When approving a new award, it was assumed that it would be awarded to commanders of units from the regiment to platoon. But later the highest level of award was raised to the brigade and division commander. Rewarding the Order of Alexander Nevsky was made on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces for personal courage and bravery, which were shown in the battles, for the correct choice of the right moment to attack the enemy and inflicting his troops a noticeable defeat with minimal losses for their troops. Also, the Order was awarded for the excellent performance of a combat mission, the proper organization of interaction with other units and divisions for the partial or complete destruction of the enemy's superior forces. When awarding a lot of attention was paid directly to the competent and skillful leadership of the troops, the result of which became the maximum possible preservation of the entrusted personnel and military equipment.
History The appearance of the Order of Alexander Nevsky began in March 1942. At this time, the Technical Committee of the Main Directorate Directorate of the Spacecraft received from Joseph Stalin an instruction to prepare drafts of new orders intended to award Soviet commanders. Projects of new combat awards were developed in just one day. Of all the sketches of the order presented to his court, Stalin selected the work of the young architect I. S. Telyatnikov. The complexity of the work on the order was as follows. Lifetime portraits of the Russian prince Alexander Nevsky simply did not exist. Therefore, Telyatnikov had to use the image of the Soviet actor Nikolai Cherkasov to portray the profile of Alexander Nevsky, who played the role of a prince in the same film before the war. Initially, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was supposed to be completely stamped, which was aimed at cheapening the production process. But the author of the order convinced Stalin that the order must be made collective, because in that form he looked original and more beautiful. The first copies of the order were actually assembled from several parts, however, starting from 1943, the badge of the order nevertheless began to be fully-stamped.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky was a five-pointed star covered with ruby-red enamel, located against the background of a regular decagonal plate, on the surface of which the rays were diverging. The edges of the five-pointed star had gilded rims. In the very center of the order there was a bust of Prince Alexander Nevsky, the profile was made on a round shield, on the circumference of which was the inscription "Alexander Nevsky." The round shield was edged with a gilded laurel wreath. At the bottom of the order was a small shield with a gilded sickle and hammer. A gilded sword, spear, a quiver of arrows and a bow peeped out from behind a large round shield.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky was made of pure silver. The silver in the order was 37,056 ± 1,387 g, and the total weight of the award was 40,8 ± 1,7 g. The size of the sign of the order between the end of the five-pointed red star and the opposite apex of the ten-pointed figure was 50 mm. The distance from the center of the reward to the top of any of the rays of the five-pointed red star was 26-27 mm. On the back of the award there was a special threaded pin with a nut, which was designed to attach the order to the uniform (or other clothing). The ribbon to the order was moire and had a blue color. A longitudinal red stripe with a width of 5 mm was placed in the middle of the tape, the total width of the tape was 24 mm.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky, numbered 1, was awarded to Senior Lieutenant (later Lieutenant Colonel) Ruban I.N., who commanded a battalion of marines from the 154th Marine Rifle Brigade. He was presented with a reward for successfully repelling the attack of an entire German regiment supported by tanks. This battle took place in August 1942 in the area of the bend of the Don. Senior Lieutenant Ruban divided his battalion into 3 groups. Using one of the groups as bait, he ambushed the large forces of the Nazis, after which the two remaining battalion groups attacked the Germans from different sides. As a result of the battle, the Ruban battalion managed to destroy 7 enemy tanks and more than 200 German soldiers.
In rare cases, the owners of the Order of Alexander Nevsky became people who did not have an officer's rank, as in the conditions of conducting active hostilities and lack of officers, platoons and sometimes companies, commanders and sergeants commanded. The statute of the order did not contradict this, since it provided for the awarding of the commanders of the Red Army, and not just the officers. Very seldom, but there were cases when even privates became a knight of the Order of Alexander Nevsky, who in especially difficult moments of the battle took upon themselves the functions of directing the unit.
Were among the awarded and the fair sex. For example, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded to MV Smirnov, the captain of the guard (later major), the squadron commander of the 46 Guards Tamansky Order of the Red Banner and Suvorov, III degree aviation regiment. It was a regiment of night bombers, equipped with the famous light aircraft Po-2. In addition, during the war years, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded 1473 military units. Among the units awarded with the order was the French Normandie-Neman air regiment.
During the war years, 70 foreign citizens were represented by the Order of Alexander Nevsky, including three officers from the Normandy-Neman regiment: Joseph Risso, Leon Cafo and Pierre Pouyad. Colonel Pierre Pouyad was awarded for the fact that in one of the air battles of August 1944, his regiment's planes made 100 combat missions, shooting down 29 German planes and destroying around 50 planes on the ground. At the same time, the regiment itself did not lose a single one of its cars. In these battles, Pierre Pouyad personally destroyed the enemy's 8 aircraft.
Commander of the Order of Alexander Nevsky Colonel Rybchenko Anempodist Demidovich
The Order of Alexander Nevsky could be awarded several times. The highest number of awards was three. Thus, three orders of Alexander Nevsky were awarded to the commander of the 536 th anti-tank artillery regiment Lieutenant Colonel IG Borisenko and the commander of the 818 th artillery regiment 223 th rifle division Lieutenant Colonel N. L. Nevsky. During the war, the bulk of the orders were awarded to officers in the rank of lieutenant to major, who held the position of platoon or battalion commander. The awarding of the order of Alexander Nevsky to the commanders of regiments and brigades, not to mention divisions (ranks older than the major) were rare. This was due to the fact that senior officers and generals were awarded commander awards of a higher rank (the Orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov). During the war years, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded more than 40 thousand people.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky did not cease to issue with the end of World War II. For the skillful command of the units, as well as the initiative taken during the suppression of the insurgency in Hungary in 1956, a sufficient number of officers of the Soviet Army were presented for the award. Veterans of the Second World War, who, for reasons beyond their control, could not receive this order in due time, the award was given until the 60 anniversary of the Victory (May 2005 of the year). With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was not excluded from the list of Russian awards, but in 2010, the appearance of the order was significantly changed. The sign of the modern order, which was approved in 2010, reproduces the design of the pre-revolutionary award (the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky).