Military Review

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Victory

16
The 1943 year was a watershed year in World War II. This year, after a series of fierce and bloody battles, the Red Army seized the initiative on the Eastern Front and began liberating the country from the Nazi occupiers. The battles for Moscow and Stalingrad, the Kursk Bulge, the liberation of Kiev - these are the milestones that became the key battles of the Great Patriotic War. During this period, it was decided to establish a new military order, which was to become the highest commander's award. Decree of the USSR Supreme Council on the establishment of the highest military order "Victory" was signed on November 8 1943 of the year. Award to the order could only persons of high command.


The samples and the description of the ribbon of the new order, as well as the rules for wearing them, were approved in August 1944. The initial sketch of the award was presented by N. S. Neelov, one of the officers of the rear headquarters. At first it was planned to name the new order “For Loyalty to the Motherland”. However, Stalin rejected this name. General of the Army A. V. Khrulev reassigned the work on another sketch of the order to the head of the Red Army Army, at that time, to the artist A. I. Kuznetsov, who was already noted when creating Soviet awards. In particular, he worked on the creation of a sketch of the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Patriotic War. Initially, at the center of the new order, Kuznetsov wanted to place profile chest bas-reliefs of Lenin and Stalin. That is how Neyol proposed in his project. Also considered the option of placing in the center of the award of the State Emblem of the Soviet Union. However, in the final version in the center it was decided to place an image of the Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin, and of all the options presented, Stalin chose the one on which was the inscription "Victory".

Established in 1943, the Victory Order became the highest military order in the country. The Order “Victory” could be awarded to persons of the highest command personnel of the spacecraft for the successful conduct of combat operations on a scale of one or a number of fronts, the result of which radically changed the situation in favor of the Soviet troops. Awarding the Order “Victory” could only be made on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet. Also, for all those awarded with this order, a memorial plaque was established as a sign of special distinction. On this plaque, which was located in the Grand Kremlin Palace, all the names of the gentlemen of the Victory Order were placed.

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Victory


It is worth noting that the Order "Victory" was one of the most beautiful and most expensive among all the awards of the Soviet Union. The Order “Victory” is a five-pointed, bulging ruby ​​star, bordered with diamonds. Between the ends of the five-pointed star there are diverging rays, which are also studded with diamonds. The center of the star is a circle, bordered with a laurel-oak wreath and covered with blue enamel. In its center there is a golden image with a part of the Kremlin wall with Lenin's mausoleum and the Spasskaya Tower located in the center. Directly above this image is the inscription "USSR", made in white enamel letters. At the bottom of the circle on the enamel ribbon of red color, the inscription “Victory” is made (all capital letters are covered with white enamel). The distance between the opposite ends of the star is 72 mm, the diameter of the circle on which the Spasskaya Tower is depicted is 31 mm.

The badge of the order is made of platinum. Platinum, gold, silver, 174 small diamonds, 5 imitation rubies in the star's rays, as well as enamel are widely used to decorate the award. The total mass of the award is 78 g. At the same time, the Victory Order contains 47 g of platinum, silver - 19 g, gold - 2 g. The total weight of diamonds used is 16 carat, the weight of each of 5 rubies is 5 carat.

On the back of the Order "Victory" there is a threaded pin with a nut, which are designed to fasten the order to the uniform and other clothes. A silk moire ribbon with a width of 46 mm, its height 8 mm also relied on the order. There was a wide 15-mm red stripe in the middle of the ribbon. On the sides, closer to the edges of the ribbon, were strips of green, blue, burgundy and light blue colors. Bordered ribbon black and orange stripes. This tape was worn on the left side of the chest on a special plank, located on 1 cm above all the other order ribbons. The Victory Order itself was also worn on the left side of the chest on an 12-14 cm above the belt.

Since the production of this award required a large amount of precious metals, as well as rubies and diamonds, the execution of the order for its release was entrusted not to the Mint, but to the masters of the Moscow jewelry-watch factory. This was a unique case in Soviet practice. It was planned to issue a total 30 orders "Victory". In the process of working on the Order, I. F. Kazyonov, who is a master of the highest qualifications of the Moscow jewelry-watch factory, faced some difficulties. The rubies occurring in nature had different shades of red, so it was simply impossible to collect even one order from them, enduring color. Taking this into account, it was decided to use in its manufacture artificial rubies, from which it was always possible to cut the required number of blanks of the same color.



The Order “Victory” for the number 1 was awarded to G. K. Zhukov, commander of the 1-th Ukrainian Front, for the successful liberation of Right-Bank Ukraine. The great Soviet marshal received his second order already on March 30 of 1945, commanding the troops of the 1 of the Belorussian Front (for the skillful accomplishment of the tasks of the High Command). In addition to him, Marshal AM Vasilevsky and Supreme Commander IV Stalin were twice awarded.

A. M. Vasilevsky, Chief of the General Staff (later commander of the 3 of the Byelorussian Front): awarding 10 on April 1944 of the year and 19 of April 1945. The reason for awarding: for the liberation of the right-bank Ukraine and for the planning of military operations and the coordination of actions of the fronts.

JV Stalin, Supreme Commander: awarding 29 July 1944 of the year and 25 June 1945 of the year. The reason for awarding: for the liberation of the right-bank Ukraine and for the victory over Germany.

Marshal K. K. Rokossovsky: awarding 30 March 1945 year. Reason for award: for the liberation of Poland.

Marshal I. S. Konev: awarding 30 in March 1945. The reason for the award: for the liberation of Poland and forcing the Oder.

Marshal R. Ya. Malinovsky: awarding 26 on April 1945. The reason for awarding: for the liberation of the territories of Austria and Hungary.

Marshal F. I. Tolbukhin: 26 award on April 1945. The reason for awarding: for the liberation of the territories of Austria and Hungary.

Marshal L. A. Govorov: awarding 31 May 1945. The reason for awarding - for the defeat of the German troops near Leningrad and in the Baltic States.

S.K. Tymoshenko, representative of the Supreme Commander’s Headquarters: awarding 4 June 1945. The reason for awarding: for planning combat operations and coordinating the actions of the fronts.

Army General A.I. Antonov, Chief of General Staff: awarding 4 June 1945. The reason for awarding: for planning combat operations and coordinating the actions of the fronts.

Marshal K.A. Meretskov: awarding 8 September 1945 of the year. The reason for the award: for the successful leadership of the troops in the war against Japan.



There were among the awarded and foreign citizens. In particular, 5 June 1945 was awarded to field marshal B. L. Montgomery, Supreme Commander of Allied Expeditionary Armed Forces in Western Europe, as well as Army General D. Eisenhower. July 6 1945 was awarded such a high award by the King of Romania, Mihai I. On August 9, the award was given to General M. Roll-Zimersky, the Supreme Commander of the Polish Army. The latest among foreigners (9 September 1945 of the year) was Marshal Joseph-Broz Tito, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Yugoslav People’s Liberation Army.

20 February 1978 was awarded the Order of Victory by the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee, Marshal of the Soviet Union L.I. Brezhnev. However, after the death of Brezhnev, this award was canceled as a non-statutory award. In total 20 awards were made by the Order of “Victory”, 17 people became his gentlemen. In this case, three were awarded twice, one was deprived of the award posthumously. Marshals Zhukov and Vasilevsky, as well as Stalin were twice awarded the Order “Victory”. All awards, which were presented to Soviet military leaders, as well as the award, which was presented to Marshal of Poland, Role-Zimersky, are administered by the Diamond Fund of Russia. In the private collections today there is only one order, which previously belonged to the Romanian King Mihai I. At present, this order is absent in the award system of the Russian Federation, and the only surviving holder of the order is the King of Romania, Mihai I.

Information sources:
http://ordenrf.ru/su/orden-pobeda.php
http://milday.ru/ussr/ussr-uniform-award/164-orden-pobeda.html
http://medalww.ru/nagrady-sssr/ordena-sssr/orden-pobeda
http://www.rusorden.ru/?nr=su&nt=o3
Author:
Articles from this series:
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Banner
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. The order of Lenin
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Star
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Gold Star Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Honor"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "For Military Merit"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Patriotic War
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Alexander Nevsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Kutuzov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Suvorov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Ushakov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Ushakov's Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Glory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Victory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series "For Defense"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series “For the capture and release”
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals win
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  1. predator.3
    predator.3 20 February 2014 10: 49
    +3
    February 20, 1978, the Order of Victory was awarded to the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Marshal of the Soviet Union L. I. Brezhnev. However, after Brezhnev’s death, this award was canceled as not meeting the statute of the award.


    Yes, Leonid Ilyich had a weakness for orders and medals! Yes, all this is forgivable, because during his era of "stagnation" the country made such a leap forward in development that they still cannot ruin and steal it all!
  2. svoi
    svoi 20 February 2014 11: 31
    +2
    In private collections today there is only one order that previously belonged to the Romanian king Mihai I. Currently, this order is absent in the Russian award system, and the only surviving cavalier of the order is the king of Romania, Mihai I.He is curious that they stole the order, or he sold it himself, in difficult times. As they said, in the film brother 2: one word - Romanian.
  3. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 20 February 2014 11: 48
    -1
    And the Romanian for what feats awarded, really for robberies and looting in Ukraine and the Don? Yeah, politics!
    1. predator.3
      predator.3 20 February 2014 19: 49
      0
      Quote: polkovnik manuch
      And the Romanian for what feats awarded, really for robberies and looting in Ukraine and the Don? Yeah, politics!

      for almost the same as Napoleon was awarded the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called in Tilsit, and Alexander received the Legion of Honor!
      Although I agree, the Gypsy king is awarded the "Victory" order, this is too much! the Order of Lenin would be enough for him! fellow
  4. Prometey
    Prometey 20 February 2014 11: 49
    -1
    And why was Tymoshenko awarded this order - because it was beaten by the Wehrmacht more than once?
    And to the Romanian king for what merits?
    But who exactly deserved the Order of Victory is Kovpak - one of the best military leaders not only in World War II, but also in World War II.
    1. creak
      creak 20 February 2014 14: 52
      -2
      The Kursk Bulge, Operation Bagration, the capture of Berlin - this is probably Kovpak, where Rokossovsky was before commander Kovpak ... The leadership was wrong, the marshal should not be given to Rokossovsky and Zhukov, namely Kovpak, they didn’t make out one of the best warlords of the Second World War and World War II ...
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 20 February 2014 17: 32
        -2
        Quote: ranger
        The leadership was mistaken, the marshal should not be given to Rokossovsky and Zhukov, namely Kovpak

        So, did they come or was it just boring? According to Rokossovsky and Zhukov, no one asks questions. And according to Kovpak - read the materials and find more analogues in history when such powerful resistance was organized behind enemy lines and, in fact, surrounded by the enemy, they conducted military operations. He did not lead the fronts and armies, but made no less contribution to the cause of Victory.
        According to Tymoshenko do not answer?
        1. max73
          max73 20 February 2014 18: 59
          +1
          did you want to troll? For Tymoshenko - there is no reason to award the Order of Victory, but there are a lot of mistakes that turned out to be big victims. Kovpak - does not comply with the statute of the order. By the way, the partisan movement in Belarus was much wider. and yet ... the Order of Victory, although it is called a military leader, quickly acquired political significance, to which awards after May 9, 1945 are evidence
  5. Prometey
    Prometey 20 February 2014 11: 55
    0
    By the way, I forgot to put the author +. Awarding Brezhnev - it was a depreciation of the order. Well, that was canceled.
  6. ultra
    ultra 20 February 2014 15: 03
    0
    Respect for the article to the author! hi
    1. Apollo
      Apollo 20 February 2014 15: 05
      +2
      Quote-Established in 1943, the Order of Victory became the highest military order in the country. The Victory Order could be awarded to persons of the high command of the spacecraft for the successful conduct of military operations on the scale of one or a number of fronts, the result of which radically changed the situation in favor of the Soviet troops. Awarding the Order of Victory could be made only on the basis of a Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces. Also, for all those awarded this order, a memorial plaque was established as a sign of special distinction. On this memorial plaque, which was located in the Grand Kremlin Palace, all the names of the Knights of the Order of Victory were taken out.



  7. RoTTor
    RoTTor 20 February 2014 16: 51
    0
    Comrade Stalin never wore this order, like the others. He was above all human rewards. Sometimes he wore only the undeniably deserved Gold Star of the Hero of Socialist Labor No. 1.
    The ceremonial portraits in uniform with all orders are simply painted, like an icon.

    The rewarding of L.I. Brezhnev is an example of servility and sneakiness, a complete and impudent violation by the Lopolis of the Statute of this order. Depriving the deceased of this award is simply petty dirty villainy. During the award, L.I. was no longer in health, therefore could not adequately respond to this. The first 11 years of his reign are the heyday of the country and the growth of human well-being.

    The most "political" reward was for King Mihai: FOR WITHDRAWAL FROM THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF FASTIMIST GEMANIA. But there was a minimum of combat losses during the liberation of Romania. But in the History of the Military Medical Service it is written that it was during the liberation of Romania that an incredible number of people were infected there ... with venereal diseases.

    Mihai had no more rights to this award than Brezhnev.

    At one time, he refused to hang in his unit a portrait of Leonid Brezhnev in a marshal's uniform with the Order of Victory. Immediately, the political fighters came up and screamed. In front of them, he opened the official publication of the Order and Medals of the USSR, gave them the Statute of this Order to read, and explained that I would not continue to discredit the Supreme Commander-in-Chief because of idiots-toadies. The political fighters shut up and quietly backed off. Then - well, you know, the "most favored nation" regime began, but everything was sneaky, surreptitious.
    Do you think by chance among ukro-fascists there are enough graduates of political schools?
    1. klim44
      klim44 20 February 2014 17: 16
      0
      Wonderful hunting story
  8. fisherman
    fisherman 20 February 2014 17: 50
    0
    when I first read about this fact (Brezhnev’s award) I was surprised a lot
  9. rocketman
    rocketman 20 February 2014 21: 20
    -3
    Quote: predator.3
    Yes, all this is forgivable, because during his era of "stagnation" the country made such a leap forward in development that they still cannot ruin and steal it all!

    it's all on the basis of the foundation laid by Stalin
  10. soldat-gvardii
    soldat-gvardii 21 February 2014 08: 47
    +2
    These articles would be in the form of posters and in schools on the walls.
  11. Poruchik 90
    Poruchik 90 24 February 2014 14: 02
    -1
    Brezhnev was awarded the Order of Vasilevsky, while the screw was sawn off and a platinum pin was soldered (so that the chest would not press).
    And Mihai, when he escaped, took the order with him and sold it for 500 green mowers at that time. The order was resold officially 1 time in the 70s for 6 lemons to the buyer who wanted to remain incognito, then the fate of the order is unknown.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. apollo
    apollo 28 February 2014 03: 28
    +1
    Thank you for the article!
    GLORY TO THE WINNERS !!!