100 years ago, 21 July 1917, Alexander Kerensky became the head of the Provisional Government. One of the active Februaryist-Westernizers, the destroyers of the Russian empire and autocracy, he finally destabilized the situation in Russia. In particular, by his actions he completely demoralized the armed forces of Russia, which led to the fact that the authorities were able to seize the more radical left forces. In fact, Freemason Kerensky performed the task of consistently demolishing the Russian statehood and Russian civilization, which was set before Western Masons and representatives of the “fifth column” by “architects” from the West.
Having fulfilled its destructive mission, Kerensky calmly went to the West. Using the patronage of the owners of England and the United States, he lived a quiet and long life (he died in 1970 year). In 1920-1930, he performed with sharp anti-Soviet lectures, calling on Western Europe to take a crusade against Soviet Russia. Being a very informed man, he foresaw a new round of conflict between the West and Russia. Indeed, soon a new “crusade” of the united “European Union” led by Germany against Russia-USSR was led by Adolf Hitler.
Alexander Fedorovich studied at the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg University and began his career as a political defender during the First Revolution. He spent a short time in exile as a member of the terrorist organization of the Social Revolutionaries. He defended peasants who robbed landowners' estates, left-wing radicals, Socialist-Revolutionaries, terrorists, Armenian nationalist militants. He was elected to the fourth State Duma from the city of Volsk in the Saratov province, as the Social Revolutionary Party decided to boycott the elections, formally withdrew from this party and joined the "Trudovik" faction, which he headed from 1915. In the Duma he gave critical speeches to the government and gained fame as one of the best left-wing speakers.
Kerensky also became a prominent Freemason: in 1915-1917. - Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the Great East of the Peoples of Russia - the Paramason organization, the founding members of which in 1910-1912 left the “Renaissance” lodge of the Grand East of France. The great east of the peoples of Russia put political activity on top of their priorities. In addition to Kerensky, the Supreme Council of the Lodge included such political figures as N. S. Chkheidze, N. D. Sokolov (future author of Order No. 1, who initiated the disintegration of the Russian imperial army), A. I. Braudo, S. D Maslovsky-Mstislavsky, N. V. Nekrasov, S. D. Urusov and others.
In 1916, an uprising began in Turkestan, which was motivated by the mobilization of the local population. To investigate the events, the State Duma created a commission headed by Kerensky. Having studied the events on the spot, he laid the blame for the incident on the government, accused the Minister of the Interior of abuse of authority, demanded that corrupt local officials be brought to justice. In his Duma speech 16 (29) of December 1916, he actually called for the overthrow of the autocracy, after which the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna stated that "Kerensky should be hanged." Protection of terrorists, criminals and radicals and populist speeches created Kerensky image of an uncompromising exposer of the vices of the tsarist regime, brought popularity among liberals, created a reputation as one of the leaders of the Duma opposition. At the same time he was smart, well educated, had the talent of a speaker and actor. Thus, by 1917, he was already a fairly well-known politician.
Kerensky’s rise to the heights of power began during the February Revolution, which he enthusiastically accepted and became an active Februaryist. Kerensky on February 14 (27), 1917, in his speech in the Duma declared: “Historical the task of the Russian people at the moment is the task of destroying the medieval regime immediately, at all costs ... How can legal means be used to fight those who turned the law into weapon bullying people? With violators of the law, there is only one way to fight - to eliminate them physically. ” Chairman Rodzianko interrupted Kerensky’s speech by asking what he meant. The answer came immediately: "I mean what Brutus did in the days of ancient Rome." As a result, Kerensky was one of the most active and most determined organizers of the new regime.
After the 26 on 27 in February (12 in March) at midnight. The 1917 session of the Duma was interrupted by the decree of Tsar Nicholas II, at the Council of Elders of February 27 urged not to obey the Tsar's will. On the same day, he became a member of the Provisional Committee of the State Duma formed by the Council of Elders and a member of the Military Commission that led the actions of the revolutionary forces against the police. At the same time, Kerensky actively spoke out before the protesters and soldiers, winning their respect. Kerensky again joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party and was appointed representative of the Petrograd Soviet in the revolutionary Provisional Committee established in the Duma. March 3 in the Duma representatives contributes to the rejection of the power of Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich. Thus, during the February-March coup, Kerensky is introduced to the group of leading February revolutionaries in two centers of power at once: as comrade (deputy) chairman of the executive committee in the first composition of the Petrograd Soviet and in the first composition of the Provisional Government, formed on the basis of the Interim Committee, as Minister of Justice.
Kerensky appeared in public in a military-style jacket, although he never served in the army. Supported the ascetic image of the "people's leader." As Minister of Justice, he initiated such decisions of the Provisional Government as an amnesty for political prisoners, recognition of the independence of Poland, restoration of the constitution of Finland. By order of Kerensky, all revolutionary activists were returned from exile. Under Kerensky, the destruction of the former judicial system began. Already on March 3, the institute of the magistrates was reorganized - the courts began to be formed of three members: judges and two assessors. On March 4, the Supreme Criminal Court, the special presence of the Governing Senate, judicial chambers and district courts with the participation of class representatives were abolished. Terminated investigation of the murder of Grigory Rasputin. When 2 (15) of March issued the Order No. 1 on the “democratization of the army”, coming from the Petrograd Soviet, Secretary of War Guchkov and Foreign Minister Miliukov opposed its legalization. Kerensky supported the idea (How the Februaryists destroyed the army).
Thus, the Freemason Kerensky actively promoted the destruction of the former legal system, the order in Russia, the criminal revolution, and the strengthening of the revolutionary, radical wing of the fevralists. He also supported ethno-separatists, the separation of national suburbs. With his support, the active collapse of the armed forces began (Order No. 1).
In April 1917, Foreign Minister P. N. Milyukov assured the Allied powers that Russia would certainly continue the war to a victorious end. Miliukov was a Westerner, who believed that the revolution had won, the main task was realized (autocracy was destroyed) and stabilization was needed in order to lead Russia along the western path. At the same time, he hoped that “the West would help” and actively served his life in front of Western “allied partners”. But in reality, the Western masters needed further destabilization of Russia, its disintegration and the complete solution of the “Russian question” with the subsequent occupation of the most important areas. In London, Washington and Paris, no one was going to give the "democratic" Russia straits, Constantinople and support "a single and indivisible Russia."
Therefore, the stakes were made on further destabilization and radicalization of the situation in Petrograd, and through the capital all over Russia. One of the agents of influence who had to solve this problem was Kerensky. 24 April Kerensky threatened to leave the government and the Soviets to join the opposition if Milyukov was not removed from his post and a coalition government was created, including representatives of the socialist parties. 5 (18) May 1917, Prince Lvov was forced to fulfill this requirement and go on to create the first coalition government. Milyukov and Guchkov resigned, socialists joined the government, and Kerensky received the most important portfolio of the military and maritime minister, which allowed him to complete the collapse of the last institute, which restrained Russia's complete turmoil - the army.
After becoming Minister of War, Kerensky carried out a "purge" of the army. The new minister of war appointed generals of little-known, but close to him generals, who received the nickname “Young Turks” to key posts in the army. Kerensky appointed his brother-in-law, V. L. Baranovsky, to the post of head of the cabinet of the minister of war, who he promoted to colonel and a month later to major general. Kerensky appointed the ministers of the General Staff G. A. Yakubovich and G. N. Tumanov as assistants to the Minister of War, people who were not sufficiently experienced in military affairs, but then were active participants in the February revolution. May 22 (June 4) 1917 of the year Kerensky appoints the Supreme Commander of the “liberal” General A. Brusilov instead of the more conservative General MV Alekseev. Brusilov himself was skeptical about his purpose: "I understood that, in essence, the war was over for us, because there was, of course, no means to force the troops to fight."
In turn, Brusilov tried to please the revolutionary soldiers, played in the "revolutionary democracy", this tactic was erroneous and did not give positive results. Brusilov replaced General Kaledin, who commanded the 8 Army, for the lack of support for the "democratization of the army" and replaced it with a popular officer and soldier, General Kornilov. For the same reason, the hero of the storming of Erzerum, commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army Yudenich, one of the most determined and successful generals of the tsarist army, was dismissed.
Feeling distrust of the generals, who still had power - bayonets and sabers, Kerensky established the institute of government informers who were looking after the commissars. They were stationed at Headquarters, headquarters of the fronts and armies to coordinate their work with the soldiers' committees and monitor the generals. 9 May 1917, Kerensky issued the “Declaration of the Rights of a Soldier”, which is close to the content of Order No. 1. Subsequently, General A. I. Denikin wrote that "this" declaration of rights "... finally undermined all the foundations of the army." The Russian general frankly said that "The army collapsed military legislation" in recent months. " And the main military legislators then were the Freemasons Sokolov and Kerensky.
It is worth noting that for a short time in the insane asylum, which Russia then turned into, Kerensky gained popularity almost equal to Napoleon Bonaparte in the years of his glory. Kerensky in the newspapers, which mainly controlled the liberals, the masons, called: "knight of the revolution", "lion's heart", "first love of the revolution", "people's tribune", "genius of Russian freedom", "sun of freedom of Russia", "people's leader ”,“ The savior of the Fatherland ”,“ the prophet and hero of the revolution ”,“ the good genius of the Russian revolution ”,“ the first national commander in chief ”, etc. However, it soon became clear that it was a bluff, a myth. Kerensky was a “parsley” ruled by the masters of France, England and the USA. He had to prepare Russia for a new stage of unrest - the coming to power of radical forces, nationalist separatists, and the Civil War. And after that, devastated by a terrible fratricidal war, divided into national and “independent” Bantustans, Russia became easy prey for the West.
At the post of Minister of War, Kerensky struck another terrible blow at the Russian army - he became the main organizer (at the initiative of the western "partners") of the June-July offensive - the so-called. "The Offensive of Kerensky." The army already had a complete collapse: a catastrophic fall in discipline, “rallies”, mass desertion, failure of units to fight, rear collapse, etc. In defense, the troops still held on, defended themselves, thereby linking the great forces of the Austro-German and Turkish armies helping the allies. But such an army could not attack, the maximum was local, short-term offensive operations, with the help of attack units ready to go to certain death. But with a large offensive, the flimsy balance that was preserved in the army was broken. The soldiers massively refused to fight, fled from the front line, while some regiments and divisions fought, the neighboring rallied and went to the rear. And indeed, after the failure of the Nivelles offensive on the Western Front ("Nivel Meat Grinder") the offensive of the Russian army lost all meaning. But the Western powers pressed on the semi-colonial, pro-Western Provisional Government and the Russian soldiers again served as "cannon fodder."
Military historian A. Zayonchkovsky described the picture of the collapse of the Russian army in those days: “At the beginning of May (according to the old style, according to the new style - in the second half of May - the Author), when Kerensky received the portfolio of the military and naval minister, he began a feverish preparation for active actions at the front. Kerensky is moving from one army to another, from one corps to another and is furiously agitating for a general offensive. The Socialist-Revolutionary-Menshevik Soviets and front committees in every way helped Kerensky. In order to suspend the ongoing collapse of the army, Kerensky proceeded to the formation of voluntary shock units. “To advance, to advance!” - Kerensky shouted hysterically, wherever possible, and he was echoed by the officers and the front, army regimental committees, especially the South-Western Front. The soldiers, who were in the trenches, came to the "scouts" who called for war and an offensive, who were not only indifferent and indifferent, but also hostile. The vast majority of the mass of soldiers was, as before, against any offensive action. ... The mood of these masses is illustrated by one of the typical letters of soldiers of that time: “If this war does not end soon, then it seems to be a bad story. When will our bloodthirsty, fat-bellied bourgeois get drunk to the full? And just let them dare to delay the war for a few more time, then we will go at them with weapons in our hands and then we will not give mercy to anyone. “The whole army is asking and waiting for us from us, but the whole damned bourgeoisie does not want to give us and is waiting for them to be massacred without exception.” Such was the menacing mood of the soldiers at the front. In the rear, things were even worse.
Kerensky arrived at the front, which led to the fact that the offensive was postponed for a few more days in order to give a talkative minister to talk with the soldiers. Kerensky toured front-line units, spoke at numerous rallies, trying to inspire the troops, after which he received the nickname of the “supreme leader”. The historian Richard Pipes describes the effect that the Minister of War delivered speeches: “The words“ triumphal march ”are not strong enough to describe Kerensky’s trip on the fronts. By the power of excitement, which she left behind, she could be compared to a whirlwind. The crowds waited for hours to cast one glance at him. Everywhere his path was strewn with flowers. The soldiers ran miles behind his car, trying to shake his hand and kiss the edge of his clothes. ” True, the contemporaries of the events and other historians noted that the soldiers of many units on the front lines were indifferent or even contemptuous to the arrival of Kerensky and other agitators.
"The offensive of Kerensky" quite naturally ended in complete failure (The failure of the "offensive of Kerensky"; H. 2). Attack units were knocked out, the rest of the troops after the first days of the offensive, when they were still successful, quickly exhausted and did not want to fight, mass desertion began, the refusal of whole units to go to the front, the unauthorized departure of troops to the rear. Austro-German troops launched a counter-offensive and occupied Galicia. All previous successes of the Russian army in the 1916 campaign of the year, for which hundreds of thousands of Russian soldiers paid with their lives and blood, were crossed out. And the Russian army, having suffered a heavy defeat, was no longer subject to recovery. It was replaced by the formation of nationalists and separatists, Cossacks, future "whites", the Red Guard, organized criminal groups.
The June offensive led to the July demonstration of the revolutionary masses in Petrograd (July 3-5 July 1917) led by the Bolsheviks and anarchists. That caused another crisis of the Provisional Government. From 8 (21) in July 1917, the city of Kerensky replaced Lvov as minister-chairman, retaining the post of military and maritime minister, that is, he received full authority in Russia. Temporarily, with the help of Kornilov, who became the Supreme Commander, Petrograd and the army restored order. Then Kerensky with the help of a new provocation - the so-called. "Kornilov mutiny", finished off the army and generals.
Then the country went to the dressing. Western masons destroyed the Romanovs' empire, the autocracy, and destroyed the Russian statehood, the army. The last clamp, which still held the entire building of the Russian state - the army, was completely decomposed and demoralized. Smoot swept the whole of Russia, all those socio-economic, political and national faults that accumulated in the Romanovs for centuries came to the surface. And only Russian Communists were able to offer civilizations and people a new development project and a state that was in the interests of the labor majority.
In Russian history, Alexander Kerensky is one of the most negative figures. - a protege of pro-Western Freemasonry, the owners of the West, a man who made a great contribution to the development of unrest and the beginning of the Civil War in Russia. The politician who finished off the remnants of the Russian imperial army. In the 20th century, this destroyer ranks with Trotsky, Khrushchev, Gorbachev and Yeltsin, with the great enemies of Russian civilization and the people.