Military Review

Enemies of the Cuirassiers


Weapon Turkish riders of the XVII century. To the left are two sabers of the gaddare (Pers.), Or fallen (tur.). They differed in a relatively short (65–75 cm), but wide (5–5,5 cm) blade, and had a thick (up to 1 cm) butt. Some blades (including those in the photo) had an elman, but its width was small. The handle with a crosshair had a characteristic shape. Crosses were small and bent forward. The scabbard was made of wood and covered with black leather. To the right is a Circassian saber with a point at the end of the blade to pierce chain mail and a straight broadsword (Dresden Armory)

... and their cavalry covered the hills.
Judith 16: 3

Skirmish over the hills;
Looks at their camp and ours;
On the hill before the Cossacks
Red delibash curls.
Pushkin A.S., 1829

Military affairs at the turn of the eras. Last time, we found out that the enemies of the plate cavalry of cuirassiers and reitars at the turn of the Middle Ages and the New Age, in addition to infantry with pikes and muskets, were numerous light cavalry units, including the national one. Of course, she was more numerous, although not so well armed. In the previous article, we talked about Hungarian hussars, Venetian stradiot, ramparts and dragoons. Today we continue the story of the enemies of the cuirassiers. And we will start it with the Turkish heavily armed horsemen of the Sipah cavalry, closest in type to the European horsemen-lancers in full knightly equipment or in dart armor in three quarters.

Enemies of the Cuirassiers
Turkish equestrian warriors 1600. 1 - rider of the Sipah cavalry, 2 - rider of Delhi, 3 - rider-mercenary of the Arab auxiliary cavalry. Fig. Angus McBride

At first, the sipahs were ordinary heavily armed riders, mounted on horses, dressed in shell armor and armed with spears and maces. It is clear that the armament of the sepoy warrior, as in the case of the European knight, directly depended on his wealth and the size of his land ownership - Timar. By the way, Timariots were often called these warriors by it. That is, it was an analogue of our "landowners." Since the sipahs fired from the bows from the horse, the protective weapons that they used had to provide high mobility of the shoulder girdle. Hence the prevalence of ring-plate armor among them. Turban helmets with chain hooks and a bow plate were popular. Other types of helmets were shashak and misyurka, from the Arabic word Misr - Egypt. Since the XNUMXth century, karacen armor has spread. Hands above the wrist were protected by tubular bracers. Kalkan shields were relatively small in size, but they were made of metal - iron or copper.

Horseman cavalry rider (Army Museum, Paris)

When warriors were called on a campaign, one in ten of the sepoys by lot remained at home to maintain order in the empire. Well, those who were in the army were distributed among the Alai regiments, commanded by the Cheribashi commanders, Subashi and Alaybey officers.

Armor of the Hungarian hussars - opponents of the Sipahs and Delhi. (Arsenal of Graz, Austria)

It can well be said about the sepoys that they were a kind of nobility of the Ottoman Empire and an analogue of the Russian local cavalry. A plot of land with peasants, shopping malls, mills - all this could be declared a timar (the word spakhilyk was also used sometimes), and transferred to use sipahu, which at the expense of funds had to arm itself and bring a small detachment of soldiers with it. Timars of the heyday of the Ottoman Empire were not a hereditary holding, but only temporarily were in use of the holder (timarl or timariot) only while he was in service. It is clear that under such a system, the sipahs over their peasants did not have complete power. Moreover, while in service, the siphas did not receive money allowances from the treasury, but had the right to military booty.

Three-Quarter Cuirassier Armor. (Arsenal of Graz, Austria)

If Sipah evaded his duties, his lucrative property could be taken from him and returned to the treasury. After the death of Sipahi, his retention for his family continued, but only if he had a son or some other close relative who could replace him in the service.

XNUMXth Century Turkish Horseman Rider (Dresden Armory)

Since 1533, the Port government along the border with Hungary established a new system of timars. Now, instead of living in their local estates, the sepoys were required to serve constantly and to be in border cities along with the soldiers of the garrisons located in them.

The cessation of an active policy of conquest and the spread of corruption became the reasons for the mass evasion of the Siphs from service. Moreover, by hook or by crook, they began to try to transfer the timars into their private or religious property with payment of the corresponding contractual rent.

Kalkan shield (braided from rods) and other weapons and equipment of Turkish riders. (Dresden Armory)

In the XV-XVI centuries, the cavalry of the Sipahs was very numerous: about 40 horsemen, more than half of which came from the provinces of the empire located in Europe, in particular in Rumelia. But then, from the end of the 000th century until the end of the 100th century, over 10 years their numbers decreased by more than 1787 times. So in XNUMX, when Turkey was once again going to fight with Russia, Porta with considerable difficulty gathered only two thousand horsemen.

Cold steel and firearms: in the center of the window are yatagans and cavalry pistols, on the left and right are muskets encrusted with ivory and coral (right) (Dresden Armory)

Well, then Sultan Mahmud II in 1834 completely abolished the sepoys, after which they were included in the new regular cavalry. At the same time, in 1831-1839 the feudal system of the Timars was also liquidated. The lands of the former landowners were transferred to the state, which now paid them salaries directly from the budget. However, the memory of the brave horsemen of the sipahi did not die. From this name another thing happened - Spahi (spagi). Only now were the so-called units of light cavalry in the French and Italian armies, where the natives were recruited, but the commanders were from the French, as well as Sepoy (sepoys) - the well-known British colonial troops from Indians in India, arranged in a similar way.

Drawing from Richard Knotel's book stories uniforms depicting sipah riders. Berlin, 1890 (Berlin State Library)

The main problem of the Sipahs, as, by the way, is the problem of the Russian local cavalry, was that both of them were incapable of change. At a certain stage, their role was positive, but times changed, and the sipahs did not want to change with time. In particular, this was expressed in a dismissive attitude towards firearms, and where, in Turkey, where the gunpowder was of excellent quality, and excellent muskets and pistols were produced. But ... the infantry was armed with all this. Mostly Janissaries, who armed themselves at public expense. But the Sipahs didn’t want to buy firearms at their own expense, and if they did, then ... they didn’t want to change their tactics of battle, they say, grandfathers fought and won so, and we will!

Naturally, lightly armed horsemen had to support the heavily armed siphach cavalry. And they were in the Turkish army. First of all, it is akyndzhi (derived from the Turkish word akın - “raid”, “attack” ”). These were irregular formations, but they played a very important role in the military system of the Ports. The organization of the akindzhi's cavalry was called akindzhlik, and it was created as border troops to protect the beyliks - the border regions. The Ottomans called such areas UJ. Ujj controlled the bay, whose title was hereditary. Such bays were called akindzhi bey or udzh-bey.

The heavy castle musket and the darts that light cavalry armed with. (Dresden Armory)

In the empire of the Seljuk Turks, Uj-Bey was a very significant person. He only once paid a tax to the Sultan once a year, and so was completely independent of him. He could fight with neighbors, rob them - the Sultan did not care. In the state of the Ottomans, the Akıncı freedom was reduced and they had to act on behalf of the Sultan. In fact, UJ-BAY received money from these lands, and called cavalry detachments on them. The state did not pay them any maintenance, did not give out weapons and equipment, akindzhi also bought horses themselves. But on the other hand, they did not pay the extraction tax either, and everything that fell into their hands remained with them!

Sipah Horseman. On his head is a helmet-shishak, a shield - a kalkan, a saber kalich. The mass of such a saber reached one and a half kilograms. Stirrups are noteworthy. The Turks did not use spurs, but spurred horses on the inner edges of their massive box-shaped stirrups. (Illustration from the book "Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914" by Vuksic, V., Grbasic, Z.)

In fact, these were civilian units where anyone could sign up, but it was necessary to submit recommendations from the imam, village headman of the village, or any person known to Uj-Bey. The names of the applicants, as well as the name of the father and place of residence, were recorded and stored in Istanbul. Akıncı Bey (commander) was appointed by the Sultan or his viceroy Sardar.

Turkish sabers: the upper saber is a gaddare, but with a strange handle. Below is a spring tree with developed elman. (Topkapi Arsenal, Istanbul)

A dozen horsemen commanded onbashi (corporal), a hundred - subashi, a thousand - bigbashi (major). Already during the battle on the Kosovo field, the number of akindzhi reached 20, and under Suleiman I more than 000 people. But then their number began to fall again and in 50 there were only two thousand of them. It is interesting that in peacetime they could live anywhere, but it was required that they constantly train and be ready to go camping on demand. The Akıncı armor was practically not worn, but had shields - either kalkans or Bosnian scutums. The weapons used were mostly cold: sabers, bows, lassos. Typically, these horsemen on campaigns were either at the forefront of the army, or in the rearguard. They had spare horses with them so that there was something to take out the prey on. Most often the Akıncı fought in Europe, but such sultans as Mehmed II, Bayazid II and Selim I used them in Anatolia.

10,52th century Turkish chain mail, weight XNUMX kg. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

At the beginning of the XVII century, these riders began to suffer heavy losses in battles with the imperial cavalry. Already in 1630, akindzhi turned either into ordinary soldiers, or agreed to serve only for money. Instead, the Turks had to use the hired Tatar cavalry of the Crimean khans. He finally disappeared in 1826.

The horse of the Turkish horseman in equipment of the end of the XVII century. (Dresden Armory)

Another unit of the Turkish light cavalry was Delhi riders, which can be translated as “rip off the head” and “desperate brave man”. They appeared at the end of the XV — beginning of the XVI century and became famous for their desperate courage, as well as their unusual clothes. However, very often it happened that military clothing was just designed to scare enemy soldiers. A contemporary described their outfit, emphasizing that many of them were covered with tiger skins, making them something like a caftan. Of the means of protection, they had convex shields, and their weapons were spears and maces attached to their saddles. Delhi hats were also made from the skins of wild animals and decorated with eagle feathers. They also decorated feathers of the Boisnian scutum type with feathers and not only that: behind them, too, were feather wings. So it is believed that the Polish plate hussars just from them, from Delhi, borrowed the idea of ​​wearing wings with feathers behind their backs. The weapons they used were a spear, a saber, a bow and arrows. Delhi riders' horses were distinguished by their strength, agility and endurance.

Turkish Onion 1719-1720; Length 67,9 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

In the 26th century, for some reason, Delhi began to wear hats that looked like cylinders XNUMX inches high, made of black lamb leather (!) And wrapped in turban on top!

The riders of Delhi (left) battle with the Hungarian riders (right), 1526. Miniature from the manuscript “Sumeimanname” (Topkapi Museum, Istanbul)

The organization of Delhi was as follows: fifty to sixty horsemen made up a bayrak (flag, standard). Delibashi commanded several bayraks. The recruit took the oath, received the title of aga-jiraghi ("disciple of aga") and this very famous hat. If Delhi violated the oath or escaped from the battlefield, he was expelled, and his hat was taken away!

1. Nicolle, D. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. L .: Osprey Pub. (MAA 140), 1983.
2. Vuksic, V., Grbasic, Z. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. L .: A Cassel Book, 1993, 1994.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
With whom the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fought?
“A small discovery in the butt of an arquebus ...”
Horsemen of the Eighty Years War
Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries
“By people and by horses, not by aer”
Ordonance companies
“It's a miracle if someone is killed with a spear”
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 18 January 2020 04: 47
    A very interesting army among the Turks ... and weapons adorned to indecency ... you won’t fight with such a lot of people who want to take away such beauty ... and the aga-jiraghi hats are also something ... the larger the size, the steeper it is.
    Thanks Vyacheslav is very interesting ... had fun. hi
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 January 2020 06: 35
      A very interesting army among the Turks ... and weapons adorned to indecency ... with such a little you can’t fight many who want to take away there is such beauty ..

      As Anton says - “show off is more expensive than money”!
      The organization of the army among the Turks is truly distinctive. Add here the masses of the Tatar and Nogai cavalry of vassals, pirate flotillas of Algeria and Egypt, various systems of military taxation. for example, blood, through which the administrative apparatus and famous Janissaries were formed! An extremely interesting layer of military affairs! Vyacheslav thank you for the article, good day to everyone and happy holiday - Epiphany (only frosts of Epiphany are mute) !!!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 January 2020 07: 50
        Vlad, hello and best wishes. smile
        Add here more masses of the Tatar ... cavalry ...

        "For us, Tatars, everything is the same, that the machine gun, that the vodka - if only it would knock down!" drinks
        And with baptismal frosts there is a full flight, we have a positive temperature and rain is pouring, natural porridge on the roads, the quadric drives like a drunk, it’s scary to look at cars. request
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 January 2020 07: 54
    For some reason, in the XNUMXth century, New Delhi began to wear hatssimilar to cylinders 26 inches tall made of black lamb leather (!) and wrapped in addition with a turban on top!

    A hat almost almost ... 60 см! belay More than a third of a person’s height ..
    After all, it’s just inconvenient! request
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 18 January 2020 08: 23
      Good morning, Andrey! Well, they had such fashion designers, with a non-standard vision of beauty! laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 18 January 2020 08: 36
        Quote: Phil77
        Good morning Andrey! Well, they had such fashion designers, with non-standard vision of the beautiful!

        Hello Sergey!

        So, they were not worn on the catwalk, but cavalrymen ... in battle belay request
      2. bubalik
        bubalik 18 January 2020 10: 51
        Well, they had such fashion designers, with a non-standard vision of beauty

        1. kalibr
          18 January 2020 11: 32
          These are janissaries in full dress. We didn't go like that in battle! With a galley on a hat - "marines"
          1. ukoft
            ukoft 18 January 2020 12: 52
            There is an opinion that the war was dressed up for the battle itself. We were convinced that in the other world they were met by clothes
        2. Sergey M. Karasev
          Sergey M. Karasev 19 January 2020 08: 02
          The drawings give the impression that the European shakos came precisely from the Janissary hats.
          1. Corrie sanders
            Corrie sanders 20 January 2020 00: 05
            this janissary headdress was not a hat but a sleeve of the robe of the great saint dervish Bektashi, the patron saint of the janissaries. It was soft and its meaning was only in tradition, it did not carry any military meaning. Nobody ever wore the sleeve of Bektashi's robe in battle, this is a jamb of modern European cinema, the Janissaries had excellent official conical helmets with diagonal indentations of stiffness + aventail. There in the film "Fatih 1453" the Turks themselves historically accurately showed the Janissaries in battle.

            The quiver inside was reinforced and perfectly extinguished the blow of a saber or butt from above. The shako warmed up perfectly in the winter and did not strain in the heat, than helmets suffered terribly, the shako did not give the effect of stunning, the iron helmet only strengthened it
    2. kalibr
      18 January 2020 08: 38
      I think this is with the Sultan! And then once the text was rewritten, two, three ... the word was lost, but the number remained.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 January 2020 10: 20
        I think this is with the Sultan!
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 18 January 2020 12: 49
        Quote: kalibr
        I think this is with the Sultan! And then once the text was rewritten, two, three ... the word was lost, but the number remained.

        If with the Sultan, then this, of course, is a completely different matter!

        It was just for hats
        similar to 26 inches tall cylinders

        And there are higher "superstructures":
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 18 January 2020 07: 54
    Vyacheslav, thanks for the interesting story about the Basurman army. hi And how did they manage to manage all this rabble? what
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 18 January 2020 08: 21
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And how did they manage to manage all this rabble?

      Good morning to everyone, everyone! How were you controlled? With the help of iron discipline and fear of the inevitable severe punishment! laughing hi Thanks for the article, Vyacheslav Olegovich, I managed to read it, but with great pleasure!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 January 2020 08: 24
        Hi, hello! How's it going in the capital? smile drinks
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 18 January 2020 08: 28
          Hi Konstantin! Now I went out of the department to smoke, there is no rain. But gloomy and sad! laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 January 2020 09: 26
            And in St. Petersburg it’s clear. It freezes.
            The brother traveled to the North on holidays, now he shows everyone pictures of snow. laughing
            1. Sergey M. Karasev
              Sergey M. Karasev 19 January 2020 08: 04
              Everything is fine with the snow. -14 on the street. But usually at Baptism is from -20 and below.
    2. ukoft
      ukoft 18 January 2020 08: 26
      This rabble at one time put together an empire on the basis of the Byzantine. In fact, the de facto Byzantine Ottomans were Ottomans and steel.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 January 2020 15: 12
        Quote: ukoft
        the de facto Byzantine Empire and Ottomans became.

        Heir to the lands of Byzantium, nothing more. Almost all that could be inherited from the great empire, the Ottomans either destroyed or perverted beyond recognition, which in this case is one and the same.
        1. ukoft
          ukoft 18 January 2020 18: 56
          Well, the population, too, was mostly left, the arrived Oguzes dissolved and assimilated. And this is a lot. Did they come up with the traditions of management and organization? Or inherited? I don’t know, I’m asking you
    3. kalibr
      18 January 2020 08: 37
      I don't even know who to answer first. Probably "cat", because my kitty sits next to me and reminds me of herself. And in life: what is in front of our eyes, then in words. I'm glad I liked the material. I'm not happy about one thing. When I was in the Dresden Armory, I found that it was very difficult to photograph the "Turkish collection". The walls are covered with black velvet, all display cases are behind glass and very specific lighting. That is, to admire all this is OK, but to photograph, alas, no. In the adjacent knight's hall, the figures are not behind glass, and the light is different. Therefore, the photos, alas, are bad and, besides, there are very few of them.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 January 2020 08: 50
        It's nice to see such a respectful attitude towards our feline tribe. hi But my gangster has long wound up in the garden, and he and the rain - not rain, gulema. smile
        1. kalibr
          18 January 2020 09: 37
          We have a cat of a strange fate. Born in the Magnit store near our house, then she lived with volunteers next to him and the store, and every day she ran to his hallway and "lived" there. We began to take her on a visit, and then she herself came to live with us. And at first we put up with her spree, and then when they took her away - "what a good cat they threw away." They locked her in the house, and put bars on the windows. He walks free only in the country!
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 18 January 2020 09: 57
            Greetings to you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Since we are talking about the tailed people, my Filippka was born in * Evrospare *, my manager is there, so she brought a little treasure. And now this is a beautiful, solid, thoroughbred, purebred cat! good
            1. kalibr
              18 January 2020 10: 06
              Oh, Sergei! I wrote a children's book about the adventures of my cat in general: "The life and adventures of the Barsi cat, who was born in the" Magnet "store .. She is so amusing. Until I put it anywhere.
              1. Same lech
                Same lech 18 January 2020 11: 00
                Write a book about fighting cats and cats smile ... maybe somewhere feline were used for military purposes.
                1. kalibr
                  18 January 2020 11: 33
                  Quote: The same LYOKHA
                  Write a book about fighting cats and cats

                  Wanted, but not enough information.
                2. English tarantas
                  English tarantas 23 January 2020 11: 26
                  I heard somewhere, I don’t know the truth or just a legend: in the battle with the Egyptians, the Persians used cats as a shield when they didn’t know.
  4. ukoft
    ukoft 18 January 2020 08: 46
    A very interesting topic, which is not very much covered here.
    And so the warriors loved to dress up, Expression: beauty requires sacrifice applies not only to the fair half of humanity. Even in the Napoleonic era, what smart everyone was, and yet all this need to be washed and ironed.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 18 January 2020 10: 16
    Turkish sabers: the upper saber is a gaddare, but with a strange handle.
    The photograph clearly shows that her hilt is just dear, but the cross is clearly alien. The crosspiece of these sabers has a characteristic shape.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 18 January 2020 11: 00
    Turkish warrior with Austrian peasants.
    Woodcut by Hans Guldenmundt. During the first siege of Vienna by the Turks. 1529

    1. kalibr
      18 January 2020 11: 35
      Painted clearly European and to scare. In reality, just a boy, he would have kept the shore like the apple of an eye, and a girl like two apple trees ... But he would have chopped a man and a woman!
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 18 January 2020 11: 59
        and the girl, like two appleheads ... But a man and a woman would have chopped!

        1. Phil77
          Phil77 18 January 2020 12: 30
          Hi Sergey! I’m sorry for ignorance, but who is this lady? * I don’t recognize you in make-up ... * As a version, isn’t it Hürem?
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 18 January 2020 12: 35
            Phil77 (Sergey) Today, 13: 30

            Turk wink
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 18 January 2020 12: 37
              That is, a kind of "Portrait of a Stranger"? Okay, I ran to function, I'm at work.
        2. ukoft
          ukoft 18 January 2020 13: 02
          Beautiful. Did Turkish women show their breasts? The head is not covered. What a shame
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 18 January 2020 12: 35
        No, no! Not in a businesslike way. And if a peasant is a good artisan? Is a woman a pretty good one, and an artisan?
  7. Aleks2000
    Aleks2000 18 January 2020 21: 49
    Wonderful article.
    The question is - are they somehow unified to search or search only by author?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 19 January 2020 04: 50
      After the text of the material is a list of articles from the cycle.
  8. faterdom
    faterdom 18 January 2020 22: 22
    Quote: kalibr
    When I was in the Dresden Armory, I found that it was very difficult to photograph the "Turkish collection". The walls are covered with black velvet, all display cases are behind glass and very specific lighting. That is, admiring all this is OK, but taking pictures, alas, no

    In museums, photography is generally difficult. From personal experience: taking pictures without flash at the most acceptable sensitivity, and using a polarizing filter - it helps to remove glare from the glass, to make the picture more contrast. Well, plus it is obligatory to shoot in RAW, and subsequently processing in Latrum or Photoshop can once again improve the photo two times.
    When shooting flat objects, it is desirable to have a bright lens with aperture of 2.0 or wider - you can reduce the shutter speed when shooting handheld.
    Well, I’m not talking about a tripod, it’s unlikely any museum will allow a simple visitor to roam around the museum with a tripod.
  9. faterdom
    faterdom 18 January 2020 22: 30
    In general, the rise of the Ottomans is somewhat accidental.
    Just a historical moment - the Arabs are already on the decline of power, Byzantium is a half-corpse looted and squandered by all neighbors, and especially cynical by the Crusaders under the leadership of the Venetians. The Mongol empire has actually split up into warring uluses, Russia has not yet formed, Europe is immersed in the permanent wars of all with everyone.
    There is no one to break the Ottomans.
    True, Timur shipped them to the most .... But it was not fatal, the loser of the Sultan turned out to be an active and successful son.
  10. helvetic
    helvetic 19 January 2020 02: 21
    The review is necessary, only materials from the "Eastern Knights' Hall" of the Hermitage are missing. There are many excellent exhibits from all over the Muslim East on display. Including, for example, not presented in the commented material kula-huda (popular from Egypt to Bengal), peshkabza and other "zulfiqars" (ie wunderwafli).
    1. The comment was deleted.
  11. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 19 January 2020 08: 59
    As always, a good article.
    Recently I watched the movie "The King". It seemed to me that the armor and battles are shown quite reliably. I would like to hear your opinion on how well the knights are shown in the film.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 19 January 2020 12: 14
      Are you talking about it?

      In general, thanks to Shpakovsky's articles, anyone can do the initial analysis, and you too. Search VO for the word "effigia". Or even in the global search Shpakovsky + effigy.
      The picture is horror. Bibs and chain mail, although more logical than brigantine + chain mail. Bracers are nonsense. There must be a combination of bracers + mittens (mittens not rag) There is no normal leg protection. Armé helmet - it appeared 100 years later. In other pictures there are tophelms, and this is already an anachronism. There must be a bascinet. A fundamental remark - there are no cott d'armes. Well, the general fashion of that time, as far as I remember, was stockings and tabards. The king is ragged and not courteous.).
      People obviously saved on armor.
      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 20 January 2020 04: 55
        Nevertheless, I liked the film. Especially the moment when there was a fight in armor.
        The king is ragged and not courteous.)

        Bastard .. Education received on the street, and not in the palaces.
        Also, the film reminded that the kings used to go forward with their people and the concept of honor was not yet an empty phrase.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 20 January 2020 10: 02
          Nevertheless, I liked the film.

          This is normal and even good. But don't look for historicity in contemporary cinema. This is a long-standing global trend - even if there is an opportunity to make it historically, even if the story is more attractive and interesting than the scriptwriter's invention and the director's vision, the filmmakers will do it in their own way, not in history. The Vikings series is a classic example. Plus, in Western cinema, "Shakespeare's curse". Anyone who makes films about Caesar or the Hundred Years War cannot ignore Shakespeare's plays and simply have to make numerous references. So here, even though the film is not watching, I can draw from your words a conclusion about the "people's king Harry" (Henry 5). Everything is like Brother William)
          Historicity is also a little expensive. Even the HBO in the Game of Thrones in the first season abandoned the equestrian tournament - expensive and troublesome (Russian organizers of the St. George's Tournament show a finger and laugh).
          There is one more thing- modern cinema cannot rise above battered cliches. Therefore, if the battle, then with swords and better without shields and always a ninja style. The episode of the fight between Brienne and Tyrell in the first season - the polex against the ax and the shield with grappling was a breath of fresh air. But then again went the concentrated sickening kung fu cranberries. Apparently so familiar to all, and the creators and the audience.
          1. Razvedka_Boem
            Razvedka_Boem 20 January 2020 17: 47
            Here, even without watching a movie, I can draw a conclusion from your words

            And you take a look ..)
            And do not fall into a mentor tone ..)
            Py.Sy. I understand your point of view, you can not answer.
  12. BAI
    BAI 19 January 2020 18: 51
    The riders of Delhi (left) battle with the Hungarian riders (right), 1526. Miniature from the manuscript “Sumeimanname” (Topkapi Museum, Istanbul)

    In my opinion: vice versa. Muslims are clearly right.
  13. Corrie sanders
    Corrie sanders 19 January 2020 23: 29
    Good, interesting article, but there are flaws.

    a thousand - bigbashi (major).

    Not "big-bashi" but "bin-bashi", bin - in Turkish it is "thousand". And this is not a "major", but rather a "thousand". They have "majors" appeared only in the 20th century)))

    Delibashi commanded several bayraks
    ... There is an elder in the garden .... Delhi-bashi is ANY, I emphasize, ANY warrior who went in front of the formation and challenged the enemy to a duel (see epigraph). But “Delhi” did not stop only at the duel - “Delhi” could drive up close to the enemy line and shoot someone point-blank, in short, throw out some super-daring and super-dangerous action. This is not a type of warrior, but a style of his behavior. "Delhi" in Turkish means "bad, crazy, furious", bashi is a head. The "Delhi" warriors were considered very respected, as they showed an example of super courage, if they died then as martyrs. Delhi did not know any organizations, they never grouped in bairaks, they were usually among the bashi-bazouks and were subordinate to their commander.
    The author probably had in mind yet another unmentioned branch of the army - Bashibuzuklara, or Bashi-Buzuki. This was a separate category of Sultan troops, usually from the poorest strata that had a minimum of weapons. With them, the sultan concluded a kind of agreement that they play the role of skirmishers, go first under arrows and bullets, but on the other hand, they received the right to the first robbery, and unlimited - how much you take on yourself. It was a holy rule and the sultans strictly respected it, so there was no shortage of bashbuzuks. All the assaults of Constantinople always began with a frantic attack of bash-bazouks. Before the attack, they usually smoked hash, the holy dervises aroused them for feats - the attack of the bashbuzuk was fast and very terrible, but if it was able to be repelled, the emotions of the second attack were already lacking. Rumyantsev and Suvorov used this. Bashibuzuki were usually on horseback, Anatolian Turks were not among them as a rule - they were Kurds, Albanians, Lazs.

    Bayrak is the second, unofficially, name of the Janissary company - "orta", roughly on the principle of the European term "gang" (ribbon, banner), meaning a company. Bayrak was commanded by "chorbaji" ("supovar"), the standard-bearer in the bayrak was called "bayraktar". In the bayrak (as well as in the European company of the 15-16th centuries) there were usually 200-300 people, with a hundred commanded by "on-bashi" (centenary). Chorbaji this was already a significant position, the sultan usually knew all his chorbaji by sight and by name
  14. Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 20 January 2020 15: 28
    Arsenal Pavilion, Pushkin