Military Review

Rondash and rondachiers. From benefits to beauty


Fine antique-style rondash shield from Vienna armory chambers. Judging by the inscription on the shield, Emperor Charles V received this magnificent shield along with a paired helmet from his brother Ferdinand I in honor of his African campaign. On the outer frieze between the Nereids, medallions with busts of four Roman African heroes can be found: Scipio, Caesar, Augustus and Claudius. How was it confirmed that Charles V was not only the legitimate successor of all these great rulers, but also became the new Perseus, whose opponents turn to stone with just the glance of Medusa's head on his shield! Based on engravings by Andreas Mantegna, circa 1550-1555. Milanese gunsmith Filippo Negroli (c. 1510-1579). Material: hammered iron, partly polished, partly blackened, partly blued, partly inlaid with gold and silver

Six hundred shekels of forged gold went to each shield ...
Second Chronicles 9:15

Weapons from museums. So, we again return to the topic of medieval armor, well, not medieval, so the Renaissance period for sure, because I need to distract myself from the topic of pistols and mortars smelling of gunpowder. Murder, of course, is disgusting in any form, but even the most bloodthirsty strong and skillful warrior with a sword will not be able to send 17 people to the next world at once with one blow, but a grapeshot shot from the era of the Napoleonic Wars could do it easily. So let's go back to the old days and get acquainted with what we have not yet met, namely the shields called rondash. This word means the European shield, which was used at first by horsemen, but at the end of the Middle Ages it turned out to be a characteristic weapon of the infantry. Well, it ended история during the Renaissance, when these shields acquired the functions of exclusively ceremonial weapons and even became ... interior details. By the way, regarding the illustrations of this material to us. we can say that it was extremely lucky, because a lot of rondas have come down to our time, and we can get an exhaustive picture of them and the skill of their manufacturers from exhibits not from one, but from several of the most famous museums in Europe and the United States, including the State Hermitage in St. Petersburg, which is interesting in itself!

Actually, the very first shields were just exactly round (since, most likely, they were woven from rods), and this form took root not only for centuries - for millennia. Round were Greek hoplons, plank "lindens of protection" - Viking shields. Who else did not wear them! The only difference in the design of the round shield was only one: whether it had a convex umbon in the middle or not. Sometimes there were more umbons - five: one in the middle and four more on the sides, which hid the fastenings of the straps for holding. They made such shields from linden boards, woven from willow twigs, and also made from bronze, copper, steel, boiled leather, and used bovine skin, buffalo and rhinoceros skin. And as soon as they were not decorated! Shields, even the simplest ones, over time became real works of art, and in the East, in India, Iran, Egypt and Turkey, by the end of the 50th century, relatively small (about XNUMX cm in diameter) convex shields made of metal (brass , bronze, iron), covered with engraving and carving. They defended well enough against edged weapons and even against the bullets of the first samples of primitive firearms.

Mamluk steel shield, late 46,7th century. Possibly made in Iran. Material: steel, copper alloys. Diameter: 1546 cm, weight XNUMX Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The entire surface of this shield is decorated with such wonderful metal carvings!

On the Internet, there is a statement that the predecessor of the rondash is the fencing shield. But this cannot be in any way, because the same Italian fencing shield was narrow, had a length of 60 cm and only covered the hand. There was a spearhead that could be used during the fight. And this shield was small, and the rondash, firstly, was round, and secondly, rather large.

Here are two such fencing shields of 1542, made in the style of Giocco del Ponte from Pisa, but differing from the Pisan shields with an iron point reinforcement. The appeal to Saint Bernard of Siena most likely means that both shields were ordered by someone from Siena. Vienna Armory

Boche fencing shield with folding tip. Spain, early 36,0th century Material: steel, copper alloy, velvet, fringe. Decoration technique: forging, chasing Diameter: XNUMX cm.Photo: State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

True, strange, fantastic-looking round shields of the 50th century with teeth around the circumference are known, which served as traps for enemy blades, equipped in addition with blades. Usually one blade was up to XNUMX cm long, so that it could be used for fencing, but besides it, there could be several more, including those with sawtooth blades. Not only that: the Italians and Spaniards, who invented such a deadly weapon, decided to use this shield for night attacks, so many of them had a round hole at the top edge, behind which was a secret lantern. The light of the lantern passed through this hole, which could also be opened and closed with a latch. The idea of ​​installing a lantern on the shield, which is closed by a spring lid with a bolt, was especially fantastic. It was supposed to use this flashlight to blind the enemy at night, so that it was easier to "beat" him. In practice, the oil lamp would most likely go out as soon as the opponents entered into a duel, or the wearer of the shield doused himself with hot oil and set fire to his clothes. So this shield, most likely, was more dangerous for its owner than for a potential enemy. Although, of course, purely outwardly, he was frighteningly effective.

Here it is, this awful "lamp shield" of the 9th century. It is him that everyone draws and refers to this shield, but, most likely, this is the rarest, not mass product! Vienna Armory. These shields also had their own name: lampposts (German: Laternenschild). In addition, they were also supposed to serve to protect against bullets, so they were made bulletproof, and the gunsmiths always fired a test shot from an arquebus at a distance of one hundred paces at them before surrendering. They weighed 10 or even XNUMX kilograms, so they simply could not get much distribution: what kind of left hand can withstand such a weight and can also fence with it? Vienna Armory

However, there is a point of view that such a shield is just a rondash, but only ... "trench". Von Winkler wrote about him like this:

“In the trenches, the warriors still use the rondash for a long time, which has a special structure and forms a kind of bracer. The mitten for the left hand is attached to the disk, and under the mitten, a sword is attached to the shield, protruding from the edge of it by 50 cm; the circumference of the shield is serrated to repel blows. On the inner side of the disc, not far from the edge, a lantern is attached, the light of which passes through the hole; the latter can be opened and closed at will by means of a round bolt. This rondash is undoubtedly from the early years of the XNUMXth century. "

Fencing shield with a pistol from the Hermitage collection. Spain (?), Mid-44,5th century Material: steel, brass, leather. Decoration technique: forging, carving. Diameter: XNUMX cm.Photo: State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

But here then it is necessary to clarify that, in addition to such "trench rondashes", we meet in much larger quantities with rondashes in the form of ordinary metal shields 50-60 cm in diameter without any additional blades and lanterns, but very richly decorated with engraving and minting. There are less decorated and obviously more functional shields of this type, and there are shields that are distinguished by an exceptional richness of decoration. Obviously, they served different purposes, since their cost is simply not comparable.

Half body armor and shield. Italy, first quarter of the 60th century Brescia. Material: steel, leather. Decoration technique: chasing, engraving, gilding. Diameter: XNUMX cm.Photo: State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

A similar half-armor with a shield, the so-called Fugger set, made in Italy around 1560, owned by Christoph Fugger. Vienna Armory

It is known that under the name rodela they were widely used by the Spaniards during the Italian Wars in 1510-1520. and called them rodeleros ("shield-bearers"). Well, they were called rondachiers in France. It is also known that such shields were used by the conquistadors of Hernan Cortez during the conquest of Mexico. So, in 1520, 1000 of his soldiers out of 1300 conquistadors had just such shields, and they well protected their owners from Indian weapons. In 1521 he had 700 rodeleros and only 118 arquebusiers and crossbowmen.

Rondash and rondachiers. From benefits to beauty

Rondachier. Illustration from Achille Marozzo's Bolognese Guide to Fencing "New Labor", 1536 edition

The reason for their appearance is simple: then on the battlefield the infantry consisted of spearmen and arquebusiers, and the former protected the latter while they were reloading their weapons. It was necessary to somehow break through their formation, for which the Swiss began to use halberdists, the Germans - Landsknechts with two-handed Zweichender swords, and the Spaniards - Rodeleros, armed with a sword and a strong shield, with which a fighter could not be afraid of either sharp peaks or arquebus shots ...

Set: burgonet helmet and rondash shield in antique style. The original selection of "trophies" on the border of the shield attracts attention. There are not only weapons and laurels, but even a pickaxe, a shovel and musical instruments, that's how! Vienna Armory

Nevertheless, their use in battles showed that they were vulnerable to cavalry attacks, and pikemen, if they were well trained and kept the formation, were a tough nut to crack for them. As a result, the rodeleros began to be used as part of the Spanish thirds, and not in the form of separate units, which required very good training both from them and from the pikemen and arquebusiers who were part of it!

The Hermitage collection also has a helmet and a paired rondash of the late 58th century. - the beginning of the XVI century. Spain. Shield diameter: XNUMX cm.Photo: State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

And then even the Spaniards refused them, since it turned out to be unprofitable to keep two soldiers armed with melee weapons and only one shooter in the ranks. True, Moritz of Orange tried to arm the front ranks of his troops with swords and shields in addition to the pike, hoping to protect his troops from being shot by enemy musketeers, but nothing good came of it. The shields protecting against the musket bullets were too heavy.

Many shields in the collections of different museums are very similar, although they were made at different times, in different countries and by different craftsmen. This is not surprising. Again, the shape of the shield very often suggested how best to design a particular product. Rondache made in France. Master Jean Mignon, c. 1550 Army Museum, Paris

But as elements of ceremonial knightly weapons, rondashi shields were in demand for a long time. In the materials on "VO", dedicated to the theme of knightly weapons, it was emphasized that at a certain point in time the armor turned into a kind of court costume. They were worn, but only to show that you are a worthy heir to your ancestors and can afford to have this "metal clothes", and even dress in it, following the fashion. And it is clear that armor without a shield (this despite the fact that plate cavalry did not use shields in the same XNUMXth century!) Was perceived as ... unfinished, well, as a fashionably dressed woman is perceived today, but without an appropriate handbag.

Moreover, the large and even surface of the rondash in the literal sense of the word untied the hands of the gunsmiths. Now they could depict whole chased or carved metal paintings on shields, and when it suddenly became fashionable to paint the surface of the armor with paints, then the rondash turned out to be quite in place! It got to the point that, trying to please their rich and demanding customers, the craftsmen painted their products on both sides!

One of these painted boards, approx. 1535 Attributed to the Italian Girolamo da Treviso. It is one of a small group of painted Renaissance shields, painted both outside and inside with scenes from Roman history and classical mythology with grisailles (shades of gray) on a gold leaf base. Many details are rendered using the sgraffito technique (the technique of scratching the surface to reveal a different color under it, in this case gold). Girolamo da Treviso was one of the few XNUMXth century painters to use the sophisticated sgraffito technique that went out of fashion in the late XNUMXth century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The scenes of the battles on the inside of this shield most likely illustrate episodes of the life of the Roman general Scipio and show us the artist's attentive attitude to the depiction of costumes and armor of that time, which were already known from antique sculptures and coins. But the physical types and their energetic postures appeared on it thanks to Giulio Romano (circa 1499-1546), who was Raphael's assistant, and later the court painter of the dukes of Mantua. Well, Girolamo da Treviso worked with Giulio in Mantua in 1527 and took over a lot. Place of manufacture: Bologna. Material: wood, linen, gesso, gold leaf, polychrome. Diameter: 62,53 cm. Outside view. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Another painted shield from Milan. Italy, late 53th century Material: wood. Finishing technique: covering with canvas, painting. Diameter: XNUMX cm.Photo: State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

As already noted, many rondashi were designed as a real painting, only made in metal. Moreover, they used technologies such as metal chasing, carving, blackening, bluing, gilding, inlaid with non-ferrous metal and even chemical staining. The details of the shield were usually gilded by blacksmithing with the help of mercury amalgam, which, of course, did not add to the health of the craftsmen who used this technique.

For example, the 59th-century shield-rondache, made in the Milan workshop of the Piccinino family gunsmiths, is distinguished by its magnificent and intricate decor, which clearly indicates its ceremonial purpose. The blued surface of the shield is decorated with embossing in high relief and finished using the technique of taouching - notches in gold and silver. The complex composition on its surface is harmoniously combined with the round shape. The plot of the relief was the story of the ancient Roman historian Titus Livy about the vestal Tuscia, who brought water in a sieve to prove her innocence. Material: steel. Decoration technique: bluing, shading with gold and silver. Diameter: 1837 cm. Purchased by the Hermitage in XNUMX in Paris from the antiquarian P.Z. Leri. Photo: State Hermitage, St. Petersburg

PS The administration of the site and the author of the material would like to thank the Deputy Director General of the State Hermitage, Chief Curator S. B. Adaksina and T. I. Kireeva (Publications Department) for permission to use photographic materials from the State Hermitage's website and for assistance in working with illustrative photographic materials.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Artillery of the conqueror of Europe
Artillery innovations of the civil war between North and South
Mortars "Dictator" in the battles of the North against the South
Shuvalov's "secret howitzer"
North and South: smooth-bore and rifled guns
US Civil War ammunition
The most popular caliber of the North and South
Cannons of Tredegar and the Noble Brothers
Cannons of Brooke and Viard
James and Sawyer cannons: rifled versus smoothbore
"The parrot gun." Man and his instrument
Faceted bore gun
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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 8 September 2020 18: 09
    As always Great article, thank you so much! I learned a lot of new things, for example, about lamp and pistol shields! belay
    Well, again, I was pleased with the selection of photos! good
    I made another conclusion - the Weapon of the Lords of the stretcher is purely "ceremonial" in nature! Well, you can't spoil such beauty on the Battlefield stop !
    1. kalibr
      8 September 2020 18: 48
      Quote: Hunter 2
      Well, you can't spoil such beauty on the Battlefield

      Yes, the beauty is amazing. For the first time I saw such shields live several years ago in the Armory in Dresden. Then in Vienna in the Hovburg Palace, then there was Paris and the Army Museum ... then I began to read about them. And this is how their wonderful collection turned out to be in our Hermitage!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 8 September 2020 20: 00
        Vyacheslav, good evening. hi Thanks for the sumptuous article - purely aesthetic delight. good
        A little question about the guys from the Cortez team:
        ... such shields were used by the conquistadors of Hernan Cortez during the conquest of Mexico. So, in 1520, 1000 of his soldiers out of 1300 conquistadors had just such shields, and they well protected their owners from Indian weapons. In 1521 he had 700 rodeleros and only 118 arquebusiers and crossbowmen.

        This means that in a year he had only 818 out of 1300 Gavriks left, it turns out that either the shields were not very protective, or the dysentery of the canal. What do you think? wink
        1. kalibr
          8 September 2020 20: 50
          They also had measles there ... Then many were lightly wounded, but the unsanitary conditions led to sad consequences. And then it was hot, here he combed, then ... in a word, they had something to die from!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 8 September 2020 20: 57
            It was necessary to wash, and not scratch anywhere, noble dons, damn it. Yes, "a fashionable disease, it has already been" presented " wink
            1. Free wind
              Free wind 9 September 2020 00: 47
              Often the one who itches is too lazy to wash. wassat
  2. polpot
    polpot 8 September 2020 18: 30
    Thank you very much, good article, great photos.
    1. kalibr
      8 September 2020 18: 45
      We owe many of the photos to the staff of the Hermitage. Finally, it became possible to use his treasures in this way ... The next article with a photo from there will be about the broadswords of the cuirassiers and there too - wonderful photos of the Hermitage artifacts! And I also found there a wonderful photo of a Cossack saber from the middle of the 18th century with a guard ...
      1. cost
        cost 8 September 2020 20: 37
        The trench rondash has two parents, just like a living creature.
        His "dad" was the ordinary rondash - a simple round shield of medium size, metal or wood, especially popular among the English and Spanish knights. It was used throughout the Middle Ages, by the Renaissance it migrated to the infantry. The famous rodeleros - swordsmen of the Spanish thirds - were armed with these shields.
        The "mother" of our hero is the Italian targa fencing shield (not to be confused with the targe). This is a small shield, rather even an oblong shield, worn on the left hand. In size, it did not particularly greatly exceed the plate bracer, it was intended to repel the blows of light thrusting swords and rapiers, and it seemed there was nothing special about it, except ... sharpened edges, sometimes supplemented with spikes and sharp blades, including swords (sword, true, it is intended rather to hold the opponent's sword than to break it).
        In fig. below - a duel on large fencing boards, elder brothers of the targa. Here, as you can see, swords are not needed at all smile

        How these two so different subjects suddenly came together, Madame History prefers to keep quiet, but what happened happened. By about the middle of the XNUMXth century, on the night streets of Italian and Spanish cities, curious subjects began to be found, carrying a shield on their left hand, to which a plate glove was attached, a blade of an ordinary sword was mounted under the glove, and various blades, often flaming or sword-cutting, were still sticking out at an angle from it. ... And these subjects illuminated the path for themselves with the same shield, on the inside of which an oil lantern was attached, and the light streamed through a small thieves' window ...
        Closely approach the aforementioned gentlemen with the question "What the hell is this with you?" I would not advise anyone. laughing

        Pay attention to the edge of the shield - it is all one solid sword.
        By the way, there are many small slits closer to the center of the shield - sword catchers, for temporary fixation and with luck - breaking the enemy's blade if it falls into the gap. This shield is double.
        1. cost
          cost 8 September 2020 20: 40
          Such a shield is a weapon of night skirmishes in the semi-darkness, in the wrong light of the stars and in the trembling haze of lanterns. It is designed in such a way that you can fight back and strike in almost any direction without looking, because in the dark it can be difficult to spot a fast swordsman, you know.
          The main opponent of this shield is not a heavy sword, but a sword or rapier. That is why the hand was removed from the protection zone - a rondash was worn on the forearm. You cannot pierce or cut a plate bracer with a sword, this is not a falchion or an ax, but in the heat of a hectic night battle, you may need to grab something.
          It was no longer used directly for fencing. His sword blade is not long enough to reach the enemy with a rapier, it usually protrudes from under the edge of the shield by about 50 cm.Therefore, a lamp rondash was worn in tandem with an ordinary thrusting sword, like his contemporary buckler.
          1. cost
            cost 8 September 2020 20: 45
            Later, a rondash of this type from the city of "civilian weapons of self-defense" passed to the army, where it acquired the fame of a trench shield. Unfortunately, we could not find a description of the technique for using the trench rondash, but there is mention that by the XNUMXth century they began to be made bulletproof.
            I would only venture to suggest that such a shield, and even with a flashlight, is very convenient to wield in a battle when capturing enemy trenches (trenches for infantry were already in full use at that time, although the concept of "trench warfare" had not yet existed).
            The trench is narrow. He put his shield forward - he covered himself from the blades and pistol bullets, and ran to the attack. In close combat in a confined space, a bunch of blades on the shield will show itself, especially since it was the trench rondashes that were often supplied with a long spike sticking out of the umbo perpendicular to the plane of the shield. He's no good for anything other than an attack like this.

            Such a shield is also invaluable when there is a battle in the dungeons during the assault on the fortress - the besiegers undermine the walls to lay barrels of gunpowder there, and the besieged lead counter-excavations to find and kill enemy sappers. The impenetrable darkness of a narrow underground passage, no room for maneuver, no room for scope
            1. kalibr
              8 September 2020 20: 53
              You wrote very well, thanks!
            2. cost
              cost 8 September 2020 21: 01
              "Mom" of the trench rondash - italian targa shield
              Literally "targa" translates to "board" or "plaque". Technically, it is a small fist shield, metal, trapezoidal, wave-like curved. The dimensions and weight are relatively small, weighing a little over a kilogram. On the outside of the targa, you can often see a special hook, which serves to carry the shield on the belt in the stowed position. Also on the outside there are special frames made of thick wire, fixed at a short distance from the shield plate, which are used to grab the enemy's sword blade in battle.
              Photo: Targa from the Wallace Collection in the French "Musée National de la Renaissance". Size 36x33 cm.

              Photo.The hilt and back of the targa from the British Museum.

              Di Grassi and Mancholino write about the work of this element. Antonio Manciolino makes no distinction between targa and large brokero, and describes working with these shields in 10 chapters.
              Achilla Marozzo devotes to working with the targa 2 attacks (assalto) in 25 parts.
              Fig. Targa from Opera Nova Achille Marozzo published in 1536.
              1. kalibr
                8 September 2020 21: 21
                And this is a very good addition from the audience. I wanted to mention this shield, but after the round ones, write about the square one ... I only had enough strength for two shields from Vienna ...
                1. cat Rusich
                  cat Rusich 8 September 2020 22: 47
                  Vyacheslav, not all shields are "round" - the Rusichs have drop-shaped ...
                  Rusich shield
                  Roman legionnaires SKUTOM rectangular ...
                  The Dayaks have the same rectangular ... with strands of hair from severed heads ...
                  Dayak shield
                  And so on for the whole article. Here is an interesting shield from the Solomon Islands ...
                  shield of Solomon's
                  A warrior with such a shield (in his left hand) ...
                  Solomon's warrior
                  1. kalibr
                    9 September 2020 06: 56
                    Quote: cat Rusich
                    Vyacheslav, not all shields are "round" - the Rusichs have drop-shaped ...

                    I know. But most shields at all times have been round. Even the same Romans eventually returned to the circle ... But thanks for the photos, they are wonderful!
                2. cat Rusich
                  cat Rusich 8 September 2020 22: 50
                  Here is a Sioux shield "out of nothing" ...
                  Sioux shield "out of nothing"
                  1. kalibr
                    9 September 2020 06: 57
                    The Spider Web Shield is cool. It `s Magic! I have a novel, People and Weapons. There is about it ...
                  2. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 9 September 2020 10: 20
                    Here is a Sioux shield "out of nothing" ...

                    This is the "dream catcher"
                    1. cat Rusich
                      cat Rusich 9 September 2020 20: 20
                      Yuri Kotenko read about the "shield from nothing" in "Indians of the Great Plains" - the images "out of nothing" are the wrong ones ... he picked up a suitable image. I read about the "dreamcatcher shield" on one site about African shields. Martial, ritual and hunting. I defined the difference in the number of "shields" - "shield from nothing" 4pcs for the entire Sioux tribe, and every Indian has a "dreamcatcher shield" ... I will not argue.
                      dreamcatcher shield
                      Here is the "dreamcatcher shield".
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 8 September 2020 18: 33
    Amazing! Some of the shields are real works of art!
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, surprised.
    1. kalibr
      8 September 2020 18: 43
      I myself, Nazarius, was surprised when I saw them live, and then I began to read about them. This is a whole era, albeit a short one. Their fashions, masters, priorities, their customers, gossip, envy. In a word, the whole world, about which he did not even know, but which was!
  4. bubalik
    bubalik 8 September 2020 19: 12
    With sword and bow samurai
    On the shield bearer
    He looks with contempt. bully
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 8 September 2020 19: 54
      Hello, Sergey. hi The Zulus were even less fortunate, they never saw the machine guns - they didn't run, they didn't manage to escape either. laughing
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 8 September 2020 20: 07
        hi,,, a moot point, but what about the Battle of Isandlvan? winked
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 8 September 2020 20: 19
          And this gentlemen, gentlemen, got drunk, and there were no machine guns during this battle. I was referring to the specific attack of several thousand Ndebel Lobengula on Cecil Rhodes' detachment. And there were only about three to five hundred whites there (I don’t remember exactly), but there were exactly six “Maximov” on the steam-horse carriages.
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 8 September 2020 20: 28
            ,,, crushed in mass, 22000 natives, against 1700 British sad
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 8 September 2020 20: 30
              Loben also had a lot, but ... Rhodes had Maxims. ))
          2. bubalik
            bubalik 8 September 2020 20: 31

            ,,, the British infantry in the battle of Isandlvan were Martini-Henry rifles, which had a good rate of fire - 10 rounds per minute.
            Well, there were still guns.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 8 September 2020 20: 32
              Seryozha, compare with the rate of fire of six Maxims.
              1. bubalik
                bubalik 8 September 2020 20: 34
                ,,, yes it is clear of course smile
                Everything will be the way we want it.
                In case of misfortune,
                We have a machine gun "Maxim",
                They don't have Maxim (s)
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 8 September 2020 21: 16
                  So many different translations, but the essence is the same. Attributed to Kipling, but it is not he, but Hilar Bellok

                  "There is a clear answer to every question:
                  We have maxim, they don't. "
                  Original text (English) [hide]
                  "Whatever happens, we have got
                  The Maxim gun, and they have not. "

                  The poems are about this one, and ours, sample of 1910, has nothing to do with it.
                2. kalibr
                  9 September 2020 06: 53
                  Bullets, thicker! By the timid! Running in the thick of it. shit, parabellum! - This is still good.
          3. hohol95
            hohol95 8 September 2020 23: 09
            Will we remember the battle at Omdurman? September 2, 1898.
            Despite the significant inequality of power - the Mahdists had up to 100 thousand fighters against Kitchener's 25-thousand corps - the Sudanese suffered a heavy defeat, losing tens of thousands of people killed and wounded.

            The British had 44 rapid-fire artillery guns and 20 Maxim machine guns in the infantry ranks.
            Churchill wrote that literally piles of fallen bodies grew in front of the positions of the machine gunners. However, one of the serious shortcomings of the Maxim machine gun immediately revealed itself - the unreliability of the water cooling of the barrel. Intense firing led to the fact that the water in the cooling casings of machine guns quickly heated up, boiled and evaporated, which forced a ceasefire at the decisive moment of the battle. In such cases, British and Egyptian soldiers rushed to the Nile and brought fresh water.
  5. Engineer
    Engineer 8 September 2020 19: 58
    To the author a prize for the best article design.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 8 September 2020 20: 16
    I would divide the article into two parts - the rondash as a utilitarian means of defense and the rondash as a piece of art, ceremonial or ceremonial weapon.
    After all, Giorgio Gizi clearly did not create his shield to protect against arquebus bullets.
    1. kalibr
      8 September 2020 20: 56
      The second article will be examples of utilitarian use ...
      1. cost
        cost 8 September 2020 21: 22
        Spanish rodeleros with armor

        1. kalibr
          8 September 2020 21: 25
          Yes, I obviously forgot about the Funkens. A picture from there would give liveliness ... It's good that you remembered about them too!
  7. Tank hard
    Tank hard 8 September 2020 20: 41
    Needless to say. I liked the article. I read it with great interest. hi
    1. kalibr
      8 September 2020 20: 55
      You see, daragoy, my bad advise! My readers love!
      1. Terenin
        Terenin 8 September 2020 21: 10
        Quote: kalibr
        My readers love!

        good Everything would be so to your readers ... Thank you!
    2. cost
      cost 8 September 2020 21: 03
      Wonderful richly illustrated article good Thanks to the author good
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 September 2020 06: 08
        Better late than never. I subscribe to Dmitry's comment. The article is excellent !!!
  8. Radikal
    Radikal 9 September 2020 03: 31
    Respect, lover, and collector of clicks. lol
    1. kalibr
      9 September 2020 06: 50
      Thank! Since you have read the article and wrote a comment, then this is the main thing. In the piggy bank VO and a little money will fit.
  9. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 9 September 2020 07: 39
    I was late for the holiday, but anyway, thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    By the way, the theme of shields can be separated into a separate cycle.
    1. kalibr
      9 September 2020 12: 55
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      By the way, the theme of shields can be separated into a separate cycle.

      Need to think...
  10. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 9 September 2020 09: 30
    Tnz. normanskiy shchit rannogo srednevekovia.
    U neho bolee slavnaya istoria.
    Po suti russkiy shchit, eto normanskiy shchit.
    1. kalibr
      9 September 2020 12: 54
      Right you are!
  11. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 9 September 2020 12: 02
    Sorry I missed a good article yesterday.
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you. smile
  12. NF68
    NF68 9 September 2020 16: 12
    Chic products.
  13. Blackgrifon
    Blackgrifon 9 September 2020 21: 29
    Very interesting!
  14. CTABEP
    CTABEP 10 September 2020 08: 56
    Straight works of art! The only question about the weight - 9-10 kg is too hard, it seems to me. A rondash with a diameter of about half a meter, even made of 5-mm steel, will weigh 7,5-8 kg, but where can we make it thicker, here? Or is it cheapness, so not very high-quality steel was allowed for such crafts, and where 3,5-4mm was enough for armor to hold the bullet, 5,5-6mm was needed there?