Fevralista - representatives of the social elite of the Russian Empire (grand dukes, aristocrats, generals, financial and industrial elite, political figures, deputies, etc.), believed that the destruction of the autocracy would allow them to make Russia a constitutional monarchy or a republic, on the model of their beloved England and france. In fact, it was a pro-Western, Masonic conspiracy, since the Februaryists considered the Western world to be the ideal. And the king - the legacy of ancient times, his sacred figure, prevented them from taking full power in their hands.
A similar elite conspiracy was already in Russia in the 19th century, when the Decembrists, representatives of the Russian aristocracy, seduced by Western ideas of “freedom, equality and fraternity” revolted. However, in 1825, most of the elite of the Russian empire did not support the uprising, the army was the mainstay of the empire, and Tsar Nikolai Pavlovich and his comrades showed the will and determination, not afraid to shed the blood of the conspirators. In February 1917, the situation changed - most of the “elite” betrayed the royal throne, including the top generals, the cadre army bled to death on the battlefields of the First World War, and the king was different, he could not go against the representatives of the top of the empire (according to the principle “and No man is an island").
In general, the 1917 revolution of the year (unrest) was a natural phenomenon. The Russian civilization during the rule of the Romanovs experienced a deep social crisis. The Romanovs and the “elite” of the empire, who generally sought to live by Western standards and parasitized the bulk of the population, did not seek to transform society in Russia into the “kingdom of God”, in which ethics of conscience reigns and there is no parasitism on labor and the life of people. However, the code matrix of the Russian civilization and the people is not subject to such arbitrariness and sooner or later responds to social injustice with distemper, through which the renewal of society and the emergence of a more just system that meets the aspirations of the majority of the people can occur.
Among the main contradictions that have torn apart the Romanov empire, there are several major ones. Under the Romanovs, Russia partially lost the spiritual core of Orthodoxy (“Glory of Government”), a combination of the ancient traditions of Vedic Russia and Christianity (Jesus' Good News). The official Nikonian church, created after an informational diversion from the West, crushed the “living faith” of Sergius of Radonezh. Orthodoxy turned into a formality, the essence of the lured form, faith - empty rituals. The church became a department of the bureaucratic, state apparatus. The fall of the spirituality of the people began, the fall of the authority of the clergy. The common people began to despise the priests. The official, Nikonian orthodoxy becomes shallow, loses its connection with God, becomes an appearance. In the final we will see blown up temples and monasteries, and with complete indifference of the masses. At the same time, the most healthy part of the Russian people, the Old Believers, will go over to the opposition to the Romanov state. Old Believers retain purity, sobriety, high morals and spirituality. The official authorities long pursued the Old Believers, turned them against the state. Under the conditions when they were persecuted for two centuries, the Old Believers endured, retreated into the remote areas of the country and created their own economic, cultural structure, their own Russia. As a result, the Old Believers will become one of the revolutionary forces that the Russian Empire will destroy. The capitals of the industrialists and bankers of the Old Believers (who have honestly worked for centuries, accumulating national capital) will work for the revolution.
In this way, Tsarist Russia lost one of the main pillars of the Russian state - spirituality. During the revolution, the formal church not only did not support the king, moreover, the clergy almost immediately began to praise the Provisional Government in prayers. As a result of the spiritual degradation of the church - the total destruction of the church world, many sacrifices. And now, clergymen demand repentance from the people, participate in creating the myth of "beautiful Tsarist Russia", "terrible Bolsheviks" who destroyed the "old Russia" and gradually grab property and property piece by piece (for example, St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg), forming a separate class of "gentlemen" and large owners.
It should be noted that in the Russian Federation of the sample of the end of the XX - XXI century, the same thing happens. Many new churches, churches, monastic complexes, mosques are being built, a rapid archaization of society is taking place, but in reality, in moral terms, Russian citizens are lower than the Soviet people of 1940-1960's times. Spirituality with the visible wealth and splendor of the church cannot be raised. The current church is entangled by the Western (materialistic) ideology of the "golden calf", so real Christians in Russia are only a few percent, the rest only pretend to observe the formality to "be like everyone else." Earlier, in the late USSR, they also formally were Komsomol members and communists in order to get a “start in life”, etc. Now they “repainted” and became “earnest Christians”.
The second largest conceptual mistake of the Romanovs was the split of the people, an attempt to make Russia the peripheral part of the Western world, European civilization, recode the Russian civilization. Under the Romanovs, Westernization (westernization) of the social elite of Russia occurred. The most people-oriented kings - Paul, Nicholas I, Alexander III, tried to resist this process, but did not achieve much success. The Westernized "elite" of Russia, trying to modernize Russia in a Western manner, itself killed "historical Russia. " In 1825, Nicholas was able to suppress the rebellion of the Decembrists-Westerners. In 1917, the Westernist feudalists took revenge, were able to crush the autocracy, and at the same time they themselves killed the regime under which they flourished.
Tsar Peter Alekseevich was not the first Westerner in Russia. The turn of Russia to the West began during the reign of Boris Godunov (there were separate manifestations even during the last Rurikovichs) and the first Romanovs. Under Tsarevna Sophia and her favorite Vasily Golitsyn, the project of Westernization of Russia was completely formed and developed without Peter. However, it turned out that it was under Peter that Westernization became irreversible. It was not in vain that the people believed that during the trip to the West, the tsar was replaced and called “the antichrist.” Peter made a real cultural revolution in Russia. The meaning was not to shave the beards of the boyars, not in western clothes and morals, not in assemblies. And in the planting of European culture. All the people could not recode. Therefore, the Westernized top - the aristocracy and the nobility. For this, self-government was destroyed so that the church could not resist these orders. The church became a department of the state, part of the apparatus of control and punishment. Petersburg with Western architecture, full of hidden symbols, became the capital of the new Russia. Peter believed that Russia was lagging behind Western Europe, so it was necessary to put it on the “right path”, to modernize it to the west. And for this to become part of the Western world, European civilization. This opinion - about the “backwardness of Russia”, will become the basis of the philosophy of many generations of Westerners and liberals, up to our time. Russian civilization and the people will have to pay for this very expensive price. As a result, in the XVIII century, the division of the Russian population into a pro-Western elite and the rest of the people, enslaved peasant world, took shape.
Thus, the Russian Empire had a congenital vice - the division of the people into two parts: the artificially derived German-French-English "elite", the nobles- "Europeans", separated from their native culture, language and the people as a whole; on a huge mostly servitude masswhich continued to live in a communal way of life and preserved the foundations of Russian culture. Although it is possible to distinguish the third part - the world of the Old Believers. In the XVIII century, this division reached a higher stage, when a huge peasant mass (the overwhelming majority of the population of the Romanov empire) completely enslaved, fastened. In fact, the "Europeans" - the nobles created an internal colony, they began to parasitize on the people. At the same time, they received freedom from their head of duty - to serve and defend the country. Previously, the existence of the nobility was justified by the need to protect the homeland. They were the military-elite class, which served until death or disability. Now they were freed from this duty; they could exist as social parasites all their lives.
The people responded to this universal injustice with the peasant war (the revolt of E. Pugachev), which almost turned into a new turmoil. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the serfdom was largely weakened. However, the peasants remembered this injustice, including the land problem. In 1861, Tsar Alexander II announced a “liberation”, and in fact, there was a liberation in the form of a robbery of the people, since land plots were cut from the peasants, and they were also forced to pay redemption payments. The Stolypin reform also did not resolve the land issue. In the empire, there was still a division into the "nation" of gentlemen "and the people - the" natives "who were exploited in every possible way so that several percent of the population flourished, which could contain servants, estates, live luxuriously for years and decades in France, Italy or Germany. Not surprisingly, after February 1917, in fact, a new peasant war began, the estates were set ablaze, and a black redistribution of land began. Peasants revenged for the age-old humiliation and injustice. The peasants were neither red nor white; they fought for themselves. The peasant movement in the rear was one of the reasons for the defeat of the White movement. And the Reds with great difficulty extinguished this fire, which could destroy the whole of Russia.
From these two fundamentals (degradation of the spiritual core and the westernization of the elite, the artificial division of the people) other problems of the Russian Empire also occurred. So, despite the brilliant feats of Russian commanders, naval commanders, soldiers and sailors, the foreign policy of the Russian Empire was largely independent and in a number of wars the Russian army acted as the “cannon fodder” of our Western “partners.” In particular, Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (tens of thousands of dead and wounded soldiers, time and material resources) ended in nothing. The brilliant fruits of the victories of the Russian army, including Königsberg, already attached to the Russian Empire, were wasted. Later, Russia got involved in a senseless and extremely costly confrontation with France. But it is extremely beneficial for Vienna, Berlin and London. Pavel I realized that Russia was being dragged into a trap and tried to get out of it, but he was killed by Russian Western aristocrats for gold in Britain. Emperor Alexander I and his pro-Western environment, with the full support of England and Austria, dragged Russia into a long confrontation with France (participating in four wars with France), which ended with the death of tens of thousands of Russian people and the burning of Moscow. Then, instead of leaving weakened France, Russia, as a counterbalance to England, Austria and Prussia, freed Europe and France from Napoleon. It is clear that soon the exploits of the Russians were forgotten and Russia was called the “gendarme of Europe”.
In this way, Petersburg focused all its attention and resources on European affairs. With minimal results, but huge costs, often aimless and meaningless. After the annexation of the West Russian lands during the division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia did not have major national tasks in Europe. It was necessary with one blow to solve the problem of the straits (Bosporus and Dardanelles), to focus on the Caucasus, Turkestan (Central Asia) with the release of Russian influence in Persia and India, in the East. It was necessary to develop their own territories - the North, Siberia, the Far East and Russian America. In the East, Russia could have a decisive influence on Chinese, Korean, and Japanese civilizations, and take dominant positions in the Pacific (there was an opportunity to join California, Hawaii, and other lands). There was an opportunity to start the “Russian globalization”, to build its world order. However, time and opportunities were lost in the wars in Europe meaningless for the Russian people. Moreover, thanks to the pro-Western party in St. Petersburg, Russia lost Russian America and the potential for further development of the northern part of the Pacific region with the Hawaiian Islands and California (Fort Ross).
In the economic field, Russia was becoming a resource and raw materials appendage of the West. In the global economy, Russia was a raw material periphery. Petersburg achieved Russia's incorporation into the emerging world system, but as a cultural and raw material, technically backward peripheral power, albeit a military giant. Russia was a supplier of cheap raw materials and food to the West. Russia of the XVIII century was for the West the largest supplier of agricultural products, raw materials and semi-finished products. As soon as Tsar Nikolai began a protectionism policy in the 19th century, the British immediately organized the Eastern (Crimean) War. And after the defeat, the government of Alexander II immediately relaxed the customs barriers for England.
Thus, Russia was driving raw materials to the West, and the landlords, aristocrats and merchants spent the money not on the development of domestic industry, but on overconsumption, the purchase of western goods, luxury and foreign entertainment (the “new Russian gentlemen” of the 1990-2000 model). repeated). Russia was a supplier of cheap resources and a consumer of expensive European products, especially luxury goods. The proceeds from the sale of raw materials did not go on development. Russian "Europeans" were engaged in overconsumption. St. Petersburg high society eclipsed all European courts. Russian aristocrats and merchants lived in Paris, Baden-Baden, Nice, Rome, Venice, Berlin and London more than in Russia. They considered themselves Europeans. The main language for them was French, and then English. The British, and then the French, were taken and loans. Not surprisingly, the Russians became the “cannon fodder” of England in the fight against Napoleon’s empire for world domination (a fight within the Western project). Then the most important principle of British politics was born: "To fight for the interests of Britain to the last Russian." It lasted until the entry into the First World War, when the Russians fought with the Germans in the name of the strategic interests of England and France.
Serious contradictions were also in the national, land and work issues. In particular, St. Petersburg was unable to establish the normal Russification of the national suburbs. Some territories (the Kingdom of Poland, Finland) received privileges and rights that the Russian people did not have the state-forming, bearing the burden of the empire. As a result, the Poles revolted twice (1830 and 1863), became one of the revolutionary units in the empire. During the First World War, Austria-Hungary and Germany, who created the Russophobic Kingdom of Poland, began to use the Poles, then England and France picked up the baton, who supported the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against Soviet Russia. Then the "Polish hyena" became one of the instigators of the beginning of the Second World War. Due to the absence of a reasonable policy in the national area, Finland has become the base and springboard of revolutionaries. And after the collapse of the empire Russophobic, Nazi-fascist state, which was going to create "Great Finland at the expense of the Russian lands. Petersburg could not at the right time destroy the Polish influence in the Western Russian lands. He did not russify Little Russia, destroying traces of Polish rule, the germs of the ideology of Ukrainians. All this is very clearly manifested during the Revolution and the Civil War.
The First World War destabilized the Russian Empire, undermined the old order. Numerous contradictions that accumulated over the centuries broke through and developed into a full-fledged revolutionary situation. No wonder the most reasonable people of the empire — Stolypin, Durnovo, Vandam (Edrikhin), Rasputin, until the last, tried to warn the tsar and avoid Russia entering the war with Germany. They understood that a big war would break through those “barriers” that still cover the weak points of the empire, its fundamental contradictions. Understand that in case of failure in the war the revolution can not be avoided. However, they were not heeded. And Stolypin and Rasputin eliminated. Russia entered the war with Germany, with which it did not have fundamental contradictions (as previously with Napoleon’s France), defending the interests of Britain and France.
In the autumn of 1916, spontaneous unrest began in many ways in the capital of Russia. And part of the “elite” of the Russian empire (grand dukes, aristocrats, generals, Duma leaders, bankers and industrialists) at the time were making a plot against Emperor Nicholas II and the autocratic regime. The masters of Britain and France, who could easily have prevented this conspiracy, instructed the Russian masons not to interfere with the tsarist regime to win the war, did not do that. On the contrary, the masters of the West, who condemned the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires, also condemned tsarist Russia. They supported the "fifth column" in Russia. It is very significant that when in the British Parliament it became known about the Russian tsar’s abdication, about the overthrow of autocracy in Russia, the head of the government, Lloyd George, of the “union state, said:“ One of the goals of the war has been achieved. ” The owners of London, Paris and Washington wanted with one blow not only to remove the German rival (inside the Western project), but to solve the “Russian question”, they needed Russian resources for building a new world order.
In this way, Western masters with one blow - destroying Tsarist Russia, solved several strategic tasks at once: 1) did not like the possibility that Russia could withdraw from the war by concluding a separate agreement with Germany and get a chance for a radical modernization of the empire (on the wave of victory), in alliance with the Germans, who needed the resources of Russia; 2) did not suit them and the possibility of Russia's victory in the Entente, then Petersburg received the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, expanded its sphere of influence in Europe and also could extend the existence of the empire, decide on a radical modernization of the White Empire building; 3) solved the "Russian question" - the Russian super-ethnos was the carrier of a fair model of world order, an alternative to the slave-owning western model; 4) supported the formation of an outspoken pro-Western bourgeois government in Russia and placed under the control the vast resources of Russia that were needed to build a new world order (global slave-owning civilization).
To be continued ...