It was not the red commissars, soldiers, workers and peasants who killed her, but the masters of the former Russia themselves - the grand dukes, aristocrats, generals, landowners, bankers, industrialists, the liberal intelligentsia. Pandora's box was open. The social elite of Russia itself launched the mechanism of the Troubles - merciless and all-destructive. All "clamps" were destroyed! The church was emasculated under the Romanovs. And the Februaryists destroyed the last two “seals” - the autocracy and the army. Launched the mechanisms of hell on earth.
Now liberals, democrats like to accuse the Bolsheviks of repression, red terror, the cruel suppression of uprisings and insurrections. But they forget to say that The gates of hell in Russia were opened by representatives of the pro-Western liberal-democratic project (the future of the White project). They destroyed all the clamps, opened the gates to the underworld, and absolute evil flooded into the world. The sailors and soldiers, who were not yet Bolsheviks, seized and shot the officers; peasants smashed landowner estates and killed nobles; the criminal revolution began with thousands of victims; soldiers-marauders robbed trains, smashed food depots and wineries, kept entire settlements in fear; the old police was disbanded, the new militia was still being formed, it did not have professional personnel, forces and means, information (card files and archives were destroyed after the February coup); the Cossacks thought they were free, drove the workers and peasants from their regions, then became participants in the white terror and were marked by disgusting scenes of the total plunder of their own Russian population; ethnic minorities began to take revenge on Russians for "oppression" and "occupation"; in Russia there were many thousands of representatives of other nations (former prisoners of war), for example, Czechoslovakia, they created their own terror, etc.
Absolute evil destroyed Russian civilization and culture, devoured the lives of millions of people. It is necessary to forget forever the naive tales about bloody commissars and white knights, orthodox monarchists. Absolutely everything was covered in blood by ears. In the vast expanses of the fallen empire reigned endless violence. The war of all against all, without rules, without mercy. It was the agony of "old Russia". Her death. The wreckage of Russia fell under the authority of the countries of the West and the East. Russian people died. From this hell, Russia and the people were able to pull the Bolsheviks. And this could be done not with a prayer calling “let us live together”, not with a noble contemplation, but with resolute and tough actions, having a great idea and program for creating a new reality (project), and civilization. In a most surprising way, the Russian communists were able to pull Russia and the people out of the inferno, destroyed part of the enemies, discarded others, put things in order with a firm hand and created a new Russian empire - the Soviet Union. At a high price, but there was no other choice (except for the death of the entire millennial civilization and people), they restored the country, brought it out to world leaders. The advanced western project, “Eternal Reich”, defeated the destruction of Soviet civilization that defied the power of the masters of the West over the planet, won. We have achieved fantastic success in science, education, culture, space and the construction of defense. Thanks to this foundation, the current Russia alone exists.
The Bolsheviks had the image of a new reality, the idea - communism. For the common man, far from the theories of Marxism, he absorbed the features of the “golden age” (“primitive communism”), when there were no rich and poor, “Christian socialism” of the times of Christ and his apostles, when Christianity was not yet driven into the fold Church, expressing the interests of the spiritual and secular feudal lords, enslaved the common people. The communist "bright future" was the continuation of the Christian "kingdom of God." It is not by chance that a whole pleiad of Russian, Christian-minded thinkers were at the same time advocating socialism.
On the other hand, socialism, communism, a society of social justice were the antipodes, direct enemies of capitalism, the Western world of robbery, looting and appropriation, consumer society and degradation. Socialism stood on the powerful foundation of social justice, the rejection of the exploitation of the working masses, parasitism on people. At the championship of labor. Labor, activity and creation were on the banners of the new world. That is, October was in the interests of ordinary people. The overwhelming majority of the population of Russia - 95% of farmers and workers.
In this case, the Bolsheviks had the energy, will and faith in their victory. The core of the Bolsheviks were professional revolutionaries, iron people, who went through a school of exile and prisons. They were ready to die for the victory of a new reality. The Bolsheviks had an organization, a party that gathered and targeted the energy, will and faith of millions of people to create a new reality, a "bright future."
Thus, the Bolshevik turned out to be the only force that, after the death of the “old Russia” in February-March 1917, tried to create a new reality, a civilization in the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. At the same time, the red project was one with the Russian matrix. (the idea of social justice, ethics of conscience). The White project was in the interests of a small part of the Russian people and destroyed the foundations of the Russian matrix, which automatically led to the death of the entire Russian civilization and people. If it were not for the Bolsheviks, Russia would have finally collapsed and perished!
Bolsheviks take the Kremlin
The events in Moscow developed more dramatically than in Petrograd. On November 7, after news of the success of the uprising in Petrograd, the Moscow Bolsheviks set up their Fighting Center, sending people to the post office and agitators in the 56 Infantry Regiment barracks. They called on the soldiers to occupy the Kremlin, banks and other important objects, but the soldiers were in no hurry to execute it.
In the evening of November 7, a meeting of the Moscow City Duma, in which the majority were Social Revolutionaries (the Socialist Revolutionary Party), was decided to support the Provisional Government and establish the Public Security Committee (CBS), headed by Duma Chairman, Right Social Revolutionary Vadim Rudnev and Commander of the Moscow Military District Konstantin Ryabtsev. The KOB was supported by Moscow cadets and Cossacks located in the city. In the meantime, the Bolsheviks formed the Moscow Military Revolutionary Committee (MVRC), which demanded that the troops stationed in the city execute only its orders. On the night of November 8, soldiers who had gone over to the side of the MVRK broke into the printing houses and did not allow any newspapers to be printed, except for Izvestia and Sotsial-Demokrat. At the same time, the commandant of the Moscow Kremlin, at the request of the MVRC, began distributing to the workers weapon from arsenals.
On November 9, around the 300 officers and junkers gathered in the building of the Alexander Military School (in the area of today's Arbat Square), which formed the core of the resistance to the Bolsheviks. A detachment of student volunteers who joined them called himself the “White Guard” (as opposed to the “Red Guard”), which is considered the date of birth of this term. In 18 hours, after learning of the advance of the ataman Krasny and Kerensky to the Petrograd, Konstantin Ryabtsev declared martial law in Moscow and advanced an MVCM ultimatum to surrender the Kremlin, disarm the rebel units and disband. On the same day, the cadets successfully attacked a detachment of the Reds - 45 people were killed or injured. In the evening, emboldened White Guards occupied the entire western part of Moscow right up to Dorogomilovo, repulsed the post office, the telegraph office and the telephone station. On November 10, the cadets entered the Kremlin and began to disarm the Reds who were there. At first, everything went peacefully, but then the soldiers and workers, seeing that there were very few junkers, resisted. White fired a machine gun. As a result, according to various sources, from 40 to 300 people were killed. The Moscow Revolutionary Committee declared a general strike and began to force detachments of workers and soldiers to the center.
11 November Moscow streets blocked the barricades and fierce fighting began. By the end of the day, Tverskaya Street and part of the Okhotny Ryad, Krymskaya Square, Taganskaya Square, the General Post Office, Kursky and Aleksandrovsky (now Belorussky) railway stations were red backed. The Bolsheviks began to use artillery, which led to the destruction of a number of buildings - from the Metropol Hotel to the temples of the Kremlin, which was shelled from the heights of the Sparrow Hills and Shviva Hill (Vshivaya Hill, aka Tagansky Hill), from the area of the Babiegorodsk dam. During flights and missiles shells destroyed many houses, civilians were injured. Bishop Nestor of Kamchatka (Anisimov), who witnessed the bloodshed in Moscow and assisted the wounded, later wrote: “The Russian weapon, which was lacking for defense against a heavily armed enemy at the front at the beginning of the war, was now harvested, but, to the horror of our Homeland , it was not turned to the enemy, but to their own Russian brothers, to the execution of their native cities and shrines. ... For eight days, sitting in the basements, the unfortunate Moscow inhabitants in the shelling areas were forced to suffer and starve, because any way out of the house or basement threatened to be intentionally or unintentionally killed and shot. ” In the middle of the day, a truce was concluded - both sides hoped to gain time and wait for the reinforcements approach. By November 12, part of the whites (three cadet corps and the Alekseevskoe military school in Lefortovo) surrendered to the mercy of the Revolutionary Committee, although the cadets continued to hold the Kremlin.
At the same time, the Cossacks refused to recognize the new government. On November 7, Don Army Ataman Alexey Kaledin made a statement declaring the seizure of power in Petrograd as criminal, and stated that until the restoration of legitimate authority, the Troop Government assumes all power in the Don Region. On November 10, Kaledin supported the Kuban chieftain Alexander Filimonov, the Terek ataman Mikhail Karaulov and the Orenburg ataman Alexander Dutov. November 8 on Don, in Novocherkassk, under the leadership of General Mikhail Alekseev, the former chief of staff of the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander of the tsarist army, began the formation of the so-called Alekseevskaya organization, which later became the main core of the Volunteer White Army.
November 14 Red Guards and soldiers who managed to take control of most of the city, increased shelling of the building of the city Duma (today Lenin Museum on Red Square) and the Kremlin, where the retreating cadets and members of the COB sat down. During the battles, Uspensky, Blagoveshchensky, Archangelsky, Nikolo-Gostunsky Cathedrals, the Miracles Monastery, the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles, Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the Patriarch's sacristy, the Small Palace and some Kremlin towers, including Nikolskaya, Beklemishevskaya, were damaged (the upper tower was completely destroyed). part) and Spasskaya (among other things, the clockwork of the Kremlin chimes was damaged).
By the evening of November 15, an agreement was reached between the Committee for Public Security and the MVRC on the disarmament of the cadets, officers and students defending the Kremlin, who were then to be released. At 9 in the evening, the Revolutionary Committee issued an order: “The revolutionary troops won, the junkers and the White Guard surrender their weapons. The public security committee is dissolved. All the forces of the bourgeoisie are utterly defeated and surrender, having accepted our demands. ” 15 November was published manifesto MVRK, proclaimed in Moscow, the power of the Soviets, that is, in fact the Bolsheviks. Finally, the last whites were disarmed on November 16.
Damage to the walls of the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles after the shelling of the Kremlin. Moscow. November 1917 of the year
Thus, the uprising in Moscow, in contrast to Petrograd, led to a bloody clash. In total, several hundred people died on both sides during the fighting and massacres in Moscow. Many of the participants in the battles in Moscow - officers and junker (white), later made their way to the Don and continued the fight.
Writer M. Gorky quite accurately conveyed the essence of this event: “In essence, the Moscow massacre was a nightmarish bloody beating of babies. On the one hand, there are young Red Guards who do not know how to hold guns in their hands, and soldiers who almost do not give themselves an account: who are they going to die for, what are they killing for? On the other hand, there is an insignificant quantitatively small group of junkers who courageously perform their “duty” as inspired by them. ” Unfortunately, this was only the beginning of a bloody massacre that would soon cover the whole of Russia.
It was one of the first outbreaks of the Civil War. However, at the beginning of the opposition t n. whites did not have the strength for a serious confrontation. The Bolsheviks rather easily suppressed individual centers of resistance, which led to the “triumphal march of Soviet power” throughout the country. For a full-scale war, completely different organizational capabilities and resources were needed. They were only among the open enemies of the German bloc and the former "partners" of Russia in the Entente - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, England, France, the USA and Japan.
Small Nicholas Palace in the Kremlin, damaged by artillery fire during the battles for Moscow