Military Review

Cuirassiers in battles and campaigns

107

Prussian King Frederick the Great at the Battle of Leuthen on December 5, 1757. Picture by Hugo Ungevitter


Gathering after them weapon and removing the armor from the enemies ...
Second Book of Maccabees 8: 27


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. The XNUMXth century began; new cuirassiers appeared on the battlefields. Who, then, first of all, all began to equal, with whom to take an example? But from whom: from the Swedes!

After the end of the Thirty Years War, in which the Swedish army, led by King Gustav Adolf and the commanders of Baner, Hurn and Tosterson won a series of victories over the imperial armies, the role of Sweden in continental affairs was limited to the Baltic states. Warfare gradually faded away, but in 1675, Charles XI ascended the throne of Sweden and began a series of significant military reforms.

At the end of the 2,5th century, 5 million people lived in Sweden, of which only XNUMX percent lived in cities. Its most important competitor, Russia, had ten times more people, and therefore much more resources to recruit an army. The constant presence of a large number of people under arms would destroy the Swedish economy, so the king introduced the administrative organization Indelningsverkt, under which soldiers and officers of the regular army had the right to work on the royal land on which they were allocated farms. There were typical farm construction projects, depending on the rank of the owner. People from one county belonged to the same detachment, therefore they knew each other well, and therefore their morale was higher than that of mercenaries. Although, if the unit suffered serious losses, the district could be devastated. He then simply would not have enough labor!

The shock force of the Swedish army was the horse regiments, although there were few of them. The main organization of the regiment was four squadrons of 125 people each. In peacetime, soldiers cultivated the land and took part in exercises. In wartime, all the forces of the regiment converged at the gathering point and went to the main army camp, where they were already undergoing continuous training.

During the time of Charles XI, a uniform was introduced in the Swedish army on the model of the French era of Louis XIV. The cavalry was divided into national horse and dragoon regiments, with one squadron of Trabant-Garde (Royal Guard) and a corps of nobles (adelsfanan). In 1685, a royal decree determined a special test for the blades of cavalry broadswords: they had to bend in both directions and withstand a strong blow to a pine board. The blade was branded only if it passed the test. Cuirasses were worn only by royal trabants. The cheapness of the army was one of the principles of the policy of Charles XII.

In 1697, Charles XII became king of Sweden. He continued military reforms and turned the cavalry into a powerful fighting force, which proved itself in many battles against the Danes, Saxons, Poles and Russians during the Great Northern War (1700-1721). How dangerous were these battles, illustrates the example of the Royal Guard; Of the 147 soldiers who went to war in 1700, only 17 returned in 1716.


Swedish cuirassier-trabant 1709 Fig. from the book: V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. L .: Cassell, 1994. P.155

It should be noted that the creation of the first national mass armies was a serious test for the economies of Europe. Yes, before that, they had to pay mercenaries, but their “men” were at hand and paid taxes. Now they had to tear people away from fields and farms, take artisans into the army, and feed all this mass, water and uniform in fashion. Moreover, no one even thought about how to really simplify the uniform. The great reformer Peter I did not even bother to think about the fact that the meaning of the regular army was not in poses and triangular hats, but in tactics, and ... he immediately dressed his whole army in a Western manner, although he had beautifully dressed archers before his eyes! So I would take away their reeds and train them in a new way, and leave the old clothes: for winter, spring and autumn - a long caftan overcoat and high, goatskin, boots, and a three-piece hat and a hemispherical helmet with small brim on his head, and for summer - a short caftan and a hat with a lapel around the edge. And that’s all! And there would be huge savings for him, and for the enemies ... it would be purely subconscious to see so many people dressed in completely different ways. And the soldiers had to leave beards - they would look worse! But he was a man of traditional thinking and could not think of such a thing.

True, attempts to reduce the cost of the already expensive cuirassier uniform were made. But they didn’t really succeed. Here's what, for example, a traditional European cuirassier of 1710 looked like. Kaftan made of elk leather under a cuirass, which could be double or single, that is, only on the chest. On the head is a traditional cocked hat, but with a metal “lining”. She is also wearing a traditional tie - croat. Tall leather over the knee boots. Armament: a straight long broadsword, two pistols in holsters at the saddle and a carbine. The cuirass could be polished or painted black.


European cuirassier 1710. Fig. from the book: V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. L .: Cassell, 1994. P.161

In France, the medieval cavalry was reorganized in 1665, when all the horse units were converted into 17 regiments of regular cavalry with companies of 250-300 people each. According to an earlier tradition, some of them were called gendarmes, while others were called legionnaires. The first four (including 1st Scottish and 2nd English) belonged to the king; the rest is to the queen and various princes. Each company was commanded by a lieutenant commander, equal in rank to colonel of the army cavalry. Cornet is a lieutenant colonel, a sergeant is a captain, a brigadier is a lieutenant. The four gendarmes divided among themselves one servant who took care of them and transported their equipment on a pack horse.

The gendarmerie was not a guard, but had almost the same status. On the battlefield, it was kept as a cavalry reserve in the amount of 2-3 thousand people, usually together with the guards, and sent to the fire at critical moments of the battle, regardless of losses. The gendarmes participated in all French campaigns, with considerable success, but by the time of the Seven Years' War the French army had only 10 squads of gendarmes.


Breastplate, end of the 6577th century Germany. Front view. The weight of the back plate is 6350 g.; chest plate weight XNUMX g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Like the guards, they were allowed to wear red camisoles, but chest breastplates can be worn under them. Each company had its own insignia embroidered with silver thread on holsters, mats and carabiner belts. They were armed with a rifled carbine, two pistols and a broadsword, and on their heads they wore a steel “cap” (calotte de fer) under a hat.


Fixing belts cuirass. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

However, Frederick II paid the most attention to cuirassiers among European monarchs. When he ascended the throne in Prussia in 1740, he had at his disposal 22 horsemen, half of whom served precisely in the cuirassier regiments. Immediately after his coronation, he formed the Guards cuirassier regiment (after 544 it was a cuirassier regiment of three squadrons, number 1756 on the army list). He also changed the name of the 13th cuirassier regiment to the gendarmerie regiment, the 10th to the carabinieri life regiment, and the 11rd to the cuirassier life regiment, and included all these regiments in his guard. Other regiments had black cuirasses, but cuirassiers had shiny metal cuirasses.


French gendarme 1750 from the book: V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. L .: Cassell, 1994. P.165

At the beginning of the War of Austrian Succession, at the Battle of Molvitz in 1741, Frederick learned of his victory only at the very end. The Austrian cavalry defeated their Prussian opponents and almost captured the Prussian king, but his superior infantry turned defeat into victory. As Friedrich later wrote, he had the opportunity to see on the battlefield how bad the cavalry he had inherited from his father. Most of the officers did not know the service, the horsemen were afraid of horses, few were able to ride well, and the exercises were carried out on foot, as in the infantry. Worst of all, the riders on horseback moved very slowly. He decided to reorganize his cavalry and issued numerous rules and instructions, which most of all concerned precisely the cuirassier regiments, which became the best in Europe.

Friedrich decided that recruits for cuirassier regiments must be healthy and strong, at least 160 cm tall, to wear heavy cuirasses. Selected were mainly the sons of peasants who knew how to deal with horses. Height at the withers of 157 cm was declared the minimum acceptable for horses, and the Holstein breed became the most popular horses. Holstein horses have been bred at monasteries in the Elbe Valley since the 1719th century, where local mares crossed with Neapolitan, Spanish and Eastern stallions. The first rules on horse breeding were published in 1735, and in XNUMX the state stud farms in Prussia had already begun to breed Holstein horses for the army. They were very popular and exported to many European countries. They were large, black and dark brown, firmly built and dynamic in movement horses.

Towards the end of that century, the uniforms of Prussian and other European cuirassiers became almost universally white; the color was the only reminder that they once stood out from bleached skin. The cuirassiers were armed with a carbine, two pistols and a broadsword, and the regiments consisted of five squadrons, each of which had about 150 people.


Prussian cuirassier 1756. Fig. from the book: V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. L .: Cassell, 1994. P.165

At the Battle of Rossbach in 1757, five cuirassier regiments, a total of 23 squadrons, under the command of Major General Seidlitz twice attacked the French troops and ultimately decided the outcome of the battle in favor of Prussia.


Hyderabad Royal Arsenal Breastplate. 1778-1779 It belonged to Ali Khan (reigned from 1762–1803), who headed the state of Hyderabad during his economic growth, during which he became an important cultural center of India. The unusual one-piece design of the bib and back panel, which resembles a stylized torso of a person, may reflect European influence. Both plates are forged from crucible steel, which is also referred to in the literature as polished steel due to the delicate pattern of ripples visible in the metal structure. Polished steel was often used for sword and dagger blades, but rarely for armor, with only the highest quality. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Horse latniks back in service
Cuirassiers in museums
Friends and Enemies of Imperial Cuirassiers
Polish shells, Austrian hussars and Turkish fives
Enemies of the Cuirassiers
With whom the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fought?
“A small discovery in the butt of an arquebus ...”
Horsemen of the Eighty Years War
Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries
“By people and by horses, not by aer”
Ordonance companies
“It's a miracle if someone is killed with a spear”
Mounted Latniks Sunset
107 comments
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  1. Catfish
    Catfish 16 July 2020 05: 21 New
    +5
    Good morning to everyone and good mood! soldier
    Long live the cuirassiers and Vyacheslav Shpakovsky!
    1. kalibr
      16 July 2020 06: 04 New
      +7
      Oh, thanks! Good morning and good mood to everyone. I have it great! The weather is a hot sunny summer, periodically impressive thunderstorms with the wind and ... we all live in the country as a whole family. There is physical labor, followed by mental - that is, the real embodiment of a dream! The theme of memoirs about the times of the USSR will be continued, the theme of cuirassiers, as without them, will be talked about ammunition for the tools of the North and South (which many asked for!), The theme of military museums will be continued. So go to VO!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 16 July 2020 06: 08 New
        +6
        So go to VO!

        So we do not leave it. By the way, I, too, consider at the dacha in the village, only the heat finished me up, and after yesterday’s thunderstorm for almost a day we sat without water and light, here it’s rural life, the romance of gardens and kitchen gardens. smile
        1. kalibr
          16 July 2020 06: 46 New
          +5
          We also turn off the light in a thunderstorm, so the problem is with the refrigerator. And so ... it's great to sit on the veranda and look at the thunderstorm!
          1. Van 16
            Van 16 16 July 2020 08: 02 New
            +4
            Oh, good to those who are now in the village, in the country, in nature))
            And I, as luck would have it, vacation ended, there is nothing to breathe in the city, and even more so at work.
            Thanks for the article!
            1. Varyag_0711
              Varyag_0711 16 July 2020 10: 34 New
              +4
              Gentlemen, comrades, are you discussing nature here in the country or an article?
              By the way, in the third picture there is some incomprehensible abstract "European" cuirassier. Judging by the form, this is not an abstract "European", but quite an Austrian cuirassier.
              It’s just embarrassing that he has a musket; they usually armed dragoons, but not a cuirassier. So the picture is most likely not true.
              And it bothers the complete absence of any identification marks on the blanket.
              1. kalibr
                16 July 2020 11: 27 New
                +1
                That's why European is written. But the source and author of the picture is indicated? What more?
                1. Varyag_0711
                  Varyag_0711 16 July 2020 17: 53 New
                  -1
                  So worthless source, since it allows such inaccuracies.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 16 July 2020 06: 22 New
        +4
        Well, I really couldn’t imagine that normal army units were once called gendarmes. Wow... request
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 16 July 2020 08: 24 New
          +7
          Well, I really couldn’t imagine that normal army units were once called gendarmes.

          Not just normal -
          In the Middle Ages, the nobles who served in the Life Guards of French kings were called gendarmes.
          On the campaign, each gendarme was accompanied by 1 page (valet), 1 cutilier and 3 shooters, and in this composition represented a "full spear" (lance fournie, 'lance complète).
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 16 July 2020 09: 26 New
            0
            The gendarme, in French, is an intermediate mountain peak. Then the name migrated to the army. Heavily armed horse rider. That is, a rider in a niche, between light cavalry and a fully-armored warrior in a place with a horse, somewhere like that.
            1. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 16 July 2020 17: 59 New
              +3
              The gendarme, in French, is an intermediate mountain peak. Then the name migrated to the army. Heavily armed horse rider. That is, a rider in a niche, between light cavalry and a fully-armored warrior in a place with a horse, somewhere like that.
              Not at all like that. The gendarme is originally a heavily armed spearman. From the knight he differed only in the way of manning:
              A knight - a heavily armed horseman-spearman of the feudal militia - that is, is obligated to call up the overlord during the quarantine - 40 days (from where the modern quarantine, by the way) comes from, personally and with the agreed number of fighters / servants on his own supplies. For this, he keeps the feud from the suzerain - a land plot with peasants, due to which he maintains himself and maintains his professionalism. A knight’s participation in a war beyond quarantine is paid by the overlord on the basis of an individual agreement: allowance, money, promise of a share in the booty ... But after the quarantine expires, the knight has the full legal right to leave the overlord’s army. And the latter cannot show him anything.
              The gendarme is exactly the same heavily armed spear rider. He only serves in the ordinance company on an ongoing basis, and not for 40 days a year and in full support of the king. As it is now fashionable to say 365/7/24.
              At the same time, the knight is necessarily noble, and the gendarme can come from other classes.

              As for the climbing term, the gendarme is a steep-sided or vertical intermediate rock / peak / ledge on the slope or depth of the main mountain. Mountaineering as a concept and pastime originated in the 19th century, and generally accepted terminology settled down even later.
              1. Free wind
                Free wind 16 July 2020 18: 29 New
                0
                I read exactly such an origin of the NAME of a warrior, and exactly where the word came from. and about mountaineering, they probably thought the last thing before. Probably the claws appeared more than a billion years ago. And electricians put on claws, say 150 years ago. wink
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 16 July 2020 06: 33 New
    +5
    And all this beauty is due to the small number of taxpayers in our time. Tore three skins.
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 16 July 2020 06: 42 New
    +6
    With a cheerful morning, good day. The Swedish companion is a cuirassier, the horse has a badly mutilated joint. Usually, the clothes wore no functionality at that time, the over the knee boots probably protected, a very sore part of the skeleton. Or maybe when the swords broke on their knees, Schaub did not cut himself wassat You won’t break the mop if you want. A tie, a coat, protected the neck from rubbing, from the cold. But what did he spill out ... when the men turn around in front of the mirror for an hour, picking up a tie for cufflinks, the most blunt thing. Elk, expensive skin. Peter 1 archers was afraid like fire. And he executed them quite a few. Maybe he ordered the beards to shave, which the bearded archers reminded. Probably the ruler who killed the people most of all, and is still destroying it. I mean smoking tobacco. After all, the people resisted, did not want to smoke, because they did it because they forced it. Was the standard interesting for testing broadswords? Suppose with what force you need to bend so that the broadsword does not break.
    1. kalibr
      16 July 2020 06: 50 New
      +1
      Yes, in 1631, the death penalty was relied on in Russia for smoking. Then, under Aleksei Mikhailovich, it was instructed by his Code to beat with a whip and, having snatched the nostrils with a red-hot hook, to steal the wild into Dauria. But then - I don’t want to smoke! And what to expect from syphilitic?
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 11: 12 New
        +9
        But then - I don’t want to smoke! And what to expect from syphilitic?

        St. Petersburg, Summer Garden, Poltava, a normal army and the first fleet. wink Ural factories! yes Baltic trade. Kamchatka expedition. By the way, Anton and I smoke! laughing
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, here recently learned that the Swedes had (interesting!) Finnish cavalry - hakkapellita. Moreover, it did not differ much from Reitars - armor and pistols. I would like someone to enlighten on this topic. hi Neighbors, well, for our city, built by order philatelist "syphilitic"! wink
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 16 July 2020 11: 17 New
          +2
          hakkapellita.
          The history of Nokian is rooted in the Middle Ages! laughing
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 11: 18 New
            +2
            The history of Nokian is rooted in the Middle Ages!

            precisely because tires are named after these warriors. Nobody remembers just about the riders, but about the tires - on you, please! request
        2. kalibr
          16 July 2020 11: 26 New
          0
          Interestingly, we must try to find out. But the rulers ’illness is, alas, a state disaster and no matter how talented a person is, this affects him significantly.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 11: 54 New
            +5
            But the rulers ’illness is, alas, a state disaster and no matter how talented a person is, this affects him significantly.

            Of course it does! yes but I did not read the medical reports on Peter ... request and to him, as well as to Bonaparte, Stalin, John Zee Terribl and others (insert the necessary) so much can be ascribed to everything - from gonorrhea and epilepsy to sodom sin - that you don’t know what to believe, what not ... request Therefore ... as if, no offense! drinks
            We heard about Peter III. Again, some historians consider him imbecile, but some say that he wanted to endure state interests right up to Denmark. And Pavel is thus the most controversial person. And so many things can be attributed to them ... and then they make up jokes! laughing
    2. kalibr
      16 July 2020 06: 52 New
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      the horse has some kind of mutilated joint.

      Well, you know, Alexander ... it's nitpicking. So many people and horses to draw and that everything would be fine ...
    3. Korsar4
      Korsar4 16 July 2020 07: 02 New
      +5
      Right. The moose was pretty much led.
      And change the look. Some start a new life with a trip to the hairdresser.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 July 2020 07: 25 New
        +8
        Some start a new life with a trip to the hairdresser.
        This is especially felt in the army "quarantine".
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 16 July 2020 08: 38 New
          +9
          But there they give to shoot, before the oath. Someone only then held a weapon in their hands. I wonder how it was then in the construction battalion? They gave me a shot, or with a shovel "on guard". bully
          1. kalibr
            16 July 2020 08: 46 New
            +3
            I have two friends of the artist who served in the army. The machine gun was kept only during the oath. For all the time the service was never fired!
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 12 New
              +6
              Quote: kalibr
              I have two friends of the artist who served in the army. The machine gun was kept only during the oath. For all the time the service was never fired!

              Quote: Sea Cat
              But there they give to shoot, before the oath. Someone only then held a weapon in their hands. I wonder how it was then in the construction battalion? They gave me a shot, or with a shovel "on guard". bully

              But all marched well in formation - even tomorrow for the parade)).
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 16 July 2020 10: 38 New
                +6
                Is this a battalion marching? !!! laughing Albert, you probably have never met this army from a pickaxe and a shovel.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 16 July 2020 10: 40 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  Is this a battalion marching? !!! laughing Albert, you probably have never met this army from a pickaxe and a shovel.

                  No way - I met with those who served in the construction battalion. Everyone has the same story - how Azerbaijanis beat him in a crowd laughing
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 16 July 2020 10: 50 New
                    +5
                    But that seems to be true. We built part of the construction battalion mostly Russian, but there were several Caucasians, but I do not remember a single fight. It was a pleasure to sit on their lips with them, men with money, so they did not dry out.
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 16 July 2020 12: 52 New
                      +4
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      But that seems to be true. We built part of the construction battalion mostly Russian, but there were several Caucasians, but I do not remember a single fight. It was a pleasure to sit on their lips with them, men with money, so they did not dry out.

                      Times were different ..))
                      Well, do not forget the reality - I know Israeli, you are Soviet and Russian. What I HEAR is incomprehensible to me from the word in general. When I talked about Israeli training to Russians, they don’t believe me. When they tell me about the Chechen wars and the Donbass, I am also in a stupor. Prisoners to redeem ammunition, etc. hi
            2. Engineer
              Engineer 16 July 2020 13: 14 New
              +7
              We had a funny case
              Before the oath, Private Kazankin (last name slightly changed) for the first time in his life shoots from an automatic rifle - all targets are hit, the mark is excellent. The only one in the division.
              Before being fired during an army check, Sergeant Kazankin fired a machine gun for the second time in his life - excellent again.
              Kazankin stood all his service in an outfit at the checkpoint. And he would be in the Marxists))
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 16 July 2020 13: 48 New
                0
                Who are the Marxists?
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 16 July 2020 13: 53 New
                  +6
                  Sniper in the infantry. The best shooter units
                  Domestic sniper with SVD is a Marxman
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 16 July 2020 15: 16 New
                    0
                    Understood thanks! hi
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 17 July 2020 08: 51 New
                      +1
                      Plus for all three !!! Times are different, but the battalion ???? wassat
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 July 2020 09: 39 New
            +3
            In Kharkov - yes, just before the oath. But in Murmansk - every month, around the store. By the way, the M-16 was also managed there.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 52 New
              +3
              There were other shooting numbers in my urgent
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 16 July 2020 10: 02 New
                +3
                So I served in other armies.
  4. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 10 New
    +5
    And the soldiers had to leave beards - they would look worse!

    Lice
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 16 July 2020 09: 13 New
      +6
      Exactly, no matter how they scolded Peter, he was right about the beards, but our Anton has a completely different opinion.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 15 New
        +4
        Greetings! hi
        Anton does not go hiking with a bunch of people praying once a week in barracks - there’s nothing to say about B / D)).
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 16 July 2020 09: 17 New
          +4
          But to serve, he served, like most of us sinners. Only not everyone had the chance to fight, then the suit went down. )))
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 18 New
            +4
            So the army should prepare for war, not parades laughing
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 16 July 2020 10: 37 New
              +4
              No, it's always impossible to prepare for war, but the soldier needs to be occupied with something, that's why they came up with drill training and drill reviews. Everything follows a simple formula: "Whatever the soldier does, if only for ... he would be busy with something," so that unnecessary thoughts do not appear.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 16 July 2020 10: 38 New
                +4
                Well ... how not practice, so theory, not this - so fizuha)).
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 16 July 2020 10: 46 New
                  +6
                  We had the theory in the first five months in the training regiment, the rest is all purely practice. Especially everyone respected the teachings. I remember that last summer, at the last exercises, I found an apiary on the map about five kilometers from our LDPE, reported to the company commander and received an order to go to adjust the engine. Set off. In the apiary, one of the men turned out to be a tankman in the past, while I showed him our car, the rest of the uncles loaded my eagles with mead, honey in honeycombs and home-made bread. In the evening we sat with comforters and enjoyed gifts. It was a month before my demobilization. It is good to remember, although not in the subject, although all is one thing - the service.)) soldier
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 16 July 2020 10: 52 New
                    +3
                    I had a less serious part:

                    https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Магав

                    In the reservist service - the military assistant at the headquarters of the tank brigade - I plugged holes in different units, and not only my unit laughing Military soldier - profession demanded
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 16 July 2020 10: 57 New
                      +4
                      So there was the gendarmerie. And the color of berets is like that of our border guards. Continuity? smile
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 11: 09 New
                        +3
                        Not, rather, English traditions. Until 1956, they were really border guards - but then, when a peacekeeper was shot due to a violation of the curfew, some were converted into a kind of gendarmerie)).
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 July 2020 11: 12 New
                        +4
                        Did the British have border guards? With whom do they have a border with Ireland?
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 11: 57 New
                        +3
                        he UK Border Agency (UKBA) was the border control agency of the Government of the United Kingdom and part of the Home Office that was superseded by UK Visas and Immigration, UK Border Force and Immigration Enforcement in April 2013. [1] It was formed as an executive agency on April 1, 2008 by a merger of the Border and Immigration Agency (BIA), UKvisas and the Detection functions of HM Revenue and Customs. The decision to create a single border control organization was taken following a Cabinet Office report.
                        It is now a fight against illegal emigration
                        Previously, they probably guarded the mandate of the border (colonies) hi
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 July 2020 12: 15 New
                        +3
                        Even among the British: traditions - traditions, but something has to be changed.
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 12: 29 New
                        +3
                        Well, okay. The Israelis initially took the British form, the pilots were British and Americans, until 1953 they presented the book “Volokolamsk Highway” to graduates of sergeant courses, so far most army songs, the so-called "Songs of the Motherland" - translated Soviet 30-40s.
                        The composition of the training was American - it was put by an American Jewish colonel. Tactics - Wehrmacht, studied Rommel. Well, the English rifle training - still no one shoots in bursts, only one-man fire is carried out from personal weapons.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 July 2020 12: 50 New
                        +5
                        Well, Rommel, this is understandable, but the British rifle training raises some doubts. As far as I remember in both World Wars, the British army did not glorify itself with anything special. And not special either. request
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 12: 56 New
                        +3
                        There was no other preparation laughing The British trained some Jewish units during WWII, many Jews of the mandated Paoestina served in the British Army - that’s where it came from)). The pilots are not bad - the Royal Air Force. Therefore, flight training is also a mixture of British and American with its corrections - later.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 July 2020 12: 59 New
                        +5
                        No doubt about the pilots. The English pilots defended their island, and the American drove the imperial fleet into the coffin. There are no questions, there is something to learn. I am for the infantry and tanks, with this they did not have much.
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 13: 13 New
                        +3
                        Very - not very, there was no other. Adapted to your needs, changed something, but the base remained English. The question is in execution - did the Syrian tankers have decent German training (fluent SS-vtsi), then a good Soviet one - what's the point? The Israelis beat them, despite the good technique. The Britons were engaged in the preparation of the Jordanians - almost equal losses in all Arab-Israeli wars, the Jews crushed them only by number or having gained air supremacy.
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 July 2020 13: 31 New
                        +4
                        Well, the Syrians also had problems at first, until the Israelis really mastered the Centurions. I don't know much about Jordan, I read something, but somehow it did not get postponed. But the Syrians T-IV fought very well next to our thirty-fours. True, the Syrians and Egyptians themselves are still warriors, they were familiar to me there as translators under our advisers, I heard a lot.
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 16 July 2020 15: 21 New
                        +1
                        1) The problems were in 1963 - the Israelis stupidly did not know how to shoot)) Therefore, they made training for them, in which the whole crew serves the gunner
                        2) Yes, in some parts of the IDF they still give a listen to the recording of radio intercepts of Soviet habirs - they did not like “sheep”))
                      12. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 July 2020 17: 43 New
                        +2
                        they did not like “sheep”))

                        "If the Almighty did not want to be sheared, he would not have created them as sheep ..." (C)))
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 July 2020 09: 28 New
    +3
    Anton didn’t get out with B / D. Personal record - seven days "underground".
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 29 New
      +1
      Are lice wound? )))
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 July 2020 09: 35 New
        +2
        Are lice wound? )))
        Horror! laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 38 New
          +2
          Ah, kozuli - in Old Slavonic laughing
  • Free wind
    Free wind 16 July 2020 09: 17 New
    +2
    For reference, pubic lice. Hairy, clothes, in a beard are not found. wassat
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 23 New
      +1
      Pubic louse is a tiny (only 1-1,5 mm) yellow-gray parasite, which under a microscope resembles a small crab. However, the pubic louse can be seen with the naked eye - a small grain at the base of the hair. Most often, it settles in the hairy areas of the skin around the genitals, but sometimes it can also inhabit the armpits, on the mustache, beard, eyebrows and eyelashes.

      https://medportal.ru/enc/dermatology/infectionskin/3/ hi

      In general - if there are crumbs in the beard, someone who wants to eat them will always start there))
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 July 2020 09: 33 New
        +3
        In general - if there are crumbs in the beard, someone who wants to eat them will always start there))
        For example, worby.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 16 July 2020 09: 34 New
          +1
          Pigeons again lol
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 11: 16 New
          +2
          For example, worby.

          the main thing is not cats laughing
      2. kalibr
        16 July 2020 10: 17 New
        +2
        What a vile topic to such an interesting article ...
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 16 July 2020 10: 19 New
          +2
          You raised it yourself hi Why Peter made him shave his beards)).
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 11: 15 New
            +4
            Why Peter made him shave his beards

            why did Volodka shave his mustache ... (Diamond hand) wink
  • Undecim
    Undecim 16 July 2020 10: 01 New
    +8
    The constant presence of a large number of people under arms would destroy the Swedish economy, so the king introduced the administrative organization Indelningsverkt, under which soldiers and regular army officers had the right to work on the royal land on which they were allocated farms. There were typical farm construction projects, depending on the rank of the owner.
    Actually, the Indelningsverket system was much more complicated.
    All the arable land in Sweden and Finland was divided into plots called "indelts", which were supposed to support a regiment of 1200 men. In the indelta, groups of peasant households were distinguished, called "rotecholl" and "rusthall".
    Each of these groups had to send one soldier to the king and bear the costs of his maintenance, "rotecholl" - an infantryman, "rusthall" - a cavalryman.
    Accordingly, "rotecholl" or "rusthall" allocated a plot to the soldier and built a "soldier's house", farm buildings, provided a cow, sheep or pig, chickens, seeds, firewood, grazing and the right to take a horse as a draft animal. Sometimes there was a small forest near the land, where "the soldier can freely use the wheelhouse." All this was regulated in the soldier's contract.

    The "soldier's house" from the end of the XNUMXth century has survived to this day.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 16 July 2020 10: 12 New
      +2
      Nitsche so - 60-70 meters))
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 16 July 2020 13: 19 New
        +4
        The standard was 8 × 4 meters, height - 7 logs (about 2 meters). The rest of the extension is at the expense of the owner.
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 12: 27 New
      +7
      Viktor Nikolaevich, didn’t it look like with the archers? They, too, seemed to live in a settlement, were engaged in farming ... what
      Second question. As far as I understand, the whole 18th century, our army (the Holstein people didn’t count) was housed in the homes of joyful and grateful peysan inhabitants. request And only Pal Petrovich corrected this measure, ordering to build barracks on the model of Gatchina? hi
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 16 July 2020 12: 44 New
        +5
        Viktor Nikolaevich, didn’t it look like with the archers?
        Does not look like. Absolutely.
        As for the flat or regular duty, this article must be written. As in the history of barracks cantonment of troops. Only hardly anyone will write. It is better to delirium about Russians - Prussians and about Lithuania - to write Russia. Local hamsters really like it.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 12: 46 New
          +5
          Local hamsters really like it.

          There is demand, and they will also be provided with an offer.
          As for the flat or regular duty, this article must be written. As in the history of barracks cantonment of troops. Only hardly anyone will write.

          just throwing topics for thought! Many can write. It would be a desire. hi I only remember about Pal Petrovich. drinks
          better delirium about Russians - Prussians and about Lithuania - to write Russia.

          - Be patient, Barclay, be patient! (film "Kutuzov", 1944) soldier
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 16 July 2020 13: 15 New
            +3
            Be patient, Barclay, be patient!
            This trend is for a long time.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 13: 17 New
              +4
              This trend is for a long time.

              If with regards to Barclay - then since 1812. I will not say anything else. drinks
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 16 July 2020 13: 20 New
                +2
                I will not say anything else.
                You can’t beat the whip with your butt.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 13: 26 New
                  +5
                  You can’t beat the whip with your butt.

                  But nothing will spoil our friendly communication and discussion of interesting articles. yes
  • ANB
    ANB 16 July 2020 10: 12 New
    0
    And I will spoil the mood of the author with typos. :)
    . The cheapness of the army was one of the principles of the policy of Charles XII.

    Maybe it's the eleventh?
  • ANB
    ANB 16 July 2020 10: 20 New
    +3
    . Each company was commanded by a lieutenant commander, equal in rank to colonel of the army cavalry

    Was there still army cavalry? Nothing is written about her in the article. Or was it meant infantry?
  • ANB
    ANB 16 July 2020 10: 22 New
    +2
    And the article, as usual, is beyond praise.
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 16 July 2020 11: 14 New
    +4
    Cuirasses were worn only by royal trabants.

    In the Korela fortress of the modern town of Priozersk, the gates of the "Pugachevskaya" tower are upholstered with Swedish cuirass. An employee of the museum claimed that this is the largest collection of Swedish cuirasses in the world.
  • Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 16 July 2020 12: 04 New
    +2
    Swedish army led by king Gustav Adolf and commanders Baner, Hurn and Tosterson

    Still Lennart Torstensson.. Johan Banner is understandable, but something I can’t figure out with Hurn, maybe Horn?
    Its most important competitor, Russia, had ten times more people

    The population of Russia is about 14 million people in 1700. Significantly more, but not 10 times.
    he immediately dressed his entire army in a Western manner, although he had before his eyes beautifully outfitted archers!

    Peter could have taken an example from the regiments of the "new system" - soldiers, dragoons and reitars, who were the backbone of the Russian army, quite a European type, as shown by the Polish and Swedish war of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. In our country this is deliberately ignored, because it turns out that the European-trained army was even before Peter, and no one considered the Swedes "invincible" either.
    As for the savings, Peter did not start a cuirassier because of the high cost. All regular cavalry are "dragoons", consider them "riding infantry".
    1. Andrey Krasnoyarsky
      Andrey Krasnoyarsky 16 July 2020 15: 34 New
      +1
      No one is hushing up about the shelves of the new system, even in school textbooks there is about them. Only these regiments, unlike the regular army, were not permanent, they gathered only during the war, then disbanded. However, there were attempts to create permanent regiments, however, they did not exist for long due to the lack of money for maintenance. The officers were entirely foreigners. About "well shown" - that's how to say. It depended on the commander. Some regiments fought well, while others fought very badly. Experiments with reorganizing the army and turning it into an army continued for almost the entire 17th century. You can write a separate article about this. As for the fact that Peter "could have taken an example," so he took. The army near Narva was basically composed just on the principle of these very regiments of the new order with a completely foreign command. And this army scattered at the impact of the smaller army of Charles the Twelfth. And the commanders courageously surrendered. In addition to the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments, which formed the basis of the new army.
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 16 July 2020 16: 43 New
        +2
        About "well shown" - that's how to say. It depended on the commander. Some regiments fought well, while others fought very badly. Experiments with reorganizing the army and turning it into an army continued for almost the entire 17th century.

        Under Mikhail Romanovich, at the beginning of the history of the regiments of the new system, they were recruited mainly from the impoverished nobility, which could no longer allow them to serve in the noble cavalry. And since these are still military people from their homeland, the quality of these regiments was quite high. Later, when this resource was exhausted, tributary people were used, many of the peasants, naturally, the community tried to recruit not the best of its people. The quality of recruits has fallen sharply, under Peter - "hay and straw".
      2. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 16 July 2020 19: 04 New
        0
        Nobody is silent about the regiments of the new system, even in school textbooks there are about them.

        Yes, no one denies their existence at the level of "there was such" The fact that the first Russian regular army was created, which adequately fought with the Poles, Swedes and Turks, is "chewed".
        Only these regiments, unlike the regular army, were not permanent, gathered only during the war, then dissolved.

        No, in peacetime only part of the regiments was dissolved, for it is unprofitable, as you yourself noted. But not all - the Erivan and Moscow grenadiers can confirm their ancestry. Actually, in peacetime, any regular army is reduced.
        The officers were all foreigners there.

        No, a maximum of 2/3 and their number gradually decreased (and foreigners became, so to speak, "Russified").
        Depended on the commander. Some regiments fought well, and some went badly.

        in any army, a lot depends on the commander. Although in modern times - if the commander is incompetent and weak-willed, the result will be disastrous.
        As for the fact that Peter "could have taken an example," so he took.

        Peter was faced with the problem of long timelessness, adversely affecting the state of the armed forces. What 10-15 years of turmoil and a dilapidated state can do with the army we ourselves saw in the late 80s-90s.
        In addition to the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments, which just formed the basis of the new army.

        Why did you offend the Weide division?
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 16 July 2020 12: 43 New
    +3
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for the material, interesting. hi
    But there are some contradictions with my ideas about cuirassiers, maybe someone will solve them.
    Who are the cuirassiers? A heavy cavalry intended for horse cabin, cavalry saber combat, in other words, to destroy the enemy cavalry by chopping it with melee weapons. I'm right?
    Then the question is: why do these guys in the pictures do not have their heads protected? Indeed, in their position, it is the head that needs to be protected first of all - if the enemy broadsword, saber or scimitar flies where it will fly, then most likely it is in the head.
    Moreover, I typed the word "cuirassier" in a search engine and pressed the "pictures" button - almost everyone was wearing helmets! Well, except for those in shakos, but on closer inspection they turned out to be hussars. smile
    Why are there not a single helmet in the images presented in the article?
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 13: 03 New
      +3
      Why are there not a single helmet in the images presented in the article?

      I’ll venture to suggest - the blow of edged weapons of the 18th century was restrained .. hat! I read somewhere that Pal Petrovich also began to bother with letters for a reason.
      Moreover, in the era of mass armies, a helmet could be regarded as an expensive pleasure.
      And the edged weapon itself was not always a panacea. Moreover, it was not the main weapon of damage. And the same Colonel Goebel, who received dozens of knives from the Decembrists, survived! request Remember, there is still a well-known debate about how best to rider to strike - chop or stab?
      But these are my guesses! drinks
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 16 July 2020 13: 24 New
      +4
      A heavy cavalry intended for horse cabin, cavalry saber combat, in other words, to destroy the enemy cavalry by chopping it with melee weapons. I'm right?

      I’m not going to say that you’re wrong, I just have a different opinion
      The essence of cuirassiers is an attack with a dense mass. Not only cavalry, but also infantry, if on the flank. The weapon of a cuirassier is not only and not so much a broadsword as a tight formation and a large horse. The Swedes believed that one type of well-trained mass of cavalry in most cases leads the enemy into such horror that he runs and broadswords are needed simply for cutting fleeing. At the same time, even in the 19th century, cavalry charters provided for the training of horses to push infantry
      Few dared converge with cuirassiers in logging. In general, for group equestrianism, organization and initiative are crucial. This is still Tolstoy noted
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 13: 29 New
        +7
        The Swedes believed that one type of well-trained mass of cavalry in most cases leads the enemy into such horror that he runs and broadswords are needed simply for cutting fleeing.

        Well, by the way, they applied a similar principle to infantry attacks of caroliners. Rapid rapprochement, one or two volleys, and rush with melee weapons at the enemy! Few could withstand such a blow ... request in general, were still those scumbags! drinks
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 16 July 2020 13: 55 New
          +4
          I simply mean that in the era of the domination of firearms, attacks by the masses of infantry and cavalry became primarily an organizational and psychological confrontation. "Plotnyak" coldly outlived his own before our eyes.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 14: 09 New
            +3
            "Plotnyak" coldly outlived his own before our eyes.

            That is yes. First they left the pikemen, then, due to the rearmament of the armies with light fuseys with flintlocks and bayonets, the cold steel began to outlive its ...
            But, by the way, here you can understand Suvorov. "Speed-eye-onslaught". During linear skirmishes (Shoot first, sir! Only after you, monsieur!), A swift attack with melee weapons also had a heavy effect on the enemy.
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 July 2020 13: 28 New
      +3
      Michael! hi
      In my opinion, the article repeatedly indicates that a helmet was worn under the hat or it was built into the tulle.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 16 July 2020 14: 33 New
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        a helmet was worn under the hat or it was built into the top.

        In general, it turns out interesting: I have received three answers to my question so far.
        The first - from Nicholas - there are no helmets because it is expensive and not necessary, because edged weapons did not solve much.
        The second - from Denis - cuirassiers attack the infantry in tight formation, further, it probably meant that the infantryman could not reach the head of the rider, so helmets are not so necessary.
        The third - from you - helmets were, but they are hidden by other hats.
        Conducted an experiment - specified the request in Yandex - "cuirassiers of the 18th century" and "cuirassiers of the 19th century". And - oh, miracle! - on the first request, pictures came out mainly in cocked hats, on the second - in helmets, while simply on the request of "cuirassiers" they got out almost exclusively in helmets. That's how it is!
        Is it possible on the basis of such "studies" to conclude that the cuirassiers, evolving from reitars, in the XNUMXth century. lost their helmets, and in the XNUMXth century. got them again? And does this mean that in the XVIII century. the purpose of the cuirassier attacks was the infantry, and in the XNUMXth century. - cavalry?
        No, I’m afraid that without Viktor Nikolaevich there’s no way to figure it out ... smile
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 14: 41 New
          +3
          in the XVIII century. lost helmets

          in the 18th century almost everyone lost them! And century 19 - yes, helmets. Here's the uniform of Napoleon's cuirassier:

          KIRASIR HAT:
          Mostly it had an iron cap of gray-blue color, but it is also copper (especially in the foreign regiments of the Great Army). It was covered with a turban of black hide. Ordinary cuirassiers always had a red plume during the parade. The exceptions were officers and trumpeters who wore white. The helmet of the trumpeters, in addition, had a white horse mane and Ukrainian. The crest, from regiment to regiment, had a different ornament in front: the Minerva (above) and the crowned monogram “N”, or the regiment number on the cuirass, or simply the cuirass or regiment number (there were other options, for example, a lion instead of “Minerva” or imperial eagle).


          more in the form of those times:
          http://www.museum.ru/museum/1812/Army/FranceUniform/part3.html
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 16 July 2020 14: 56 New
            +2
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            in the 18th century almost everyone lost them! And century 19 - yes, helmets.

            Again, the question is why?
            They began to produce more helmets, so what was missing at all? Have the concepts of using the cuirassiers themselves changed? Or just a new fashion has gone? I would not rule out the latter either ... smile
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 16 July 2020 15: 02 New
              +4
              Again, the question is why?

              the evolution of clothing is generally indescribable. The feeling that the most practical is all dressed now. By the way, you asked a question absolutely necessary! drinks Just a few can answer ... request
              And why did they introduce cocked caps? why they were replaced by a shako - a huge sailing thing? But as for the shako, I read that the purpose was the same - to protect the head from a saber strike from above.
              Or just a new fashion has gone? I would not rule out the latter either ...

              with rhinestones. laughing Have you seen the ceremonial present form? I watched young lieutenants a couple of years ago, apparently before graduation - I thought that the times of Stalin were back. fellow
              A bit of humor about the form drinks

              Remember, from history books - "Pavel dressed the soldier in an uncomfortable uniform in the Prussian manner". hi Anton and I personally had the opportunity to compare the uniforms of the Prussians and the troops of Paul. Our autocrat saved less on the uniform of his uniform than the Prussians! stop not true!
  • kalibr
    16 July 2020 13: 36 New
    +3
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Why are there not a single helmet in the images presented in the article?
    Reply

    Under the hat "fittings" (cassette), and then ... these are cuirassiers of the 18th century, and you watched the 19th ...
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 16 July 2020 14: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: kalibr
      these are cuirassiers of the 18th century, and you looked at the 19th.

      While writing his answer to the guys, they distracted me for an entire hour, just finished, reloaded the page, and here is your comment ... smile hi
      I myself thought of this idea - to separate the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, but there were no less questions from this, however, as always ... smile
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 July 2020 21: 03 New
        +1
        Trends in military fashion ...
  • DimanC
    DimanC 16 July 2020 19: 04 New
    0
    The great reformer Peter I did not even bother to think about the fact that the meaning of the regular army was not in poses and triangular hats, but in tactics, and ... he immediately dressed his whole army in a Western manner, although he had beautifully dressed archers before his eyes! So I would take away their reeds and train them in a new way, and leave the old clothes: for winter, spring and autumn - a long caftan overcoat and high, goatskin, boots, and a three-piece hat and a hemispherical helmet with small brim on his head, and for summer - a short caftan and a hat with a lapel around the edge.
    So it was not for this that he was raised in a German settlement, so that he would leave Russian clothes ... By the way, Boris Megorsky, a reenactor of that era, once said that recruits were specially shaved and dressed differently in order to break "spiritual ties" with the people. Sagittarius, in this sense, did not break away from the people.
  • Jünger
    Jünger 18 July 2020 21: 20 New
    0
    At the end of the 2,5th century, Sweden had 5 million people, of which only XNUMX percent lived in cities. Its most important rival, Russia, had ten times as many men, and therefore much more resources to recruit an army.

    By the end of the same 17th century, about 10 million people lived in Russia. So the difference with Sweden was much less than indicated.