100 years ago, 14 March 1917, the Petrograd Soviet issued the so-called Order No. XXUMX of the Petrograd Garrison, which legitimized the soldier’s committees and placed at their disposal all weapon, and the officers lost disciplinary power over the soldiers. With the adoption of the order, the principle of unity of command, fundamental for any army, was violated, resulting in a landslide decline in discipline and fighting efficiency, and then the gradual collapse of the entire army. In the army and on navy mass lynching of officers began, their killings and arrests.
Russian army after heavy tests 1914-1916 years. and so experienced a lot of problems, including the fall of discipline up to the first soldiers' riots and desertion, but February finished it off. Thus, in the opinion of General A. I. Denikin, Order No. XXUMX gave “the first, main impetus to the collapse of the army.” And General A.S. Lukomsky noted that Order No. XXUMX "undermined discipline, depriving the officer commanding staff of power over the soldiers." Armed forces of Russia began to fall apart literally before our eyes, the army from the pillar of order itself became a source of anarchy and unrest.
The liberal “white” myth that the Bolshevik coup (with revolutionary consequences) October 25 (November November 7) became a fatal event for the destruction of the Russian state, which in turn led to a geopolitical civilizational catastrophe with diverse grave consequences , for example, demographic and the decay of a great power. But this is a notorious lie, although many influential people still speak about it.
The death of the old Russian state and the civilizational catastrophe became an irreversible 2 (15) in March 1917, when Nikolai Alexandrovich resigned from the throne and was published in the morning issue of the official Soviet body Izvstіya Petrogradskogo Sovkuta Workers and Soldatskikh Deputovat (Izvestia) Affirmation (Izvestia) App. In the empire, two main pillars were immediately destroyed with one well-planned blow — autocracy and the army.
The order came from the Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Petrograd, essentially All-Russian, Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, where the Bolsheviks did not play a leading role until September 1917. The direct drafter of the document was the secretary of the CEC, then a famous lawyer and mason N. D. Sokolov (1870-1928). Interestingly, the father, Dmitry Sokolov, was an archpriest and court cleric, confessor of the royal family. This fact very well characterizes the degree of decomposition of the then Russian society, its educated and possessing elite. “Golden children” - representatives of the nobility, clergy, intelligentsia, the most educated and socially significant elite of Russian society took the path of revolution, hoping to destroy the “damned world” to the ground.
Nikolay Sokolov participated in many political processes. He acted on the affairs of Khrustalev-Nosary, Fondaminsky-Bunakov, the military organization of the RSDLP, the editors of Nachalo, Severny Voices, Vestnik Zhizn, etc. He made a brilliant career where he mainly defended all kinds of revolutionary terrorists. Politically, he acted as a “non-fractional social democrat”. In addition, Sokolov was a freemason. He was a member of the Supreme Council of the “Great East of the Peoples of Russia”, a member of the “Galperna” and “Gegechkori” lodges. Interestingly, A. F. Kerensky was the secretary general of the “Great East” since 1916. And Sokolov in October-November 1916 of the year participated, together with Kerensky, in secret meetings at the apartment of N. S. Chkheidze, that is, he was an active conspirator-Februarylist.
It is worth remembering that Sokolov, like Kerensky, was one of the leaders of the Russian Freemasonry of those years. And Russian masons, among them were aristocrats, politicians, military, bankers and lawyers, members of the State Duma (the elite of that time), wanted to lead Russia along the western path (matrix). That is, to destroy autocracy and complete the westernization of Russia. They acted as the organizing force of February, tying together the numerous revolutionary troops that wanted to destroy “old Russia”. In particular, Sokolov connected the social democratic and liberal camps.
In this way, pro-Western Freemasonry became the decisive force of February, as it was joined by influential figures of various parties and movements, which came out more or less separately, but unitedly against the autocracy. Coupled with an oath to their, and at the same time high-standing, Western European Freemasonry, these very different, it seemed often simply incompatible figures — from moderate monarchists, nationalists and Octobrists to Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries — became disciplined and purposeful in carrying out a single task. Thus was formed the powerful fist of the feudal revolutionaries, who destroyed the autocracy, the empire and the army.
Not surprisingly, the first central government created during the fall of the tsarist government was almost entirely composed of masons. Thus, from the 11 members of the Provisional Government of the first 9 composition (participation in the freemasonry of A. I. Guchkov and P. N. Milyukov has not been proved) were masons. In total, 29 people have been in ministerial positions for almost eight months of the Provisional Government’s existence, and 23 of them belonged to Freemasonry. The situation was similar in the Petrograd Soviet. In the then “second power” —the CEC of the Petrograd Soviet — all three members of the presidium — A. F. Kerensky, M. I. Skobelev and N. S. Chkheidze — and two of the four members of the Secretariat K A. Gvozdev and N. D were masons; Sokolov. Therefore, the so-called “diarchy” after February was very relative, in essence, even ostentatious. Both in the Provisional Government and in the Petrosoviet, the people of the “same team” initially ran. They solved one problem - they eliminated “old Russia”. But in order to reassure ordinary people - soldiers, workers, peasants, who would not understand that only the upper strata - the bourgeois and the capitalists - won from February, two organs of power were created. Provisional government for the top of society and for the West, and Petrograd Soviet, to reassure the masses.
That is, the February coup was organized by Freemasonry in the interests of the masters of the West. Westerners believed that “the West will help them” in creating a “new Russia” - modeled on “advanced” Western countries (England and France). But cruelly miscalculated. The masters of the West did not need Russia, neither monarchical nor liberal democratic. They needed the resources of Russia to create a new world order, where there is no place for the Russian people. The masters of the West had a long-term strategy, and for centuries they fought to destroy Russia-Russia. They knew that revolution would inevitably cause tremendous confusion, chaos, the death of millions of Russian people from continuous wars, conflicts, famine, cold and disease. And the Westernists-Februaryists were replaced by new “leaders” - various nationalists (Finnish, Polish, Baltic, Caucasian, Ukrainian, etc.), separatists (Siberian, Cossacks), radical socialists, Basmachis (predecessors of jihadists), simply bandits. The fevralists opened Pandora’s box, and they even destroyed the only force that could withstand anarchy — the army.
The order was addressed to the capital garrison, to all soldiers of the guard, army, artillery and sailors of the fleet for immediate execution, and to the workers of Petrograd for information. Order number 1 demanded the immediate creation of elected committees of representatives of the lower ranks in all military units, divisions and services, as well as on ships. The main point in the Order No. 1 was the third paragraph, according to which in all political speeches military units were now subordinate not to officers, but to their elected committees and the Council. The order also provided that all weapons are placed at the disposal and under the control of the soldiers' committees. The order introduced equality of rights of the “lower ranks” with the rest of the citizens in political, civil and private life, canceled the titles of officers.
Thus, if you think about these categorical phrases, it will become clear that it went towards the complete destruction of the most important institution of the empire created over the centuries - the army and navy (armed forces), the backbone of Russia. The mere demagogic proposition that a soldier’s “freedom” cannot be limited to “nothing” means the elimination of the army institution itself. It is also worth remembering that this order was issued in the conditions of a grandiose world war in which Russia participated, and there were more than 10 million people under arms in Russia. According to the memoirs of the last War Minister of the Provisional Government A. I. Verkhovsky, “the order was issued in nine million copies.”
2 March Sokolov appeared with the text of the order, which was already published in Izvestia, in front of the newly formed Provisional Government. One of its members, Vladimir Nikolaevich Lvov (Ober-Prosecutor of the Holy Synod within the Provisional Government), told about this in his memoirs: “... ND Sokolov approaches our table with quick steps and asks us to get acquainted with the content of the paper he brought ... It was the famous order number one ... After reading it, Guchkov (the Minister of War. - A. S.) immediately stated that the order ... was unthinkable, and left the room. Miliukov (Minister of Foreign Affairs - A.S.) began convincing Sokolov of the complete impossibility of publishing this order (he did not know that the order had already been published and the newspaper with its text began to be distributed. - A.S.) ... Finally, Milyukov was exhausted. I got up and walked away from the table ... I jumped up from the chair and shouted to Sokolov with characteristic fervor that this paper brought by him is a crime in front of my homeland ... Kerensky (then the Minister of Justice. - AS) ran up to me and shouted: " Vladimir Nikolaevich, be silent, be silent! ”, Then grabbed Sokolov He took him by the hand, quickly into another room and locked the door behind him ... ”
Interestingly, Sokolov will soon receive a “reply” from his order. In June 1917, Sokolov will lead the CEC delegation to the front and in response to the conviction not to violate discipline, the soldiers will pounce on the delegation and strongly beat the members. Sokolov will go to the hospital where he has been unconscious for several days. After that, he was ill for a long time.
The Provisional Government understood the destructiveness of order No. XXUMX, especially since it had already declared its loyalty to the Allies on the Entente and its readiness to continue the war until victory. However, directly to abolish it meant open conflict with the Petrograd Soviet. In order to reduce the negative consequences of the order, the new war minister, Alexander Guchkov, issued his order with “explanations”, according to which unity of command in the army was kept and it was said about the abolition of only some articles of military manuals. So, the officers now had to turn to the soldiers on “You,” the notion of “lower rank” was abolished, the giving of honor was canceled and, as was said then, the humiliating “old-regime orders.”
Under the influence of harsh criticism from the right, the Socialist-Revolutionary Menshevik members of the Executive Committee tried to dissociate themselves from Order No. 1, declaring their non-involvement in it and portraying the order as a document of purely soldierly origin. The management of the Executive Committee hastened to limit the scope of the Order No. 1 by issuing the first order of the additional orders No. 2 from 6 (19) in March and No. 3 from 7 (20) in March to “clarify”. Order No. 2, retaining all the main provisions established by Order No. 1, explained that Order No. 1 dealt with the election of committees, but not of the authorities; nevertheless, all elections of officers already made should remain valid; committees have the right to object to the appointment of superiors; All Petrograd soldiers must submit to the political leadership exclusively of the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, and in matters relating to military service, to the military authorities. It was finally established that Order No. 1 has application only within the Petrograd garrison and cannot extend to the front. However, it was already impossible to restore the previous order. Two days after the Order No. 2, the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet again spoke out with a brief explanation-appeal to the troops, in which attention was paid to the observance of discipline. However, according to Denikin, Order No. 2 was not distributed among the troops and did not affect “the course of events brought about by order No. 1”.
In general, the process of collapse was already irreversible. Especially since it was continued. Having become 5 in May as Minister of War, Kerensky issued his “Order for the Army and Navy” just four days later, very close in content to order No. 1. He began to be called the "declaration of the rights of a soldier." Subsequently, General A. I. Denikin wrote that "this" declaration "of rights ... finally undermined all the foundations of the army." 16 July 1917, speaking in the presence of Kerensky (then the prime minister), Denikin stated not without audacity: “When they repeat at every step that the Bolsheviks were the cause of the collapse of the army, I protest. This is not true. The army was destroyed by others ... ". And then the general, tactfully silent about the real culprits of the collapse of the army, including the head of the Provisional Government, said: "The military legislation of the last few months has collapsed the army." It is clear that “the recent military legislators were Sokolov and Kerensky himself. At the same time, Denikin himself tried to become one of the main leaders of the army of the “new Russia”: on April 5 he agreed to become the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Commander, and on May 31 - the Commander-in-Chief of the Western Front. Only at the end of August, General Denikin broke with Kerensky, but by that time, essentially, the army was no longer there. All the main active forces of the Civil War at that time created their armies and armed formations.
Thus, the Westerners, the february freemasons were able to quickly destroy the Russian state, crush the autocracy. But then, having received all the power, they turned out to be completely powerless and mediocre, and in less than a year they lost it, failing to put up any resistance to the new October Revolution (also with revolutionary consequences).
According to the testimony of A.I. Guchkov, the main protagonists of February believed that “after the wild spontaneous anarchy, the street would fall, after that people of state experience, state intelligence, like us, would be called upon to power. Obviously, in remembrance of the fact that ... there was a 1848 year (that is, a revolution in France. - A. S.): the workers dumped, and then some reasonable people staged power. " However, the Westernists-Februaryists did not know Russia, the Russian people, but only considered themselves very “sensible”. The fevralists used the fundamental contradictions that existed in Russia, all the miscalculations of the tsarist government, in order to cause a "spontaneous anarchy" in the capital and to overthrow the current government, paralyzed by a large-scale plot of the upper strata. When the Februaryists ("reasonable people") seized power, they by their actions caused a complete collapse, a civilizational catastrophe. "Managed chaos", caused in the capital, spread to the country and the army, has already begun "Russian unrest". Russian masons have forgotten or did not know about the unique “Russian matrix” - freedom of spirit and will. Autocracy was the last barrier that restrained the Russian will. In Russia, unconditional, unrestricted freedom of consciousness and behavior, that is, the will, breaks out into the open with every weakening of state power. And in February-March 1917, the “legitimate”, “sacred” power collapsed completely. This gave rise to a new confusion. Therefore, it is not surprising that the peasants immediately rushed to burn the landlords' estates and divide the land, the soldiers to beat the officers and go home, the Cossacks to create their Cossack states, the nationalists the national Bantustans, the criminals to rob and rape.
It was a real civilizational catastrophe! The project of the Romanovs collapsed and threatened to destroy the whole of Russia under its rubble. Thank God that there were people who had a goal (a new project), a program and will, who took responsibility and started a hard and bloody way to create a Soviet civilization, which in the end will retain all the best that was in “old Russia”.