Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries


The magnificent saddle of c. 1455 of King Ladislav Postumu ("Posthumous") (1440 - 1457) - the king of Bohemia from 1453, the king of Hungary from May 15 to July 17, 1440 (1st time) (coronation May 15, 1440) and May 30, 1445 (2nd time) (under the name Laszlo V), and the Duke of Austria from December 22, 1440, the last representative of the Albertine line in the Habsburg dynasty. Material - carved painted bone! (Vienna armory Ward)


"... the cavalry of the enemies was very numerous ..."
First Book of Maccabees 16: 7


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. The war horses of the Middle Ages, contrary to all ideas, were not much larger than ordinary peasant horses, which is proved by the horse armor made on them. That is, they were large horses, no one argues with this, but by no means giants. Of course, there are paintings by artists on which war horses are simply giants. But at the same time, there are engravings by Dürer, paintings by Brueghel and Titian, which depict horses with a height at the withers maximum 1,5 m, which, in principle, is not so much. On the other hand, let us recall who exactly many painters at that time - and we are talking about the line between the Middle Ages and the New Age - posed: Emperors Maximilian I and Charles V ("ruler of Spain, Germany and both Indies"), King Francis I and Henry VIII ... It is clear that they would hardly have liked if they depicted their artists on horses, who are unworthy in size for the high titles of their riders!


It is believed that knightly horses helped their masters when they converged in fights, and even ... fought with each other. Rochester Bestiary 1230 (British Library, London)

More important than the size was the training of the horse. That is, the knight couldn’t just take it and sit on the first strong horse that came across from his herd. The horse needed to be taught not to be afraid of the clang of swords, cannon shots, a spear shaft near his right eye (an ordinary horse is afraid of it and “feeds” it to the lynx and at a gallop!), But the main thing is to participate in the battle at the behest of its owner! So, if the knight was surrounded by enemy infantry, he could raise his horse on the hind legs so that it would be more convenient for him to chop them with a sword from above, while the horse threshed them with front hooves. This figure even had its own name - “Levada” and was trained at the same time by both the horse and the rider. Further, the horse, standing on its hind legs, had to make jumps, which gave him the opportunity to break the ring of enemy infantrymen. Such jumps were called “kurbets” and it is clear that the horse had to be very strong in order to jump in armor weighing from 30 to 60 kg with a saddle, and even with a rider also dressed in armor. And there was also such a figure as “capriola”, when the horse, having made a high jump, hit with all four legs, why the infantrymen scattered where and where. Moreover, upon landing, the horse had to make a full turn on its hind legs - “pirouette”, and again rush after running opponents. Kipriola was also used against riders.


Saddle of the end of the 15th century owned by Emperor Maximilian I (Vienna Armory)

It is clear that not all knightly horses possessed such a high level of “combat training”. By the way, the knights rode exclusively on stallions, riding mares was considered shameful. Most horses were trained to walk, but at the first "order" to gallop. And about the same thing happened in the late XV - early XVI century, when the development of mass armies armed with new weapons and, above all, the pistol cavalry, led to the fact that strong, tall horses were simply not enough. Their decline was simply enormous, since the infantrymen recruited from the peasants did not see any value in them and, using their arquebuses, and then with more powerful muskets, they shot at horses first of all!


Saddle of Khan Murat Giray. Among the Turkish trophies collected after the siege and liberation of Vienna in 1683 was the saddle, which was originally attributed to Kara Mustafa, the great vizier and commander in chief of the Turkish army, primarily because of his particularly rich equipment. However, this is most likely a mistake, because on the saddle is a tugra (calligraphic name) of Girey Khan (Khan 1678-1683). The saddle is the work of the court workshop of Sultan Mehmed IV. The seat is covered in cherry red velvet and decorated with floral appliqués. Included with the saddle is a pair of gilded brass stirrups. Murat Giray was a khan of the Crimean Tatars. In the 1466 year, the Crimean Tatars separated from the Golden Horde, and in the 1478 year, under the Sultan Mehmed II, the khans of the Crimean Tatars became vassals of the Ottoman Empire. They were used by the Ottomans as auxiliary troops in their battles with the Poles, Transylvanians and the Habsburgs. During the campaign on Vienna, 9 of September 1683 of the year, Giray Khan also arrived at Kara-Mustafa with a detachment of Tatars. But the khan did not manage to establish the right relations with the great vizier and interfered with his Turkish authorities as he could. Therefore, Kara Mustafa after the defeat at Gran immediately replaced him and appointed another member of the Girey family as khan of the Tatars. (Vienna Armory)

Naturally, neither the cuirassiers nor the pistols needed such dressage. The same cuirassiers attacked the infantry with two or three lines, galloping their horses. At the same time, at the last meters before the collision, they shot at him with pistols, and then without slowing down, they attacked with swords in their hands. The second and third lines were often not fired at all, saving their pistols before hand-to-hand combat.


Horsemen of the 16th century from the Vienna Armory. This is a general view, and in the following photos we will get to know them better ...

The Reiters needed their horses to perform karakol well, but that was all. As more horses died during the wars, equipping the army with horses was becoming increasingly difficult, so riders now had to be content with unclean horses, and also of a small size.


Robe of the Noble Horseman approx. 1550 g. At the horse we see only a horse's forehead and blanket; at the rider himself on his head there is only a helmet of a burgion. Together, the horse blanket and the rider's outfit form a rich set, made, including the saddle, in the same style. The owner of this Archduke Ferdinand II, son of Emperor Maximilian I. (Vienna Armory)

Therefore, in order to maintain the breed and always have the right horses at hand, the Holy Roman Emperors supported the opening of the so-called “Spanish School” of horse riding in Vienna, and in fact a horse factory, where they began to breed horses of the famous Lippian breed, obtained from crossing Andalusian horses with horses of the "pure German breed" and Arabian horses from North Africa.


Another horseman set of Maximilian II. Pay attention to his purely knight's saddle with metal-shielded foot protectors. (Vienna Armory)

The British were also lucky with the horses. And from the very beginning, they storiesif one considers the 1066 year and the conquest of England by Guillaume of Normandy. The fact is that among the horses he brought to England, there were two half-breed black stallions, crossing them with local mares, they eventually managed to get a so-called “English breed” horse, for which, incidentally, Andalusian horses were constantly imported in England. Moreover, the first purebred English horses (this refers to horses with a well-known pedigree and having Arab horses from Arabia among their ancestors) had 150 cm in height at the withers, and only later it began to reach 170 cm. Another interesting breed of English horses is the English shires that existed in England since very old times. Again, today their height at the withers reaches 200 cm, and the weight 1300 kg. Even less massive and tall horses could well carry riders even in heavy cuirassier armor, the weight of which often exceeded 40 kg, that is, it was more than even the weight of full knightly armor.


And this is also one of his headsets. And why be surprised if many kings and emperors only once wore dresses sewn for them, considering it less than their dignity to dress in their own "castoffs" ... (Vienna Armory)

However, outside of England and Germany, where there were plenty of thoroughbred horses, riders of the gendarmes, not to mention cuirassiers, reytaras and light-horsemen, had to be content with horse horses, which is why, by the way, these riders did not wear armor. Even an extra gun weighing 1700 - 2 kg and that, along with all the other equipment was a burden for them. It is known, for example, that many pistol guns, who had four heavy pistols and a sword as their weapons, wore only ... chain drape, which was called the “bishop's cloak,” covering their arms to the elbows and torso somewhere to the middle of the chest as armaments. In Germany, for example, in the cavalry of many small Protestant princes, as well as in England, among horsemen on the border with Scotland, such drape were very popular especially in the middle of the XVI century.

Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries

German pistol 1580 of the year. Figure by Liliana and Fred Funkens. Dressed in a chain-coat drape "bishop's cloak."

By the way, it was in the middle of the 16th century that a massive rejection of horse armor occurred. Soon, only the upper part of the shaffron, covering the upper part of the horse’s head, was preserved. But this part of horse armor disappeared after 1580 year. Instead, metal-bound frenum belts, very similar to a dog muzzle, began to be used. By the end of the century, they were especially popular in the German cavalry. In Italy, belts were used that intersected on the horse’s croup and protected from chopping blows. But of course, it is impossible to name them full-fledged “armor”, although they were beautiful. Rather, they tried to make them beautiful, because then it was customary to go to war as a holiday.


German mercenaries in the service of the English king Henry VIII: 1 - “border horseman” - lightly armed spearman who served on the border with Scotland. Armor: plate tunic - "Jacques", chain mail, helmet - "sweat", plate gloves on one or two hands. Armament: sword and spear; 2,3 - Landsknecht mercenaries. Mercenary on the right in chain mail “episcopal cloak”. Armament: the peak and the Katzbalger sword, he is the Landsknetta - a short sword of the Landsknechts for hand-to-hand combat. Fig. Angus McBride

However, for kings, princes, and other nobles, plate armor for horses continued to be made until the beginning of the 17th century. Etienne Delon, the French master, was especially famous for his work, well, the one who made sketches for the armor of the Swedish king Eric XIV. It was already practically ceremonial armor, which had no military value. It was just so customary, as now, let's say, some Arab sheikhs decided to ride Silver Shadow rolls, trimmed with mammoth fur from the inside.


Horse armor by master Jörg Zeusenhofer, second half of the 16th century Innsbruck. (Vienna Armory)

Another thing is that changes in armament also caused changes in the design of the saddle. Recall what a typical knight's saddle looked like. It was tall, such that the knight almost stood in stirrups, with a high forward bow, which in itself served as his armor, and with a no less high back, often propped by rods, resting on the bard - armor for the croup. It was called a “chair seat” and falling out of it, just like falling out of a chair, was not easy at all. In another way it was called the “German saddle” and it was ... too heavy.


And so in the 1550 year the stirrups put to such armor looked. (Vienna Armory)

With the change (relief) of the spear, the back bow became shorter and more sloping, and the front bow decreased in size. The lench itself has become shorter, and the saddle, accordingly, lighter. Interestingly, the protective function of the fence, which had previously descended from the front bow, now began to play in the new conditions ... two holsters, fastened in front and well protected the rider's hips. Remember how in the novel by Dumas, “Viscount de Brazhelon”, Count de Guiche asks Malicorne his opinions on the pistol holsters on the saddle and he answers that in his opinion they are heavy. And their true details are so precisely because they played the role of a kind of "carapace". Sewing a leather case for a 75 cm long pistol would have been easier than simple, but this is precisely what the saddlers did not do.

However, there is nothing to be surprised at. The case in the novel takes place after the restoration of the English king Charles II. And then such equipment was in use. And once it appeared, it then remained for a very long time, right up to the beginning of the 19th century, including holsters at the saddle, left and right. Well, heavy cuirassier armor in three quarters was actively used in the Thirty Years War ....


“Three Quarter Armor” by Dresden craftsman Jacob Jöring, 1640 g. Left German cavalry sword 1620 g. (Dresden Armory)

The author and the administration of the site express their heartfelt gratitude to the curators of the Vienna Armory, Ilse Jung and Florian Kugler for the opportunity to use her photographs.

To be continued ...
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  1. Korsar4 1 December 2019 06: 35 New
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    That's interesting.

    Did the knights themselves teach horses to all of these coubets and pirouettes?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 December 2019 08: 00 New
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      I think everything rested on the state of the gentleman, Chevalier, grand or knight! The rich could buy or organize the training of horses on the means of caretakers, knysushnyh, grooms and other personnel! The poor got out on their own.
      I’ll add an interesting message from myself! Starting with Vasily Ivanovich 3, our kings and emperors carried out “breeding programs” to update the horse stock. Buying over the hill of "dirty", "German" and "Lyashsky" stallions, for the reason, "that our mares are thin and cannot carry guns!"
      Most of all turned Peter the Great! Thanks to him, Arab, Golan and other names appeared in the founders of more than a dozen of our pedigree horses! The descendants of which already confidently dragged artillery, cuirassiers and dragoons!
      In addition to the equestrian staff, by decree of Peter, cows, sheep, and other animals were imported.
      For example, the famous Russian Kholmogorsk breed of dairy cows is a merit of the restless emperor!
      Regards, Vlad!
  2. Alexey Ustelentsev 1 December 2019 07: 18 New
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    As a rule, no - the caretakers did this.
  3. kalibr 1 December 2019 08: 09 New
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    Quote: Korsar4
    Did the knights themselves teach horses to all of these coubets and pirouettes?

    The poor themselves. And the rich hired special people. It's like a horse shoe or a car repair. Someone picks himself, but someone only knows that the motor is in front ...
    1. Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 45 New
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      ... and someone only knows that the motor is in front ...


      And if they gave him a Volkswagen Beetle? wassat

      Good evening, Vyacheslav! hi drinks
  4. kalibr 1 December 2019 08: 15 New
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    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
    For example, the famous Russian Kholmogorsk breed of dairy cows is a merit of the restless emperor!

    Yes, Vladislav, that’s it. But any medal has both obverse and reverse. Peter brought Holstein and Dutch cows and they spread. And they give milk of amino acid composition A1. But the African and Asian breeds - A2. And there is an intermediate type of milk. The difference is just one amino acid. The name, of course, is unpronounceable. But because of it, many of us have such a thing as lactose intolerance. allergy to cow's milk. And the Asian breed does not have it in milk, there isn’t this type of allergy either! Now we are trying to again breed such cows especially for allergy sufferers, but so far it is expensive and few people know about it.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 December 2019 09: 40 New
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      Good morning Vyacheslav Olegovich! Parents kept cows of Krasnopestroy meat and dairy breed! A direct derivative of the Holomogorsk breed of cows that appeared through the efforts of Peter the Great. By the way, they made up most of the herd! In the minority were - Yaroslavl black and reddish breeds. How to say what
      The exterior is completely different! The latter were more massive, wild, indomitable temper. At the same time, there is an orderly adaptation to our conditions, acting as dominants in the herd!
  5. bubalik 1 December 2019 08: 15 New
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    essence - a horse factory, where they began to breed horses
    ,,, an interesting metamorphosis with the word Marshal smile What a knight does not dream of becoming groom, pah - the marshal fellow
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 December 2019 09: 24 New
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      Hello, Sergey! Similarly with our court title “Stable”!
      Offhand, I can’t really remember if he was “cooler” than the bed, but the “stewards” definitely “smoke aside” and envy both of them! laughing
      By the way, I remembered the careers of Menshikov and Biron! hi
  6. tlauicol 1 December 2019 08: 20 New
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    The horses are dead, and they drag such a heavy weight, and even jump
  7. Olgovich 1 December 2019 08: 45 New
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    Real works of art.

    Although it could be (and it happened) chopped, crushed, captured ..

    Vanity.....
    1. kalibr 1 December 2019 08: 50 New
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      Andrew! But nobody kept the chopped ones. Immediately handed over in metal with profit!
      1. Olgovich 1 December 2019 09: 27 New
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        Quote: kalibr
        They handed over right there in metal with profit!

        And the priceless work of the master? Sorry .....
        1. kalibr 1 December 2019 10: 12 New
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          Gilding was scraped off, a notch was thrown out - everything went into action!
          1. Olgovich 1 December 2019 11: 09 New
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            Quote: kalibr
            Gilding was scraped off, a notch was thrown out - everything went into action!

            I’m talking about something else: if you scrape off the paint from "Mona Lisa" .......
      2. Liam 1 December 2019 09: 32 New
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        It should be noted that the nobility had different "types" of horses for different purposes. There were big horses for battles, smaller but more mobile for tournaments, for crossings, for walking, for hunting, for parades, etc. So it depends on which of these horses are depicted. The exact sizes of the medieval horses are not known reliably, but were on average smaller than the current ones. As well, however, their riders were much less overall than us.
        1. kalibr 1 December 2019 10: 12 New
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          Quote: Liam
          and their riders were much smaller than us).

          On average, yes, but judging by the armor there were 2 m, and 1.80, and 1.76, which is not at all different from today's people.
          1. Engineer 1 December 2019 14: 42 New
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            Immediately what occurred to me. John Gaunt armor approx. 2 meters. The remains of Edward the Fourth - 196 cm. Frunsberg (my own estimate for armor in Vienna) 177-180 with a net weight of 85 kg. (There may be 95 there) On the other hand, there are a lot of armor in the same armory in Vienna
  8. bubalik 1 December 2019 10: 26 New
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    ,,, without prejudice to health, the weight of the transported cargo should be 1/5 of the horse’s weight yes
    1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 12: 39 New
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      My advice to you, Sergey. Do not use the same sources that the venerable Lannan Shi uses! laughing
      1. bubalik 1 December 2019 12: 47 New
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        ,,,what's wrong? belay where was wrong what
        when working under the horse, the total weight of the rider and ammunition should not exceed 20%
        by weight of the horse.
        1. According to Matorin: Y = X - 620,
        where Y is the horse’s mass, kg, X is the chest circumference, see
        2. The formula of Ulrich Durst: P = O • K,
        where P is the mass of the animal, kg; O - chest circumference, cm; K - coefficient (for light horses 2,7, medium –3,1, heavy –3,5).
        3. According to the Levy formula: M = 8,39 • 10−5 • T2 • L
        Where T - chest circumference, cm; L is the length of the body, see sad
        Lannan Shi "
        ,,, your friend wink ?
        1. bubalik 1 December 2019 12: 59 New
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          ,, but harnessed smile
          On a good paved highway, most horses can carry three times the load belay greater own weight of the horse.
          On a more or less solid (not washed out by rains!) Dirt road, you can load the cart with about two horse masses.
          On loose or mountainous non-horizontal roads one should not overload a cart weighing more than the horse itself weighs.
          Source: | Note to Konniku © fourhoofs.ru yes
          1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 13: 26 New
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            Yes, yes! That is why the ancient Egyptians did not have cavalry, but only chariots. For the horses of that period were shallow, could drag, carry - no
            1. Liam 1 December 2019 21: 57 New
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              But did the horses of other modern Egyptians have larger horses?
              1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 22: 09 New
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                No, they were not. And there was no cavalry. The first major battle with the use of horses, the Battle of Megido. The horses were harnessed, in chariots.
                1. Liam 1 December 2019 22: 44 New
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                  All the same, the Egyptians got acquainted with the horse relatively late (c. 1600 BC) compared with the steppe peoples (5.500 BC). Therefore, it can hardly be argued that since the Egyptians at that time did not fight on horseback, then other peoples didn't do it
                  1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 22: 46 New
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                    Ok, give examples.
        2. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 13: 22 New
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          Our common acquaintance, trying to operate with mathematics and logic in History.
        3. Hantengri 1 December 2019 19: 54 New
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          Quote: bubalik
          when working under the horse, the total weight of the rider and ammunition should not exceed 20%
          by weight of the horse.

          What a tender beast! laughing According to Soviet standards (EMNIP), the weight of a backpack of a tourist in a mountain hike of medium difficulty should not exceed 1/3 of his (backpacker's) weight ...
          1. bubalik 1 December 2019 19: 59 New
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            ,,, then a tour, and this is a horse laughing
            1. Hantengri 1 December 2019 20: 21 New
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              Horse - Mazda! Mules Maria - forever! laughing
    2. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 18: 52 New
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      "" Bolivar "can not stand two" ????
      1. bubalik 1 December 2019 19: 06 New
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        It’s good to ride in the steppe,
        To breathe free air
        Better prairie places in the world can not be found.
        If the sun doesn't bake,
        And the horse does not shake
        And the beer halls come in the way.
        drinks
        1. Korsar4 1 December 2019 19: 11 New
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          "But for what I love a cowboy?
          Because he is so alone "(c).
          1. bubalik 1 December 2019 19: 24 New
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            I will go out at night in a field with a horse,belay
            1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 19: 31 New
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              "I will go out in May with moonshine to a flowering graveyard" (C) laughing
              1. Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 47 New
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                And then, as usual:
                "I’ll go outside, look at the village,
                The girls are walking and I am happy. " drinks
                1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 22: 49 New
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                  Further, as usual:
                  "Oh, I got drunk drunk,
                  I won’t go home early. "
                  1. Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 54 New
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                    And then:
                    "So our bird sang and finished
                    And after nine months, the testicle. "(C) laughing
          2. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 19: 25 New
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            Oooh! Chevalier, are not afraid of my evil dwarf?
            Then, go!
            "Stars in the sky scattering,
            And I have grown together with the bay
            Stirrups for growth
            Yes, do not harvest the onion "(C)
            1. bubalik 1 December 2019 19: 36 New
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              ,,, old Native American proverb: "The horse is dead - cry." bully
              1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 19: 38 New
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                An old cowboy proverb: "Drive horses - shoot."
                1. bubalik 1 December 2019 19: 49 New
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                  ,,, in what order will the tank, car and horse-drawn cart pass this intersection? request wassat
                  1. Korsar4 1 December 2019 19: 51 New
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                    "Become Maroussia aside" (c).
                  2. sniperino 1 December 2019 20: 00 New
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                    Quote: bubalik
                    In what order will the tank, car, and horse-drawn carriage pass this intersection?
                    It’s already impossible to drive in front of the car and the tank, and in the place of the Moskvich driver I would pass back and watch with interest the situation before the tank passes.
                  3. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 06 New
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                    "Where the infantry fails,
                    And the armored train won't rush
                    Maxim creeps on his belly,
                    And nothing will happen to him "(C)
                    1. Korsar4 1 December 2019 20: 08 New
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                      "- Sit down, infantry,
                      Cheeks would be rubbed with snow "(c).
                      1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 20 New
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                        "In parting, I’ll take off your boots,
                        We have yet to advance "(C)
                      2. Korsar4 1 December 2019 20: 24 New
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                        The strongest poem by Ion Degen.

                        "All living things have tangible benefits from the bodies.
                        As cover we use the fallen "(c).
                      3. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 31 New
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                        Exactly. Next Charles Baudelaire.
                      4. Korsar4 1 December 2019 20: 36 New
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                        "Madness, stinginess, and greed, and debauchery
                        And our souls are oppressed and the body is corroded "(c).
                      5. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 44 New
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                        On the other hand, it is difficult for Baudelaire to compete with Celine or Miller.
                      6. Korsar4 1 December 2019 20: 51 New
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                        "Greek Greyhounds not tekoch" (c).
                      7. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 55 New
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                        "Everything is ours. And the muzzle is in the blood."
                      8. Korsar4 1 December 2019 21: 11 New
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                        "Inside him - if a man.
                        If not, grind "(c).
                      9. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 21: 24 New
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                        "And again, come running on the curve of the coast"
                      10. Korsar4 1 December 2019 21: 33 New
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                        “But they don’t go to the river.
                        It hurts the shore is steep ”(c).
                      11. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 21: 36 New
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                        When the coast is steep, there is always a whip.
                      12. Korsar4 1 December 2019 21: 47 New
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                        “So go on, my dear,
                        Take Ilya away! ” (with).
                      13. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 21: 51 New
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                        Ah, you, wolf sated! Grass bag! "(C)
                      14. bubalik 1 December 2019 22: 04 New
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                        I'm a hero horse! Suddenly, a fight tomorrow, and I'm tired?
                      15. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 22: 14 New
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                        "The iron horse replaces the peasant horse!" (WITH)
                      16. Korsar4 1 December 2019 22: 26 New
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                        “Sweet, sweet, funny fools.
                        Well, where is he, where is he chasing? ” (with).
                      17. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 22: 39 New
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                        Why else to live?
                        How not to sing, not to love?
                        And the bay, in pursuit, not to beat the croup?
                    2. bubalik 1 December 2019 23: 03 New
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                      You cannot go far in the carriage of the past.
                    3. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 23: 18 New
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                      Undoubtedly! I can discuss the virtues of horses as much as I like, but I confess that I am afraid of these animals. ICE is more familiar. Although, if you lock ...
  • 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 08 New
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    Oh, for a long time I passed the "theory of rights" !!! laughing
  • Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 23 New
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    Tank doesn’t care at all. In whatever order anyone goes, the tank will go where it needs to. Everything else is the problem of those who did not notice the tank, or do not know what it is.
    They explained to me in a training manual that driving a tank should be guided by one simple rule: "Let the road take care of itself." soldier laughing
    1. bubalik 1 December 2019 22: 29 New
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      who didn’t notice the tank
      ,,, this is how, let me be interested?
      1. Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 52 New
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        Hello, Sergey! hi
        It’s better not to test and experiment yourself, I don’t advise you as a tankman and your good friend. soldier drinks
    2. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 22: 57 New
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      Oh yeah! A tank leaves from around the corner, but here from the flank of the PTR accidentally stood. Gobbing !!! And oppanyki !!! "And the young woman will not know which guy had an end."
      1. Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 59 New
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        But what a wake!
        "We will be taken out from under the debris, they will raise the FRAME
        And volleys of turret guns lead us on our last journey ... "
        soldier drinks
      2. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 23: 09 New
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        This, you know, to whom what. To whom so, to whom “the base salutes to me with the thunder of hundreds of trunks”, and to whom, “seventy-second square, a black funnel”.
      3. bubalik 1 December 2019 23: 17 New
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        ,,, here are the "ancient tanks" fellow
      4. Catfish 2 December 2019 00: 19 New
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        And this is the tank commander. laughing
  • Catfish 1 December 2019 22: 49 New
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    Old cowboy saying: ... "


    "God created people, and Colonel Colt made them equal." smile hi
    1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 23: 23 New
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      Somewhat wrong.
      "God made people. Abe made them free. Colonel Colt called the odds."
      1. Catfish 2 December 2019 00: 09 New
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        I was referring exclusively to the epitaph on the grave of Samuel Colt.

        But the model arr. In 1873 it was called: "The Great Equalizer." smile
        1. Catfish 2 December 2019 00: 11 New
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          Colt "The Great Equalizer."
        2. 3x3zsave 2 December 2019 00: 18 New
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          Only S. Colt has nothing to do with this wolf.
        3. Catfish 2 December 2019 00: 20 New
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          Interesting remark, state the name of the author.
        4. Undecim 2 December 2019 01: 55 New
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          Interesting remark, state the name of the author.
          This revolver (Colt Single Action Army, Model 1873, SAA) was developed after the death of S. Colt (Colt died in 1862) by designers William Mason and Charles Richards. The company was led at that time by the Colt’s widow, Elizabeth Colt, who saved the company from a “fly into the pipe”. The woman is outstanding in all respects.
        5. Catfish 2 December 2019 03: 18 New
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          Thank you, Vik Nikolaevich. The fact that Colt is not the author of the Peacemaker construct is understandable, but I heard about your wife for the first time. good drinks
    2. Catfish 2 December 2019 00: 32 New
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      Yes, by the way, if you, Anton, mean White’s revolver under a unitary cartridge, the patent for which he sold to Smith-and-Wesson, then he looked like this:

      To reload, the barrel leans back up.
    3. Catfish 2 December 2019 00: 41 New
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      This is Smith’s more modern Equalizer model, here the barrel with the drum leans down to simultaneously extract all the cartridges:

      Colt reloaded through the “Abadi door” one cartridge each, in which he lost to Smith. But a weapon is made not only by its design, but to a no less (if not more) degree it is made by the cartridge under which the barrel is made. And the cartridge developed by Colt firm "beat" all the cartridges for revolvers existing at that time. Therefore, the army and adopted the "Cavalry Colt", and no other system.
  • Albatroz 1 December 2019 10: 44 New
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    Gentlemen, but in the knowledge that for the knights of the horse they were a special ranking. How can they be compared with "peasant horses"))
    No wonder the descendants of the knights cuirassiers sat on the "heroes", significantly different in this sense from light cavalry, and even more so from peasant horses.
  • Undecim 1 December 2019 12: 18 New
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    And there was also such a figure as “capriola”, when the horse, having made a high jump, hit with all four legs, why the infantrymen scattered where and where.
    In horseback riding, these tricks are called "Airs above the ground." In addition to capriole, this includes courbette, mezair, croupade and levade. In modern riding school are not used. Therefore, you can see them only in institutions like the Spanish Riding School in Vienna or Cadre Noir in Namur.

    This is what capriole looks like today. True, the horse hits only with its hind legs. All four cannot physiologically. And he must land on all four legs at the same time. To perform this technique, the horse must be very strong.
    1. Korsar4 1 December 2019 12: 21 New
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      Handsome man in a jump.
    2. Undecim 1 December 2019 12: 26 New
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      And this is an illustration of Ludwig Koch, a famous Austrian artist and illustrator of hippological publications for the book "The Art of Riding in Illustrations".
      1. Undecim 1 December 2019 12: 44 New
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        So, if the knight was surrounded by enemy infantry, he could raise his horse on the hind legs so that it would be more convenient for him to chop them with a sword from above, while the horse threshed them with front hooves. This figure even had its own name - “Levada” and was trained at the same time by both the horse and the rider.
        As for levade, then the question is more complicated.

        This is a very difficult technique, requiring extraordinary physical effort from the horse to maintain balance, since the angle of elevation is 30-35 degrees. Not every horse can execute it, and even beating with hooves is a super task. This technique was mastered at the beginning of the 20th century.
        The jousting horse seemed to perform pesade when the angle of elevation was 45 degrees.
        1. Undecim 1 December 2019 12: 52 New
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          In addition, the position when the horse, having completed the pesade, while also “hammering with front hooves”, has its own name - mezair.
          1. VeteranVSSSR 1 December 2019 14: 49 New
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            Sorry, maybe it’s not the topic, but the horse is the one on whom the land is being plowed, but the horse is a horse, like ,, ... only fleas are small ... ''
            1. Undecim 1 December 2019 14: 57 New
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              A horse is an adult male horse, a stallion, and a horse is the common name for a number of equines.
              1. VeteranVSSSR 1 December 2019 15: 27 New
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                The Oryol trotter is a horse and it doesn’t matter a mare or a mare’s husband.
                1. Undecim 1 December 2019 16: 26 New
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                  Oryol trotter is the name of the breed of horses.
          2. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 17: 55 New
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            Bravo, Victor Nikolaevich! Very beautiful brandies!
      2. Engineer 1 December 2019 14: 36 New
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        "The Art of Riding in Illustrations"
        .
        I saw a high flying horse and mistakenly read twice "in hallucinations")
        1. Hantengri 1 December 2019 22: 00 New
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          Quote: Engineer
          I saw a high flying horse and mistakenly read twice "in hallucinations")

          Nothing wrong. In hallucinations, horses fly too ...
  • Undecim 1 December 2019 13: 40 New
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    The British were also lucky with the horses. Moreover, from the very beginning of their history, if one considers 1066 and the conquest of England by Guillaume of Normandy. The fact is that among the horses he brought to England, there were two half-breed black stallions, crossing them with local mares, they eventually managed to get a so-called “English breed” horse, for which, incidentally, Andalusian horses were constantly imported in England.
    This, of course, is a legend. The English breed, now called the thoroughbred riding horse, appeared in the XNUMXth century and dates back to the three stallions. At the same time, despite the fact that their nicknames are known, scientists do not have a consensus on which breed they belonged to. These stallions are Darley Arabian, Godolfin Arab or Berber (Godolphin Arabian, Godolfin Borb) and Bayerly Turk (Byerly Turk).
  • Engineer 1 December 2019 14: 34 New
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    The war horses of the Middle Ages were, contrary to all beliefs, not much more than ordinary peasant horses

    However, outside of England and Germany, where there were plenty of thoroughbred horses, gendarme riders, not to mention cuirassiers, reytaras and light-horsemen, had to be content with low-horse horses

    As far as I remember, the Dutch friezes also come from an ancient and tall breed. And it’s hard to imagine that the same French knights had smaller horses than their German and English colleagues. It seems to me that nevertheless tall horses in medieval Europe were more common than you might think from this article
    I wonder how the Sarmatians, Parthians, Byzantines solved their problem of cataphracts.
    The growth and physical strength of the horses were still of great importance. I recalled a long-standing article based on the works of Osama ibe Munkiza-Arab politician of the 12th century. He separately noted that the Arabian horses did not withstand the frontal battle with the Frankish. The sheikhs made desperate efforts to even the odds, but horses that could not save the Europeans were literally piece goods. The talk was about a combination of fighting enthusiasm and physical strength. Mentioned Arabian stallion who did not yield back in a head-on collision, although he received a through fracture of the skull, which turned out to be fatal. In another case, the Arabian stallion also withstood the blow during a spear collision, but its owner was not lucky; the spear tore off his arm in the elbow bend and pierced the body through tearing two ribs.
    By the way, as far as one can judge, the author of the article does not at all share the widespread views of the sect deviators ., stating that there were no head-on collisions such as ramming cavalry with cavalry and cavalry with infantry. Either the riders at the last moment pulled the reins and turned, or the infantrymen threw up their weapons and scattered just before the strike.
    1. Edward Vashchenko 1 December 2019 15: 09 New
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      I wonder how the Sarmatians, Parthians, Byzantines solved their problem of cataphracts.
      Good afternoon,
      for the steppe, horse selection is life itself, but don’t forget that during the Sarmatian period the steppes were “crammed” with herds of wild horses, catch the “mustangs” and go around who does not give in ... to the soup.
      Byzantium had areas for special horse breeding (Thrace, for example), the same royal herds.
      It’s been a long time to write about Klibanaria, but it’s more likely to be my opinion than the sources. wink
      1. Engineer 1 December 2019 15: 16 New
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        "clogged" with herds of wild horses

        Wild horses seem to be small though hardy. For shock cavalry is not very good
        And yet, as far as I remember, only tarpan is relevant for Sarmatians from wild horses. And he is tamed poorly and very careful (minus for battle)
      2. Undecim 1 December 2019 17: 39 New
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        during the Sarmatian period, the steppes were "crammed" with herds of wild horses, catch the "Mustangs" and go around who does not give in ... to the soup.
        During the Sarmatian period, only tarps remained in the steppe of wild horses, which were suitable only for soup, because they did not succumb to dressage.
  • Razvedka_Boem 1 December 2019 16: 04 New
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    Their decline was simply enormous, since the infantrymen recruited from the peasants did not see any value in them and, using their arquebuses, and then with more powerful muskets, they shot at horses first of all!

    I suppose the reason was not that yesterday peasants did not see the value in the horse, but that it was easier to aim at it.
    As a rule, the rider flew off the saddle breaking his limbs. But even if he managed not to turn his neck and not break his arms and legs, then his fighting efficiency was significantly reduced.
    1. Hantengri 1 December 2019 22: 16 New
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      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      I suppose the reason was not that yesterday peasants did not see the value in the horse, but that it was easier to aim at it.

      The accuracy of the battle of all these arquebuses and muskets was such that it was possible to aim only: "approximately in that direction." And since the horse, nevertheless, was a slightly larger target than the male of the species Homo sapiens sapiens sitting on it, then, accordingly, accidentally getting into it was easier.
  • bubalik 1 December 2019 16: 27 New
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    portray their artists on horseback



    ,, artists and sculptors are such special natures what creative belay laughing
    1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 20: 50 New
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      The best jamon is made from horse meat! laughing
      1. bubalik 1 December 2019 21: 26 New
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        ,,, jerky pork ham made from horse meat what ?
        1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 21: 34 New
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          Horse meat is an indestructible component of any good smoked sausage. Pork jamon began to be made in the 15th century.
          1. bubalik 1 December 2019 21: 42 New
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            ,,,like this request an article about horses and saddles began, and ended up with a saddle
            The gilding was scraped off, the notch was heated
            horse on sausage crying and there were only hooves ,,,
            1. 3x3zsave 1 December 2019 21: 57 New
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              I will reveal a terrible secret. The cutest domestic animals, guinea pigs, were raised as a delicacy in the Renaissance.
      2. Hantengri 1 December 2019 22: 48 New
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        Quote: 3x3zsave
        The best jamon is made from horse meat!

        “All smuggling is done in Odessa, on Malaya Arnautskaya Street” (c).
  • NF68 1 December 2019 17: 17 New
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    Thank you. What else can you say.
  • kalibr 2 December 2019 07: 47 New
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    Quote: bubalik
    and there were only hooves left

    Hooves on the glue!
  • kalibr 2 December 2019 07: 49 New
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    Quote: HanTengri
    The accuracy of the battle of all these arquebuses and muskets was such that it was possible to aim only: "approximately in that direction."

    Many pistols did not even have flies. What for?
    1. Pane Kohanku 2 December 2019 11: 25 New
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      Many pistols did not even have flies. What for?

      Vyacheslav Olegovich, who even used up cartridges in a revolver, was offered to cut the fly in a famous joke. hi What can we say about the owner of a single-shot pistol! A shot was made, they knocked down a horse - everything, extinguish the light, you won’t shake your sword!request a joke of course.
      But a little later in the cavalry appeared such a thing as a musketon. Even taking into account the aimless shooting, it was more realistic to hit with a shot! fellow I won’t kill, I’ll scare and scratch! But, in fact, the musketon is a harbinger of modern combat shotguns. Pump-action shotguns became widespread on the Western Front of the First World War - for the battle in the trenches the very thing, although it is not reloaded quickly. Some Russian officer even wrote a note about their use .... what Recently Sergey (Bubalik) published an article about how the Allied ship drowned a German submarine in close combat - even shotguns were put into action! laughing straight fight century sailing!
  • abrakadabre 6 January 2020 20: 23 New
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    spear shaft next to his right eye
    The lance shaft during caching passed near the left eye of the knight's horse. Not right.