Military Review

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Alexander Nevsky

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The Order of Alexander Nevsky is considered to be one of the most beautiful Soviet awards. It was established in July 1942, simultaneously with the orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov. These three orders opened a series of "commander-in-chief" awards, only commanders of formations, subunits and units were awarded. This did not prevent the Order of Alexander Nevsky from becoming one of the most beloved and revered in the Red Army. The Order of Alexander Nevsky was the “junior” in the series of orders with which the commanders were to be awarded. Unlike the orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov, he did not have degrees.


When approving a new award, it was assumed that it would be awarded to commanders of units from the regiment to platoon. But later the highest level of award was raised to the brigade and division commander. Rewarding the Order of Alexander Nevsky was made on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces for personal courage and bravery, which were shown in the battles, for the correct choice of the right moment to attack the enemy and inflicting his troops a noticeable defeat with minimal losses for their troops. Also, the Order was awarded for the excellent performance of a combat mission, the proper organization of interaction with other units and divisions for the partial or complete destruction of the enemy's superior forces. When awarding a lot of attention was paid directly to the competent and skillful leadership of the troops, the result of which became the maximum possible preservation of the entrusted personnel and military equipment.

History The appearance of the Order of Alexander Nevsky began in March 1942. At this time, the Technical Committee of the Main Directorate Directorate of the Spacecraft received from Joseph Stalin an instruction to prepare drafts of new orders intended to award Soviet commanders. Projects of new combat awards were developed in just one day. Of all the sketches of the order presented to his court, Stalin selected the work of the young architect I. S. Telyatnikov. The complexity of the work on the order was as follows. Lifetime portraits of the Russian prince Alexander Nevsky simply did not exist. Therefore, Telyatnikov had to use the image of the Soviet actor Nikolai Cherkasov to portray the profile of Alexander Nevsky, who played the role of a prince in the same film before the war. Initially, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was supposed to be completely stamped, which was aimed at cheapening the production process. But the author of the order convinced Stalin that the order must be made collective, because in that form he looked original and more beautiful. The first copies of the order were actually assembled from several parts, however, starting from 1943, the badge of the order nevertheless began to be fully-stamped.

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Alexander Nevsky

The Order of Alexander Nevsky was a five-pointed star covered with ruby-red enamel, located against the background of a regular decagonal plate, on the surface of which the rays were diverging. The edges of the five-pointed star had gilded rims. In the very center of the order there was a bust of Prince Alexander Nevsky, the profile was made on a round shield, on the circumference of which was the inscription "Alexander Nevsky." The round shield was edged with a gilded laurel wreath. At the bottom of the order was a small shield with a gilded sickle and hammer. A gilded sword, spear, a quiver of arrows and a bow peeped out from behind a large round shield.

The Order of Alexander Nevsky was made of pure silver. The silver in the order was 37,056 ± 1,387 g, and the total weight of the award was 40,8 ± 1,7 g. The size of the sign of the order between the end of the five-pointed red star and the opposite apex of the ten-pointed figure was 50 mm. The distance from the center of the reward to the top of any of the rays of the five-pointed red star was 26-27 mm. On the back of the award there was a special threaded pin with a nut, which was designed to attach the order to the uniform (or other clothing). The ribbon to the order was moire and had a blue color. A longitudinal red stripe with a width of 5 mm was placed in the middle of the tape, the total width of the tape was 24 mm.

The Order of Alexander Nevsky, numbered 1, was awarded to Senior Lieutenant (later Lieutenant Colonel) Ruban I.N., who commanded a battalion of marines from the 154th Marine Rifle Brigade. He was presented with a reward for successfully repelling the attack of an entire German regiment supported by tanks. This battle took place in August 1942 in the area of ​​the bend of the Don. Senior Lieutenant Ruban divided his battalion into 3 groups. Using one of the groups as bait, he ambushed the large forces of the Nazis, after which the two remaining battalion groups attacked the Germans from different sides. As a result of the battle, the Ruban battalion managed to destroy 7 enemy tanks and more than 200 German soldiers.


In rare cases, the owners of the Order of Alexander Nevsky became people who did not have an officer's rank, as in the conditions of conducting active hostilities and lack of officers, platoons and sometimes companies, commanders and sergeants commanded. The statute of the order did not contradict this, since it provided for the awarding of the commanders of the Red Army, and not just the officers. Very seldom, but there were cases when even privates became a knight of the Order of Alexander Nevsky, who in especially difficult moments of the battle took upon themselves the functions of directing the unit.

Were among the awarded and the fair sex. For example, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded to MV Smirnov, the captain of the guard (later major), the squadron commander of the 46 Guards Tamansky Order of the Red Banner and Suvorov, III degree aviation regiment. It was a regiment of night bombers, equipped with the famous light aircraft Po-2. In addition, during the war years, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded 1473 military units. Among the units awarded with the order was the French Normandie-Neman air regiment.

During the war years, 70 foreign citizens were represented by the Order of Alexander Nevsky, including three officers from the Normandy-Neman regiment: Joseph Risso, Leon Cafo and Pierre Pouyad. Colonel Pierre Pouyad was awarded for the fact that in one of the air battles of August 1944, his regiment's planes made 100 combat missions, shooting down 29 German planes and destroying around 50 planes on the ground. At the same time, the regiment itself did not lose a single one of its cars. In these battles, Pierre Pouyad personally destroyed the enemy's 8 aircraft.


Commander of the Order of Alexander Nevsky Colonel Rybchenko Anempodist Demidovich

The Order of Alexander Nevsky could be awarded several times. The highest number of awards was three. Thus, three orders of Alexander Nevsky were awarded to the commander of the 536 th anti-tank artillery regiment Lieutenant Colonel IG Borisenko and the commander of the 818 th artillery regiment 223 th rifle division Lieutenant Colonel N. L. Nevsky. During the war, the bulk of the orders were awarded to officers in the rank of lieutenant to major, who held the position of platoon or battalion commander. The awarding of the order of Alexander Nevsky to the commanders of regiments and brigades, not to mention divisions (ranks older than the major) were rare. This was due to the fact that senior officers and generals were awarded commander awards of a higher rank (the Orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov). During the war years, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded more than 40 thousand people.

The Order of Alexander Nevsky did not cease to issue with the end of World War II. For the skillful command of the units, as well as the initiative taken during the suppression of the insurgency in Hungary in 1956, a sufficient number of officers of the Soviet Army were presented for the award. Veterans of the Second World War, who, for reasons beyond their control, could not receive this order in due time, the award was given until the 60 anniversary of the Victory (May 2005 of the year). With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was not excluded from the list of Russian awards, but in 2010, the appearance of the order was significantly changed. The sign of the modern order, which was approved in 2010, reproduces the design of the pre-revolutionary award (the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky).

Information sources:
http://ordenrf.ru/su/orden-aleksandra-nevskogo.php
http://milday.ru/ussr/ussr-uniform-award/153-orden-aleksandra-nevskogo.html
http://medalww.ru/nagrady-sssr/ordena-sssr/orden-aleksandra-nevskogo
http://www.rusorden.ru/?nr=su&nt=o8
Author:
Articles from this series:
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Banner
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. The order of Lenin
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Star
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Gold Star Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Honor"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "For Military Merit"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Patriotic War
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Alexander Nevsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Kutuzov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Suvorov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Ushakov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Ushakov's Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Glory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Victory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series "For Defense"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series “For the capture and release”
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals win
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  1. igordok
    igordok 15 January 2014 09: 12
    +1
    I'm sorry. Not in the subject. I was late. What PP does the partisan have in the photo "Young partisan awarded the medal for courage"? It looks like a Beret.
    1. Traveller
      Traveller 15 January 2014 11: 21
      0
      It looks like a PDP http://world.guns.ru/smg/rus/ppd-40-r.html
    2. predator.3
      predator.3 15 January 2014 14: 57
      0
      Quote: igordok
      I'm sorry. Not in the subject. I was late. What PP does the partisan have in the photo "Young partisan awarded the medal for courage"? It looks like a Beret.


      Maybe Schmeiser MP-18, it seems.
      1. igordok
        igordok 15 January 2014 16: 28
        0
        Quote: predator.3
        Maybe Schmeiser MP-18, it seems.

        Shop below and small.
        Beret 1938 has a flame arrester - four slots on top. The same is not the case.
    3. RoTTor
      RoTTor 15 January 2014 15: 04
      0
      "Courage" the kid still has on a small block So, he was awarded at the beginning of the war, when awards, especially to the partisans, were given even sparingly. Young hero!
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. bulanash
      bulanash 15 January 2014 20: 04
      +1
      definitely -PDD-34. Rather rare weapon.
      1. igordok
        igordok 15 January 2014 21: 13
        0
        Quote: bulanash
        definitely -PDD-34. Rather rare weapon.

        Thank. Very similar. Only in the PPD-34 photographs is the barrel shirt with oblong holes, and the guy’s holes are round.
        At http://guns.allzip.org/topic/85/944486.html it is indicated that it is an 34 PDP.
  2. Poruchik 90
    Poruchik 90 15 January 2014 11: 11
    +1
    As for me, it’s really the most beautiful order of the USSR!
  3. KABAN009
    KABAN009 15 January 2014 11: 16
    +2
    A great series of articles about awards and people!
  4. iulai
    iulai 15 January 2014 11: 50
    0
    One thing is not clear - according to the statute, the Order of Alexander Nevsky is higher than the Order of the Patriotic War of the first degree, but the Order of the Patriotic War is made of gold, and the Order of Nevsky is made of silver.
  5. RoTTor
    RoTTor 15 January 2014 15: 09
    +1
    Not a drag. metal business, and the credibility of the award. The same Germans since 1813. really was the Iron Cross.
  6. mixal
    mixal 15 January 2014 23: 08
    0
    My grandmother’s brother was drafted on July 7, 1941 at the age of 18. He started fighting as a private near Mogilev 2 weeks after being drafted. He finished the war as a company commander with the rank of captain on the Polish-German border in wounds. He participated in the 1945 Victory Parade. He was awarded two Orders of the Red Stars, two orders of the Fatherland War, a medal for courage, for military merits. But most of all he was proud of the order of Alexander Nevsky.
  7. bya965
    bya965 16 January 2014 05: 31
    +1
    Everyone in the class envied me, I had a lively grandfather. Thanks to the author. I will add, for the entire war, twice awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky, there were about 200.
    http://www.nevskye.narod.ru/
    Shcheglevatykh Ivan Mikhailovich

    http://www.nevskye.narod.ru/2_nevskyh/shcheglevatyh.htm
    Grandfather considered the most expensive award (although this is not an award, but "just" a sign of belonging to the guard) Guards badge.
  8. sturmovik_vv
    sturmovik_vv 29 May 2014 22: 58
    0
    The Order of Alexander Nevsky is the most beautiful order between the orders of the World.