6. Lamata
    Lamata 5 February 2020 08: 51
    +5
    Yes, for someone it’s a tragedy, for whom victory is.
  7. bandabas
    bandabas 5 February 2020 10: 13
    +8
    History has the ability to repeat itself.
  8. Operator
    Operator 5 February 2020 11: 30
    -2
    British and American troops landed in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk in 1918 at the official invitation of the SNK of the RSFSR, signed by the People's Commissar of Trotsky, to protect warehouses with ammunition and military equipment from German troops that landed in Finland.

    After Russia emerged from the war (signing the Brest Peace), the SNK of the RSFSR demanded the evacuation of foreign troops, which Britain and the USA did not agree to and entered the stage of intervention against the Soviet government that they had previously recognized.
  9. icant007
    icant007 5 February 2020 12: 49
    0
    Fearing rebellion, the ammunition had to be unloaded from the battleship Chesma ... He raised the red flag and the battleship Chesma


    Although the Chesma was the only battleship in the flotilla (read the battleship built in 1894), it did not represent any combat value. He generally performed the functions of a floating prison, and even a bath. And he was rendered in such disrepair that the Soviet government quickly cut him into metal.

    The author forgot to say that the flotilla included "Varyag" and "Askold". True, the first one went to England for repairs before the revolution, became part of the British Navy and disappeared in battle in 1918. The most efficient was only "Askold", which was also captured by the British. Later it was bought by Russia, but due to its poor condition, as well as "Chesma" was cut.
    1. Lamata
      Lamata 5 February 2020 20: 41
      +6
      Was it in some battle in 1918 that Varyag vanished? sat on the stones. then disassembled into metal.
      1. icant007
        icant007 5 February 2020 20: 53
        0
        Was it in some battle in 1918 that Varyag vanished? sat on the stones. then disassembled into metal.


        Here I was wrong.
        It was I who was guided by childhood memories of Soviet times. Since then, his story has not been refreshed.
        In those days it was written that he died in 1918 in the Irish Sea.
        1. Lamata
          Lamata 5 February 2020 21: 27
          +3
          It happens. resources write that he sank in the Irish Sea in 1925.
  10. Free wind
    Free wind 5 February 2020 12: 53
    +3
    How many different scum climbed to us, or rather were invited by the "noble blue-blooded whites" Englishmen, Americans, French, Japanese and also Belgians and Danes noted, did not even know that these climbed here. But everyone got it. from our great-grandfathers, noble people. And everything is interesting, so, the white ships of the white flotilla, the whites were afraid, because they were red.
  11. Operator
    Operator 5 February 2020 12: 53
    10
    Quote: Olgovich
    those opponents of the state who did not have a single chance in PEACE time (which they themselves recognized), speculating on military hardships, taking advantage of the weakening of the country, saw their chance

    The chance was missed by the tsarist leadership in the country and, first of all, in Petrograd - for example, the king's confidant, Minister of Internal Affairs Protopopov, who remained for the chief in the capital in February 1917, was nothing like an official and could not resolve the sharp conflict between the proletarians and guards soldiers regiments, on the one hand, and the forces of law and order. In addition, before the conflict, the social situation, the food supply and the reliability of the troops in the capital were not monitored at all, preventive measures were taken (both in Germany and Berlin) to suppress opposition activities in wartime, supply by cards, dispatch strikes in the military-industrial complex, etc. d.

    Those. tsarist power was completely impotent in matters of participation in the world war. At the same time, the fish rotted from the head - it was the king with low IQ and strong-willed qualities who stuffed the ruling elite with exclusively trusted people with even lower IQ and strong-willed qualities.

    Aware of the danger to the country in this situation, large businessmen and high-ranking military men held a conspiratorial meeting in Moscow in November 1916 to change the autocracy to a constitutional monarchy, as the Moscow branch of the Security Department reported to the authorities in Petrograd, but the leadership put a report under the cloth - because it participated in the conspiracy .

    When the stupid command of the Petrograd garrison brought the soldiers of the reserve battalions of the guard regiments, led by officers-racers (sic!), To the streets, they expectedly went over to the side of the townspeople, who for weeks couldn’t even get bread on the cards - the lines to the shops were blocked by Nevsky Prospekt, and stupid Petrograd police chief gave the order to disperse the lines (where else to get food for the families of workers, he did not explain).

    As a result, the Central Military-Industrial Committee (the body of large businessmen) gave the command to take power by the State Duma of the Russian Federation, while the same committee secretly formed the first composition of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies from the Mensheviks and Right Social Revolutionaries (to intercept leadership from strike committees), headed by a deputy State Duma, a member of the Military Council of the Provisional Committee of the State Duma Kerensky - who later transferred to the post of deputy chairman of the Petrosoviet in connection with joining the Provisional Government.

    All the supreme high command and the commanders of the fronts of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Ingushetia (appointed personally by the stupid king) participated in a conspiracy with the Central Military Complex. All actions of the Provisional Government and the Petrosoviet until June 1917 were authorized by the Central Military-Industrial Complex.
    1. Karen
      Karen 5 February 2020 17: 30
      +3
      I'll add here ... One of the most fatal actions ... Dzhunkovsky's ban on policemen from working with his agents in the army ... Obviously pulls on a conspiracy theory ... After all, it is clear that boasting fighters who adhere to their rotten views in the life of the house "Don't be friends with the gendarmes!" - were not able to resist the work of the hicks that were hired by the emissaries of the bald foreign tourists who paid them ...
      1. ANB
        ANB 5 February 2020 22: 36
        +3
        One of the most important reasons for the revolution and such bitterness in the Civil War is the memory of the people about the very recently abolished serfdom.
        The peasants still remembered everything about the bullying of the nobles.
        Not without reason, in 1905 and 1917, the first thing the estates started to burn on.
        The interim government, although it abolished the estates, put off the peasant question until later. And it was packed with strangers for the workers and peasants nobles and just rich.
  12. Fishery
    Fishery 5 February 2020 19: 02
    +2
    the revolution happens when someone needs it, otherwise it’s just a riot, the average person needs to hunch over to retirement, you can’t get sick, any operation knocks out the budget for several months, what barricades? The revolution requires funds.