Military Review

100 anniversary of the February Revolution

67

100 years ago, February 23 (March 8) 1917, the revolution began in the Russian Empire. Spontaneous rallies and strikes of the end of 1916 - the beginning of 1917 of the year, caused by various socio-economic reasons and the war, escalated into a general strike in Petrograd. The beating of the police began, the soldiers refused to shoot at people, some with weapons supported the protesters. 27 February (12 March) 1917, the general strike turned into an armed uprising; the troops that had gone over to the side of the rebels occupied the most important points of the city, government buildings. On the night of February 28 (March 13), the Provisional Committee of the State Duma announced that it would take power into its own hands. 1 (14) March The Provisional Committee of the State Duma received recognition from Britain and France. 2 (15) March Nicholas II’s abdication occurred.


In one of the latest reports of the Security Department, from the police provocateur Shurkanov, introduced in the RSDLP (b), February 26 (March 11), it was noted: “The movement broke out spontaneously, without preparation, and solely on the basis of the food crisis. Since military units did not impede the crowd, and in some cases even took measures to paralyze the beginnings of police officials, the masses gained confidence in their impunity, and now, after two days of unimpeded walking through the streets, when revolutionary circles put forward the slogans “Down with the war” “Down with the government,” the people became convinced that the revolution had begun, that the masses had success, that the power was powerless to suppress the movement because the military units would openly stand on the side of the revolutionary forces, that the movement that has begun does not subside any longer, but will grow without a break until the final victory and a coup d’état. ”

In the context of riots, the fate of the empire depended entirely on the loyalty of the army. February 18 from the Northern Front was divided into an independent unit of the Petrograd Military District. General Sergei Khabalov, appointed commander of the district, was given broad powers to combat the "unreliable" and "troublemakers". This decision was made because of the threat of new strikes and riots against the background of increasing universal discontent with what is happening in the country. At that time, there were only a few thousand policemen and Cossacks in Petrograd, so the authorities began to force troops into the capital. By mid-February, their number in Petrograd was about 160 thousand people.

However, the troops did not become a factor of stability, as, for example, during the First Revolution 1905-1907. On the contrary, the army at that time had already become a source of distemper and anarchy. The recruits, having heard a lot of horrors about the front, did not want to go to the front line, as did the wounded and sick who had recovered. The staff of the tsarist army was knocked out, the old non-commissioned officers and officers remained in the minority. The new officers, who had been called up during the war, were mainly from the intelligentsia, who for the most part traditionally held to liberal and radical positions, were hostile to the tsarist regime. It is not surprising that in the future a significant part of these officers, as well as junkers and cadets (students), supported the Provisional Government, and then various democratic, national and white governments and armies. That is, the army itself was a source of instability, all that was needed was a fuse for the explosion.

The government foresaw the inevitable unrest, having developed in January-February 1917, a plan to combat possible riots. However, this plan did not envisage a mass insurrection of the reserve battalions of the guard regiments stationed in Petrograd. According to Lieutenant-General Chebykin, commander of the military guards and guards spare parts of Petrograd, to quell the unrest, it was planned to highlight "the best, the best parts - training teams consisting of the best soldiers trained as non-commissioned officers". However, these calculations turned out to be erroneous - the uprising began with the training teams. In general terms, the plan for suppressing the oncoming revolution was made by mid-January 1917, its basis was taken experience successful suppression of the revolution 1905 year. According to this plan, the police, the gendarmerie and the troops stationed in the capital were painted in the districts under the unified command of specially appointed staff officers. The main support of the government was to be the Petrograd police and training teams of the reserve battalions, numbering about 10 thousand from the 160-thousandth garrison. If the police as a whole remained loyal to the government, then the hope for the training teams of the reserve battalions did not materialize. Moreover, with the beginning of the revolution, the insurgent soldiers began to massively seize weapons, cracking down on officers and guards who tried to prevent them and easily put pressure on the police. Those who had to crush distemper themselves became sources of chaos.

Milestones

February 21 (March 6) street riots began in Petrograd - people standing in the cold in long lines for bread began to smash shops and shops. In Petrograd, there have never been any problems with the supply of basic products, and the long standing in the “tails”, as the queues were then called, because of the bread amid talk of the possible introduction of cards, caused sharp irritation among the citizens. Even though the shortage of bread was observed only in certain areas.

Bread riots in Petrograd became a logical development of the crisis situation in grain procurement and transport. 2 December 1916 of the Year “Special Meeting on Foodstuffs” introduced a surplus. Despite tough measures, instead of the planned 772,1 million pounds of bread, only 170 million pounds were collected in state bins. As a result, in December, the 1916 standards for soldiers at the front were reduced from 3 to 2 pounds of bread per day, and in the front line to 1,5 pounds. Cards for bread introduced in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Chernihiv, Podolsk, Voronezh, Ivanovo-Voznesensk and other cities. In some cities, people were starving. Rumors about the introduction of cards for bread in Petrograd.

Thus, the food supply of the armed forces and the population of cities has sharply deteriorated. So, for December 1916 - April 1917, the Petersburg and Moscow districts did not receive 71% of the planned amount of bread cargo. A similar pattern was observed in the supply of the front: in November 1916 of the year the front received 74% of the necessary food, in December 67%.

In addition, the transportation situation had a negative impact on the supply. Severe frosts, which covered the European part of Russia since the end of January, put the steam pipes out of more than 1200 locomotives out of operation, and there were not enough spare pipes due to the mass strikes of workers. Also a week earlier, heavy snow fell in the vicinity of Petrograd, which piled up railroad tracks, as a result of which tens of thousands of cars were stuck on the outskirts of the capital. It is also worth noting that some historians believe that the grain crisis in Petrograd did not go without conscious sabotage of some officials, including from the Ministry of Railways, who supported the overthrow of the monarchy. The conspiratorial Februaryists, whose coordination went through the Masonic lodges (subordinate to the Western centers), did everything to call the population’s discontent and provoke mass spontaneous unrest, and then to take control of the country into their own hands.

According to the newspaper "Exchange Gazette", February 21 (March 6) on the Petrograd side began the destruction of bakeries and small shops, which then continued throughout the city. The crowd surrounded the bakeries and bakeries and shouting: “Bread, bread” moved through the streets.

February 22 (March 7) amid growing riots in the capital, Tsar Nicholas II left Petrograd for Mogilev to headquarters of the Supreme Commander. Before that, he held a meeting with Interior Minister A. D. Protopopov, who convinced the sovereign that the situation in Petrograd was under control. February 13 police arrested a working group of the Central Military Industrial Committee (the so-called “Working Group of the Military Industrial Committee”, led by the Menshevik Kuzma Gvozdyov). The military-industrial committees consisted of organizations of entrepreneurs united to mobilize Russian industry to overcome the supply crisis for the army. In order to promptly solve the problems of workers, in order to avoid the downtime of enterprises due to strikes, their representatives were also included in the committees. The arrested workers were charged with “preparing the revolutionary movement, with the aim of preparing the republic”.

The “working group” really pursued a dual policy. On the one hand, the “workers' representatives” supported the “war to a victorious end” and helped the authorities maintain discipline in the defense industry, but on the other hand, they criticized the ruling regime and spoke of the need for the early overthrow of the monarchy. 26 January The working group issued a proclamation stating that the government uses the war to enslave the working class, and the workers themselves were called upon to be prepared for "a general organized demonstration in front of the Tauride Palace to demand the creation of an interim government." After the arrest of the Working Group, Nicholas II asked former Interior Minister Nikolai Maklakov to prepare a draft manifesto on the dissolution of the State Duma, which was supposed to resume meetings in mid-February. Protopopov was sure that with these measures he was able to remove the threat of new unrest.

February 23 (March 8) in Petrograd, a series of rallies dedicated to the Day of Workers (the so-called International Women's Day). As a result, rallies turned into mass strikes and demonstrations. Total 128 strikes thousand people. Columns of demonstrators marched with the slogans “Down with the war!”, “Down with the autocracy!”, “Bread!” In some places they sang “Workers' Marseillaise” (Russian revolutionary song to the melody of the French anthem - “Marseillaise”, also known as “Denounce the Old World”) . The first clashes of workers with the Cossacks and the police took place in the city center. In the evening, a meeting was held between the military and police authorities of Petrograd under the command of General Khabalov, Commander of the Petrograd Military District. Following the meeting, responsibility for maintaining order in the city was assigned to the military.

In a report to the Security Department, it was reported: “February 23 workers from the Vyborg district who came to the factories and plants gradually began to stop working and go out in crowds, expressing protest and dissatisfaction with the lack of bread, which was especially felt in the named factory district, where, according to observations local police, in recent days, many absolutely could not get bread. ... When dispersed by an ever-growing crowd heading from Nizhegorodskaya Street to the Finland Station, the junior assistant bailiff of the first section of the Vyborg part was knocked down by collegiate secretary Grotius, who tried to detain one of the workers, and the collegiate secretary Grotius suffered a cut wound on the back of the head, five injured head wounds and nose wounds. After providing initial assistance, the victim was sent to his apartment. By the evening of February 23, by efforts of police and military officials, order was restored everywhere in the capital. ”

February 24 (March 9) began a general strike (over 214 thousand workers at 224 enterprises). To 12.00, the Petrograd mayor Balk reported to General Khabalov that the police were not able to "stop the movement and the gathering of people." After that, the soldiers of the Guards reserve regiments - Grenadiers, Kexholm, Moscow, Finland, 3-rifle rifle regiments - were sent to the city center, and the security of government buildings, the post office, the telegraph and bridges across the Neva was strengthened. The situation was tense: in some places the Cossacks refused to disperse the protesters, the demonstrators beat the police, etc.

February 25 (March 10) strike and demonstrations continued and expanded. The 421 enterprise and more than 300 thousand people have already been on strike. The French ambassador to Russia, Maurice Paleologue, recalled this day: “[The workers] sang to Marseillaise, wore red banners on which was written:“ Down with the Government! Down with Protopopov! Down with the war! Down with the German! ... ”(Empress Alexandra Feodorovna was to blame). There were cases of disobedience of the Cossacks: the departure of the 1 Don Cossack Regiment refused to shoot at the workers and put the police squad to flight. The police were attacked, shot, thrown firecrackers, bottles and even hand grenades.

Tsar Nicholas II demanded by telegram from General Khabalov a decisive cessation of unrest in the capital. At night, security officers made mass arrests (over 150 people). In addition, the emperor signed a decree on the transfer of the beginning of the regular session of the State Duma on April 14. On the night of February 26 (March 11), General Khabalov ordered to post ads in St. Petersburg: “Any crowds of people are forbidden. I warn the population that they renewed the permission for the troops to use weapons to maintain order, without stopping at anything. ”

February 26 (March 11) unrest continued. In the morning, bridges over the Neva River were made, but the demonstrators crossed the river on ice. All the forces of the troops and the police were concentrated in the center, ammunition was distributed to the soldiers. There were several clashes of protesters with the police. The most bloody incident took place on Znamenskaya Square, where a company of the Volynsky Life Guards regiment opened fire on demonstrators (only here were 40 killed and 40 injured). The fire also opened at the corner of Sadovaya Street, along Nevsky Prospect, Ligovskaya Street, at the corner of 1-th Rozhdestvenskaya Street and Suvorovsky Prospect. The first barricades appeared on the outskirts, workers seized enterprises, pogroms of police stations took place.

The report of the Security Department on that day noted: “During the riots, there was observed (as a general phenomenon) an extremely defiant attitude of tumultuous assemblages to military outfits, in which the crowd, in response to an invitation to disperse, threw snow from the streets with stones and clods. With the preliminary firing of troops up, the crowd not only did not disperse, but met similar volleys with laughter. Only by the use of live ammunition in the midst of the crowd was it possible to disperse the assemblies, the participants of which, however, most of them hid in the courtyards of nearby houses and, after stopping the shooting, went outside again. ”

Unrest began to cover the troops. There was a revolt of the 4 Company of the reserve battalion of the Life Guards Pavlovsky regiment, which participated in the dispersal of workers demonstrations. The soldiers opened fire on the police and on their own officers. On the same day, the rebellion was suppressed by the forces of the Preobrazhensky regiment, but more than 20 soldiers deserted with weapons. The commandant of the Peter and Paul Fortress refused to accept the whole company, the composition of which was greatly inflated (1100 people), stating that for such a number of prisoners he had no place. Only 19 assailants were arrested. The Minister of War Belyaev offered to hand over the perpetrators of the mutiny to the tribunal and execute, but General Khabalov did not dare to take such harsh measures, confining himself to arrest. Thus, the military command showed weakness or it was a conscious sabotage. The spark of rebellion in the troops had to be crushed in the most decisive way.

In the evening, at a private meeting with the chairman of the Council of Ministers Prince N. D. Golitsyn, it was decided to declare Petrograd under siege, but the authorities did not even manage to glue the relevant announcements, as they were being torn down. As a result, the authorities showed their weakness. It is obvious that in the military-political top of the Russian Empire there was a conspiracy and high-ranking officials played the “give-away” to the last, giving the opportunity for a “spontaneous” uprising to flare up. Nikolai did not have complete information and thought that this “nonsense” could easily be suppressed. Thus, in the first days, when there was still an opportunity to restore order, the highest military-political leadership of the empire was practically inactive or consciously indulged in a coup.

In 17.00, the king received a panicked telegram from the chairman of the Duma, M.V. Rodzianko, who claimed that "in the capital there is anarchy" and "parts of the troops are shooting at each other." The king said this to the Minister of the Imperial Court, VB Fredericksch, that “this fat man Rodzianko again writes nonsense to me”. In the evening, the chairman of the Council of Ministers, Prince Golitsyn, decided to announce a break in the work of the State Duma and the Council of State until April, reporting on this to Nicholas II. Late in the evening, Rodzianko sent another telegram to the headquarters demanding to cancel the decree dissolving the Duma and form a "responsible ministry" - otherwise, he said, if the revolutionary movement moves into the army, "the collapse of Russia, and with it the dynasty, is inevitable" . Copies of the telegram were sent to the front commander with a request to support this appeal before the king.

The crucial day for the revolution was the next day, February 27 (March 12), when soldiers began to join the uprising en masse. The first to revolt was the training team of the reserve battalion of the Volynsky regiment among the 600 men led by the senior non-commissioned officer T. I. Kirpichnikov. The headquarters command, captain I. S. Lashkevich, was killed, and the soldiers took possession of the arsenal, dismantled their rifles, and ran out into the street. Following the pattern of the striking workers, the rebel soldiers began to "shoot" the neighboring units, forcing them to join the uprising as well. The rebel battalions of the Lithuanian and Preobrazhensky regiments joined the rebellious Volynsky regiment, along with the 6 sapper battalion. Part of the officers of these regiments fled, some were killed. In the shortest possible time, the Volyns managed to attach to themselves about 20 thousand soldiers. A large-scale military uprising began.

To be continued ...
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 23 February 2017 07: 17 New
    10
    It was impossible to stop the troops withdrawn from the front to suppress riots, and martial law had long been introduced in the country, providing for the execution for anti-government protests during the country's war against a foreign aggressor, for strikes, for propaganda against the war. Too soft attitude led to terrible consequences.
    Stalin learned a lesson and did not allow anything like that in the Second World War: alarmists, provocateurs, defeatists, deserters were destroyed cruelly and mercilessly.
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 23 February 2017 07: 54 New
      23
      The tsarist regime itself spawned the February revolution with its anti-people policy, and no "troops withdrawn from the front to suppress the riots" could and could not change the situation. Even the royal family itself, the brothers and uncles of the "bloody monarch", understood this and sided with the bourgeois revolution.
      The death of the tsarist feudal regime was laid in its old-regime government, which did not coincide with the new history of the development of the world.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 February 2017 09: 05 New
        11
        Quote: vladimirZ
        The tsarist regime itself spawned the February revolution with its anti-people policy, and no "troops withdrawn from the front to suppress the riots" could and could not change the situation. Even the royal family itself, the brothers and uncles of the "bloody monarch", understood this and sided with the bourgeois revolution.
        The death of the tsarist feudal regime was laid in its old-regime government, which did not coincide with the new history of the development of the world.


        The WAR gave rise to difficulties, generated discontent with difficulties, which was used by provocateurs, traitors and speculators, as well as weak and stupid people who are looking around for the guilty.

        ALL warring countries have adopted severe legislation against strikes, strikers, alarmists, ALL parties agreed to support governments during the war. And it helped, although the regimes in the West were no less "anti-people." Or they were
        Quote: vladimirZ
        a new history of the development of the world.
        since you SUCCESSFULLY won and SUCCESSFULLY developed further? lol
        Everyone passed such laws, except for Russia, where martial law was not introduced, where the strikers regularly went on strike and demanded ..... an increase in salary, and this was during the war !!

        The demonstrators wanted more freedom (during the war!), Peace (everyone was tired), more food (although there was no hunger), more money.

        And just a year later, they received the results of their actions in the form of a medieval dictatorship, a wild internecine massacre, a real terrible hunger, money turned into nothing, a split, partially occupied country.

        But they wanted, it would seem, only good!

        Therefore, during the war, anyone needs a brutal dictatorship in the name of the main goal, without concessions and gentleness.
        1. The centurion
          The centurion 23 February 2017 14: 57 New
          +8
          Quote: Olgovich
          WAR gave rise to difficulties, generated discontent with difficulties

          By the end of 1916, economic hardship in Russia was exacerbated, there was a shortage of food, shoes and clothing in the country and the army. The origins of this economic crisis go to 1914 year. Because of the war, the Black Sea and Danish straits were closed to Russia, through which up to 90% of the country's foreign trade went. Russia was deprived of the ability to export food and import equipment, weapons and ammunition. A sharp reduction in military imports led on the front to the failures of the 1915 of the year (shell hunger, a great retreat). But as a result of the measures taken, military production increased many times over, and the shortage of ammunition and weapons was eliminated. This was written in more detail in the articles “Cossacks and the First World War. Part I, II, III, IV, V ". The situation with agricultural products was much more dramatic. Labor in the countryside was predominantly manual, and going into the army of millions of young and healthy men inevitably led to a reduction in production. But the sharp reduction in food exports since the beginning of the war had a positive impact on the domestic market and initially compensated for the decline in production. In addition, the remaining toilers of the village, as they could, tried to compensate for the loss of labor. In addition to people, horses were the main labor force in the village. Statistics show that, despite attracting millions of horses to the army, their number in the civilian sector over the 1914-1917 years not only did not decrease, but increased. All this made it possible to have a satisfactory food supply for the army and the rear until the fall of 1916. For comparison, the main belligerent powers of Europe introduced a card system in the first year of the war.

          English sugar food card from 22 September to 1914 year
          https://topwar.ru/66512-kazaki-i-fevralskaya-revo
          lyuciya.html
      2. creak
        creak 23 February 2017 09: 30 New
        +5
        Quote: vladimirZ
        The death of the tsarist feudal regime was laid in its old-regime government, which did not coincide with the new history of the development of the world.


        Speaking about the fall of the monarchy in Russia, it should also be borne in mind that monarchical regimes also collapsed in Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. All these countries were the losing side in WWI, and in Britain, one of the victorious countries, the monarchy's positions remained strong ...
        Despite all the differences and national characteristics of all these countries (including Russia., Which actually ended up in the camp of the vanquished), all these countries have one thing in common - they all failed. And the defeat in the war exacerbates the problems that exist in every country, exacerbates them to the extent of the crisis, passing into the collapse of the ruling regime ...
        And Russia in this regard is no exception ....
        It is no accident that they say that the wounds of the winners heal faster than the wounds of the vanquished ... The euphoria of victory muffles the severity of the problems and the pain of loss and suffering and who knows how events would turn out if Russia were in the camp of the victorious powers.
        However, history does not allow the subjunctive mood, and what happened is what happened ..
        1. vladimirZ
          vladimirZ 23 February 2017 10: 39 New
          +9
          In Britain, one of the victorious countries, the position of the monarchy remained strong ... - ranger

          In Great Britain there was a constitutional monarchy, little influence on the real politics and life of the British.
          And in Russia, Germany, Austria, Turkey there were absolute monarchies that completely subjugated the entire socio-political life.
          As they say, feel the difference.
          1. creak
            creak 23 February 2017 12: 46 New
            +2
            Quote: vladimirZ
            As they say, feel the difference.


            I feel the difference and I cannot call RI an absolute monarchy. The absolute monarchy was under Catherine II, and in 1917 there was the Constitution and the State Duma (with the opposition, there were even Bolsheviks and criticism of the government), newspapers of different orientations and a fairly independent judiciary, sometimes even justifying revolutionaries ...
            The fact is that the monarch and his entourage. it was just not possible to subjugate the social and political life and tighten the nuts to the end even in wartime conditions - and the weakness of the monarchy was one of the reasons for its collapse ...
            1. creak
              creak 23 February 2017 13: 04 New
              +7
              PSIn which absolute monarchy does the jury acquit, for example, the terrorist who shot the mayor? And in Russia, the terrorist Vera Zasulich was justified and released from punishment under the pressure of the so-called. public opinion and the king did not cancel this sentence ... There you have the absolute monarchy ...
              1. vladimirZ
                vladimirZ 23 February 2017 13: 50 New
                +6
                And with all this, in Russia there was an absolute monarchy, under the decorative Duma, which did not solve anything and was repeatedly dissolved.
                Well, you will not call it a constitutional monarchy?
                Monarchies are divided into absolute and limited. In the absolute monarchy of state. power is wholly and undividedly owned by the monarch and is not limited to any representative (legislative or legislative) body. (from political science course)
                What was the monarchy limited in Russia? Nothing. Therefore, whatever signs you call, it is an absolute monarchy.
              2. vladimirZ
                vladimirZ 23 February 2017 13: 50 New
                +1
                And with all this, in Russia there was an absolute monarchy, under the decorative Duma, which did not solve anything and was repeatedly dissolved.
                Well, you will not call it a constitutional monarchy?
                Monarchies are divided into absolute and limited. In the absolute monarchy of state. power is wholly and undividedly owned by the monarch and is not limited to any representative (legislative or legislative) body. (from political science course)
                What was the monarchy limited in Russia? Nothing. Therefore, whatever signs you call, it is an absolute monarchy.
              3. vladimirZ
                vladimirZ 23 February 2017 13: 50 New
                0
                And with all this, in Russia there was an absolute monarchy, under the decorative Duma, which did not solve anything and was repeatedly dissolved.
                Well, you will not call it a constitutional monarchy?
                Monarchies are divided into absolute and limited. In the absolute monarchy of state. power is wholly and undividedly owned by the monarch and is not limited to any representative (legislative or legislative) body. (from political science course)
                What was the monarchy limited in Russia? Nothing. Therefore, whatever signs you call, it is an absolute monarchy.
      3. venaya
        venaya 23 February 2017 10: 32 New
        +5
        quote = vladimirZ] The death of the tsarist feudal regime was laid in its old-regime government, which does not coincide with the new history of the development of the world [/ quote]
        Where did the “feudal regime” come from in the Russian Empire in 1917? In 1861, serfdom was abolished, after the revolutionary events of 1905 - 1907 the regime of constitutional monarchy was introduced, the same as in the British Empire. Only in contrast to Britain in RI in fact ("without fools"), namely the written constitution, because no written constitution still exists in Britain. They themselves write constitutions for other countries, and for themselves they consider such a restriction below their own dignity, while other countries write constitutions, starting with Poland, cut the borders of newly formed countries on different continents, even create whole empires, examples: “The German Empire” , "Japanese Empire", etc. Moreover, in their own country, the position of their workers is always perfect. An example is the uprising of the workers of the Manchester shipyard during the war years of WWI in 1917, when the British Navy was used to suppress the popular uprising, which, using heavy shells of the main caliber of the ships, defeated almost all the homes of the poor workers of the Manchester shipyard, and together with the children, women and old people. And no one, no one wrote about this in any newspaper in the world. This must be understood and realized!
        1. vladimirZ
          vladimirZ 23 February 2017 10: 47 New
          +7
          Where did the “feudal regime” come from in the Russian Empire in 1917? - venaya

          The feudal regime is determined not only by the presence of serfdom, but also by undeveloped socio-political relations that are inconsistent with developed capitalist society.
          For example, the same absolute monarchy with all its inherent dues, a significant class of landowners, the communal character of the Russian countryside, a weak capitalist industry, not capable of developing under the conditions of an absolute monarchy, are signs of the remnants of feudal relations in Russia.
          1. venaya
            venaya 23 February 2017 12: 20 New
            +2
            Quote: vladimirZ
            an absolute monarchy with all its inherent tricks, a significant class of landowners, the communal character of the Russian village

            What are you writing here? What is the absolute monarchy ?, in RI the monarchy was already limited by the constitution (unlike the British Empire, where there is still no constitution) and with the established parliamentary system, in the form of the State Duma. As for the landowners, so in Britain they still exist and at the same time they seem to not bother anyone. But in RI "the community character of the Russian village"was thoroughly defeated by the reforms of PA Stolypin, which, by the way, was one of the reasons for the discontent of the peasantry, which makes up the bulk of the population in the Republic of Ingushetia. By the way, the eSeR party, openly controlled from abroad, also took advantage of this discontent. succumb to imposed propaganda cliches that frankly did not correspond to the real situation in RI at that time. ”As to the“ developed capitalist system ”, they didn’t manage to do so in time and money wasn’t so elegant, the colonies really didn’t give the income that they had on the British Empire at that time, always looking for a reason there, replacing a reason with a reason.
            1. Pancer
              Pancer 23 February 2017 18: 44 New
              +8
              Quote: venaya
              in RI, the monarchy was already limited by the constitution

              What are you ?? Where did you get this from?
              Even Wikipedia gives the following edition - “The Basic State Laws of the Russian Empire - a set of laws relating to the general principles of the state system of the Russian Empire, which included the previous sources of law, was in effect from April 23, 1906 to September 1 (14), 1917.

              For the first time, the Basic Laws were codified under the guidance of M. M. Speransky and included in Volume 1 of the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire, published in 1832 and enforced in 1833 by the Manifesto of the Russian Emperor Nicholas I. For work on the Code of Laws M. M. Speransky He was awarded the highest state award - the Order of St. Andrew.

              On April 23, 1906, the Basic Laws were amended in connection with the publication by the Russian Emperor Nicholas II on August 6, 1905 of the Manifesto on the establishment of the State Duma, on October 17, 1905, the Manifesto "On Improving the State Order" and on February 20, 1906, the Manifesto on the reorganization of the State Council. As amended on April 23, 1906, the Basic State Laws became in fact the first constitution of Russia (in fact. Is not legally); they consisted of two sections, 17 chapters and 223 articles "
              That is, there was NO CONSTITUTION in RI, why lie?
              1. Uncle Murzik
                Uncle Murzik 24 February 2017 12: 22 New
                +1
                Pancer you are already ridiculous! And the thought of which king’s laws canceled? laughing
                1. Pancer
                  Pancer 24 February 2017 16: 57 New
                  +3
                  I didn’t read your comments funnier, so calm down.
      4. svp67
        svp67 23 February 2017 12: 24 New
        +6
        Quote: vladimirZ
        The tsarist regime itself spawned the February revolution with its anti-people policy, and no "troops withdrawn from the front to suppress the riots" could and could not change the situation.

        HOW more they could. And most importantly, the economic situation in the Capital could be changed for the better. But for this it was necessary to feel RESPONSIBLE for your Country and have character and courage, which we did not see in Nikolay 2, and then in Gorbachev. And our native Ukraine is also in Yanukovych ...
        1. Pancer
          Pancer 23 February 2017 18: 47 New
          +6
          Quote: svp67
          And most importantly, the economic situation in the Capital could be changed for the better.

          Yes? Why didn’t they change it? Probably because the RI authorities were INSUFFICIENT by this moment.
          As well as the carefully prepared coup d'etat with Gorbachev and Yeltsin — whoever reads that he sees — really, there was no reason for the disaster.
          Ukraine ... a quasi-state, the ANTIROSSIA project, naturally collapses, another question is to what degree of patience can people's patience be used?
    2. Alekseev
      Alekseev 23 February 2017 10: 19 New
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      Stalin learned a lesson and did not allow anything like that.

      That's for sure...
      Quote: vladimirZ
      the tsarist regime itself spawned a revolution

      But this, in general, is true!
      As they wrote later, to protect the throne in these days of chaos, two machine-gun battalions devoted to the sovereign would be enough, but in all of Russia there were not even a pair of such battalions.
      So what are we talking about?
      As for the tactics of fighting the revolution, Nicholas II, far from the strategy of governing the country, did not succeed here either.
      Gen.- Lieutenant A.A. Ignatiev, the author of 50 years in the ranks, wrote that it was not clear to which figure it occurred to him to fill the capital with reserve battalions in such a difficult and ambiguous time? The French, they say, did not do so and concentrated in the vicinity of Paris only the most faithful parts.
      They did not disdain the death penalty, but in our old-fashioned manner Nikolai Nikolaevich issued a secret order on the use of corporal punishment ...
      I did not understand, even though I was the commander in chief and grand duke, that in the conditions of an extremely bloody war this kind of "disciplinary practice" would only lead to an increase in hatred of the authorities. request
      And out of thousands of such acts, large and small, a revolution was born.
      History does not suffer a subjunctive mood, it is quite obvious that the sovereign’s weakness is only the visible part of the iceberg of degeneration of the nobility as a class of servants - the support of the Russian state, but, perhaps, if the head of Russia had a different personality, the transition to a new era of development for our country would have occurred without bloody extremes first half of the 20th century.
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 23 February 2017 11: 34 New
        +9
        Some foolish people claimed that there were enough two machine gun battalions. Great social contradictions have accumulated in the country — peasants demanded a solution to the agrarian question, workers demanded better working conditions, protection of their rights, intelligentsia — distribution and separation of legislative and executive power, real constitutional monarchy. How could two machine gun battalions solve these issues? On January 9, 1905 people were already shot - the first Russian revolution began, which was sunk in blood. And 10 years later it flashed again.
      2. Dart2027
        Dart2027 23 February 2017 15: 06 New
        +2
        Quote: Alekseev
        As they wrote later, to protect the throne in these days of chaos, two machine-gun battalions devoted to the sovereign would be enough, but in all of Russia there were not even a pair of such battalions.

        Here it is not necessary. When the unrest began and an order was sent to send reliable parts to suppression, this order was sabotaged by the conspirator generals, and the tsar himself was actually captured by General N.V. Ruzsky. In 1918, this "hero" was shot by the Bolsheviks - I wonder if he remembered his betrayal in the last minutes.
        Quote: Alekseev
        that it is not clear to which figure it occurred to him to fill the capital with reserve battalions in such a difficult and ambiguous time

        Those who were preparing to use them to their advantage.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 23 February 2017 17: 41 New
          +5
          Quote: Dart2027
          Here it is not necessary. When the unrest began and an order was sent to send reliable parts to suppress, this order was sabotaged by the conspirator generals,

          The Emperor himself gave the command to suspend the movement of faithful units, because Khabalov assured that everything is under control. It was not easy for him to leave Stavka, and Alekseev very much asked him about it.
          Quote: Dart2027
          Ruzsky. In 1918, this "hero" was shot by the Bolsheviks - I wonder if he remembered his betrayal in the last minutes.

          I think that I remembered very much and he had time: he was not shot, but they chopped his neck with a dull saber several times. He was hacked among dozens of other generals and officers in Pyatigorsk in the cemetery. And to the skillful grunt there was a line of hostages, avoiding inept killers. Ruzsky was unlucky .....
          1. Dart2027
            Dart2027 23 February 2017 18: 08 New
            +3
            Quote: Olgovich
            The Emperor himself gave the command to suspend the movement of faithful units, because Khabalov assured that everything is under control

            Who is Khabalov? One of this audience who had everything but wanted more.
            Quote: Olgovich
            It was not easy for him to leave Alekseev from Stavka

            Alekseev himself was soiled to the ears. If the emperor had reached the capital, it would have been possible to defuse the situation somehow.
            Quote: Olgovich
            Ruzsky unlucky

            The award found a hero.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 23 February 2017 21: 01 New
              +4
              Quote: Dart2027
              Alekseev himself was soiled to the ears. If the emperor had reached the capital, it would have been possible to defuse the situation somehow.


              I think I have studied this point in sufficient detail and I can say with a sufficient degree of confidence that Alekseev was not messed up in anything. He did not possess reliable information and all the time he was only catching up with a situation from which he shamelessly lagged.

              There are facsimile copies of all telegrams of these days and hours of the Bet and to the Bet, these are real impartial documents, it can be seen from them that Alekseyev tried to the last to save both order and order.
          2. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 23 February 2017 23: 06 New
            +2
            Quote: Olgovich
            Quote: Dart2027
            Ruzsky. In 1918, this "hero" was shot by the Bolsheviks - I wonder if he remembered his betrayal in the last minutes.

            I think that I remembered very much and he had time: he was not shot, but they chopped his neck with a dull saber several times. He was hacked among dozens of other generals and officers in Pyatigorsk in the cemetery. And to the skillful grunt there was a line of hostages, avoiding inept killers. Ruzsky was unlucky .....


            General Ruzsky was shot along with several dozens of other hostages, after the commander of the 11th army, former colonel Sorokin, having changed Soviet power, shot the leaders of the Central Executive Committee of the North Caucasus and the Soviet commander Matveev.

            The version of General Ruzsky hacked down by a saber was invented by bourgeois scribes as a horror story to describe the Red Terror. Usually they refer to the Act of Investigation in the case of the arrest and murder of hostages in Pyatigorsk in October 1918 of the Special Investigation Commission to Investigate the Bolshevik Atrocities. But it contains all the absurd rumors and gossip that the price of this source is the same as the Solzhenitsyn Gulag Archipelago.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 24 February 2017 13: 02 New
              +3
              Quote: Alexander Green
              General Ruzsky was shot along with several dozens of other hostages, after the commander of the 11th army, former colonel Sorokin, having changed Soviet power, shot the leaders of the Central Executive Committee of the North Caucasus and the Soviet commander Matveev.

              How can I change illegal authorities? belay
              What does the generals, officers and officials who left from c. wars in Pyatigorsk, to the internal Bolshevik showdowns?
              Quote: Alexander Green
              The version of General Ruzsky hacked down by a saber was invented by bourgeois scribes as a horror story to describe the Red Terror. Usually they refer to the Act of Investigation in the case of the arrest and murder of hostages in Pyatigorsk in October 1918 of the Special Investigation Commission to Investigate the Bolshevik Atrocities. But it contains all the absurd rumors and gossip that the price of this source is the same as the Solzhenitsyn Gulag Archipelago.


              There are testimonies of the cemetery guards, direct witnesses to the executions. Why not trust them?
              Maybe you believe? Why on earth? Or comm. the so-called documents ", where the concept of" truth "is completely absent?
              You open the newspapers of 32-33 years, when millions died of hunger, at least the word where? And so in everything and everywhere.
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 24 February 2017 22: 45 New
                +2
                Quote: Olgovich
                How can I change the illegal government?


                This is not legal for you, but for millions of working people it was legal, because every nation has the right to revolt.
              2. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 24 February 2017 22: 53 New
                +4
                Quote: Olgovich
                There are testimonies of the cemetery guards, direct witnesses to the executions. Why not trust them?
                Maybe you believe? Why on earth? Or comm. the so-called documents ", where the concept of" truth "is completely absent?


                And you read these testimonies carefully and turn on your brains a little, and then you will see that this is an ordinary lie.

                You, for example, are not surprised how two cemetery watchmen, most likely middle-aged, were able to dig such a grave in one day so that coffins and six dozen corpses of adults, probably not thin men, could fit there? Here you can’t do without an excavator.

                Further, the execution took place on November 1, 1918, and the exhumation was carried out on February 28, 1919, and in the act they colorfully paint that the remains of those executed were fetidly decomposed. I will never believe that in November and three cold winter months, the bodies could decompose in the ground so that the remaining skeletons fell apart. The corpses lay in the cold earth as in a refrigerator. Under such conditions, all cartilage and muscles could not rot.

                Hack people with dumb sabers. Yes, and to whom it was entrusted. Sailors and Red Army soldiers who never held swords in their hands. Only those who saw the cabin only in the cinema could come up with this. They describe how a dumb saber of one of the victims was chopped off, but try to cut the bone with a saber, not with an ax and without a meat deck.

                In addition, hacking a man with a saber is not easy, I do not think that at least one artist was found for this, but here the whole team ...

                Even the Cossacks who have learned to wield a saber since childhood, and even this is a shock for them, even if they hacked someone in battle. Read MA Sholokhov "Quiet Don", where he describes the hysteria of Melekhov, who hacked artillery service staff in battle.

                Dragged and Atarbekova. Well, of course, a dzhigit, walks with a dagger - and the dagger must be cut. But the witnesses are not docked. They say about Atarbekov that he boasted that he killed Ruzsky with two blows of a dagger, and the first time he hit on the arm and then on the head. I’m not Stanislavsky, but I’ll also say: “I don’t believe!” Already a horse, so an amateurish dagger would not apply.

                Yes, and as a witness who was hiding somewhere behind the trees, he could on a dark southern autumn night, among the people hanging out, when everyone shouted and moaned, to see that it was General Ruzsky that he had passed away after five blows, without one scream.

                And atrocities as painted. Some victims had their noses and ears cut off, blood poured in, and under the legs of the executioners, entrails were strewn. In general, they inherited so much, just puddles of blood, didn’t anyone splash blood at night?

                After all, the Chekists stained with blood, in November at night had to wash themselves somewhere to hide this? And if they got sloppy back to the base, then really nobody saw them?
                And if they inherited so much, then why did not one of the relatives know for a long time where their loved ones had gone and believed that they had been taken away. And really in the cemetery no one noticed the traces of such cutting, and this is when people were buried there daily.

                In general, all this evidence is an ordinary fake, it is the fruit of a feverish delirium of those who pathologically hated the Soviet regime in order to defame the Bolsheviks, the USSR, and ruin our history and our grandfathers. But our grandfathers were not butchers!

                PS It’s hard to say when this libel was created, most likely it was concocted in the 90s of the last century, when they threw a bunch of misinformation into the media, because this “ACT” was published on the Internet according to the 2004 edition book. Moreover, they do not refer to any archives and do not cite the original act anywhere.
                1. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene 25 February 2017 20: 40 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Alexander Green
                  PS It’s hard to say when this libel was created, most likely it was concocted in the 90s of the last century, when they threw a bunch of misinformation into the media, because this “ACT” was published on the Internet according to the 2004 edition book. Moreover, they do not refer to any archives and do not cite the original act anywhere.


                  Continuing the topic.

                  Here is how he describes the bloody reprisal committed by the Kolchakites not only to the Bolsheviks, but also to the Socialist Revolutionary and Menshevik leaders of the directory, one of the surviving victims - a member of the Central Committee of the Right Socialist Revolutionary Party D.F. In the dungeons of Kolchak. Voice from Siberia. ”

                  “The murder itself presents a picture so wild and terrible that it is difficult to talk about it even to people who have seen a lot of horrors in the past and in the present. The unfortunate were stripped, left in only one underwear: the killers, obviously, needed their clothes. They beat them with all kinds of weapons, with the exception of artillery: they beat them with rifle butts, stabbed with bayonets, chopped with sabers, shot them with rifles and revolvers ...

                  ... N. Fomin (SR) was inflicted 13 wounds, of which only 2 were gunshot. He, still alive, tried to chop off his hands with sabers, but the sabers, apparently, were stupid, resulting in deep wounds on the shoulders and under the arms. It’s difficult for me, it’s hard now to describe how they tortured, scoffed, and tortured our comrades ”(p.20-21).
                  It is very likely that the falsifiers in drawing up the Act, which was supposed to testify to the crimes of the Reds in Pyatigorsk in October 1918, were inspired by this particular picture, it was very similarly drawn up.
    3. svp67
      svp67 23 February 2017 12: 21 New
      +7
      Quote: Olgovich
      It was impossible to stop the troops withdrawn from the front to suppress riots, and martial law had long been introduced in the country, providing for the execution for anti-government protests during the country's war against a foreign aggressor, for strikes, for propaganda against the war. Too soft attitude led to terrible consequences.

      Have you decided to replay History? What happened then cannot be changed. And in the 90s we again "stepped on the same rake." Maybe it's time not to rewrite History, but to draw conclusions from its consequences?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 February 2017 13: 17 New
        +6
        Quote: svp67
        Quote: Olgovich
        It was impossible to stop the troops withdrawn from the front to suppress riots, and martial law had long been introduced in the country, providing for the execution for anti-government protests during the country's war against a foreign aggressor, for strikes, for propaganda against the war. Too soft attitude led to terrible consequences.

        Have you decided to replay History? What happened then cannot be changed. And in the 90s we again "stepped on the same rake." Maybe it's time not to rewrite History, but to draw conclusions from its consequences?

        What is my rewriting of history?
        belay
        1. svp67
          svp67 23 February 2017 13: 23 New
          +4
          Quote: Olgovich
          What is my rewriting of history?

          By the fact that you actually give advice on how to act, those people who have not been alive for a long time
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 23 February 2017 17: 43 New
            +5
            Quote: svp67
            By the fact that you actually give advice on how to act, those people who have not been alive for a long time

            It is impossible for them to give advice. It is possible to give an assessment of their actions and mistakes.
            1. Pancer
              Pancer 25 February 2017 16: 35 New
              +3
              Quote: Olgovich
              It is possible to give an assessment of their actions and mistakes.

              All estimates have already been given, HISTORY rendered its verdict-White lost.
              Therefore, all the cries. Shouts of "advice" like yours, already useless to no one, an empty torrent.
              The story took place as it took place.
    4. V.ic
      V.ic 23 February 2017 13: 13 New
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      Stalin learned a lesson and did not allow anything like that in WWII

      ... uti-paths-uti-paths ... The Khlebobuchnik sang the "bloody dictator" sang!
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 February 2017 13: 19 New
        +7
        Quote: V.ic
        ..uti-paths-uti-paths ... The hobbyist sang the "bloody dictator" sang!


        Peskohrustu does not understand that all people gain useful experience.
      2. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 24 February 2017 12: 25 New
        0
        V.ic to a liberal as Olgovich everything is better known from there! laughing
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 24 February 2017 13: 06 New
          +2
          Quote: Uncle Murzik
          V.ic to a liberal as Olgovich everything is better known from there! laughing

          No, it’s more visible to the sand crusts (from which sand is pouring)!
  2. Mar.Tirah
    Mar.Tirah 23 February 2017 07: 41 New
    +5
    From this information the head already swells. There is nothing for historians writing a dissertation, and arguing in discussions. I know that a revolution would not have taken place without a reason. And it’s bad that we are again led to this!
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 23 February 2017 11: 03 New
      +3
      Quote: Mar. Tira
      From this information the head already swells.

      There is such a thing, and judging by the minimum number of comments, this topic is already fed up
    2. michajlo
      michajlo 23 February 2017 11: 33 New
      +6
      Mar. Thira Today, 07: 41 New
      From this information the head already swells. There is nothing for historians writing a dissertation, and arguing in discussions. I know that a revolution would not have taken place without a reason. And it’s bad that we are again led to this!

      voyaka uh Today, 09: 47 New
      And this time Samsonov wrote a calm detailed review of events without his
      subjective conclusions in bold and without the usual conspiracy theological geopolitics.
      Good for you!

      I welcome you dear!
      And for the revolution there were reasons and reasons for starting WWI, too, were compelling, so geopolitics and conspiracies cannot be avoided!
      Yes, the difficult situation at the front, the deterioration of the condition of the workers and peasants in the rear, plus the work of various groups from essayers, social democrats, and others also bore fruit. The desire to fight and die at the front "for the tsar", especially among the wounded and recruits - diminished. And I will allow myself an seditious thought that if there had not been a February revolution in St. Petersburg, then the October Revolution itself might also not have existed at all.
      But I cannot do without geopolitics and “world bankers”.
      There are many questions to deeper reasons, and most importantly to the consequences of the PMV (1914-1918).
      In addition, the WWI began the war with some trifling murder of the Archduke in Sarajevo and successfully pulled all the monarchies on the European continent. As a result, after the WWI, the Russian Empire collapsed (Poland, the Baltic states, Finland disconnected), Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, and the Ottoman disintegrated.
      But for some reason, the English Empire, separated by the English Channel, and the American bankers, separated by the Pacific Ocean from Europe, got rich without loss !?
      And the question is why these two countries survived, and they got rich, and in all European empires a tornado of disasters, collapse, impoverishment swept !!! Moreover, after the war again, money was needed for restoration to ALL COUNTRIES, including the young and hated by the rest of the USSR / Russia.
      And the money was available, preserved and multiplied only by the bankers in England and in the USA, and for some reason, the bankers "come from the land of ancient Judea" !?

      The post-war organization of the countries that arose and remained on the lands of former European countries was decided for some reason, at various Saint-Germain and other conferences around European capitals in several American cities, with the obligatory participation of American, British politicians, instructions which were given not so much by the heads of their governments as the Rothschilds, Rockefellers and other heads of usurious families ?!
      The answer to my questions listed above all the same suggests that, in addition to the familiar and familiar from the old history textbooks, reasons for WWII and revolutions (WHICH AND ALL European EMPIRE WAS DECLINED, besides English), there were others that were little published, but still very weighty and maybe the main ones!
      Because to the questions:
      - Who benefited from WWII and revolution?
      - Who received the profits and ascended over the other opponents-partners?

      in my opinion there is only one answer
      - WINNERS, RICHERS and STRENGTHENED ITS INFLUENCE only "some bankers of Jewish nationality" in England, the USA and Switzerland.
      That is about dismissing thinking forum users, after this answer from the theory of "world financial government"?
      Like the presence among the revolutionaries of Russia of a large number of Jews, it also points to the "role of banking families" in unleashing the WWII and MONEY SUPPORT BY THEM of various revolutionary trends in the Old World in the 19th and 20th centuries.
      Only in Russia itself, the plans of US bankers to inflate the "world communist revolution", by the efforts of Leib Bronstein (Leon Trotsky), the nephew of an American banker, even in the second half of the 20 of the XX century, Stalin was able to neutralize, abandoning efforts to inflate the “world revolution” and concentrating on the rise of ONE Russia / USSR and accelerated industrialization, increased education and the construction of the military-industrial complex, and increased power of the Soviet Army.
      Likewise, it is NOT RANDOM after the death (killing) of Stalin, the curtailment of his ideas and the efforts of Khrushchov to debunk the cult of personality, and the conclusion from the control of the NKVD starting from the 2-th secretary of the party district committee and above, quickly led to the degeneration of party functionaries into partocracy and further to 1985-89-91 to the collapse of the socialist countries and the collapse of the USSR.
      Mikhailo.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 23 February 2017 07: 44 New
    +2
    On March 1 (14), the Provisional Committee of the State Duma received recognition from Great Britain and France. On March 2 (15), the abdication of Nicholas II took place.
    ... The empire was still swinging, the emperor did not deny, and the raven flied ...
  4. venaya
    venaya 23 February 2017 08: 04 New
    +5
    troops did not become a factor of stability, as, for example, during the First Revolution of 1905-1907. On the contrary, the army at that time already became a source of unrest and anarchy ...

    For these purposes, a guard was created, and not at all in order to die not at the front lines of military battles, and first of all to protect the king / king / emperor. What happened in practice? The Guard, as the most loyal military units to the tsar, was thrown into the most difficult sectors of the front, and the most loyal to the tsar units, primarily the officers, died elementarily at the very beginning of hostilities. This is not the only, but one of the initial mistakes made by the monarchy. At that time, Petrograd had a huge number of military infirmaries, where the wounded / shell-shocked soldiers did not aim at the front at all and under the influence of enemy propaganda simply searched for any way to return home, and not to the front. The total number of mistakes made at that time exceeded the critical mark, and the country collapsed under their weight. But in reality, one could hope for the preservation of the country and the monarchy, because in reality everything had already been programmed for many years before the start of the WWII, too influential and serious forces participated in this disgrace, however, as in our time.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 23 February 2017 09: 51 New
      +7
      "For these purposes, a guard was created, and not at all to die not at the front lines of military battles,
      and first of all to protect the king / king / emperor "///

      Here is a discovery! So the guard is riot police?
      Guards regiments were created by Peter the Great, and they are always in all wars and battles
      thrown into the thick of the battles.
      The fact that they were ruined in 1915 in a poorly planned and lost battle does not cancel the general
      principle.
      1. venaya
        venaya 23 February 2017 10: 26 New
        +2
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Guards regiments were created by Peter the Great, and they are always in all wars and battles
        thrown into the thick of the battles.

        Exactly. The main task of the guard is to be ahead of everyone in the most important sectors of the front. And the main section of the front in February 1917 turned out to be Petrograd. The guard has always attacked, led by a king / king, in the most important sectors of the front. By the way: "militia"- in translation and means armed people, the guard is also not unarmed, and in all countries it performed, including a function similar to that of OMON. which is not surprising.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 23 February 2017 10: 52 New
          +7
          "And the main section of the front in February 1917 turned out to be Petrograd" ///

          And the main adversary is women in lines for bread.
          When the Guard has to engage against its own people, the regime -
          on the verge of natural gasp. It is verified worldwide ...
          The fact is that the Guards soldiers have the same women, wives or mothers - at home.
          One shot at them, two ... a third shotguns turned against their commanders.
          Which happened during many revolutions (not only in Russia).
          Therefore, the number of such "guardsmen" will not solve the problem. We need to bring bread.
          1. venaya
            venaya 23 February 2017 12: 03 New
            +3
            Quote: voyaka uh
            the number of such "guardsmen" will not solve the problem. We need to bring bread

            It was a real famine in the German Empire, yet the food supply blockade on the whole perimeter of the “Triple Alliance” (except from Turkey) worked quite effectively. But in the Republic of Ingushetia, the same blockade led to an overabundance of food, as a result of the blockade, traditional export of food was frankly difficult. Moreover, the famine in Petrograd was carried out not without the help of agents not only of the hostile “Triple Alliance” of the Central European powers, but also mainly agents of the “allies” in the Entente, namely the British (they turned it), whom the Americans promised military help in the form of the actual military formations of the United States itself. The Americans did not need to economically fight for the interests of the Republic of Ingushetia, they generally sought to defeat the extra economic competitors, which, among other things, was the rapidly developing Russian Empire at that time. So try to take a closer look at the history of that time period. No one needs imposed propaganda cliches today. And the guard should always be ahead of all key events, led by the sovereign, this is a general law.
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 23 February 2017 12: 56 New
              +4
              Well, the usual conspiracy thesis began ... external enemies to justify
              ordinary theft, sloppiness and bureaucracy.
              The logistics of food supply was bad - that was what the authorities had to deal with (involving the army).
              And do not bring elite units to the capital to shoot in volleys into the crowd.
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              5. venaya
                venaya 23 February 2017 14: 02 New
                +5
                Quote: voyaka uh
                The logistics of food supply was bad - that was what the authorities had to deal with (involving the army).

                Thank you for recognizing that the true amount of food in the country was more than enough. The question really was its delivery. The export of food was seriously hampered, due to the natural, in the conditions of war, restriction of distribution channels as well as transport. For this reason, in the conditions of the war, the construction of the railway to Murmansk was organized and successfully completed (even involving Chinese workers). And as for the elite military units, such as the Guard, so they are primarily the most loyal to the sovereign and the country and naturally the most reliable. Let me remind you: the city policemen completely disappeared from the capital these days, before that they were simply shot, even my grandfather spoke to me about this, being a witness to those events. So no one, no one except the guard, could really stop an organized mess. This is evidenced not only by the domestic, but the entire world practice, let us recall the events before the "Great French Revolution". Yes, and today's realities, when in the 90th year dozens, hundreds of tons of food in the form of sausages were thrown into the trash, as even A. Nevzorov colorfully told. And today's events on the outskirts: endless Maidan, hunger, and all this is already in the XNUMXst century. So you don’t have to "turn on the fool", quite competent and experienced people gathered on the VO site. And further: Tales of spontaneous "revolutions" leave for the demented - otherwise we just can’t see good luck.
              6. Alikos
                Alikos 24 February 2017 09: 42 New
                +1
                Quote: voyaka uh
                Well, the usual conspiracy thesis began ... external enemies to justify
                ordinary theft, sloppiness and bureaucracy.
                The logistics of food supply was bad - that was what the authorities had to deal with (involving the army).
                And do not bring elite units to the capital to shoot in volleys into the crowd.


                The conspiracy of the world usurious mafia
          2. venaya
            venaya 23 February 2017 12: 06 New
            +1
            Quote: voyaka uh
            the number of such "guardsmen" will not solve the problem. We need to bring bread

            It was a real famine in the German Empire, yet the food supply blockade on the whole perimeter of the “Triple Alliance” (except from Turkey) worked quite effectively. But in the Republic of Ingushetia, the same blockade led to an overabundance of food, as a result of the blockade, traditional export of food was frankly difficult. Moreover, the famine in Petrograd was carried out not without the help of agents not only of the hostile “Triple Alliance” of the Central European powers, but also mainly agents of the “allies” in the Entente, namely the British (they turned it), whom the Americans promised military help in the form of the actual military formations of the United States itself. The Americans did not need to economically fight for the interests of the Republic of Ingushetia, they generally sought to defeat the extra economic competitors, which, among other things, was the rapidly developing Russian Empire at that time. So try to take a closer look at the history of that time period. No one needs imposed propaganda cliches today. And the guard should always be ahead of all key events, led by the sovereign, this is a general law.
          3. Olgovich
            Olgovich 23 February 2017 12: 16 New
            +8
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Therefore, the number of such "guardsmen" will not solve the problem. We need to bring bread.

            In Germany, Austria-decided. And there was much less bread there, as well as 800 thousand who died of starvation.

            There was no martial law with the laws of war and the desire to destroy internal enemies, everyone wanted to solve the world and concessions .....
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 23 February 2017 12: 51 New
              +4
              Unrealistic in the conditions of Russia. In Germany, the supreme power is traditionally
              more respected because of German discipline, and then there was a revolution.
              And in Russia it was already 1905. And they did not forget him.
              Be that as it may, it was necessary to get out of the war. Probably gradually.
              No offensive. The units that have been at the front since the start of the war were let go home.
              To take time, in a word. And move on to a real constitutional monarchy.
              And the Constituent Assembly would still lead Russia out of the war. Since it was
              program item of the Socialist Revolutionaries, after the "decree on the earth." And they had an overwhelming majority.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 23 February 2017 17: 52 New
                +4
                Quote: voyaka uh
                take time, in a word. And move on to a real constitutional monarchy.

                pull yes. The Constitution in Russia was, and the current and very democratic.
                Quote: voyaka uh
                And the Constituent Assembly would still lead Russia out of the war. Since it was
                program item of the Socialist Revolutionaries, after the "decree on the earth." And they had an overwhelming majority.

                Would bring: together with the countries of the Entente after the Victory. The vast majority of the Socialist-Revolutionaries. And the Brest peace was not accepted, even by the left, although for other reasons.
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 February 2017 09: 47 New
    +2
    And this time Samsonov wrote a calm detailed review of events without his
    subjective conclusions in bold and without the usual conspiracy theological geopolitics.
    Good for you!
  6. RUSS
    RUSS 23 February 2017 14: 21 New
    +3
    Recently, it has been fashionable to call various political processes and events in the world - revolutions, although they are not revolutions because -Revolution (from late Lat. revolutio - turn, coup, transformation, conversion) - a radical, fundamental, profound, qualitative change, a leap in the development of society, nature or knowledge, coupled with an open break with a previous state. A revolution as a qualitative leap in development, as faster and more significant changes are distinguished both from evolution (where development takes place more slowly), and from reform (during which a change in any part of the system is made without affecting existing foundations).
    Thus, both February 1917 and Maidan 2014 and other "color revolutions" are neither revolution nor coup d'etat.
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 23 February 2017 22: 08 New
      +1
      Quote: RUSS
      Thus, both February 1917 and Maidan 2014 and other "color revolutions" are neither revolution nor coup d'etat.


      You are not quite right here. The February Revolution of 1917, unlike the Maidan of 2014 and other color revolutions, is the most bourgeois revolution, thanks to which Russia passed from the monarchy to the bourgeois republic. It is on a par with the Great French Bourgeois Revolution.
  7. Freeman
    Freeman 23 February 2017 15: 36 New
    +2
    Olgovich Today, 09:05
    The demonstrators wanted more freedom (during the war!), Peace (everyone was tired), more food (although there was no hunger), more money.

    Here is an interesting test: http://arzamas.academy/materials/1258
    WHO WOULD YOU BE IN 1917
    Political life in 1917 was extremely stormy. Some parties and groups wanted to give land to the peasants, and factories to the workers; others were eager to wage war to a victorious end; others dreamed of quickly destroying the state to the ground.
    To find out which one you would join, you need to take a test and evaluate 27 statements about the most pressing problems for September 1917, when the Kornilov rebellion did not succeed, and the October revolution did not happen yet.
    http://arzamas.academy/materials/1258

    I passed - and you?
    1. igoryok1984
      igoryok1984 23 February 2017 16: 42 New
      +1
      I have the same result
    2. Koshak
      Koshak 23 February 2017 17: 11 New
      +1
      And I am also a Bolshevik fellow
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 23 February 2017 17: 59 New
      +2
      I am a constitutional democrat.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 23 February 2017 18: 23 New
        +3
        I am Black Hundred, with the Feast of all! and the Bolsheviks, and the Cadets, and of course the Black Hundreds.
  8. cedar
    cedar 23 February 2017 18: 21 New
    +1
    Quote: voyaka uh
    And this time Samsonov wrote a calm detailed review of events without his
    subjective conclusions in bold and without the usual conspiracy theological geopolitics.
    Good for you!


    "... Obviously, there was a conspiracy in the military-political elite of the Russian Empire and senior officials played" giveaways "until the last, giving the opportunity to flare up a" spontaneous "uprising. Nikolai did not have complete information and thought that this "nonsense" could easily be suppressed. Thus, in the early days, when there was still the opportunity to restore order, the top military-political leadership of the empire was practically inactive or deliberately condoned a coup ... "
    Author: Samsonov Alexander.
    See at the root of the February revolution, dear.
  9. ZNGRU
    ZNGRU 23 February 2017 19: 23 New
    +3
    I understand more and more that, since 1953, slowly and since 1991 very quickly, my country in its economic status returned to 1913 - pro-Western elites and the gas station economy ......
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 23 February 2017 19: 44 New
      +1
      ...... and the gas station economy ....
      The language of the State Department, and in the picture the signature is probably with an accent, let's say .... shot
      1. ZNGRU
        ZNGRU 23 February 2017 20: 04 New
        +2
        You better tell me what to do? ....
        To openly rebel - they will crush it with blood .... but the authorities no longer have the strength to endure the oligarchs ...
        Elections are useless for
        1. All school principals, etc. drive all workers to vote for the Yerodovo tribe.
        (from the testimony of my mother-teacher on the events of 2000-2007)
        2. By the parties-the Communist Party only balabolit, the Liberal Democratic Party always stirs up water, and all the rest just pull the voices of suckers.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 23 February 2017 20: 09 New
          +2
          ..... what to do?
          Celebrate February 23, with which I congratulate you!
          1. ZNGRU
            ZNGRU 23 February 2017 20: 14 New
            +1
            Okay. hi
            Here I listen to Katyusha ... soldier .
        2. Pancer
          Pancer 23 February 2017 20: 42 New
          +5
          Quote: ZNGRU
          the parties-the Communist Party only balabolit, the Liberal Democratic Party always stirs up water, and all the rest just pull the voices of suckers.

          That's while you think that-
          Quote: ZNGRU
          Communist Party only balabolit
          all these balabol from LDPR to others confidently pull the "victory" of the EP.
          In reality, in the country, the so-called parties of the liberal party are marginalized if it weren’t for TV and radio. About them. Nobody would have heard, known or perceived as something ugly, is it possible to take Gozman and K as something healthy?
          LDPR .. party of one talented, evil and clever clown, if you want a jester who is allowed to say everything, literally, anything, there is no demand, it's a kind of A) Chief steam-whistle, bleeding steam. B) Measurement of public opinion. C) Discredit including the country's only oppositional opposition force, the same Communist Party, with all its shortcomings and not a charismatic leader.
          In fact, everything is so ... otherwise, the defamation of the Communist Party, including Zhirinovsky repeating exactly the same nonsense as gozman. You can not name.
          1. ZNGRU
            ZNGRU 24 February 2017 06: 04 New
            +1
            Although I see the Communist Party balabolov but I will vote for them.
            But the party is almost completely rotten - there are all crooks except ordinary members.
            The Communist Party should be completely renewed by young members from the common people, well, and this Zyuganov should be removed — sand is already pouring out of him and he is not charismatic as the country's leader.
            1. Pancer
              Pancer 25 February 2017 19: 22 New
              +4
              Is this for example Grudinin-a swindler?
              If you are not a member of the party, why are you so indignant? Uncle doesn’t like it, so join the party. If you can’t change it from the inside, then why can you not get such an annoying itch, then from the Zhirinovites about the Communist Party, then from Yerovtsev, then supposedly non-partisan?
              Can you object to something here?
              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlJmHNIGloA&t
              = 870s
              Can you object to Grudinin?
              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwTUK4LByPY
              Or do you argue something for example K. Babkin?