Military Review

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Glory

23
The Order of Glory was established on 8 on November 1943 of the year simultaneously with the Order of Victory, at the moment when it became clear that the war would end in victory over Germany. The order was created on the personal initiative of I. V. Stalin and was the most "soldier's order" among all military awards. For the first time, the proposal to create this award was made in June 1943 of the year at a meeting of the People's Commissariat of Defense, at which the draft Order of the Victory was discussed. The main idea of ​​introducing a new order was to reward the rank-and-file and junior commanders of the Red Army for the most diverse heroic deeds committed in battle. This order was issued only for specific achievements, which are strictly regulated by the statute.


The task of developing a new order was transferred to the Technical Committee of the Main Directorate Directorate of the Spacecraft, which at that time was led by Lieutenant-General S. V. Aginsky. The development of the order here began in August 1943 of the year. Above the sketch of the award worked a team of artists from 9. In all, by October 2 of 1943 they prepared the order's 26 projects, of which only 4 was presented to Stalin. As a result, he approved the sketch of the order, which was created by N. I. Moskalev, the author of the medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War", the Order of Kutuzov and all medals for the defense of the cities of the USSR. According to the original plan, the order should have been directly 4 degrees. In this, he had to repeat the pre-revolutionary order of St. George and the "insignia of the military order" - the famous George Cross, one of the most respected royal awards among the people. Initially, the award was planned to be called the Order of Bagration, by analogy with the already existing “commanding orders”. However, Stalin reasoned differently, he offered to call the award the Order of Glory, explaining that “there is no victory without glory,” and also reduced the number of degrees to 3-x by analogy with the “commanding orders”.

The Order of Glory had 3 degrees, the highest of which was considered the first degree. Awarding this order was carried out sequentially: first, the soldier was to receive the order of the III degree, then the II degree and at the end of the I degree. The Order of Glory was awarded to soldiers of the Red Army of sergeants and rank-and-file officers, in addition to this order, servicemen with the rank of junior lieutenant could be represented if they served in aviation. It is interesting to note such a detail: the full cavaliers of the Order of Glory had the right to receive an extraordinary military rank. Thus, ordinary and junior command personnel (corporals and sergeants) automatically became foremen, foremen - junior lieutenants, and junior lieutenants - lieutenants.

Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Glory

Awarding the Order of Glory was for courage, fearlessness and personal courage shown in a combat situation. The rank and file and junior command staff could be presented to the order for the following committed heroic deeds: with an anti-tank rifle fire disabled at least 2 tanks the adversary; from personal weapons tagged shooting destroyed from 10 to 50 soldiers and officers of the enemy; being in a tanned tank, continued to fight; from personal weapons shot down an enemy plane; after being wounded and bandaged, he returned to service; captured officer of an enemy army; driving a tank, destroyed one or more enemy guns or at least 2 machine gun nests; fighter pilot in one battle that destroyed enemy planes from 2's to 4's; attack pilot for the destruction of a single raid from 2-x to 5-ti enemy tanks. And this is only a small part of the provisions of the statute of this award. In total, there were 32 specific combat situations that suggested awarding the soldier with the Order of Glory.

It is worth noting that the Order of Glory by the Soviet standards was not the most usual order, having a number of features inherent only in it:

1) It was the only Soviet military order that was intended to award only private and non-commissioned officers (and junior lieutenants in aviation).
2) The award of the Order of Glory was made only in an ascending order, from the lowest degree (III) to the highest (I). This order of rewarding in the Soviet Union was repeated only 30 years later in the statutes of the Orders For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR and Labor Glory.
3) Until 1974, the Order of Glory was the only Soviet order that was issued solely for personal merit and was never issued to military units, organizations, or enterprises.
4) According to the Statute of the Order of Glory, the gentleman of all 3 degrees increased in rank, which was an exception for the entire award system of the USSR.
5) The colors of the order ribbon completely repeated the colors of the pre-revolutionary imperial order of St. George, which for the Soviet Union of Stalin's times was at least unexpected.
6) The design and color of the order ribbon were the same for all 3 degrees of the award, which was also characteristic only for the pre-revolutionary award system and was never used in the Soviet award system.


Order of Glory III degree

The Order of Glory was a five-pointed star, the distance between its opposite peaks was 46 mm. In the central part of the five-pointed star was located a round medallion, the diameter of the medallion was 23,5 mm. The medallion depicted the Kremlin's Spasskaya Tower. A laurel wreath passed around the circumference of the medallion. In the lower part of the circle there was an inscription "Glory" (all letters were capitalized), the inscription was placed on a ribbon covered with red enamel. On the reverse side of the award was a circle with a diameter of 19 mm, on which in the middle was the inscription of the USSR. With the aid of the ring and the ear, the reward was attached to a standard pentagonal block, which was covered with a silk ribbon 24 mm wide. The tape contained 5 longitudinal alternating bands: 3 black and 2 orange, the width of the bands was the same. Along the edges of the tape, there was one small orange strip with a width of just 1 mm.

The Order of Glory I degree was made from gold 950 samples. The award contained 28,619 ± 1,425 g of gold, its total weight was 30,414 ± 1,5. The Order of Glory of the II degree was made of silver, while the circle with the image of the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin was gilded. The award contained 20,302 ± 1,222 g of silver, its total weight was 22,024 ± 1,5 g. The Order of Glory of the III degree was also produced from silver. The award contained 20,549 ± 1,388 g of silver, its total weight was 22,260 ± 1,6 g.

The right to award the Order of Glory of the III degree was granted to the commanders of formations of the active army from the brigade commander and above. The Order of Glory of the II degree of the soldier could be awarded by army commanders or flotilla. Awarding of the Order of Glory of the 13st degree took place only on the proposal of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces. The first award of the Order of Glory took place on November 1943, 5, that is, XNUMX days after the establishment of the new award.

On November 13, the award list was signed on submission to the Order of Glory, Third Degree, sapper senior sergeant V. S. Malyshev, who during the battle managed to get close to the enemy machine gun, which impeded the advancement of the Soviet troops, and destroyed it. Later Malyshev will also receive the Order of Glory II degree. According to other sources, the first award was received by Sergeant G. A. Israelyan, also a sapper. Apparently, Malyshev was the first to present the order, but the award was handed to him later, when Sergeant Israelyan received it. It is worth noting that the orders were sent to various parts of the front in batches, after which they were distributed among the headquarters of the formations, which had the right to award. For this reason, the order that was issued earlier often had a larger number than the award given later.


Honored Artist of the RSFSR Smirnov Alexey Makarovich, holder of the Orders of Glory II and III degree

First in stories Holders of the Order of Glory of the II degree were the sappers of the 10 Army from the 1 of the Belorussian Front, they were ordinary soldiers A. Vlasov and S. I. Baranov. By the end of the Great Patriotic War, both of these fighters also received the Order of Glory of I degree, becoming full holders of the Order of Glory. The first award of the Order of Glory I degree was made in July 1944 year. The first in the Soviet army, the holder of the Order of Glory, was Senior Sergeant K. K. Shevchenko. At that time, Shevchenko was an assistant platoon reconnaissance commander as part of a separate ski battalion. At the same time, the sapper of corporation M. T. Pitenin became the full holder of the Order of Glory. 22 was signed on July 1944 of the year, but the soldier did not live to receive the award, he was killed in battle before the decree was signed. Shevchenko was much more fortunate in this respect; he successfully passed the war, having managed to receive, among other things, the orders of the Red Banner, the Red Star, and the Patriotic War. It was this fact: the presence of three Orders of Glory and three other Soviet military orders made him a real phenomenon. In those years, not every colonel and even a Soviet general had 6 military orders.

During the war there was a rather interesting case, when a whole subunit - all of its fighters, except for the officers, - was awarded the Order of Glory. This is the 1 Battalion of the 215 Infantry Regiment of the 77 Guards Division. In the battles for the liberation of Poland during the breakthrough of the German line of defense on the Vistula 14 in January 1945, the soldiers of this battalion were able to capture the 3 of a number of enemy trenches and held their positions until the main advancing forces approached. During this battle guard sergeant I.Ye. Petrov repeated the feat of Matrosov, closing the embrasure of the German bunker with his chest. All the rank and file sergeants and sergeants of this battalion became holders of the Order of Glory. The officers also did not remain without awards, platoon commanders were presented to the Order of Alexander Nevsky, company commanders were presented to the Order of the Red Banner, and the commander of the guard battalion, Major B.N. Emelyanov, became the Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously).

In total, about 1 million orders of the III degree, more than 46 thousand orders of the II degree, and also 2672 of the Order of Glory of the I degree were awarded for differences during the Great Patriotic War. After the war, it was found that among the 2672 holders of the Order of Glory, there were 80 people who, by mistake, had the 4 of the Order of Glory instead of 3-x, one of the lowest degrees was duplicated. Also among the holders of the Order of Glory was one man who was immediately awarded the 5 Order (was presented to the Order of Glory II degree three times) - this is DI Kokhanovsky. However, he was deprived of all his ranks and awards in connection with the condemnation.

Information sources:
http://ordenrf.ru/su/orden-slavy.php
http://milday.ru/ussr/ussr-uniform-award/167-orden-slavy.html
http://medalww.ru/nagrady-sssr/ordena-sssr/orden-slavy/
http://www.rusorden.ru/?nr=su&nt=o4
Author:
Articles from this series:
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Banner
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. The order of Lenin
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Red Star
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Gold Star Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Honor"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "For Military Merit"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of the Patriotic War
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Alexander Nevsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Kutuzov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Suvorov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Ushakov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Ushakov's Medal
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medal of Nakhimov
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Glory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Order of Victory
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series "For Defense"
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals of the series “For the capture and release”
Military orders and medals of the Soviet Union. Medals win
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  1. Oleg56.ru
    Oleg56.ru 14 February 2014 07: 17 New
    +7
    The war is long over
    And today I became sad.
    I found orders in the closet,
    What did I get from my father
    And there are a lot of them with medals.
    Among the well-deserved awards
    I hold the Order of Glory in my hand.
    He is for sailors and soldiers
    In the war, the reward was the main one.

    The order does not shine with gilding,
    And not even silver.
    But as if someone asks:
    -What did father "earn" for?
    But I forgot. Sorry forever.

    I remember in childhood with my younger brother
    We sat at a table with his father.
    And helping in the important matter,
    Cleaning the awards with different pasta,
    We learned about the war.
    Our father personally cleaned the "Glory",
    He told us about his feat.
    I cleaned the medal “For Warsaw”,
    And brother, I remember, "For Berlin."

    The order does not shine with gilding,
    And not even silver.
    But as if someone asks:
    - What did the father “earn” for?
    But I forgot. Sorry forever.

    And on Victory Day, every year,
    All shone brighter than the Order of Glory.
    I was proud for my father,
    What did he fight for the people
    And he won the bloody war.
    That day he went to fellow soldiers,
    To remember those who died.
    No ringing of glasses was heard there,
    And even the “Glory” light there is a nickname.

    The order does not shine with gilding,
    And not even silver.
    But as if someone asks:
    -What did father "earn" for?
    But I forgot. Sorry forever.

    Soviet order. From metal
    Five-pointed star.
    And in the center of the Kremlin, and the inscription "Glory" ...
    Now there are no such awards.
    Now other times.
    But on Victory Day I'll get it
    Rewards of his father.
    And raise a glass for the "Glory"
    For the main order for a fighter!

    The order does not shine with gilding,
    And not even silver.
    But as if someone asks:
    -What did father "earn" for?
    But I forgot. Sorry forever.

    Vladimir Svadbin "Order of Glory 3rd degree"
  2. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 14 February 2014 07: 20 New
    +6
    Thank you for an interesting essay about one of the most respected awards of the Great Patriotic War.
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. PValery53
    PValery53 14 February 2014 08: 22 New
    +7
    The Full Cavalier of the Order of Glory is honored and respected among the people no less than the Hero of the Soviet Union. I knew a neighbor, the full Cavalier Pyotr Makhortov. He deserved soldiers' orders, fighting in intelligence. Bright memory to him.
  5. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 14 February 2014 09: 16 New
    +2
    The most soldier's order! Thanks to the author for an interesting article.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 16 February 2014 14: 57 New
      0
      the most soldier’s order is the Order of the Fighting Red Banner, the Red Star and the Order of the Great Patriotic War — without discussion, the Order of Glory was issued during the offensive of the Red Army, respected but not the most important among veterans
  6. nikcris
    nikcris 14 February 2014 11: 22 New
    +2
    "Also among the full holders of the Order of Glory there was one person who was awarded 5 orders at once (he was presented to the Order of Glory II degree three times) - this is DI Kokhanovsky. At the same time, he was deprived of all his titles and awards in connection with the conviction."

    This is terribly enraging. Convicted after a feat - deprived of awards. The feat was also canceled? Rear rats am e, damn it
    1. atos_kin
      atos_kin 14 February 2014 13: 51 New
      +2
      Yes ... you can see sharp turns in the life of D.I.Kokhanovsky. That's about whom it is necessary to make films. This would be more interesting than today's trolley.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. RoTTor
      RoTTor 14 February 2014 17: 35 New
      -1
      And the title of Hero was deprived repeatedly for criminal offenses.
      Well, another war hero could not find himself in ordinary life. And that was ...
      Without work - not deprived!
  7. Owl
    Owl 14 February 2014 11: 33 New
    +1
    Several years ago, on May 9, I saw a veteran pilot, with almost a dozen orders, stood "almost at attention" in front of a veteran in an old jacket wearing three orders of "Glory" of all grades.
  8. Lk17619
    Lk17619 14 February 2014 11: 47 New
    0
    Thanks for the essay.
  9. Saburo
    Saburo 14 February 2014 12: 39 New
    0
    It seems that the modern analogue of the Order of Glory is the St. George Cross?
  10. egsp
    egsp 14 February 2014 12: 51 New
    +1
    No, the Order of Glory is an analogue of the St. George Cross of Tsarist times, and even then conditionally, the color of the shoe is fully consistent.
  11. bubalik
    bubalik 14 February 2014 13: 19 New
    0
    It was the only Soviet military order that was intended to award only ordinary and sergeant personnel (and junior lieutenants in aviation).
    - the creators of the film "White Tiger" probably had no consultants. If I am not mistaken, the hero of the film, the colonel, has the Order of Glory on his chest, and at once the first degree. How is that? May be?
    1. Kubanets
      Kubanets 14 February 2014 15: 09 New
      +1
      The consultants of course burst. But in real life this could happen on the condition that the colonel was sentenced by the tribunal to the penalty battalion and presented there for a reward.
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 14 February 2014 17: 11 New
        +1
        Well, if you get that in the penalty battalion, but not the first degree right away.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. RoTTor
        RoTTor 14 February 2014 17: 41 New
        +3
        They were awarded in the penal battalion AFTER serving the term, being wounded or killed IN BATTLE ("redeemed with blood"), ie when a serviceman was given back his previous titles and awards, his family was given a pension.
        The consultants of the film are shitty, and therefore the film is complete rubbish, like most of the current films - cheap action-packed films "in the scenery of the Second World War."
        Exception - "Life and Fate" by Sergei Ursulyak - reliable even in small details
      4. The comment was deleted.
  12. yacht
    yacht 14 February 2014 17: 37 New
    +1
    Quote: Kubanets
    The consultants of course burst. But in real life this could happen on the condition that the colonel was sentenced by the tribunal to the penalty battalion and presented there for a reward.


    Awarded the Order of Glory consistently.III - II - I So this version does not roll.
    And if I’m not mistaken full holder of orders The glory of status is equal to the Hero of the Soviet Union.
  13. tundra
    tundra 14 February 2014 19: 05 New
    +3
    The colors of the order ribbon completely repeated the coloring of the pre-revolutionary imperial order of St. George, which was at least unexpected for the Soviet Union of Stalin's times. () ..... Oh, Koba was not easy !!! I knew what I was doing, because these stubborn ones , no need to fight. And how many Russian traditions he returned. Therefore, he did not lie when he called himself RUSSIAN ..
  14. coserg 2012
    coserg 2012 14 February 2014 20: 48 New
    +3
    In the late 70s, a shepherd died in our village, grazing a collective farm herd of cows. He was very quiet, calm and kind to us 12-13 year old boys. Of all the men who fought, the most not talkative on this subject. So that's when they brought him to bury , only then we saw on the pillows with awards three orders of glory. And we (boys) generally thought that some kind of not a full-fledged soldier. Even as we felt guilty. Here are such quiet heroes. I don’t know his fate, only his name is still I remember Zhovtun, and maybe ZhAvtun or ZHevtun.
    1. tundra
      tundra 14 February 2014 21: 47 New
      0
      REAL HEROES
  15. tundra
    tundra 14 February 2014 21: 50 New
    0
    Quiet and calm, real Russians.
  16. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 14 February 2014 22: 39 New
    +1
    The holder of the Order of Glory (all three degrees) was really equal in status and privilege to the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, I had a teacher of RNP (radio navigation devices) at the school had the Order of Glory of the 3rd degree, in the war as a shooter radio operator on a bomber, he said that he shot down the messenger , then they shot them down and he commanded himself through a swamp, dragged to ours, the man was what he needed, he really drank ... The surname was Chashchin Adolf Mikhailovich. Rest in peace!
  17. nnz226
    nnz226 15 February 2014 00: 05 New
    +1
    And also in the USSR there were ONLY four people who became full holders of the Order of Glory, and even a plus and Heroes of the Soviet Union. One of them, Sergeant Major Dubinda, was taken prisoner in the summer of 1942 near Sevastopol (the "generals" and "atmirals" abandoned almost 80000 soldiers and sailors on Cape Chersonesos without ammunition, water, food, hope for evacuation) In 1944, he was released from captivity. In contrast to the liberalistic horror stories about "moving from German camps to Stalin's" was sent to the active army That's where the Nazis and recouped, having received all the highest awards in a year (the Order of Lenin went along with the Golden Star) I can imagine what he "got up" at the front ! Compared to SUCH PEOPLE, all sorts of overseas "eroi" like Remba or Schwarzenegger are a junior nursery group! That's who you need to make films about!
  18. voliador
    voliador 15 February 2014 00: 16 New
    0
    A good series of articles, informative and interesting.