Polish shells, Austrian hussars and Turkish fives


Polish carapace. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic.


... and may they be ashamed of their strength and cavalry.
First Book of Maccabees 4: 31


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. In the previous article, we met with the armored riders of Gustav Adolf and the “winged hussars” of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which played a very important role in the defeat of the Turks under the walls of Vienna. But one should not think that the equestrian forces of the united Polish-Lithuanian state were exhausted by these magnificent horsemen. Of course not, there were other riders there, and here we will get to know them today.

The armor starts and ... loses!


The end of the Thirty Years' War, which many historians called the “First World War”, also marked the end of a very long transitional period, when weapons almost equally competed with manufacturers of armor. Firearms now began to prevail over the armor in the land war, and the rivalry of armor and shell lost its relevance until the first tanks in 1917 year.


Only the development of industry could provide such a defensive armament with significant detachments of European plate cavalry. But the old variety of knightly armor could now be forgotten. Armor was made in batches of several hundred and even thousands of sets, usually of three sizes, and then the soldiers themselves changed, which is more suitable for whom. Armor of cuirassiers by Christian Muller, 1620 Dresden (Armory of Dresden). Lush leggings covered no less lush pants!

However, in the East, the development of protection for riders is a century behind Western Europe. In the second half of the XVII century. horsemen dressed in chain mail, whose equipment has not changed for a thousand years, were also found in the vastness of Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary and Turkish territories. Well, in Tibet, riders in chain mail traveled back in 1935! There were several reasons why this type of protective equipment lasted so long in the East, but disappeared in the West.

Chainmail for the East


In 1600, Graz's workshops continued to produce short chain shirts, “underpants,” “pelerines,” collars and sleeves to protect parts of the body that, so to speak, protruded from invulnerable armor. However, a pair of sleeves cost 10 guilders, a full chain shirt 25, and a full set of armor only 65 guilders. The armor provided much better protection, and the forging technology was more advanced and cheaper than welding or riveting small iron rings. Therefore, due to the high price and insufficient protection that chain mail gave, in the West at the beginning of the XVII century it was almost completely abandoned.


Armor worn by ranged horsemen of the hussar banners or shell, XVII century. (Museum of the Polish Army)

In the East, everything was different. Each village blacksmith was able to cut iron rings and turn them into chain mail. The cost of this labor was much lower, since neither special qualifications nor sophisticated tools or furnaces were required for the manufacture of drawing plates. Therefore, almost until the end of the XNUMXth century, chain shirts were produced in Afghanistan and Iran, and they were worn almost like a national costume.

In the Western armies, the ratio of infantry and cavalry was about three to one. In the East, the opposite was true: the horseman was still the backbone of the army, and his main weapons were a spear, a saber, a long sword for a stabbing strike and a compound bow. Against this weapon, chain mail and a round shield gave quite adequate protection.

Polish shells, Austrian hussars and Turkish fives
Caucasian helmets with chain mail The imperial convoy of sovereigns of the Russian Empire wore such helmets even in the XNUMXth - first half of the XNUMXth centuries. in. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

Second in importance


In Poland, along with armored men dressed in plate armor, riders dressed in chain mail, which were called shells, remained throughout the 1683th century. Judging by the inventories compiled before the battle of Vienna (8874), there were 84 shells under 100 flags; it was more than half of all cavalrymen of Poland at that time. They also belonged to the heavy cavalry, and were brought into detachments of 3 people. They were served by people who belonged mainly to the middle and lower nobility. They were armed with a 170 m long spear, a saber, a long straight sword-konchar up to XNUMX cm long, usually worn on the left side of the saddle, a ship-saber, composite bow and a round shield (kalkan). Some of the shells who fought at Vienna also had a pair of pistols in embroidered saddle holsters.

What happened after the battle of Mohach?


Now, let's go to another eastern kingdom of Hungary and see what happened at the turn of the epochs. And there in 1526 the Hungarian army was defeated by the Turks at the Battle of Mojac. The king and the cream of the nobility died in this battle, and Hungary fell into three parts: one was occupied by the Turks, who established their own administration there; another became dependent on Vienna, hoping to get protection from the Turks; the third proclaimed its king and adopted Protestantism so that the feudal lords there could seize the rich lands of the Catholic Church. These differences led to constant conflict over the next 300 years: part of the Hungarian nobility recognized the rule of the Habsburgs, part fought against them along with the Turks, and part with the Habsburgs against the Turks. Unions depended on circumstances and assessments of what was seen as the greatest evil at any given moment.


The hired cavalry was also widely used by the Venetians. Among the Balkan peoples, they gathered cavalry of stradiots (1), who was also dressed in chain mail and wore shields of the Bosnian scootum type. The Venetian plate cavalry (2) in 1500 wore full knightly armor and fought with spears and swords. Fig. Angus McBride


During the "Great Turkish March" to Vienna (1683), Austria was devastated by the Tatars and light Hungarian horsemen - hussars. They were led by Imre Thokli, a Hungarian prince who rebelled against the Habsburgs. With the help of the allied forces from Poland and the troops of the German principalities, the Austrians managed to defend Vienna and then launch an offensive against Turkey. Moreover, the experience of the war led to the fact that already in 1686 the Austrian army was reorganized. And then, in the framework of this reorganization and preparing for further advance to the east, the Austrian Emperor Leopold I in 1688 created the first regular Austrian hussar regiment. It consisted of Hungarian émigrés who found themselves in the territory he controlled and who took the oath of allegiance to the Austrian crown. This regiment in its equipment became the exact opposite of the Polish hussars, although its effectiveness was high. In France, the first hussar regiment was formed in 1692, and in Spain in 1695.

Paid from the Treasury


In the Austrian army before, there were temporary detachments of light horsemen, which could number up to 3000 people. They were led by Hungarian and Croatian nobles, who could change overnight, especially if the Vienna court tried to force them to fulfill their feudal obligations. Leopold also ordered Count Adam Chobor to select 1000 people and form a hussar regiment, which would be paid from the imperial treasury, and take the oath of allegiance to the crown. It was supposed to consist of men aged 24 to 35 years and had horses aged 5 to 7 years. According to the state, the regiment was supposed to consist of ten companies of 100 hussars each. Officers of other Austrian regular cavalry units had a low opinion of the hussars, and considered them "not much better than bandits on horseback." However, they were very effective in the war, which is why in 1696 a second regiment was formed under the command of Colonel Dick; the third, commanded by Colonel Forgach, was created in 1702.


Austrian hussar of the end of the XVII century. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z. Grbasic.

Five-horseman and scarlet riders


Local Muslims living in the border areas of the Ottoman Empire could also be recruited into mercenary units to act against Austria and Hungary. They were called at-kulu. This is the common name for irregular horse units in the Turkish provincial troops and in the troops of the Crimean khans. These units totaled from 20 to 50 people; their task was to defend the border, and they also played the role of reserve army in the event of war. Bechley - letters. quintuples; view of light horse troops under governors of the provinces. They received their salary of five acce * per day from the income of Eyyalet **. In the fortresses, beshly were created from among the local residents and were intended to repel surprise attacks of the enemy. Such detachments were also present at the Wallachian governor. A special position was occupied by the beshly detachments, created from the Janissaries, who also received five acres a day. They were intended for reconnaissance, when the army was on a campaign. He commanded every such detachment of the besley Turks yeah. The smallest unit (ode - "barracks") was commanded by Odabas. In 1701, on the Austrian border, the commander Bayram-aga had at his disposal 48 people: his deputy (workshop), ensign (bayrektar), quartermaster (gulaguz), scribe (kyatib), four officers (approval) and 40 horsemen (pharis). Their daily salary was: aha - 40 acce, workshop - 20, bayrektar - 15, gulaguz and kyatib - 13, odabasa - 12 and pharis - 11.


"Eastern warrior" (1805). Hood. A.O. Oryol (1777-1832). In fact, this painting shows the Circassian prince riding a horse of the Kabardian breed, in the characteristic armament of the Caucasian War era. He is wearing chain mail, a Turkish Misurk helmet, bracers, notched elbow pieces, weapons - a bow, arrows, a saber and dagger Kama


During the war, several detachments of 500-1000 people formed a larger formation (alai), which was commanded by an aleibei. Bey was an officer of the lowest rank in the Ottoman army, who was allowed to wear one ponytail (bunchuk ***); bey (beylerbey) could wear two, the vizier three, and the sultan had four bunchuk.

Among the Asian tribes, the number of tails on the pole meant a lot, but the general rule was one: the more horse tails, the more important the person giving the order, and, therefore, the order itself. Over time, Bunchuk became a military flag that the Turks brought from Central Asia and distributed in the territories they conquered. In the XNUMXth century, they were partially replaced in the regular army on the model of the European, but the semi-regular and irregular light cavalry units continued to use them until the end of the XNUMXth century.


This figure depicts a pharis beirektar in ceremonial attire from the Turkish siege of Vienna (1683). Muslim artisans, who were responsible for the traditionally richly decorated weapons and equipment of warriors, could not use images of people and animals, but achieved perfection in geometric and floral motifs. Turkish riding equipment - saddles, sabers and shields - was especially appreciated in Hungary, Poland and Russia. Moreover, despite the wars and the papal ban, trade with Muslim gunsmiths never stopped in the West. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914 »V.Vuksic, Z.Grbasic

* Akce - Turkish silver coin. It began to be minted in Bursa in 1328 by Orhan-bei (1326-1359). On the obverse were the name and title of the Sultan and the benevolent formula: “May his victory be glorified,” and on the reverse — the coinage, the year the sultan ascended the throne and the formula: “May his kingdom be preserved.” IN stories 6th century Turkey’s monetary circulation is a period of catastrophic drop in acre weight and deterioration of coin quality. Under the Sultan Orkhan, the Akche weighed 1,54 carats (1656 g) with the highest fineness of silver. By 50, its weight dropped to one carat, and the sample — up to 300%. By the end of the XVII century. the weight of the coin dropped ten times against the original, and the metal from which it was minted almost did not differ from copper: for one altun **** then they gave 400 acre. Practiced coin damage has repeatedly led to indignation and unrest among merchants. artisans and other poor people.

** Administrative-territorial unit, a province in the Ottoman Empire from the end of the 1860th century to the 1722s, in the Safavid state from the beginning of the XNUMXth century to XNUMX.

*** Bunchuk - a shaft with a gilded ball and a ponytail at the end. Each Turkish pasha had his own bunchuk, according to which he was distinguished: one-bungled (peaceful - he is a zesanjak-bey, the leader of the liv), two-bungled (myrmir - he is a beylerbey) and three-bungled (vizier).

**** Gold Turkish coin. It was first minted under Sultan Mehmed II Fatih in Istanbul in 1453 after the city was captured by the Turks. The weight of the altun was about 3,5 g. And was almost equal to the weight of the European ducat. On the obverse was minted the year of accession to the throne of the reigning sultan, as well as his name and title, and an inscription-wish: "May his name be glorified." On the reverse was the inscription: “Minting brilliant, lord of glory and victory on land and at sea” or “Sultan of two continents and a hakan of two seas, Sultan, son of the Sultan”.


References


1. Richard Brzezinski & Richard Hook. The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (2): Cavalry. Osprey Publishing Ltd. (MEN-AT-ARMS 262), 1993.
2. Richard Brzezinski & Velimir Vuksic. Polish Winged Hussar 1576-1775. Osprey Publishing Ltd. (WARRIOR 94), 2006.
3. Richard Brzezinski & Graham Turner. Lützen 1632. Climax of the Thirty years war. Osprey Publishing Ltd. (CAMPAIGN 68), 2001.
4. Richard Bonney. The Thirty Years' War 1618–1648. Osprey Publishing Ltd., (ESSENTIAL HISTORIES 29), 2002.
5. Richard Brzezinski & Angus McBride. Polish Armies 1569–1696 (1). (MEN-AT-ARMS 184), 1987.
6.V.Vuksic & Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914. Cassell, 1994.


To be continued ...
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  1. rich 26 January 2020 08: 12 New
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    Yes, this is Circassian, or rather Adyghe "shell" forged "on the spike"



    Adyghe craftsmen used two main methods of fastening rings. The rings of the best chain mail were fastened “in a knot” and riveted “on a thorn” in a hot state. With this method of fastening, holes were punched in the ends of the wire section bent into a ring that were unbroken in the form of spatulas. In one of them, a conical shaped tenon was strengthened, on the tip of which a hole was placed on the second end of the wire, after which the tenon was flattened. The ends of the wire went behind each other forming an elongated thickening - “fastening into a knot”, and the riveting in the hot state led to metal welding at the junction, as a result of which the rings were completely impossible to disconnect or break, which gave the chain mail special strength. In addition, a rivet head was formed only on one side of the ring, the other side remained smooth, as a result of which the chain mail did not tear the clothes worn under it. In weapon science literature, such a mount was called shell-shaped, and chain mail itself riveted "on a spike", in contrast to others, is called shell. The lower quality chain mails were made of larger rings, which were fastened “on a nail” and consisted in the fact that the flattened ends of a piece of wire bent into a ring with punched holes were connected with a nail passing through both holes. The ends of the stud were riveted on both sides of the ring by cold forging. This method of fastening the rings was cheaper and less labor-intensive in production than fastening “on a spike”, which significantly reduced the overall cost of chain mail. However, additional rivets formed on the inner side of the rings made the chain mail heavier, their heads often torn the clothes worn underneath, and the connection itself was not so reliable.

    Judging by the “Misyurke” helmet, the “thorn” chain mail, and red shoes - this Circassian of noble
  2. Olgovich 26 January 2020 08: 14 New
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    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    Amazed by the wide range of your articles: from Indians to medieval armor and party archives. hi

    We look forward to the promised research from these archives: very interesting!
    1. kalibr 26 January 2020 08: 36 New
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      Why be surprised, Andrey? He lived for 65 years and was interested in many. I know the Eastpart archives from work, the Indians are a topic for the soul, wrote a book about them for children. Lats - I have been doing them since 95, there are a lot of books and articles on them. Tanks ... since the 1980s. Involuntarily, you will understand if you do something regularly. As for the archives, an article with materials on the year 37 in Penza is ready and waiting in line. But you can’t print me alone ...
      1. Olgovich 26 January 2020 08: 59 New
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        Quote: kalibr
        Why be surprised, Andrew? He lived for 65 years and was interested in many. I know the Eastpart archives from work, the Indians are a topic for the soul, wrote a book about them for children. Lats - I have been doing them since 95, there are a lot of books and articles on them. Tanks ... since the 1980s. Involuntarily, you will understand if you do something regularly.

        Very many are 65 years old, but very few have such a range of interests, and on a professional level ...
        Quote: kalibr
        As for the archives, an article with materials on year 37 in Penza is ready and waiting in line. But you can’t print me alone ...

        We are waiting! hi
      2. Catfish 26 January 2020 12: 20 New
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        Vyacheslav Olegovich, bow and thanks! hi
        I fully subscribe to what Andrei Olgovich said.
        I had one question here that is completely irrelevant to the current topic, I will personally address it to you. smile
  3. lucul 26 January 2020 11: 09 New
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    A good article - and most importantly on the topic - and then on the VO too many articles went about politics .....
  4. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 12: 49 New
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    Vyacheslav Olegovich, good afternoon and thanks for the material. hi
    Austrian hussar of the end of the XVII century.

    Do you think the authors did not overdo it by endowing this character with a saber, a broadsword and even a six-man at the same time? Moreover, the broadsword is somehow strange in his saddle, it is trimmed ... Yes, and the leopard skin looks somehow strange, dissonant with the rest of the clothes. And even no hint of firearms.
    A strange guy turned out. request
    1. Fishery 26 January 2020 13: 05 New
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      leopard skin is a tradition and an extremely prestigious thing for a hussar, there were wolf skins and bear skins, I think that a broadsword was used as an alternative to a saber when meeting a more heavily hardened opponent, an analogue of a konkar, and if you google it, which was traditionally again in every normal European rider, as a saber against armor is useless.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Fishery 26 January 2020 13: 13 New
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      this is a konchar) not broadsword)
      1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 14: 51 New
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        Quote: Tonya
        this is a konchar) not broadsword)

        Thank you, colleague. Rightly corrected. smile
    4. kalibr 26 January 2020 13: 51 New
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      But what about the gun in cabaret? Here is a broadsword, but it’s not a broadsword, but a finish, it was necessary to hang it on the left. By the way, I looked about horsemen with spears - I found a lot of interesting things. You were right. In the 16th century they were still in full use. I will write about it!
      1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 14: 50 New
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        Quote: kalibr
        But what about the gun in cabaret?

        I didn’t make out. It seemed a dagger of some kind with a guard. Although now I look - really, like, a gun.
        As for the finisher, yes, I read it, looked. There is such a thing to be. The wiki even says with reference to Guillaume de Beauplan that the konkars were attached on the right side, like this. belay Here is a quote from Boplan, like 1660, though about the Polish hussars, not the Austrian ones.
        On the side they have only a saber, under the left thigh broadsword attached to the saddle, to the right bow of which is attached a long sword, wide at the hilt and tapering to the tip, in the shape of a tetrahedron, so that it is possible to stab, but still alive, a person who has fallen to the ground . The sword is 5 feet long and has a round smut to make it more convenient to press (the opponent) to the ground and pierce chain mail; the purpose of the broadsword is to chop the body, and the saber to fight with it and chop the chain mail. They also carry battle axes weighing up to six pounds, which are similar in appearance to our tetrahedral peaks, very sharp with a long handle, in order to be able to strike at enemy shells and helmets that are broken by such weapons
        .
        I am in a slight cultural shock - what seemed strange to me, namely a large number of offensive weapons from the rider is not the limit. The Polish hussar, it turns out on the left, also had a broadsword. It is strange that they didn’t pick up any tube loaded with poisonous spikes and don’t wear blades on their toes - it’s so convenient for the enemy horses to release their guts. wassat
        1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 15: 50 New
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          I'm in a light cultural shock
          I, in general, also. It is necessary to think of it, to grind to the saddle a highly specialized "crowbar", with the sole purpose of finishing the fallen enemy!
          And this is the end of the Renaissance!
          Against this background, the "dark, cruel Middle Ages" is seen as a "children's sandbox" request
          1. Catfish 26 January 2020 16: 21 New
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            Anton hi , people still have not thought of such things to comfortably kill their neighbor. laughing
            1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 16: 27 New
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              I agree. The higher the level of "culture", the more sophisticated means of killing their own kind.
          2. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 16: 26 New
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            Anton, and the axes! Six pounds - two and a half kilograms. This is not a shestoper and not minted.
            It turns out that the Polish hussar had four units of purely specific edged weapons, not counting the five-meter spear: a saber, broadsword, finisher and an ax. And each he had to own at the appropriate level. A sort of monster multi-station. How long does such a warrior need to cook? And then battle diarrhea and hundreds of such handsome men come - p-time! - and no. And the next day as much. And without any battle.
            However, it seems to me that among these comrades there might have been some specialization, since the same Guillaume de Beauplan wrote just above the quotation:
            so, in a gonfalon of a hundred lancers, there are only 20 comrades who go to the same line, so that everyone leads [his] line; the next four lines are their servants, each in their own row. Their spear is 19 feet long, hollow from the tip to the sleeve, the rest is made of strong wood; on the tip of their copies they affix the badges, always two-tone: white-red, blue-green or black-and-white, 4-5 cubits long. This is probably done in order to frighten the enemy horses, because when they [ulanas] lower their spears, they rush to the full pit [to the attack], the flags flutter, describing the circles, and terrify the enemy horses whose ranks they want to break through.

            That is, a naturally chivalrous spear with a commander and servants who might have been armed somewhat differently, and Boplan mixed everything together - the “comrades” knights (in the original “maistre”) and their servants.
            1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 16: 37 New
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              It turns out that the Polish hussar had four units of purely specific edged weapons, not counting the five-meter spear: a saber, broadsword, finisher and an ax.
              In general, Schwarzenegger in the movie "Commando" laughing
              1. Catfish 26 January 2020 16: 49 New
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                That's for sure, you haven’t yet noticed a gun fired at the saddle. Schwartz, with his "bazooka," sobs quietly in neighboring bushes. bully
                1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 18: 39 New
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                  "Our Cossacks are coming, going along Miami!" laughing
                  1. Catfish 26 January 2020 19: 35 New
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                    Folk Cossack song performed by the folk Cossack poet Rosenbaum. laughing
              2. Hantengri 26 January 2020 19: 56 New
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                Quote: 3x3zsave
                It turns out that the Polish hussar had four units of purely specific edged weapons, not counting the five-meter spear: a saber, broadsword, finisher and an ax.
                In general, Schwarzenegger in the movie "Commando"

                "Ivan approached him.
                He drew his sword, sawed-off shotgun, gun ... "(c) laughing
            2. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 17: 26 New
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              Hmm Interesting ... Really "spear". Although, as I understand it, the lancers, at that time, were very light cavalry, sirech, a rogue nobility.
    5. Catfish 26 January 2020 16: 20 New
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      Hi Michael hi It’s interesting, but the six-feathers didn’t fall out of his way, somehow the belt does not look serious. And the gun sticks out backwards, under some dashing “cowboy” grip.
      1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 16: 37 New
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        Greetings, Konstantin.
        Quote: Sea Cat
        shestoper

        I had a strong impression (perhaps completely misleading), a certain stereotype that the six-man was more likely an indicator of the status of its owner and was part of the armament of the highest command level, a hallmark of the governor, so to speak. So I don’t know how appropriate it is at all. The source that I quote here, in general, won, speaks of six-pound axes ...
        Reconciling with my common sense is all quite difficult. But no one said that common sense of the XVII - XVIII centuries. was at least a little like mine. smile
        1. Catfish 26 January 2020 16: 47 New
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          This is understandable, but when you see some kind of iron in the equipment, the question always arises of how to use it. After all, now no one will drag on himself, say, a mortar mine solely from force for belonging to artillery. smile
          1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 17: 09 New
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            Quote: Sea Cat
            no one will drag on himself, say, a mortar mine

            This is in terms of our common sense today. It is possible that if a shestopor really was a symbol of a high position, he could serve as a guarantee that even if the battle was lost, his owner would remain alive, since he was an important person, they would not just kill him. In any case, the chances of surviving in some way could increase. smile
            1. kalibr 26 January 2020 17: 30 New
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              Quote: Trilobite Master
              its owner will remain alive, because he is an important person, they will not just kill him.

              That's it!
              1. Catfish 26 January 2020 19: 32 New
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                Or exactly the opposite, they’ll try to finish off quickly. laughing
      2. kalibr 26 January 2020 17: 32 New
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        Quote: Sea Cat
        Yes, and the gun sticks out backwards, under some dashing "cowboy" grip.

        The gun sticks out right! That is how they were worn in holsters. I checked. Otherwise, you could sit in one place on the handle!
        1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 18: 49 New
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          That's right, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
          Pistol holsters for a long time placed the arms of the weapon in the direction of movement of the horse.
        2. Catfish 26 January 2020 19: 40 New
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          That's right, but not for everyone, some were not afraid to foolishly sit as a prick on a trellis. smile
  5. NF68 26 January 2020 15: 45 New
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    Interesting article.


    The armor of Western Europe was more solid. And, of course, much more expensive.
  6. Senior seaman 26 January 2020 20: 45 New
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    Beat was an officer of the lowest rank in the Ottoman army, who was allowed to wear one ponytail (bunchuk ***); bay (beylerbey) could wear two, the vizier three, and the sultan had four bunchuk.

    Your will, but something is missing. How was the first hit (with one bunchuk) different from the second?
    and "beylerbey", as I understand it, is the "back of all the backs" - the governor of the Sultan in a remote province, combining civilian and military power in his hands.
    1. NF68 31 January 2020 18: 15 New
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      Quote: Senior Sailor
      Beat was an officer of the lowest rank in the Ottoman army, who was allowed to wear one ponytail (bunchuk ***); bay (beylerbey) could wear two, the vizier three, and the sultan had four bunchuk.

      Your will, but something is missing. How was the first hit (with one bunchuk) different from the second?
      and "beylerbey", as I understand it, is the "back of all the backs" - the governor of the Sultan in a remote province, combining civilian and military power in his hands.


      Welcome.
      1. Senior seaman 1 February 2020 14: 53 New
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        hi Mutually, dear colleague.
  7. faterdom 26 January 2020 21: 06 New
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    Eh, I would have written such articles in a textbook for the 6th grade! And then they then dazzled us more with the "struggle of the oppressed classes against the feudal lords", they say here it is the engine of "History of the Middle Ages"!
    And here - the Ottomans won in the Mahachas under Mohach, and here the history of Eastern Europe goes in a different direction, instead of the very formidable and promising Hungary, Sweden and Austria begin to dominate. But if the Turks had taken Vienna, could Eastern Europe have remained Christian?
  8. Corrie sanders 26 January 2020 21: 35 New
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    They were led by Imre Thokli, a Hungarian prince who rebelled against the Habsburgs.


    Imre Tököli (1657-1705)

    Bey was an officer of the lowest rank in the Ottoman army who was allowed to wear one ponytail (bunchuk ***); bey (beylerbey) could wear two, the vizier three, and the sultan had four bunchuk.


    Bey is not a title, but a collective term "boss, lord." In a military context, “bei” is the head of any detachment, the prefix “bei” was added to the name of the chief (Ibrahim-bei, Ali-bei, etc.). The author here confuses the collective concept of “bey” with the military rank “pasha”. Pasha is the head of a large compound, a conditional analogue of the general. The sultan gave the rank of "pasha", and the prefix "pasha" was added to the name = for example, Aidosly-Mehmet-pasha.

    About the bunchuk. Bunchuk did not rely on pasha as a personal sign, but as a kind of characteristic of the number of assigned troops. One bunchuk usually relied on a sanjak-bey, the chief of at-kul, etc. Two bunchuk is already a serious contingent, it is usually the troops of the whole region, for example, the Bosnian corps, the Rumelia troops. Two-bunkers was the rank of the great serasker (such as the inspector general of the troops) and the peaceman (the head of all fortresses and garrisons). The commandant of Izmail Aydosly-Mehmet Pasha was also a great Serasker, so he had 2 bunchuk. The great vezir had three bunchuk, because in the absence of the sultan under the troops he was their chief commander. The sultan himself had not 4 but 7 bunchuk. The Bunchuk wore Selahdar or Tugji.
  9. Undecim 26 January 2020 21: 57 New
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    and the rivalry of armor and shell lost its relevance until the appearance of the first tanks in 1917.
    Until 1854, when the French booked floating batteries and used them in Crimea.
  10. Storekeeper 27 January 2020 01: 49 New
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    The article is interesting, instead of sleeping at half past one in the night I read about chain mail armor and konchars with broadswords! My question is how did they make wire for chain mail, and what tool did they use? In general, I wonder what tool was used in the manufacture of various elements of armor? How many sledgehammers on a sheet of iron do not hammer, he will not become a helmet or elbow. tongue
  11. Slavutich 27 January 2020 06: 02 New
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    Very interesting!
  12. Wened April 23 2020 12: 00 New
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    I alone noticed that in the picture with the Venetian warriors, is the knight signed as light cavalryman? But this is clearly not an easy cavalryman.