Military Review

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Honor"

36
The Medal "For Courage" - one of the most honorable Soviet soldiers' awards, is the state award of the USSR, the Russian Federation and Belarus. One of the few medals that even after the collapse of the Soviet Union (with minor corrections) was again approved in the system of government awards of the Russian Federation and Belarus. The medal "For Courage" was established on the basis of a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in October 1938. According to the statute of the award, the medal could be awarded to servicemen of the Red Army, Navy, internal and border troops for personal courage and bravery in defending the country and in the performance of military duty. This combat medal could also be awarded to persons who are not citizens of the USSR.


From the very moment of its appearance, the medal “For Courage” was very popular and was highly valued among front-line soldiers, since it was awarded this medal exclusively for personal bravery, which was shown during the fighting. This was the main difference between this award and some other Soviet orders and medals, which were often awarded “for participation”. Most of the medals "For Courage" was issued to the ordinary and sergeant composition of the Red Army, but there were also cases of awarding officers to them (mainly junior).

The author of the drawing of the medal “For Courage” was a Soviet artist S. I. Dmitriev. The first awarding of a new combat award was already made on October 19 1939. According to the signed decree, the person 62 was presented to the medal. Among the first recipients was Lieutenant Vasily Ivanovich Abramkin. Also October 22 1938 of the year, among the first recipients were the border guards N. E. Gulyaev and B. F. Grigoriev. 14 November 118 was presented to the medal. The next time a massive medal was awarded already in 1939, it was mainly awarded to soldiers and officers who distinguished themselves in battles against the Japanese at Khalkhin Gol. For the entire 1939 year, 9234 people were presented for this award.

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Honor"

The Medal of Honor was the largest among Soviet medals, with the exception of the medal 50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR. It was round, the diameter of the medal was 37 mm. On the front side of the For Courage medal was an image of three aircraft flying one after another, the wingspan of the first machine was 7 mm, the second 4 mm, the third 3 mm. Directly under the flying aircraft was the inscription "For Courage", which was located in two lines. Red enamel was overlaid on the letters. Under the words "For Courage" was an image tank T-28, the width of the tank was 10 mm, length - 6 mm. Under the T-28 along the bottom edge of the award was the inscription "USSR", these letters were also covered with red enamel.

On the circumferential face of the medal there was a slightly protruding rim, having a width of 0,75 mm and a height of 0,25 mm. With the help of a ring and an ear, the medal “For Courage” was connected to a pentagonal shoe block, which was covered with gray silk moire ribbon, and there were two blue stripes along the edges of the ribbon. The overall width of the tape is 24 mm, the width of the strips is 2 mm. With this pentagonal pad, a medal could be attached to a uniform or other clothing.

The Medal "For Courage" was the second time institution of the USSR military battle medal after the medal "The XX Years of the Red Army". At the same time, she was the highest medal of the USSR and, when worn, was strictly in front of the other medals (by analogy with the Order of Lenin in the system of orders of the USSR). Since the medal was mainly awarded for the accomplishment of a personal feat, it was mainly awarded to private and non-commissioned officers of units and subunits, rarely junior officers. The senior officers and especially the generals of this medal were practically not awarded.


After 1939, the next massive award for the Medal of Courage medal took place during the Soviet-Finnish war. All in all, before 22 June 1941, about 26 thousands of servicemen were awarded with this medal. During the Great Patriotic War, the award for the Medal of Courage medal acquired a massive character and a very large scale. In total, for the exploits that were accomplished during the Second World War, 4 million 230 thousand medals were awarded with the medal "For Courage". Many Soviet soldiers were awarded several times.

Among those awarded the medal "For Courage" were many Soviet women. There are cases when the fair sex was presented to the medal "For courage" several times. For example, Moiseeva Larisa Petrovna (the maiden name of Vishnyakova) started the Great Patriotic War as a medical assistant, and finished off with a telephony operator. She served in the 824-m separate reconnaissance artillery division. During the war years Larisa Moiseeva was awarded three medals "For Courage", in addition, she had the Order of the Red Star.

The youngest gentleman ever awarded this award was a pupil of the 142 Guards Rifle Regiment Sergei Aleshkov, who was only 6 years old! The men of the 47 Guards Division picked up the lad in the summer of 1942, they found him in the forest. Sergey’s brother and mother were brutally tortured by the Nazis. As a result, the soldiers left him in their unit, and he became the son of the regiment. In November, 1942, he and the regiment went to Stalingrad. Of course, he could not fight, but he tried as much as possible to help the fighters: he brought water, bread, cartridges, and sang songs in between fights and recited poems.


In Stalingrad, Sergei Aleshkov received a medal "For Courage" for the rescue of the regimental commander Colonel Vorobyov. During the battle, Vorobyov had collapsed in his dugout, Seryozha tried to dig out the commander himself, tried to rake a blockage, but soon realized that he simply didn’t have enough strength to do this, after which he began calling for the help of the unit’s fighters. The soldiers came in time were able to dig out the commander from under the rubble, he survived. In the future, he became the adoptive father of Sergei Aleshkov.

Another regiment's son, Afanasy Shkuratov, joined the 1191 Infantry Regiment at the age of 12. By the end of World War II he had two medals "For Courage". He received the first award during the fighting in the Vitebsk region for the city Surozh. Then he bandaged and delivered Major Starikov to the medical battalion, who was seriously wounded in battle. He received his second medal for his personal courage, which he showed during the fighting on the Mannerheim Line in Karelia.

After the end of World War II, the medal “For Courage” was awarded much less frequently, since the USSR was not officially in a state of war. Despite this, in 1956, a large enough group of Soviet soldiers was awarded for suppressing a “counter-revolutionary rebellion” in Hungary. Only in the 7 Guards Airborne Division 296 people received awards. The second mass medal award "For Courage" took place already during the Afghan war. Thousands of Soviet soldiers and officers who participated in this conflict were awarded various military awards, including this medal. In total, before the collapse of the USSR, 4 569 893 awards were carried out.

Information sources:
http://medalww.ru/nagrady-sssr/medali-sssr/medal-za-otvagu
http://milday.ru/ussr/ussr-uniform-award/362-medal-za-otvagu.html
http://ordenrf.ru/su/medali-su/medal-za-otvagu.php
http://www.rusorden.ru/?nr=su&nt=mw1
Author:
Articles from this series:
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Banner
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. The order of Lenin
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Star
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Gold Star Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Honor"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "For Military Merit"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Patriotic War
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Alexander Nevsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Kutuzov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Suvorov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Ushakov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Ushakov's Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Glory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Victory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series "For Defense"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series “For the capture and release”
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals win
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  1. Oleg56.ru
    Oleg56.ru 9 January 2014 09: 15
    +11
    In total, before the collapse of the USSR, 4 awards were awarded. Indeed, we are a very brave people. We cannot be defeated!
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  3. makarov
    makarov 9 January 2014 10: 18
    +8
    only in the 60s, the medal "For Courage" found my grandfather and was awarded to him for the feat accomplished during the conduct of a sabotage operation during the war, which was still closed and under the stamp.
  4. Volozhanin
    Volozhanin 9 January 2014 11: 11
    +3
    my grandfather, among other awards, had this medal. But he did not like to talk about the war, only when he heard the song "Dugout", he always cried ... If not for a stupid accident in the damned 90s, he would still be alive ...
  5. bistrov.
    bistrov. 9 January 2014 11: 16
    +11
    The author incorrectly named the tank depicted on the "For Courage" medal. This is not a T-28, but a five-turret heavy tank T-35.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 9 January 2014 11: 44
      +4
      quite rightly noticed, however, everyone believes that this medal depicts precisely the T-28 (the symbol of the Finnish company of 1940), although the T-35 is depicted - the tank of the reserve of the main command of the Red Army (theory turned out to be incapable in practice) - the last argument of the kings is precisely this was laid down by the author
    2. Witch
      Witch 9 January 2014 15: 53
      +5
      Quote: bistrov.
      The author incorrectly named the tank depicted on the "For Courage" medal. This is not a T-28, but a five-turret heavy tank T-35.


      In addition, the author forgot that at first the block was quadrangular as on a hero star, and only then (it seems from the 43rd) became pentagonal ....
    3. Witch
      Witch 9 January 2014 15: 53
      +1
      Quote: bistrov.
      The author incorrectly named the tank depicted on the "For Courage" medal. This is not a T-28, but a five-turret heavy tank T-35.


      In addition, the author forgot that at first the block was quadrangular as on a hero star, and only then (it seems from the 43rd) became pentagonal ....
    4. svp67
      svp67 9 January 2014 16: 31
      +1
      Quote: bistrov.
      This is not a T-28, but a heavy five-tower T-35 tank.
      And in the sky stylized I16, and many will recognize them?
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 11 January 2014 11: 47
        0
        with the image of aviation, everything is much simpler, at the time of the creation and introduction of the medal, there were few monoplane fighters in the Red Army Air Force, namely one - and this is a "donkey" of all its numerous types (modifications), other monoplane fighters of the late 30s the beginning of the 40s existed only in projects, or single versions, but in the Air Force they were not unambiguous, for this, on one basis (air-cooled engine), one can unmistakably call the troika depicted on the medal is I-16
  6. Proud.
    Proud. 9 January 2014 11: 30
    +5
    A good medal. Simple and stately ...
  7. svp67
    svp67 9 January 2014 11: 50
    +6
    A medal of silver, but more expensive than gold.
  8. Prometey
    Prometey 9 January 2014 11: 52
    +2
    I have preserved this medal from my great-grandfather on the maternal side, as well as the Order of the Patriotic War. Recently, his daughters showed and talked about them. My paternal great-grandfather also had military awards for the Finnish and the defense of Leningrad, but, unfortunately, they did not survive.
  9. leks
    leks 9 January 2014 13: 08
    +2
    Ehhe what a medal, so simple and at the same time so majestic and proud, how people were proud of these awards. good
  10. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 9 January 2014 13: 32
    +2
    Glory to everyone who was awarded the merit of this medal and all orders and medals for all exploits, glory to the HEROIC PEOPLE OF RUSSIA!
  11. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 9 January 2014 14: 22
    +8
    The most respected medal.
    The award of all awards ...

    Nowadays, the inscription of the USSR is removed.
    But for some reason, its diameter was reduced, now it is 34 and not 37 ... And the large size always distinguished it from other medals ...
    But at least they left it in the award system of the Russian Federation, and at least thanks for that.
  12. omsbon
    omsbon 9 January 2014 14: 39
    +4
    Eh guys ... I'm not proud ... Without looking into the distance, I will say: "Why do I need an order? I agree to a medal ...".
    I am sure that Twardowski meant the medal for courage.
    1. svp67
      svp67 9 January 2014 16: 03
      0
      Quote: omsbon
      I am sure that Twardowski meant a medal for courage.
      Well, not "For Labor Distinction"
  13. tnship2
    tnship2 9 January 2014 15: 10
    +1
    Just amazing things can be found here. Six-year-old twelve-year-old heroes. No, the Russian people cannot be defeated by force of arms. Nothing has become against such people.
  14. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 9 January 2014 15: 45
    +2
    Strange affair:
    In the internet it is said that there are those awarded with five medals "For Courage" ...
    But as a teenager I read about a fighter with 9 with such awards ...

    Rummaged in search engines:
    Indeed - the Leningrad writer Viktor Kurochkin in the book "Iron Rain" talked about Bogdan Avramovich Sokratilin, who received nine medals "For Courage".
    Kurochkin is a well-known writer, he also wrote "In war as in war".

    If this is true, then why is so little known about Socratiline? Why is it not mentioned in the vaunted "wiki"? Forgetting ???
  15. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 9 January 2014 15: 50
    +11
    And here is a photo of Voronov Alexei Nikolaevich.
    Five medals "For Courage" ...

    To make nails from such people ...
    Total Respect.
    1. svp67
      svp67 9 January 2014 15: 58
      +2
      Quote: Aleks tv
      received nine medals "For Courage".
      Alex salute hi Is the data correct? Something nowhere more than five awards of information I do not find ...
      During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), some soldiers were awarded five medals "For Courage".
      Stepan Mikhailovich Zolnikov (born 1919) - a participant in the Victory Parade, a sergeant-mortar operator of the 8th separate Guards Rifle Brigade during the war years was awarded five medals “For Courage” and the Order of Glory of the III degree. The hero was awarded the first medal for the battle that took place on September 3, 1942 in the area of ​​Sinyavinsky swamps near Leningrad [1]. Zolnikov received the last, fifth medal “For Courage” for the battle on the Courland Peninsula on the night of May 9, 1945. Currently, MD Zolnikov S.M. lives in Moscow.
      Pavel Fedorovich Gribkov (born 1922) - scout, participant in the Great Patriotic War, gentleman of five medals "For Courage". Head of the Museum of Military and Labor Glory at the Peter and Paul City Veterans Council.
      Ippolitova, Vera Sergeevna (for her husband - Potapov; born 1921) - guard sergeant. Member of the Great Patriotic War as deputy commander of the 3rd Rifle Company, 3rd Separate Rifle Battalion, 71st Separate Marine Rifle Brigade, then medical officer of the 188th Guards Rifle Regiment of the 63rd Guards Krasnoselskaya Rifle Division.

      And another medal in the USSR was made of 925 sterling silver. The total weight of silver in the medal (as of September 18, 1975) is 25,802 ± 1,3 g. The total weight of the medal without a block is 27,930 ± 1,52 g. And in the Russian Federation it was originally made of a copper-nickel alloy. RF of June 1, 1995, changes were made to the description of the medal - the medal was made of silver.
      1. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 9 January 2014 16: 39
        0
        Quote: svp67
        Something nowhere more than five awards of information I do not find ...

        Greetings, Sergey.
        hi

        About Sokratilina and 9 medals I read only at Kurochkin ...
        So I don’t know.
        request
        But if this is true, then ... just SHOCK.
        1. svp67
          svp67 9 January 2014 16: 42
          +1
          Quote: Aleks tv
          About Sokratilina and 9 medals I read only at Kurochkin ...
          So I don’t know.

          I read this work the same and now I’ve refreshed it, it turns out that Sokratilin definitely received one medal before the Second World War ... It’s a pity you can’t get to know everything thoroughly ...
  16. Stas57
    Stas57 9 January 2014 16: 26
    +4
    Guard Junior Sergeant Gennady Vecherenko,
    12 years.
    Medals: "For Courage" and "For Military Merit"
    1. svp67
      svp67 9 January 2014 16: 27
      +2
      Quote: Stas57
      Vardia Junior Sergeant Gennady Vecherenko,
      12 years.
      Medals: "For Courage" and "For Military Merit"
      Man and Hero ...
  17. Stas57
    Stas57 9 January 2014 16: 31
    +2
    young defenders of Leningrad 1945
    The author of the shooting: Trakhtenberg David Mikhailovich
  18. Stas57
    Stas57 9 January 2014 16: 34
    +2
    Young scout-cavalryman Vitya Pozdnyakov was awarded the medal "For Courage" for raids behind enemy lines. Steppe Front, April 1943
  19. Stas57
    Stas57 9 January 2014 16: 36
    +2

    Sergeant S. Weinshenker and Technician Sergeant William Topps with the son of Regiment 169 of the Special Forces Air Base. Name unknown, age - 10 years old, served as an assistant weapons technician, Medal of Courage. Poltava airfield. 1944

    Source: US Air Force Museum.
  20. Altona
    Altona 9 January 2014 19: 59
    +2
    And in the 90s they gave us only a prize book for the medal ... But they did not give the medal itself ... Grandfather found the medal, and found the burial of the grandfather ...
    1. Aleks tv
      Aleks tv 9 January 2014 21: 30
      +1
      Quote: Altona
      But the medal itself was not given ...

      Shitty ...
      Eugene, this medal will be needed by the great-grandchildren of your family, for the CORRECT education ... Try to get it somehow.
      Good luck, sincerely.
  21. Altona
    Altona 9 January 2014 22: 25
    +2
    Quote: Aleks tv
    Shitty ...
    Eugene, this medal will be needed by the great-grandchildren of your family, for the CORRECT education ... Try to get it somehow.
    Good luck, sincerely.

    -----------------------------
    "For Victory over Germany" is a medal, with St. George's coloring and Stalin's profile ... I was brought up on it ...
  22. voliador
    voliador 10 January 2014 00: 13
    +1
    Such people, yes in our time ...
  23. jury08
    jury08 10 January 2014 00: 39
    -1
    Well, there is no such country. Belarus is Belarus!
    1. old rocket man
      old rocket man 10 January 2014 01: 12
      +4
      Quote: jury08
      Well, there is no such country. Belarus is Belarus!


      So there is no such country as America or Russia either, there is the United States of America and the Russian Federation, but no one is offended if people call them what is more convenient and familiar to them.
      In vain do not bring a show off. fellow
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 10 January 2014 09: 23
        0
        Quote: Old Rocketman
        So there is no such country as America or Russia either, there is the United States of America and the Russian Federation

        Our constitution says that Russia and the Russian Federation are interchangeable names wink
        1. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya 6 May 2018 08: 52
          0
          There is also no country like Germany, but there is the Federal Republic of Germany, there is no country England, but there is Great Britain, there is no country South Korea, and there is the Republic of Korea, and there are dozens of such examples.
  24. bbss
    bbss 12 January 2014 11: 00
    0
    Father was twice awarded the medal "For Courage".
  25. Massik
    Massik 17 January 2014 20: 51
    0
    Nowadays, "For Courage" as an "Order of Courage" cannot be earned by simply being present in the conflict zone; it always attracts more attention than ten different awards.
    1. d.gksueyjd
      d.gksueyjd 5 May 2015 00: 33
      +1
      Nowadays, some of the "Hero of Russia" and earn orders - while fighting with his mistress on the bed or "bucks" in the casino !!! And veterans of military operations cannot prove: injury or concussion !!!
  26. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 6 May 2018 08: 52
    0
    Wikipedia says that Aleshkov was awarded the medal "For Military Merit." So what information is correct?