Military Review

Friends and Enemies of Imperial Cuirassiers

90

"Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Lucen." Jan Martens de Jonge (1609–1647), approx. 1634 (private collection)


Darius sent a thousand horsemen with them.
The second book of Ezra 5: 2


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. В past materials We met with the enemies of the cuirassiers among the riders of the West and East. But not all of the East was considered, so today we will continue this topic. Well, this time the material will be illustrated entirely and completely by “colorful pictures”. And then all the photos from museums, even famous ones. But the illustrators of the same books by Osprey and Kassel publishing houses are also familiar with them, and their requirements are very high. So why not look at them, and at the same time not get to know the next “horsemen of the war", whom the battlefields of the XNUMXth – XNUMXth centuries saw in this very crucial era? However, we can not do without museum artifacts, as well as paintings by artists of that era, so today we look at the paintings of Jan Martens de Jonge.


Swedish cavalrymen attack the flank of imperial cuirassiers. One of the many paintings by Jan Martens de Jonge, dedicated to the equestrian battles of the Thirty Years War. His paintings are often confused with the works of Palamedes Palamedes and Snyers, and vice versa. Yes and no wonder! It is in a private collection, sold at Sotheby's

Knights with pistols in their hands.


But it was that the plate cavalry of cuirassiers and reitars, replacing the former knights, although it was very numerous - under Henry II in France in 1558 alone there were 7000 riders, but still could not replace the cavalry from the riders with light weapons. And if it was hard for France to have so many detachments of latin pistols, then what can we say about countries whose economy and industry were not so developed at that time?

Friends and Enemies of Imperial Cuirassiers
Armor of the Horse Arquebusier. Belonged to the King of Portugal Pedro II (reigned in 1683–1706). (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


"Equipment and martial arts of arquebusiers." Engraving from the textbook for officers "The Military Art of the Cavalry" by Jacob von Wallhausen, published in 1616. (German photo library, Dresden)

The opinion of a stupid king is a tragedy, of a smart one is happiness


That is why four types of horsemen dominated the battlefields of Europe in the period immediately preceding the Thirty Years War, not counting the light eastern riders. The heaviest were the cuirassiers in three-quarters of armor, which the Swedish king Gustav Adolf, for example, considered too expensive compared to their combat characteristics; then came light cavalry, which played a secondary role in the battle and which he considered underestimated; then horse arquebuzirs, who were engaged in fire support of the cuirassier by firing from the horse, and dragoons, "horse infantry", which, in his opinion, could be used much better.


Plate cavalry fights with infantry. One of the paintings by Jan Martens de Jonge. (Private collection)

And now, being an innovator in his soul, but also just an intelligent person, and possessing the fullness of royal power, he restructured the Swedish army, made it the main fighting force of the continent and a model for reform in the armies of other countries. The logical consequence of royal preferences was the decision to get by with only two types of riders: dragoons had to take on the role of fire support, and light riders, who were to become its shock units. He also did not completely abandon the cavalrymen, who mainly consisted of the Swedish nobility, in “three quarters” armor, but now they did not greatly affect the nature of military operations and did not play a serious role in the army of the Swedish king.


"Sturmhaube" ("assault helmet") - a typical helmet of European plate cavalry of the XVI-XVII centuries. (Arsenal in Graz, Austria)


Typical English “sweat” from 1630-1640. Later, Cromwell’s “iron-faced” helmets of his famous “new model army” created after the Swedish model (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) will wear the same helmets.


"Pot" in the European manner. (Arsenal in Graz, Austria)

Swedish cavalryman - “average cavalryman”


Over time, the standard Swedish cavalryman from that time began to relate to the cavalry of the "middle" type. He wore a cuirass and a "pot-helmet" ("sweat" in English) (or a large hat with a metal frame) and was armed with a pair of pistols and a heavy sword of slightly greater length than other European armies. The tactics of such riders was to use cold weapons; only the first line used firearms, and fired at the enemy during the attack at point-blank range. On paper, the number of the regiment was eight companies of 125 people each; in fact, only four companies could be in the shelves.


Horseman armor XVI century. (Arsenal in Graz, Austria)


Cuirassier Plate of the XNUMXth Century (Armory of Dresden)

One of the best cavalrymen in the Swedish army was the Finnish riders, known as hakkapeli, a name that came from their battle cry, meaning "chop them!"

Rapier with a blade of the Flamberg type, Italy, 1620-1640. Total length 1118 mm, weight 1346,6 g (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


Cavalry pistols of cuirassiers. From which it was possible to shoot, and after the shot also to use as a club! (Armory of Dresden)

With such troops, Gustav Adolf won many victories, fighting in Europe during the Thirty Years War, however, he himself fell on the battlefield at the Battle of Lucene.

“The death of King Gustav II Adolf. At the Battle of Luzen on November 6, 1632. " Artist Karl Walbom (1810–1858). Written in 1855 (National Museum, Stockholm)

Feathers, wings, armor and flags


However, both the Swedes and the imperial cuirassiers had very worthy opponents in the Commonwealth. A participant in the battle of Vienna (1683) witnessed the attack of 3000 Polish winged hussars on the Kalenberg slope on the Turkish army and described it this way: “The hussars attacked the godless Turks like angels from heaven”, clearly referring to the wings attached to the backs of the hussars armor. And yes, indeed, these riders, dressed in richly decorated "three-quarter armor", with blankets and cloaks from the skins of a bear, a leopard and a tiger, as well as wings made of feathers of an eagle, a swan and a wild goose, with long spears with colored pennants , struck the imagination of contemporaries. Many contemporaries wrote that they were the most beautiful riders in the world: metal, hides, flags and noble horses, all this was truly amazing and at the same time formidable sight.


The Winged Hussar. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z.Grbasic

Many drawings, prints and written sources of the XNUMXth century depict or describe these “winged horsemen”. According to one source, this original tradition came from Asia and was accepted by the nations that became part of the Turkish Empire. Another finds him in medieval Serbia. In addition to its purely decorative function, it was believed that the wings give the rider "the ease and speed of a bird carried by the wind," and, presumably, they did not allow him to throw a lasso on him and hit the saber in the neck from behind and from the side. Well, and of course, giving the rider growth, such equipment frightened the enemy horses, and the riders themselves.

However, the “winged horsemen” of the 1601th century are usually identified precisely with Polish plate hussars, and all because for almost a hundred years the Polish cavalry dominated the spaces of northeastern Europe. With the motto: “First we will defeat the enemies, and then count”, they defeated the Swedes at Kokenhaussen (1610), defeated the Russian troops at Kushino (1651), the Cossacks at Berestechko (1621), and beat the Turks in 1673 and in 1683, but their main victories were the battle at the walls of Vienna and the battle of Parkan (XNUMX).


“The Battle of Vienna” (1688; dimensions 806 x 813 cm). Hood. Martino Altomonte (Lviv National Gallery of Art)


“The Battle of the Parkans” (1693-1695; dimensions 886 × 782 cm). Hood. Martino Altomonte. (Lviv National Gallery of Art) It is considered the largest battle painting in Europe. By the way, the famous "Battle of Grunwald Jan Matejko has dimensions 426 × 987 cm

The hussar's breastplate in front could withstand a shot from the musket from 20 steps, while its back was impenetrable for firing a pistol at point-blank range. The most frequent gilded jewelry on the breastplate was the image of the Virgin Mary on the left side and the cross on the right side. In addition to a heavy spear 5 meters long, the hussars had a saber-shipbuilder, a straight sword-konchar 170 cm long (transported to the left of the saddle), as well as two pistols in saddle holsters. That is, in fact, they were the same cuirassiers, but with more advanced weapons, which was based on the experience of using plate riders. The spear helped to fight the light cavalry and infantry, which was deprived of cover of pikemen, pistols - turned the “winged hussars” into the same cuirassiers, but when the spears were broken or could be thrown, a stabbing sword came to the aid of the rider. He had no sharpening on the blade, but they could hit the infantryman who fell to the ground, and any rider with a shorter saber or sword. No wonder it was with swords that the British cavalrymen were armed on the eve of the First World War. It turned out that pricking is easier than chopping. Since the piercing blow is not only more dangerous, but also applied for a split second rather ... But a saber, while you swing it ...


Armor of the Polish Hussars (Museum of the Polish Army, Warsaw)

In addition, the armor of the Polish hussars, in particular, the same cuirasses, as well as, by the way, like many English knights of the first half of the XNUMXth century, were recruited from bands connected by riveting. It turned out that such "typeset cuirasses", firstly, are easier to do, and secondly, they were stronger than solid forged ones. Stripes turned out to be easier to temper!


Polish hussar in a battle with Turkish janissaries. Fig. Angus McBride

The Kavaleria Kassel edition reports that the hussar’s cuirass was so strong in front that it could withstand a shot from a musket from a distance of 20 steps, while its back was impenetrable for firing a pistol at point-blank range. Moreover, the breastplate of cuirasses was customary to decorate. The most frequent gilded decorations on the breastplate were images of the Virgin Mary on the left side and a cross on the right. The helmets had a movable fixed nasal, often with a highly developed forerunner, which gave the rider's face additional protection.

Hussar detachments (gonfalons) consisted of 150 people who were either recruited according to the territorial principle or belonged to some major Polish magnate: Radziwill, Sobesky, Pototsky, Sienovsky, Lubomyrsky, Race and so on. Each unit had a distinctive pennant for identification on the battlefield, and each hussar during the campaigns had from one to two servants, as well as a corresponding "baggage" in the wagon train.

PS There were a lot of materials about the “winged hussars” in Russian publications, such as, for example, the magazines Tseikhgauz and Voin, and there this topic was examined in great detail. Therefore, here it is given on the basis of foreign sources and only with reference to the general theme of the series.

References


1. Richard Brzezinski & Richard Hook. The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (2): Cavalry. Osprey Publishing Ltd. (MEN-AT-ARMS 262), 1993.
2. Richard Brzezinski & Velimir Vuksic. Polish Winged Hussar 1576-1775. Osprey Publishing Ltd. (WARRIOR 94), 2006.
3. Richard Brzezinski & Graham Turner. Lützen 1632. Climax of the Thirty years war. Osprey Publishing Ltd. (CAMPAIGN 68), 2001.
4. Richard Bonney. The Thirty Years' War 1618–1648. Osprey Publishing Ltd., (ESSENTIAL HISTORIES 29), 2002.
5. Richard Brzezinski & Angus McBride. Polish Armies 1569-1696 (1). (MEN-AT-ARMS 184), 1987.
6. V. Vuksic & Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. Cassell, 1994.


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Polish shells, Austrian hussars and Turkish fives
Enemies of the Cuirassiers
With whom the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fought?
“A small discovery in the butt of an arquebus ...”
Horsemen of the Eighty Years War
Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries
“By people and by horses, not by aer”
Ordonance companies
“It's a miracle if someone is killed with a spear”
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  1. Lexus
    Lexus 27 January 2020 03: 31 New
    +7
    There were a lot of materials about “winged hussars” in Russian editions.

    Lord, how many leopards were exterminated for the sake of "beauty". However, they are not alone. And not only leopards.
    That would be to calculate, for the sake of interest, how many predators exterminated for such outfits around the world.
    It seems to me that the African leaders, in comparison with the real barbarians, Europeans and Asians, will be ardent environmentalists.
    Vyacheslav, thanks for the interesting continuation! hi
    1. Bar2
      Bar2 27 January 2020 08: 59 New
      -7
      Quote: lexus
      Lord, how many leopards were exterminated for the sake of "beauty". However, they are not alone. And not only leopards.
      That would be to calculate, for the sake of interest, how many predators exterminated for such outfits around the world.


      this is a modern illustration of no one knows why, in Poland / Polonium leopards are not found, with the same success it was possible to show tiger skin.
      In general, it is surprising that in the 17th century, in the late Middle Ages, knights continued to exist.
      So such an image will be quite appropriate.
      The dukes of Britain, Bourbon and some other gentlemen of Solvensky or maybe Savoysky have the symbols of a double-headed eagle, a sun / petal crown and a symbol of the eagle itself on the helmet.
      1. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 27 January 2020 09: 10 New
        11
        Bar2 (Paul)
        In general, it is surprising that in the 17th century in the era of the late Middle Ages
        Actually, the later Middle Ages is limited to the 16th century, the 17th century is already a new time.
        And what does the picture you bring have to the 17th century?
        Maybe you still go back to school?
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            2. solzh
              solzh 27 January 2020 10: 43 New
              +7
              Quote: Alexander Suvorov
              According to my remarks, as I understand it, there is nothing to say?

              Alexander hi
              I watch the day has begun fun, already send laughing
              1. Alexander Suvorov
                Alexander Suvorov 27 January 2020 10: 52 New
                +5
                solzh (Sergey)
                Alexander hi
                Sergei hi my regards!
                I watch the day has begun fun, already send
                And where without it laughing ?! Moreover, the promise from this frame can be considered almost a compliment.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 27 January 2020 14: 43 New
                  +6
                  Alexander, congratulations! hi
                  You can draw yourself a well-deserved star on the fuselage or a notch on the butt - to your liking. Bar 2 was sent to the "non-correspondence" bathhouse, with which I sincerely congratulate you. good
                  Igor’s fears came true in full. Probably, somewhere on the Internet, a touching letter from the Operator is already flying in an unknown direction expressing support and sympathy for the unfortunate, as well as angry philippics to the Russophobic group on the site, to which you can now safely classify yourself. smile
                  1. Alexander Suvorov
                    Alexander Suvorov 27 January 2020 15: 06 New
                    +6
                    Michael, if you are hinting that I filed a complaint against him, then in vain, I do not do such things. Well, the fact that the comrade is not restrained is not my fault and I did not send him to the ban.
                    as well as angry philippics against the Russophobian group on the site, to which you can now safely classify yourself. smile
                    But this passage I now do not understand at all ?! What side did I get to Russophobia?

                    P.S. Minus is not mine, if that.
                    1. solzh
                      solzh 27 January 2020 15: 38 New
                      +7
                      Alexander, I think that Michael meant that the next Troll burned and burned on you, that's all. And the moderator sent the ban to that troll most likely for violating the rules of the site. And about ranking you as a Russophobe, this should be understood as a compliment laughing Since so many who consider themselves offended by the resource begin to blame everyone for Russophobia. I was recently reckoned the same as a Russophobe, I laughed for a long time about this. So everything is fine, do not take it close. wink
                      1. Alexander Suvorov
                        Alexander Suvorov 27 January 2020 16: 04 New
                        +8
                        solzh (Sergey)
                        Alexander, I think that Michael meant that the next Troll burned and burned on you, that's all.
                        Well, he came down specifically, but he had been asking for a long time.
                        And about ranking you as a Russophobe, this should be understood as a compliment
                        You know Seryozha, a dubious compliment in my opinion. True, depending on whom, say from olgovich, it’s a hundred pounds a compliment! But if from the same Michael, then something like Abidna crying .

                        P.S. Just the other day, someone from the members of the forum predicted that he would soon turn from Bar2 into Bar3, but the truth was that someone flew out, but some of the acquaintances were old-timers.
                      2. solzh
                        solzh 27 January 2020 16: 08 New
                        +6
                        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                        But if from the same Michael, then somehow AbidnA take it ...

                        In this case, a compliment. From Michael's comment:
                        Probably, somewhere on the Internet, a touching letter from the Operator is already flying in an unknown direction expressing support and sympathy for the unfortunate, as well as angry philippics to the Russophobic group on the site, to which you can now safely classify yourself.

                        Read this paragraph carefully and calmly and you will understand that this is not an accusation of you, but rather a kind of compliment. If in doubt, write to Mikhail in PM and ask in plain text. And I'm sure he will explain to you that you did not understand him correctly.
                      3. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 27 January 2020 17: 02 New
                        +7
                        Quote: solzh
                        If in doubt, write to Mikhail in PM and ask in plain text.

                        Thank you, Sergey, everything is correct. smile I myself have been called Russophobe here many times only because I consistently uphold a purely scientific approach to the study of history and equally consistently deny all pseudo-historical theories such as the new chronology and others.
                        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                        Just the other day, someone from the members of the forum predicted that from Bar2 he would soon turn into Bar3

                        This was just the Operator. smile
                      4. solzh
                        solzh 27 January 2020 17: 06 New
                        +7
                        Quote: Trilobite Master
                        Thank you, Sergey, everything is correct.

                        I am glad that everything was successfully resolved and clarified. hi
              2. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 27 January 2020 16: 47 New
                +6
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                if you are hinting

                Of course not. smile I myself never complain, and I do not suspect others of this. It’s not manly to sneak. smile
                Sergei solzh, in general, understood me correctly and explained everything, and about the "Russophobes" too. smile My message was not supposed to be ironic.
                I probably would have been a little upset about this outcome if I hadn’t been sure that Bar2 would soon reappear here and with a new name and new strength would begin to preach his faith. Such a stubborn and stubborn fighter can’t stand it. We will wait with impatience.
                Thank you personally from me. hi
                1. Alexander Suvorov
                  Alexander Suvorov 27 January 2020 16: 52 New
                  +5
                  Trilobite Master (Michael)
                  Thank you personally from me. hi
                  Yes, there’s nothing for Michael! hi
                  I probably would have been a little upset about this outcome if I hadn’t been sure that Bar2 would soon reappear here and with a new name and new strength would begin to preach his faith. Such a stubborn and stubborn fighter can’t stand it. We will wait with impatience.
                  I have no doubt about this at all. This sect is ineradicable. However, now there are just no sects. Out in the USA, supporters of the theory of a flat Earth and the presence of a heavenly dome are gaining strength ... fool
                  In general, quietly slate rustling, schiz mowed our ranks ... laughing
  2. Hantengri
    Hantengri 27 January 2020 09: 24 New
    +9
    Quote: Alexander Suvorov
    Maybe you still go back to school?

    He is more likely to go to another institution "where, unfortunately, an intrusive service" (c).
  3. alebor
    alebor 27 January 2020 11: 24 New
    +3
    In general, when the Middle Ages ended and the New Age began, the question is ambiguous, and different authors may have different opinions on this matter. In addition, it is clear that the Middle Ages in Western Europe ended earlier than in Eastern Europe. On this occasion, I would like to quote "The Social History of Art" by Arnold Hauser:
    “How arbitrary the usual division between the Middle Ages and the modern era is and how extensible the concept of the 'Renaissance' is best illustrated by the difficulty in attributing to one of these two categories such personalities as Petrarch and Boccaccio, Gentile da Fabiano and Pisanello, Jean Fouquet and Jan van Eyck If one wishes, one can consider Dante and Giotto to belong to the Renaissance, and Shakespeare and Moliere to the Middle Ages.In any case, it is not so easy to abandon the idea that the real turning point was the eighteenth century and that the modern era really begins with the era Enlightenment, from the idea of ​​progress and from industrialization.But perhaps it would be better to place a clear dividing line between the first and second half of the Middle Ages, that is, at the end of the XII century, when the money economy revived, new cities rose and the modern middle class first acquired It would be completely wrong to place it in the fifteenth century, in whichmany things have been implemented, but practically nothing new has arisen ... ".
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 27 January 2020 11: 57 New
    +9
    Quote: Bar2
    So such an image will be quite appropriate.

    And what, in fact, is the thought that you wanted to express in your comment?
    The engraving depicts three knights in tournament weapons.
    On the left is the Duke of Breton, not Britain. Firstly, there was no title "British" in the Middle Ages, secondly, for the French, "Bretagne" is Brittany, not Britain, and thirdly, the horse blanket is clearly an ermine fur - the traditional heraldic symbol of Brittany.
    On the right is the Duke de Bourbon with the heraldic lily on his head, the horse in the corresponding blanket.
    In the center is Chevalier de Salvan, according to what is written, with an eagle of the Holy Roman Empire and something similar to bourbon lilies along the edge of blankets.
    The inscription in the center of the image means, oddly enough, "volot or lambrequin" - heraldic terms that can be roughly translated as "flap" and "ribbon"
    Do you mean to say that "de Salvan" means "Slavic" or something similar? It seems to me that it would be too much even for you. laughing
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 27 January 2020 10: 05 New
    +6
    It seems to me that most of the skins were from the "Mexican jerboa" recipe for Elochka the cannibal :)))
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 27 January 2020 13: 44 New
    +4
    Lord, how many leopards were exterminated for the sake of "beauty". However, they are not alone. And not only leopards.

    I won’t say anything about leopards, but I can give information about other animals: passionate hunters Saxon electors Johann Georg I (1611-1656) and Johann Georg II (1656-1680) kept registers of their hunting trophies and killed respectively:
    red deer 35421 and 43649
    fallow deer 1045 and 2062
    roe deer 11489 and 16864
    wild boars 31902 and 22298
    wolves 3872 and 2195
    hares 12047 and 16966
    lynxes 217 and 191
    foxes 19015 and 2740
    wild cats 149 and 292
    Another hunter, Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, noted in his hunting diary that in 1555-1579 he killed 4783 deer.
    In general, the scale is impressive.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 27 January 2020 20: 40 New
      0
      Then they will hang trophies on the walls in some Konopiste. And think about what to do with the heirs.
  • Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 03: 43 New
    +4
    "Pot" in the European manner. (Arsenal in Graz, Austria) looks like a very modern and at the same time quite technologically advanced model, only replace the rivets with welding. )))
    Plus sign article.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 27 January 2020 04: 17 New
      +6
      Looks like quite modern and at the same time quite technologically advanced

      Progress did not run as fast as today. There was an opportunity to hone craftsmanship and quality. The riveting at that time gave the joints maintainability hi
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 04: 20 New
        +1
        Quote: lexus
        The riveting at that time gave the joints maintainability

        And how much maintainability gives a wrench-bolt connection. wink
    2. Hantengri
      Hantengri 27 January 2020 09: 12 New
      12
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      It looks like a very modern and at the same time quite technologically advanced model,

      His distant cousin looks no less modern

      and even more technological: https://fishki.net/2913556-rimskij-shlem.html
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 32 New
        +3
        His distant cousin looks no less modern

        once, in a historical broadcast, he watched that metal strips from above criss-cross began to attach after fights with the Dacians. The Dacian fals pierced the helmet from above, so these stripes strengthened the defense. drinks
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 27 January 2020 11: 45 New
          +2
          The mobile visor, apparently, appeared at the same time.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 47 New
            +3
            The mobile visor, apparently, appeared at the same time.

            I don’t know about this, but I know who knows for sure - Viktor Nikolaevich! wink
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 27 January 2020 11: 50 New
              +3
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              but I know who knows for sure - Viktor Nikolaevich!

              I, too, for some reason, sure of that! laughing
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 56 New
                +4
                I, too, for some reason, sure of that!

                I generally think that when he appears on the forum, Darth Vader’s march should play behind the scenes - so that all ignorant people scatter in panic. fellow drinks
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 27 January 2020 06: 08 New
    +5
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Interested in the flamberg rapier, why would a "flaming" blade pierce weapons?
    1. kalibr
      27 January 2020 08: 04 New
      +4
      Why? And for show-off, of course! "Look what I have! I'm cool!"
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 27 January 2020 08: 16 New
        +5
        Clear. Like an IKEA stool - it's expensive, square and not functional.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 20 New
          +4
          Clear. Like an IKEA stool - it's expensive, square and not functional.

          well, listen, their coffee tables are very functional. And whatnot! wink drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 27 January 2020 19: 19 New
            +3
            I agree, there are good things in the "corridor" from 0 to 1500 rubles. Everything else sucks!
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 28 January 2020 09: 17 New
              +2
              I agree, there are good things in the "corridor" from 0 to 1500 rubles. Everything else sucks!

              Well, I don’t know .. I have had a table for eight years, the only thing is that the paint cracked and peeled in some places. request
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 28 January 2020 09: 45 New
                +1
                So 8 years ago, he was worth less than a mower! laughing
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 28 January 2020 09: 47 New
                  +2
                  So 8 years ago, he was worth less than a mower!

                  well, listen, they have cabinets more or less ... what I can’t speak for stools - I didn’t buy it!drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 28 January 2020 10: 17 New
                    +1
                    The best thing about them is fitting parts and assembly instructions. This is really at a high level!
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 28 January 2020 10: 39 New
                      +2
                      The best thing about them is fitting parts and assembly instructions. This is really at a high level!

                      Yeah, like raising the user's self-esteem. wink You twist, sometimes, a coffee table according to the instructions, then you are filled with pride - "I collected it myself!" laughing drinks and their bookcase is the perfect place for a cat!
      2. sivuch
        sivuch 27 January 2020 11: 43 New
        +5
        Yeah, and I’m not giving up, because they will immediately hang me. The cut from such a weapon is far more painful, and even with the then medicine - according to Vysotsky: if frail, immediately into the coffin.
    2. Hantengri
      Hantengri 27 January 2020 09: 03 New
      +4
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Interested in the flamberg rapier, why would a "flaming" blade pierce weapons?

      For a reason: But beautiful, yes!
    3. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 09: 19 New
      -1
      Are rapiers exclusively pricked in battle? This is not a fencing track! And the weight, almost a half kg hints.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 27 January 2020 09: 22 New
        +5
        A rapier is, by definition, a stabbing weapon.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 09: 31 New
          +2
          Initially, the rapier was an ornate lightweight front door. swordworn by the courtiers and equipped with the same guard as the battle sword that appeared a little earlier in Spain

          The rapier received the maximum distribution in the second half of the XVI - the first half of the XVII century. Throughout this period, she actively improved and changed as a result of fashion, as well as the new requirements of fencing art. The shape of the rapier blade changed - from flattened and wide, adapted for stabbing so for choppers strokes, to having a cross-section of a rhombus, which completely had no blade
          It is now a rapier without a blade, but not then.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 27 January 2020 09: 35 New
            +4
            Convinced. May I ask where the quote comes from?
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 09: 38 New
              +1
              One from Vicki, the other from Chips, but it is enough to type "rapier" in a search engine, then a bunch of links will fall out more seriously, though almost in half with a Soviet anti-tank gun. laughing
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 27 January 2020 09: 54 New
            +5
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            The rapier received the maximum distribution in the second half of the XVI - the first half of the XVII century. Throughout this period, she actively improved and changed as a result of fashion, as well as new requirements of the art of fencing. The shape of the rapier blade changed - from flattened and wide, adapted for both stabbing and chopping punches, to having a rhombus cross-section in which the blade was completely absent
            It is now a rapier without a blade, but not then.

            In the Russian language, there is a fair amount of confusion between a sword and a rapier, arising from the fact that the word “rapier” translates a sport related to a weapon called the English. foil / ital. fioretto / fr. fleuret / it. florett / Spanish florete (tetrahedral piercing blade), and the word English itself. rapier / fr. rapiere / him. rapier (this word is absent in Italian and Spanish), which is often called a sword. Evart Oakeshott in his work “European Weapons and Armor. From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution ”(ISBN 0-85115-789-0), exploring the development of edged weapons from the Renaissance to Napoleon, differentiates rapiers from other swords based on the etymology of the word, which comes from Spanish Spanish. espadas roperas, meaning "a sword worn with clothes (not with armor)" [8]. He also separates them from shorter swords of the XVII-XVIII centuries (English small sword - literally "small sword") [2], Thus, according to Oakeshott’s classification, the term rapier refers to long blades with blades lighter than combat swords, and the main criterion that distinguishes a combat sword from a rapier is the ability to chop, which is available for combat swords, but absent (due to the insufficient severity of the blade ) for rapiers [8]. At the same time, due to the longer length of the rapier, it is heavier than short swords [2]. (c) Wiki
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 10: 02 New
              +2
              However, combat swords are intended for battle against a counterparty opponent, and a rapier for self-defense without armor and, accordingly, against an unsurpassed opponent. And in your article about epeeis not considered the history of the development of rapier.
              The weak part of the blade - it could either hone or not, depending on whether the rapier was intended for cutting or had a purely piercing function. In the weak part of the blade, as a rule, the center of impact was located at a distance of 10 - 20 cm from the tip, depending on the length of the blade
              https://oruzhejnaya.ru/rapiryi.html
              1. Hantengri
                Hantengri 27 January 2020 10: 28 New
                +2
                And here is the history of development? The debate, after all, about what was considered rapier in XV || at. and formal classification.
                1. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 10: 35 New
                  0
                  Quote: HanTengri
                  And here is the history of development? The debate, after all, about what was considered rapier in XV || at. and formal classification.
                  You just came up with this reason! Because:
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Interested in the flamberg rapier, why would a "flaming" blade pierce weapons?
                  then
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  A rapier is, by definition, a stabbing weapon.
                  No reference to dates and classification, only about whether the rapier could chop, in principle, as we see, in principle, it could chop the rapier.
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 27 January 2020 11: 07 New
              +7
              I have always, by the simplicity of my soul, considered the rapier a weapon exclusively for duels - courtly, elegant and graceful, which, in fact, follows from its name - "sword for a suit". It seems to me that in the process of evolution, precisely as a dueling weapon, it went from a light sword at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. to some semblance of a skewer, on which you can easily find the opponent's carcass (and no more!) by the end of the XNUMXth century. How did Count de Cominges say to Prosper Mérimée in the Chronicle of Kral IX?
              “Estock is a good weapon,” he said, “but wounds from him can disfigure a person, and in our years,” he explained with a smile, “it’s not very pleasant to come to your beloved with a scar through his whole face.” The rapier leaves a small hole, but that’s completely enough. - Then he smiled again. - So, I choose a rapier and a dagger.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 16: 26 New
                10
                How did Count de Cominges say to Prosper Mérimée in the Chronicle of Kral IX?

                and in one joke, Ilya Muromets, wiping a bloody sword-kladenets on his pants after a duel with D'Artagnan, muttered irritably under his breath: "Uuu, hooliganism .... I almost gouged my eyes out with a wire!"drinks
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 27 January 2020 17: 25 New
                  +6
                  I remembered another joke.
                  Duel between Dartanyan and Ilya. Dartanyan approaches Ilya, draws a cross on his chest with chalk and says: "In this place I will pierce you with my sword." Ilya thought and said to Alyosha: "Alyosha, sprinkle this wretched man with chalk and bring my club" ... smile
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 28 January 2020 09: 16 New
                    +3
                    Ilya thought and said to Alyosha: "Alyosha, sprinkle this wretched man with chalk and bring my club" ...

                    Ahaha! good drinks Immediately I remembered the picture with a flare laid out by Viktor Nikolaevich a few days ago:

                    If it is not considered correctly, then it can be assumed that the cocky guy with a club is chasing, with swear words, riders ripping off in panic from him! fellow laughing
    4. Undecim
      Undecim 27 January 2020 11: 42 New
      +7
      Because a "battle rapier" is, in fact, a sword, but with a rapier hilt.
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 27 January 2020 06: 54 New
    -1
    The author was not mistaken, the sword konchar is 170 cm long?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 27 January 2020 07: 03 New
      +3
      Look at the author’s article yesterday, under it they discussed this weapon and its use.
    2. kalibr
      27 January 2020 08: 04 New
      0
      No, I was not mistaken, therefore I brought this figure. Spears began to replace such swords, so the longer, the better.
    3. Hantengri
      Hantengri 27 January 2020 09: 01 New
      +5
      Quote: mr.ZinGer

      The author was not mistaken, the sword konchar is 170 cm long?

      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Look at the author’s article yesterday, under it they discussed this weapon and its use.

      There EMNIP indicated a length of 5 feet. And 5 feet is 152,4 cm, not 170.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 22 New
        +4
        There EMNIP indicated a length of 5 feet. And 5 feet is 152,4 cm, not 170.

        I’ll joke - Igor, it depends on which side to measure .... wink with or without a handle? drinks
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 27 January 2020 11: 41 New
          +5
          "And this is an African fish, called a crocodile. From head to tail - eight meters, from tail to head - nine meters. Who measured it? Drunk, I guess!" (from)drinks
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 46 New
            +5
            No wonder it was with swords that the British cavalrymen were armed on the eve of the First World War. It turned out that pricking is easier than chopping.

            Igor, as far as I remember, the training of riders of the 18-19th centuries included mainly a stabbing strike? drinks
    4. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 27 January 2020 11: 21 New
      +5
      The author was not mistaken, the sword konchar is 170 cm long?

      it is an ersatz-substitute for a spear, nothing surprising! drinks
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 27 January 2020 10: 11 New
    +7
    I believe that Gustav Adolf went to the relief of the cavalry, also because in Sweden it is not very good with large horses, such as "destrie". By the way, we have the same song. The main horse stock is strong, hardy, but not very large Nogai horses. Therefore, in the cavalry, either horse archers of the noble militia, or reitars.
  • Operator
    Operator 27 January 2020 12: 37 New
    -1
    "from the skins of a bear, leopard and tiger" - where did the author find in Europe of the 17th century a leopard and, especially, a tiger? laughing

    A maximum of a lynx and a wolf, and only then until the first defeat on the battlefield - after this, the surviving flying hussars turned into tweaked dragoons.
    1. Fishery
      Fishery 27 January 2020 13: 20 New
      +4
      Well, they bought skins)))) this is not a problem either then or now, and I thought more leopards)

      The exotic detail of the hussar's equipment was the obligatory leopard skin. Due to the high cost and rarity of the skins comrades bought captain. Sometimes they took the skin of another animal and painted spots on it. Instead of leopard skins, wolves were wolf or bear
    2. Fishery
      Fishery 27 January 2020 13: 33 New
      +5
      https://forma-odezhda.ru/encyclopedia/uniforma-krylatyh-gusar-rechi-pospolitoj-xvi-xviii-vekov/

      They wore different skins, all this and the feathers were also adopted from Delhi's light Ottoman cavalry, they were only hypertrophied, there is an opinion that they concealed their real number in this way, attacked in dense formation and all this guards, skins, feathers gave a more voluminous appearance, it seemed that there were more) well, worse
    3. Fishery
      Fishery 27 January 2020 14: 16 New
      +2
      I googled here) the Turanian tiger lived in Iran 100 years ago, at the same time, leopards also lived in the Caucasus, so there was no problem buying, now for the sake of laughter you can buy a skin for a day, a living tiger, well, a maximum of 2 months will be brought up.
      1. Operator
        Operator 27 January 2020 14: 47 New
        +6
        Leopards (the so-called fierce beast) in the Black Sea and tigers in the North Caucasus were knocked out in the 11th century.

        In the 17th century, the number of Caucasian leopards and Turanian tigers (Asian regions, by the way) was barely enough to supply skins to the top of the Ottoman and Persian states, and not to supply the linear cavalry of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Commodity supplies of leopard hides were theoretically possible from Africa, tiger hides from India, but their prices were clearly biting.
        1. Fishery
          Fishery 27 January 2020 15: 28 New
          +2
          the question of price is clear) even then biting, but nothing supernatural, the rich could afford, all the more not all wore skins of leopards and tigers, and even there were not so many hussars in total.
          1. Karen
            Karen 27 January 2020 21: 16 New
            +4
            We have a state program to help our local leopards ... Sometimes they fall into the frame of camera traps ... Beauty !!!
    4. kalibr
      27 January 2020 15: 28 New
      +1
      There at the end of the article is a list of used books, somewhere there everything was found ...
  • Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 27 January 2020 13: 16 New
    +7
    they defeated the Swedes at Kokenhaussen (1601), defeated the Russian troops at Kushino (1610), the Cossacks at Berestechko (1651),

    Still, remembering the Polish-Swedish war of 1600-1611, it’s not a sin and the battle of Kirchholm to recall: one of the greatest victories of the Polish hussar.
    Further, obviously, the battle at Klushino with the Russian-Swedish army is meant.
    It is curious that the last time winged hussars attacked during the Northern War ...
    1. Fishery
      Fishery 27 January 2020 13: 38 New
      +4
      there were Russian attempts to blind horse hussars with wings, but it didn’t.
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 27 January 2020 13: 50 New
        +4
        Yes, they formed a regiment under Alexei Mikhailovich, but it turned out to be too expensive, and to no avail.
  • Operator
    Operator 27 January 2020 16: 24 New
    -2
    Quote: Alexander Suvorov
    the other day someone from the members of the forum predicted that he would soon turn from Bar2 into Bar3

    It was me - I equally dislike both Scythian-Russes and Russophobic-trilobites laughing
    1. kalibr
      27 January 2020 17: 28 New
      +5
      Quote: Operator
      trilobites

      And he Trilobite that Russophobe, it is known for sure, is established? Or is it your firm opinion?
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 28 January 2020 09: 44 New
        +3
        And he Trilobite that Russophobe, it is known for sure, is established?

        Funny. good Especially with respect to the esteemed Michael. But I’m interested, Vyacheslav Olegovich, if Trilobite is a Russophobe (developing the theory of a colleague of the Operator), then are all trilobites - Russophobes, or Russophobes - 80%, or only a specific representative of the Luga population? laughing drinks we have a looming historical theory looming: "The influence of Russophobia of the Luga trilobites on the formation of self-esteem of the super-Russian super-ethnos". Do not give thanks! Use it! hi
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 28 January 2020 10: 48 New
        +1
        Vyacheslav Olegovich I greet you as a true Russophobe-trilobite! soldier
        I regret that I missed everything yesterday, but the reason is justified - the pressure got into my hair dryer.
        But what’s interesting to me is, you write:
        ... the hussar’s cuirass was so strong in front that it could withstand a shot from a musket from a distance of 20 steps, while its back was impenetrable for firing a pistol at point-blank range.

        The question immediately arose, and why the hell did they need pistols then. In all the paintings and engravings (I understand - the lyrics) they literally gulp in white light like a pretty penny.
        I see only one serious option here - to injure a horse with a shot, because I do not believe that it was possible to jump into a moving target from such a self-propelled gun, especially in some specific (unprotected) part of this target, hip or face. In addition, someone read that even a simple bib made of pig or bovine leather held a pistol bullet.
        How is your information on this? Edged weapons, of course, are beautiful and aesthetically pleasing, but maybe it’s worth it to devote more time and place to a firearm. drinks smile
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 28 January 2020 10: 58 New
          +3
          You as a true Russophobe trilobite!

          Just read on Wikipedia, you Russophobia with a mustache, only now 10 thousand fossil species are known! This is how many of you were! fellow drinks that is, I venture to suggest that the whole planet was Russophobic then. laughing
          I regret that I missed everything yesterday, but the reason is justified - the pressure got into my hair dryer.

          You need to take care of yourself, Konstantin! Sincerely - I wish you health! hi
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 28 January 2020 11: 07 New
            0
            Hi, Nikolay! drinks
            Now it remains only to throw the unfading slogan - "All to fight against Antonovshchina!" and organize an organizing committee for the total extermination of all trilobite cats to them. Comrade Sharikov! laughing
        2. Fishery
          Fishery 1 February 2020 17: 27 New
          +1
          a pistol bullet from 10 steps usually pierced a cuirass, especially since not all riders had cuirasses of decent quality, if any, which gave rise to overlays, thickening cuirasses and other tricks, the armor of the reitar began to weigh almost as full as before, that is, the pistol bullet was a pretty serious argument ) I didn’t precisely hold the leather bib, there were no sights, so they shot towards the enemy, I think the shooting was not particularly sniper at a separate target, but in terms of pikemen or arquebusiers it was quite effective. Yes, and I fought and specifically the Poles are not at all against the armored enemy.
  • Timurleng
    Timurleng 27 January 2020 16: 30 New
    -3
    Well, the Polish Hussars were among the best for a long time. No wonder they all admired and feared
    1. Fishery
      Fishery 27 January 2020 21: 21 New
      +2
      one of the most beautiful units for sure, the best, probably some of the best, for a certain time and in their theater of action
  • Operator
    Operator 27 January 2020 19: 04 New
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    Is this your firm opinion?

    There is no doubt about it laughing
    1. kalibr
      27 January 2020 19: 26 New
      +5
      But I personally doubt it, and my opinion is at least worth yours.
      1. Storekeeper
        Storekeeper 28 January 2020 10: 34 New
        +1
        Thank you for your articles, very interesting and informative. It is written easily and readily, even for a person far from science.
    2. Storekeeper
      Storekeeper 28 January 2020 10: 30 New
      +1
      "Rurik did not make the ancient Russian state great.
      On the contrary, this ancient Russian state introduced his name,
      otherwise it would be forgotten into history. "
      The owner of Trilobite, from discussions on the website "Military Review"
      A person who wrote such a phrase can not be Russophobe !!! In vain you insult him! hi
      1. Operator
        Operator 28 January 2020 11: 09 New
        -1
        Learn the materiel - it was the Slavic Rurik who created the Russian state, and with this he introduced his name into world history.

        A russophobic claiming a different trilobite is already forgotten.
  • octogen
    octogen 16 March 2020 00: 51 New
    0
    The author, a European musket, pierced the cuirass of the Polish hussar easily and naturally. But the arquebuses and the Russians squeaked really did not pierce. The historically preserved hussar cuirasses are thin. Not at all like the reinforced European cuirasses of 1630-1670 that could weigh up to 40 kg.
    Yes, where did the passage about hardening half-bands from? At 17, Europeans abandoned hardening; she poorly resisted the action of bullets.