With whom did the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fight?


Minted light cavalry. How could a lightly armed rider hit a latnik, even if the spear was powerless against their new heavy-duty armor? But with such "war hammers" with a sharp beak they could still be pierced! (City Museum of Meissen)


“Take a shield and armor and rise to help me”
Psalm 34: 2


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. Do not think that at the turn of the Middle Ages and the New Age, absolutely all cavalry donned armor and armed with pistols and arquebuses. On the contrary, there were many subspecies of light cavalry, moreover, national subspecies, specifically related to the situation in a particular country, but immediately fell into the field of knowledge of generals of other states. They also began to be hired, so that over time the names of the national units became internationalized and began to designate only this or that kind of cavalry.


Hungarian hussar. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic. Pay attention to his magnificent outfit and the characteristic shape of the shield, the so-called "Bosnian scutum." The long "beak" of his warhammer was hardly suitable for piercing armor, but they could get it behind such a shield ...


Hungarian hussars: every twentieth!


Here, for example, Hungary, whose king Matthias I Corvin (1458-1490), spent a lot of energy on the war with Maximilian I. The Hungarian archives contain a whole list of payments relating to the second half of the XNUMXth century that military officials made to the soldiers of the Corvin army. And here it is an image of a lightly armed horseman, with a long spear, a sword and a compound bow, sitting in a high eastern saddle and wearing a colorful Renaissance costume with feathers and a characteristic shield in his left hand. It is written next that it is a "hussar." That is, such hussars with spears and bows apparently fought ... against imperial cuirassiers and reitars.


The shield of the Hungarian hussar of 1490. Such shields were usually made of wood, covered with leather, linen, waxed parchment and decorated with drawings. A lance for a spear is visible on the side. Belonged to Emperor Maximilian I. c. 1490 (Vienna armory Ward)

Hussars served in cavalry not only in Hungary, but also in Poland, Lithuania, Bohemia and other eastern countries, although nowhere else were these people mentioned under a special name. In Hungary, the name hussar was probably originally applied to any soldier called up for service by the Hungarian king. However, during the reign of Matthias Corvin, hussars meant a special and easily recognizable type of horseman who served in hussar units. Later, their name spread to neighboring states.

There are several hypotheses about the origin of the name hussars. It is attributed to the Avars and the soldiers of Byzantium. However, many historians believe that the root of the name is associated with the Hungarian word husz, meaning twenty. When the king urged the nobles to fulfill their feudal obligations to the crown, they had to arm one soldier for every 20 able-bodied serfs recorded. The same thing applied to the free royal cities, and to the fishermen on the Danube, who were supposed to supply people for the royal fleet.


The shield of the Hungarian hussar of 1515, already made of metal. Belonged to Emperor Maximilian I. (Vienna Armory)

Matthias later replaced the unreliable feudal army with more loyal mercenary troops. Together with the Bohemian infantry and German armored cavalry, the most numerous were light Hungarian horsemen, who received the name of the hussars purely by tradition. Once a lightly armed horseman means a hussar. Only before the hussars were formed on the basis of feudal law, and now they have become mercenaries.

There was no other country in Europe whose история and fate was as closely related to horses and riders as Hungary. Most of its territory, now known as the Pannonian Valley (and once called the Gateway to Europe), saw the campaign of the Huns, Avars, Magyars, Tatars and Kumans, and they all left here many traces of their military experience and riding skills. Hungary itself could be conquered or defended only on horseback, so life in these places was always associated with riding skills. It is clear that such a historical situation greatly influenced both the appearance and the manner of battle of the Hungarian hussars.

In battles, fighting against the Turks is better than no stradiot riders!


In the 1453th century, Venice was a wealthy city-republic and managed to gain control of the eastern shores of the Adriatic due to its advantageous geographical position and powerful merchant and battle fleets. After the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 200 and the subsequent fall of the Byzantine Empire, Venice captured many islands in the Aegean Sea and strengthened its possessions in the eastern part of the Adriatic. Being a wealthy city, she could contain a professional army that kept her neighbors at bay. At the peak of its power, 000 citizens lived in the republic, and it controlled an area inhabited by 2,5 million people.


650th century stradiot Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 1914BC - ADXNUMX »V.Vuksic, Z.Grbasic

When the Ottomans moved further west, Venice was faced with raids by light Delhi riders and Tatars, whom she could not fight successfully. In 1470, Greek and Albanian stradiotti or estradiotti offered their services to Venice - light armed riders who already had experience of war with the Turks, knew the tactics of Turkish riders, and themselves ... they fought in the same way.

Of the stradiots, detachments of 100 to 300 troops were formed, which were located in garrison cities that lay on the routes of possible Turkish invasions. Stradiots were mobile, acted suddenly and decisively, so they were best suited for reconnaissance and border protection.

Later, under the name of the stradiots, Venice and other Italian states (Milan, Siena, Pisa, Genoa) adopted the horse units of the Croats and Hungarians, and commanded by such well-known commanders as Hunyadi Janos and Miklos Zriny. At the battle of Fornovo (1495), 2000 stradiots attacked from the rear and destroyed the supply lines of the French army. At the Battle of Agandello (1509), the largest cavalry unit of the Stradiots numbered 3000 horsemen, and at Pavia (1525) 500 Stradiots attacked the French position from the left flank and thereby contributed to the overall victory.


Italian bourguignot and a round shield "antique", made in 1545-1550. for Archduke Ferdinand II of Tyrol (1529 - 1595). The creator of this armor was probably a student of Karemolo Modrone, a master from Mantua. Convex patterns are gilded, the background is silver plated. The popularity of everything antique at that time was so high that the craftsmen tirelessly create “modern armor” for noble people, but ... give them an “antique look” (Vienna Armory)

The Italian states, which could not afford to buy stradiot services, had to compensate for this in other ways, for example, in 1480 Naples decided to hire 1500 Turkish light riders, which was cheaper, but the Spaniards used to hire ginet riders of Moorish descent, although in In 1507, they also hired 1000 stradiots.

The equipment and armament of the stradiots was a mixture of eastern and western. Only the Croats wore a local type of sword, called Skjavona, while all other light-minded sabers used sabers of various origins. Their full armament consisted of a long spear, an oriental compound bow and a saber. The use of a shield and other protective equipment was optional for warriors, and helmets and chain mail were not widespread.

Wallachian cavalry


The first inhabitants of the territory that we now call Romania called themselves Wallachians, and they immediately formed three independent states on it: Wallachia around 1324, Moldavia in 1359 and Transylvania at the beginning of the 1526th century. At first they were vassals of Hungary, and then turned into a battlefield for the interests of Hungary, Poland, Austria and Turkey. Ottoman Turks also appeared on the borders of Wallachia also at this time, but it finally fell under their authority only in 1418, after the battle of Mohach. Prince Vlad Tepes (1456 - XNUMX) (also known as Count Dracula) gained his fame primarily because of his cruelty in the fight against the Turks, and it was from him that the Turks learned to put their prisoners on stakes, and not kill them immediately. After the Turkish occupation, the Wallachians shared the fate of all the Turks occupied by the Turks. But there were some peculiarities, for example, local feudal lords (gentlemen) often rebelled against the invaders and went into the mountains and forests together with their armed detachments.


The Wallachian Horseman of 1575. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z.Grbasic

Several contemporary engravings by de Bruin, made between 1575 and 1581, help us today to reconstruct the appearance of the Wallach cavalry.

It was also light cavalry, which borrowed most of its equipment and horsemanship from the Ottomans. In addition to teaching their horses to walk, trot and gallop, the Wallachians taught them how to walk like camels, while rearranging both legs in one direction. Even today, you can find horses using this tread, but this is considered a bad trait.

From the end of the 20th century, the Wallachians served as mercenaries both in the army of the Ottoman Empire and in the armies of its enemies - Poland, Hungary and Russia. They were organized into squadrons (or hundreds) of about one hundred people. Once in the Polish service in Ukraine there were XNUMX hundred of them, and the head of a bull was a popular motif on the flags of Wallach units. Like the Ottomans, for a long time they refused to use firearms, and their main weapon remained a spear, a saber and a composite bow. For protection, they wore chain shirts and used a light round shield.

Under the flag with the dragon ...


And it happened that during one of the many Italian wars between 1552 and 1559, the French army occupied Piedmont. The French Marshal de Brissac, who was threatened by Spanish troops, ordered his brave infantrymen arquebusier and musketeers to ride horses and thus led them out of attack. Thus, he created a kind of mobile infantry, which used horses only for movement and fought on foot, like ordinary infantry. In the XVII century, other states followed the example of France and formed horseback infantry units, calling them dragoons. In one story about the origin of this name, the French endowed one of these new units with a dragon pennant, often used in Byzantium and the Carolingian state. According to another theory, their name comes from the short-barreled musket, which they used and which was called the dragon.


Dragoon 1630. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z.Grbasic

The first dragoon regiments were organized during the Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648), although the Dutch had dragoons back in 1606, and the Swedes in 1611. Their organization and weapons were almost identical to the infantry units. The first three commanders of the regiment were named the same as in the infantry - Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel and Major. Dragoon regiments usually had from 10 to 15 companies, each of which consisted of about 100 people, which made them stronger than their real cavalry regiments, in which there were rarely more than 500 soldiers.


King of Spain Philip II (1527-1598). 1566 portrait by Alonso Sanchez Coelho. On this canvas, the king is depicted in the armor of a rider of light cavalry, high leg-fitting boots and trousers with puffs in the fashion of that time. But even in light cavalry, her commanders wore armor!

In the first decades of the 1625th century, the form of dragoons differed little from the clothes of infantry musketeers. Actually, this could not be called a uniform, just people tried to dress the same in order to save. After all, clothes for the regiment were ordered by her colonel and she was sewed to order. Shoes and stockings were replaced with boots with spurs, and the hat was sometimes replaced with a helmet, but such a replacement was unlikely to allow them to fight along with the armor; besides, only the officers had pistols, while the privates had muskets and swords. There was also a small pickaxe in the equipment of the dragoon, which could be used to tie a horse to it when the rider acted as an infantryman. It is interesting to note that until XNUMX Austrian imperial dragoons included pikemen in cuirasses and helmets, as well as officers with halberds. The mounted horses of the dragoons were small and cheap and could not withstand the real cavalry horses. From time to time, dragoons were trained in horseback riding, but it was more like training “just in case”. No one specifically sought such a battle.

True, the Swedish dragoons were an exception: their main role was to provide fire support to the cavalry, and they rarely dismounted in battle.

To be continued ...
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  1. Siberia 75 29 December 2019 06: 10 New
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    As I understand it, the mint and slag weapon differs from each other in what side of it you hit the enemy.
    1. Errr 29 December 2019 07: 37 New
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      Quote: Siberia 75
      As I understand it, the mint and slag weapon differs from each other in what side of it you hit the enemy.
      You can handle this issue here:
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Клевец#Терминология
      1. Siberia 75 29 December 2019 07: 44 New
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        Those. Klevets is both under the guise of minting, and an independent weapon and a weapon detail (beak). Choose what you like best. Norm wink
        1. Flooding 29 December 2019 10: 41 New
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          Quote: Siberia 75
          Those. Klevets is both under the guise of minting, and an independent weapon and a weapon detail (beak). Choose what you like best. Norm wink

          According to Kirpichnikov, a coin is a hatchet with a combat butt part
          See his "Archeology of the USSR."
          1. Siberia 75 29 December 2019 10: 48 New
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            Quote: Flood
            According to Kirpichnikov, a coin is a hatchet with a combat butt part

            We are discussing this. Hit with a butt - chasing, hit with a blade - ax winked
            1. Flooding 29 December 2019 11: 32 New
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              Quote: Siberia 75
              We are discussing this. Hit with a butt - chasing, hit with a blade - ax

              Not certainly in that way.
              The mint has a developed butt part

              The ax does not have a developed shock back

              If there is, it means chasing. Or a minting ax.
              Also with a beak. If there is a beak, it means slander. Or mint-slander.
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 06: 58 New
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    Vyacheslav Olegovich - interesting, simple and affordable, for which many thanks !!!
    Regards, Vlad!
  3. Catfish 29 December 2019 07: 35 New
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    Good morning friends! hi
    Vyacheslav Olegich - everlasting gratitude!
    And here I flew into a stupor, I read an article, and a joke is constantly spinning in my head about how Lieutenant Rzhevsky, in a conversation with Natasha Rostova, described dragoons. But here it is impossible to bring him, they will be banned for the whole New Year. request
    1. Free wind 29 December 2019 08: 15 New
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      What a joke about dragoons? It is possible and somewhere to put dots to replace letters.
      1. Catfish 29 December 2019 08: 40 New
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        Sasha, and you with the coming! hi

        For dots, too, slap for a sweet soul. If you want, send in a personal. But, I warn you, the joke is frankly boorish. smile
        1. Pane Kohanku 29 December 2019 13: 55 New
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          For dots, too, slap for a sweet soul. If you want, send in a personal. But, I warn you, the joke is frankly boorish.

          not, if boorish, then well him - we are for the interaction of the armed forces! drinks
          Anecdote:
          Once at a dinner party, Lieutenant Rzhevsky took a fork in his right hand ...
          Since then, all sorts of nasty things have been said about him!
          request
          1. Catfish 29 December 2019 14: 01 New
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            What can you do, there was a fate for a person, went down in history, at least in this. laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku 29 December 2019 14: 10 New
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              What can you do, there was a fate for a person, went down in history, at least in this.

              Yeah, I just don’t understand one thing - how he got into the society of educated heroes of “War and Peace”! laughing
      2. Aviator_ 29 December 2019 17: 28 New
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        This is a classic about the relationship of dragoons with their vehicle.
    2. bubalik 29 December 2019 14: 32 New
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      Anecdote about how Lieutenant Rzhevsky, in a conversation with Natasha Rostova, described dragoons is constantly spinning around her head. But here it’s impossible to bring him


      ,,, people crave spectacles yes
      1. Catfish 29 December 2019 15: 32 New
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        They are always happy to provide, besides a fellow cat. yes

      2. 3x3zsave 29 December 2019 16: 02 New
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        There they are, spectacles, from 26.12. in all cinemas of the country, the movie "Union of Salvation". With Muravyov-Apostle in the title role laughing
        1. Catfish 29 December 2019 21: 57 New
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          Hello Anton. hi
          This is about Messrs. Decembrists, of course?

  4. Free wind 29 December 2019 08: 13 New
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    Sorry of course, but horseback riding is cool. smile . I don’t run on camels, namely amblers, it seems to me that they aren’t being trained, amblers are from birth, amblers are useless in battle, the horse swings violently while running, making it difficult to fight. The camel is forced to be a pacifier, he himself is short, and his legs are long, with a lynx he can step on his own paws. Hussar can from the words goose cinquefoil laughing ? Thank you for the article, with the upcoming holiday, I wish you success. HAPPY NEW YEAR EVERYONE!!!!!!
    1. Flooding 29 December 2019 10: 43 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      . I’m running on camels, namely amblers, it seems to me they don’t teach, amblers from birth,

      The giraffe also runs on a camel. Or a camel in giraffe?
      Not the point. It is important that the amblers were trained as well.
  5. Flooding 29 December 2019 08: 53 New
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    In addition to teaching their horses to walk, trot and gallop, the Wallachians taught them how to walk like camels, while rearranging both legs in one direction. Even today, you can find horses using this tread, but this is considered a bad trait.

    Vyacheslav, well then you should know what is amble.
  6. Engineer 29 December 2019 09: 38 New
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    As always, the best visual material for the article

    Stradiot - style icon for Polish "winged hussars" laughing
  7. Ekzutor 29 December 2019 10: 07 New
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    It is very sad that an article with a loud title and high aplomb is .... Funny pictures.
    Yes, it’s funny pictures.
    The author, without much straining, placed illustrations from other people's books - and something there, to the best of his understanding, scribbled. Or at all - posted a photo of museum exhibits.
    The text is not informative; it is a retelling of the scientific community and Wikipedia. Yes, and the name does not fully correspond.
    What is the purpose? To bring to the reader new interesting information? No. Informativeness is zero.
    Look from a different angle at already established facts? Again no.
    Enumerations of minor technical nuances should represent the author as a kind of "specialist" on the topic, but only his weakness in the topic itself and the ignorance of the large, serious issues of military history shade.
    The purpose of the article is different - under the catchy name to collect views, making money from teaser and other advertising.
    The casket, as they say, just opened. Sad but real.
    However, what is the level of the author? What is his soul?
    For now, let us ignore the answer to this (so far) rhetorical question)
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 12: 20 New
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      Dear friend, are you unaware that the Author continues his series of articles in a certain format and content? At the same time, without aiming at comprehensive content and academic novelty !? For me, everything is in the subject and most importantly to the place !!! If you do not, then take and open the question of the Hungarian hussars or Wallachian cavalry. Considering that Vyacheslav Olegovich has works on these topics, it will be interesting for me to compare your work and his !!!
      There are so few weak Authors, but if you try to bite them, you will get an administrative ban and a threatening letter in PM !!!!
      Be more tolerant, or we will suck a finger on New Year's holidays !!!
      1. 3x3zsave 29 December 2019 16: 09 New
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        We will not, Vlad! At 18'00, December 31, the next meeting of the "Club of Lonely Hearts" will open, under my chairmanship.
        1. d ^ Amir 29 December 2019 23: 18 New
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          but for more details on this subject ???
          1. 3x3zsave 30 December 2019 06: 21 New
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            Yes, nothing special, dear. Simply, communication of people to whom the holiday, in itself, is not particularly interesting.
      2. Trilobite Master 29 December 2019 18: 34 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        take and open the question about the Hungarian hussars or Wallachian cavalry

        Greetings, Vlad.
        The executor is banned, so we, unfortunately (or fortunately) will not see his works here ... request
        But in general, despite some of his exaltation, I personally tend to partly agree with him. Not applicable to the author of this article - Vyacheslav Olegovich proved everything to everyone long ago, we know what this author is capable of and we know that he does not allow himself to fall below a certain level (high enough, in my opinion), but in general.
        For as a whole, it seems to me, the authors at VO, nevertheless, slowly but surely drop their level. This is purely my opinion, I do not want to impose it and even somehow argue, consider it just my inner sensation.
        I repeat once again: it seems to me that on average articles on a site have become more boring and superficial, and, moreover, the more superficial they are, the more user feedback they collect. It’s sad, but sometimes, and over time, I find myself thinking more often that I’m only looking at comments from individual users on the site, and the articles to which they are left can not be read.
        Vyacheslav Olegovich would like to express special gratitude for maintaining the general average level of publications at the HE. In the new year, we are expecting new materials from him without compromising the demands on their quality and on ourselves, as an author.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 21: 35 New
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          Michael, you are right!
          The old practice of both a positive and a negative opportunity to evaluate an article was well worth it! At least motivated the authors to invest in their work "highlight" !!!
          Alas!
          Good night everybody!!!
      3. Square 31 December 2019 13: 59 New
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        Kote Pane Kohanka (Vladislav) December 29, 2019 12:20
        Dear friend, are you unaware that the Author continues his series of articles in a certain format and content? At the same time, not waving to comprehensive content and academic novelty!


        Well this is what kind of Jewish Jesuitism Mr. Shpakovsky (Kote pane Kokhanka (Vladislav)) - at first you banned the Executor, and then you ask him questions)) so that he couldn’t answer anything))
        Tricky tactics, and a lifestyle, which is already there))
        Moreover, the Executor hinted that he would analyze his work in. Shpakovsky. And this is dangerous! This is the backbone of VO)
        About the article.
        I confirm!
        An extremely weak article, and it’s impossible to call it an article in full. So, a vacuum cleaner for viewing.
        However - as usual)

        PS.
        It’s better to suck a finger than read this))
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 31 December 2019 15: 03 New
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          A stupid question?
          And Vyacheslav Olegovich and I !!!?
          We hang out in other basements !!!
    2. Vladimir_2U 29 December 2019 13: 33 New
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      And not a single link to the materials used, except under the illustrations. But somewhere the author’s words flickered that he was passing his articles through “anti-plagiarism”. Apparently, they have already blamed.
    3. antivirus 29 December 2019 20: 14 New
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      This is a lot-the author traveled to Europe by bus and was able to systematize the experience.
      from the Penza university (now grandfather and PiaRshchik) to war historians - he has already gone far.
      scientifically popular article.
      and who can read more serious here?
      Can the granddaughter train?
    4. Olezhek 31 December 2019 15: 51 New
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      It is very sad that an article with a loud title and high aplomb is .... Funny pictures.


      Well ... for the general public (to which I consider myself) - quite request
  8. lucul 29 December 2019 12: 23 New
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    Good article .
  9. Star Destroyer 29 December 2019 13: 31 New
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    Why is the horse not protected? After all, if they tumble it down, then the rider will end.
  10. bubalik 29 December 2019 15: 38 New
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    Engraving of hussar equipment 1514.
    1. bubalik 29 December 2019 15: 44 New
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      The White Hussar, late 16th century

      Hungarian hussar of the 16th century, old woodcut.
      Hungarian National Archives.
      1. bubalik 29 December 2019 16: 16 New
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        ,,,the image of a brave horseman in the Croatian regiment of General Leslie named Bari Peter, about how in a recent battle he beheaded a noble Turk named Mitritz and his horse in one fell swoop.

        Bari Peter, a hussar in a Croatian regiment, beheads the Ottoman and his horse.
        ,, one hit both belay what
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2019 17: 45 New
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          Thank you Sergey for the addition!
  11. faterdom 29 December 2019 16: 20 New
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    Our Cossacks are like a national variety of cavalry. They lasted longer than the Hungarian-Polish "hussars".
    Although ... in general, the concept of "Cossack" is much broader. In addition to cavalry, they are also plastunas, ear-flaps on all kinds of small vessels, and a way of life, and peculiar serif "border guards", and travelers-explorers.
    1. antivirus 29 December 2019 20: 19 New
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      for a very long time we were able to expand the state and develop new territories - the “Cossacks” and now could have taken place.
      if it weren’t for a shift, in the military all over the world, took off the loot and returned home
  12. Undecim 29 December 2019 16: 28 New
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    In addition to teaching their horses to walk, trot and gallop, the Wallachians taught them how to walk like camels, while rearranging both legs in one direction. Even today, you can find horses using this tread, but this is considered a bad trait.
    The author’s old illness is special issues. The author should avoid including such special issues in articles or prepare them so as not to equip the material with such pearls to the delight of critics.
    The pacifier is really convenient for traveling long distances on bad roads. And if the rider had to make a long transition in off-road conditions - a pacer is the best choice.
    But to specially train this allure is stupid, since an artificial amble, unlike a congenital one, leads to quick breaking of the horse's legs and accelerated fatigue.
    And one moment. The amblers have a certain slowness, and if the battle requires a sharp change of direction, the ambler may "get lost in his legs." And if the pacer is "artificial" - then it will get confused for sure.
  13. Corrie sanders 30 December 2019 01: 02 New
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    "The first three commanders of the regiment were called the same as in the infantry - Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel and Major"

    Here the author has some kind of inaccuracy - the colonel is yes, the commander of the regiment (or "column"), there are no questions

    But the lieutenant colonel is only his deputy, and this is not the title but the position, he became the title of PPC only in the 2nd half of the 18th century. The PKK did not command anything definite; he was usually next to the colonel and temporarily performed his duties upon his retirement. As a rule, he de facto performed a number of functions of the modern headquarters staff at that time.

    But the "major" is not from here at all. “Major” is a derivative of “captain major” or “chief captain” in a multi-company battle. Major-captain usually commanded the first (main) company and at the same time the whole battle of 3-4 companies, then the "captain" disappeared, only the "major" or "major" remained. So, the battle and the regiment (column) were weakly mated at the times described in the article — these were not accounting units, but rather a form of grouping of troops. And the battle and the column (regiment) of infantry consisted of the basic units - the mouth ("gangs", companies), while as a rule - the battle is a smaller formation (3-4 companies), and the column (regiment, regiment) is large (10 -12 mouth), but that in the battle that in the regiment the companies were not reduced to fixed units, they could only be grouped temporarily, if necessary, and the “major captain” was put in charge of this group, usually also temporarily.
  14. Sanya Terek 30 December 2019 12: 26 New
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    From the end of the XNUMXth century, the Wallachians served as mercenaries both in the army of the Ottoman Empire and in the armies of its enemies - Poland, Hungary and Russia. They were organized into squadrons (or hundreds) of about one hundred people. Once in the Polish service in Ukraine there were 20 hundred of them ...

    Vyacheslav Olegovich, in which "Ukraine"? In the territory of modern Ukraine, there were six voivodships that are part of the Lesser Poland province of the Kingdom of Poland: Bratslav, Volyn, Kiev, Podolsk, Russian, Russian. In addition to them, Poland included five more voivodships. The Wallachian banners were part of the regular crown army, for example, in 1648 only two banners (110 horses), or as part of the magnates' outdoor banners.
  15. Edward Vashchenko 31 December 2019 06: 14 New
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    Vyacheslav Olegovich,
    Thanks, very interesting article!
  16. abrakadabre 2 January 2020 22: 17 New
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    The article is certainly interesting, but abounds with inaccuracies. But most importantly, the content of the article does not reveal the stated topic at all: With whom did the latniks of Emperor Maximilian fight? Unfortunately, from the word at all. what