Military Review

Artillery of the conqueror of Europe

92

Russian mounted artillery prepares to open fire on a French infantry square. Oh, now it won't seem enough for them! Figure: A. N. Yezhova


And the volleys of a thousand guns
merged into a drawn-out howl ...
M. Yu. Lermontov. Borodino


Weapon from museums. Date August 26 (September 7) 1812 in stories Russia is of particular importance. Then, on the Borodino field, two armies, the Russian and the French, clashed, and the French were commanded by the Emperor Napoleon himself. He was in command, yes ... However, he did not achieve a decisive victory in this battle, although our Kutuzov did not achieve it either. But in history, the Battle of Borodino is called the bloodiest one-day battle. This is not surprising, given the number of participants, the density of their formation on a relatively small piece of land and the presence of more than 1000 guns on both sides, which showered opponents with cannonballs, grenades and buckshot.

Artillery of the conqueror of Europe

Here are the cannons at the entrance to the Paris Army Museum ...


And in the yard ...

But what was the French artillery like in the era of Napoleon, who, as we know, began his career as an artillery officer and skillfully used artillery in all battles? And today, just today, we will try to get to know her in detail, and for this we will visit the Paris Army Museum, which is located in the building of the House of Invalids, in the church of which Napoleon himself is buried. There is something to see. The cannons stand in front of him, along the perimeter of the courtyard and in the interior. And the most different. Starting from wrought iron bombards to the weapons of Napoleon of interest to us. However, we will have to begin our story about the artillery of France of the era of the wars of the Emperor Napoleon from 1732, when, on the initiative of General Florent de Vallière, an artillery reform was carried out in the French army and the cannons of one single system were adopted. And it was a generally progressive undertaking, if not for one "but".


"Exhibition" of Florent de Vallière's guns of the 1736 model. Say what you like, but they do not take beauty! Paris Army Museum

The fact is that he based his decisions on the experience of past wars. And then the main form of hostilities was the siege of fortresses. Therefore, de Vallière focused on the creation of powerful and long-range guns, which required, however, a lot of gunpowder and had a lot of weight. It is clear that such guns were not suitable for field battles. And again he thought about saving money, demanded that the gunners shoot "rarely, but accurately", which is why he refused to use caps with gunpowder. So the servants, with his guns, as before, began to fill the gunpowder into the barrels with the help of a shuffle - a special scoop with a long handle.


Say what you like, but the French (as well as, by the way, and we!) Have been able to make guns for a long time. Here, for example, is a large hospitaller coulevrin 1500-1510. Made in France. Caliber 165 mm. Barrel length 540 cm.Weight 3343 kg. The weight of the cast iron core is 15 kg. Presented to Napoleon III by Emir Abdul-Aziz in 1862! Paris Army Museum


Plundered gun from Algeria. Cast in 1581 in Algeria. Caliber 218 mm. Length 2,87 m.Weight 1997 kg. Core weight 11 kg. Received from Algeria in 1830. The barrel is very nicely finished, isn't it? Paris Army Museum

Soon, the shortcomings of the Vallière cannons were obvious to everyone, and already in the 40s of the XVIII century. first, the Prussians and then the Austrians began to introduce light and maneuverable weapons into their armies, which were effective primarily on the battlefield. And it was here that a new artillery system, taking into account all new circumstances, was created by General Jean-Baptiste Vauquette de Griboval (1715-1789), who underwent an internship first in the Prussian and then in the Austrian troops. As a result, he created an artillery system that outlived him and existed in France even in the second half of the 1765th century. They introduced it in 1774, then again returned to the old one, but not for long, because already in XNUMX Griboval's system finally triumphed.


A captured 12-pounder cannon from Italy, cast in 1741 in Turin. Caliber 120 mm. Length 3,20 m.Weight 1651 kg. Paris Army Museum

First of all, Griboval reduced the number of field gun calibers, leaving only three: 12 pounds, 8 and 4 pounds, and one 165,7 mm howitzer. All barrels were cast from cannon bronze and had one single appearance, differing only in size. But the uniformity of gun carriages, wheels and carriages, limbers and charging boxes was also introduced. Now a wheel made in the south of France could easily replace a wheel made in Paris and vice versa! It is clear that such standardization and unification was of great importance for the army.


6-pounder Portuguese gun. Cast in 1776. Caliber 93 mm. Length 1,18 m.Weight 128 kg. Received from Meknes (Morocco) in 1911. Paris Army Museum


Trophy Prussian gun of 1786. Caliber 71 mm. Length 1,68 m.Weight 327 kg. Projectile weight 1,4 kg. Paris Army Museum

Griboval also reduced the previous ratio of the barrel weight to the weight of field cannon shells, which, in turn, reduced their weight and the consumption of bronze for their production. The length of their barrels was also reduced, which increased the savings in metal. The powder charge was also reduced, and this resulted in significant gunpowder savings. True, this reduced the range of the guns and negatively affected the accuracy of fire. But all these shortcomings were offset by the sharply increased mobility of the guns and the increased convenience of their operation. After all, a short barrel is both a short and lighter bannik, which is much more convenient to work with than a long and heavy one. Less barrel weight means less weight for the gun carriage. And the introduction of iron axles and cast-iron wheel bushings significantly increased their strength, which was important, since the guns did not operate on the highway ...


Griboval's 8-pounder gun 1789 Paris Army Museum

Gunpowder again began to fill in dosed caps. The cores were attached with metal bands to a wooden pallet - a spiegel, which, in turn, was connected to a cap. Such an "assembly", similar to a modern unitary cartridge, only without a primer, turned out to be very convenient to load and ... transport in the charging boxes developed by Griboval. Griboval placed the canister in cans with an iron tray, which increased both the range and the accuracy of the canister shot. Card bullets began to be made of forged iron, and before that they were lead. And, by the way, it was from the French grapeshot after the campaigns of 1805-1807. Russian buckshot was also copied.


Griboval's 24-pounder cannon. Paris Army Museum

This increased their penetrating power, plus they began to ricochet off solid ground, and this increased both the range and the effectiveness of grape-shot fire! For precise aiming of guns on the trunks, they began to make flies, put sights on them, and the lifting mechanism was improved. Firing range tables were prepared, calculated for different elevation angles of the barrel, and when using them, it became much easier for officers to give commands.


Griboval's 12-pounder cannon on a gun carriage 1793-1794. Paris Army Museum

In addition to all this, Griboval also invented a "removal" - an original and very simple device in the form of a thick rope eight meters long, which was attached at one end to the front end, and the other to the ring of the gun carriage. Thanks to the "removal", it became possible to almost instantly transfer the gun from the traveling position to the combat position. While the horses were pulling the front end, the rope pulled and pulled the cannon with them. But as soon as the command "Stop!" Was given, the rope fell to the ground, and the cannon ... was ready to fire. Moreover, the length of the rope was such that it made it possible not to fear the rollback of the gun when fired. Naturally, such a simple but effective device was immediately adopted by the armies of all of Europe, although it was Griboval who invented it.


Inscription on the breech of Griboval's 12-pounder gun. Paris Army Museum

Finally, it was he who developed a new method for drilling the bore of barrels in a cast blank and on a special machine. Well, the practice of using Griboval's guns only confirmed their high combat qualities. They were used in the US War of Independence and during the French Revolution.

However, who said that good cannot be improved even more? So in France in December 1801, a commission was created, the purpose of which was to further improve the Griboval system. A year later, it was headed by Napoleon's personal adjutant, General Marmont - and it began! In a short time, a new artillery system was born, called the "System of the XI Year". Marmont, on the other hand, believed that the simpler the better the artillery, and therefore suggested replacing the 8-pound and 4-pound calibers with one 6-pound one, since it, they say, is lighter than the first, but more effective than the second, and the smaller the calibers, the better for the army, since makes it easier to supply and fabricate ammunition! He suggested making 12-pounders with short and long barrels. The first are field, the second is siege. At the same time, the "highlight" of the design of the 6-pounder Marmont cannons was that their caliber was slightly larger than that of the 6-pounder guns of the potential enemies of France. Thanks to this, the French could shoot from their cannons with their ammunition, but the enemy could not use French ammunition. In the new guns, the weight of the barrel has decreased even more, and at the same time - the allowable gap between the diameter of the barrel bore and the core. For 12-pounder siege guns, it decreased from 1,5 lines (3,37 mm) to 1 line (2,25 mm), which certainly increased the accuracy of fire. Instead of 22 types of wheels, only 10 were left, that is, the rationalization was very noticeable. And although there were some shortcomings in Marmont's system, on the whole it turned out to be clearly more successful than Griboval's system. If not for one very big "but". This "but" was ... the war that began in 1803, which later became virtually continuous. And France needed a lot of guns at once. But purely technically, it was simply impossible to transfer the barrels of some guns to others, as well as to remake the limbs from one charge to another.


Griboval's 24-pounder gun of 1772 (151 mm). Paris Army Museum

And instead of simplifying the caliber system, the army received its complication, because 4-pounder guns were added to the old 8- and 6-pounders, since it was decided to gradually replace the old guns with new ones.

I had to indulge in tricks, for example, to send only Griboval's cannons to Spain, where they were also used, but against the Germans, Austrians and Russians to use the new Marmont 6-pound guns, since those also had exactly six-pound guns. All this together led to certain difficulties with the supply. However, they were not critical for the army.

It is known that the French artillery was distinguished by a high rate of fire, which indicates its good coherence and training. It is known that Napoleon's gunners could fire up to 5-7 rounds per minute during exercises, but in real combat, as a rule, the rate of fire was no more than 2-4 rounds per minute in almost all armies of that time. For example, the heating of the barrel strongly influenced the rate of fire. Of course, it could be doused with water (best of all with the addition of vinegar, since such water cooled more quickly), but not always a river flowed near the artillery positions or there was a lake. Well, the amount of water that was supposed to be for the weapon according to the state should have been carefully saved to wet the bathhouse. And this was more important than wasting water on pouring over the heated barrel, because the barrel was cleaned with a bannik, and if there were smoldering scraps of a cap in it, the wet bannik extinguished them. Therefore, the guns in battle periodically stopped firing, and their crews waited until they naturally cool down properly.

It is true that they fired grapeshot more often, and all because the grape-casts were not so carefully hammered into the barrel, and a particularly accurate aiming was not required when shooting almost point-blank. Therefore, 3-4 rounds per minute was normal. And the howitzers were the slowest, and all because the grenades were placed in their trunks separately from the cap, and at the same time it was necessary to look so that the ignition tube looked in the direction of the flight, that is, the loading process was slowed down by both purely technical and human factors. So one or two rounds per minute for the howitzer was the limit.


12-pounder cannon "Year XI Systems". Paris Army Museum

As for the range of Napoleon's guns, it was almost four kilometers for 12-pounder guns at an elevation angle of about 45 °! It seems to be an excellent indicator, but no one really shot at such distances. I did not even think about it, since the gun carriages of those years were arranged in such a way that they did not have elevation angles greater than 6-8 °. Although, on the other hand, small elevation angles when the nucleus hit solid ground allowed it to ricochet, and the number of ricochets could reach 2-3 or even more.


Diagram of Griboval's 12-pounder gun. A feature of all his guns was that the pins on them were located below the axis of the barrel

As a result, it could well be that the core, having flown only 300 m, then ricocheted several times and flew already 1680 m! At the same time, the lethal force of the nuclei when hitting a live target was lost insignificantly and only at very large distances was weakened so much that it could no longer inflict injuries and injuries incompatible with life. So, for example, it is known that Nadezhda Durova, a well-known cavalry girl in the battle of Borodino, an orderly of the Uhlan at Kutuzov's headquarters, was concussed by a cannonball that apparently hit her leg with a ricochet. She writes that the leg was all crimson and was in severe pain, so that she limped, but could still walk. Kutuzov noticed this and, having learned the reason, gave her leave for treatment. Fortunately for her, this concussion had no consequences.


Diagram of Griboval's 4-pounder gun

And this is quite surprising, since the impact force of the cast iron cores was very high. Thus, a 12-pound core of a French field gun from a distance of 500 m pierced an earthen parapet two meters thick or a brick wall 0,4 m thick, which also corresponds to ... 36 soldiers, placed one after another. And since at that time the infantry formations were distinguished by a high density (Napoleon himself said that God was on the side of large battalions), it is hardly surprising that almost every shot towards the same square of infantry or along the lines of cavalry going into the attack found its victims ...


A 324-mm mortar, cast in 1811, cast together with the gun carriage. How can one aim this at range if it does not have trunnions? It's very simple: by changing the charges with gunpowder! Paris Army Museum



Fortress cannon "System XI of the year" 1810. Paris Army Museum

Experiments carried out at that time also showed the high efficiency of canister fire. There is also a known case from combat practice, when a 24-pounder shot at an attacking French convoy immediately killed 44 people, killed and wounded by this one shot, and 17 of them died immediately.


Experienced three-shot revolving cannon. Yes, they tried to do that at that time! Paris Army Museum)

The grenades also caused considerable damage. True, the scattering range of their fragments averaged about 20 m, but individual large pieces of it scattered 150-200 m, while each grenade produced from 25 to 50 fragments during an explosion. The explosions frightened the horses, which mattered when firing at the enemy's cavalry. Although such a case is also known, all with the same Nadezhda Durova, when an enemy grenade exploded under the belly of her horse during a horse attack. Although she heard the whistle of shrapnel, none of them touched her or her horse. So, on the battlefields of the Napoleonic wars, artillery played just a very important role.


Naturally, among those who collect figurines of soldiers, artillerymen with guns are especially popular. For example, a diorama: French foot artillery in battle


And these are their opponents - Russian artillerymen!

Note that the requirement for artillery mobility at that time was constantly increasing, which led to the creation of special horse artillery, which appeared in the French army later than others, and explosive grenades began to play an even more important role, which led to an increase in the number of howitzers. The division's horse artillery company consisted of four 8-pounder guns and 2 6-inch howitzers. A company of foot artillery consists of two 12-pounders, two eight- or four-pounds, and two howitzers. An important role was also played by the establishment by Napoleon of the Furshtat battalions, which took place in 1800 and canceled the supply of horses and drivers for guns by private contractors. Not being soldiers, these people often fled at the very first shots, but in case of victory, they were the first to rush to plunder. Now their place was taken by the Furshtat battalion, which consisted of five companies of artillerymen: one of the best for horse artillery, one for foot, and one each for service in the park, in the fortresses and in the reserve depot. Each soldier was supposed to look after two horses. At the same time, horses were purchased by the government and maintained at the expense of the treasury, like horses in the cavalry. But in peacetime, in order to reduce the cost of their maintenance ("How much is oats now?"), Only 1000 horses were left at the battalions, and all the rest of the horses were distributed to private individuals in the farm. Moreover, they had to return at the first request and in good condition.

The administration of the site and the author of the material express their gratitude to the company "Tin soldier.rf. on Yuzhnaya "for the provided photos of their dioramas.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 30 August 2020 07: 30 New
    10
    Good morning, Vyacheslav Olegovich. I already got used to reading your articles on weekends. Thanks for the next one.
    1. Ragnar Lodbrok
      Ragnar Lodbrok 30 August 2020 07: 44 New
      17
      Thank you to the author, very interesting and beautifully illustrated!
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 30 August 2020 08: 27 New
      +2
      Dear author, this is sic
      Now their place was taken by the Furshtat battalion, which consisted of five companies. gunners:
      belay
      Furshtat is an old name for transport units. Since 1711, each infantry and dragoon regiment had a certain number of lower ranks of transport. in 1757, the 1st convoy unit was formed in our country - the artillery Furshtat; with 2 field artillery regiments. Furshtaty consisted of 3 companies, and with the observational and secret howitzer corps it was under the command of the furshtat. on the straps. However, in Western Europe, the Furshtat artillery was established much later: in Austria - 3, in France - 1772.
      request
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 12: 11 New
        +6
        In addition to the furshtat, all along A. Nilus I will express my doubts about the effectiveness of the iron axles!
        And the introduction of iron axles and cast-iron wheel bushings significantly increased their strength, which was important, since the guns did not operate on the highway ...

        All this led to the loss of the ability to quickly and efficiently repair the gun carriage. In the yard stood the 18th century, where every second was with an ax on you.
        In addition, the weight of the gun increased, which forced the French to weaken the carriage due to the bending of the beds. Given that the French used four wheeled ammunition boxes, their artillery was much less mobile than ours.
        The French were able to give me decent howitzer artillery. By changing Walter's 8 "howitzers to Giboville's 6" howitzers, they had to lower the gun elevation angle. So, in general, the howitzer guns of the French were inferior to our unicorns. On a buckshot shot twice!
        And finally, the XI reform did not live up to Napoleon's aspirations and the latter, for the company with Russia in 1812, had to take 300 3-pounder Austrian guns, which were clumsily attached to battalions without furshtat and even experienced gunners !!!
        Well the latest French howitzers had wooden axles.
        So in artillery in 1812, the French and I were at least on an equal footing.
        Well, in general, the last thing - Kutuzov, holding the artillery in the Battle of Borodino, unwittingly fulfilled the theory of French tacticians, who believed that at least 2/3 of the entire Artillery Park should be in reserve.
        Well, somewhere like that!
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 30 August 2020 12: 40 New
          0
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          In the yard stood the 18th century, where every second was with an ax on you.
          negative
          Well, if your great-great-grandfather did not hold an ax in his hands ....... Every man in RI had an ax freely, everyone! The population of cities and 10% was not. request
          Moreover weight increased guns that made the French let loose carriage at the expense bending stanin.
          Well, this pearl is worthy ..... even Shpakovsky, this can offend. crying
          6 inches Gibovil
          Reminds of Admiral Rozhdestvensky. crying
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 18: 06 New
            +6
            Well, if your great-great-grandfather did not hold an ax in his hands ....... Every man in RI had an ax freely, everyone! The population of cities and 10% was not.

            It is immediately clear that you (if you insist) are a city dweller and have no idea how a carpenter differs from a carpenter, and the latter differs from a cabinetmaker!
            However, the axle from the shafts of the cart, apparently, is also unlikely to tell!
            At a glance, five differences between the axle of the cart and the shafts! laughing
            In Russia, everyone was carpenters, but not everyone could build a boat with one ax, shave a wheel from a cart and make parquet.
            In addition, the weight of the gun increased, which forced the French to weaken the carriage due to the bending of the beds.

            It was not I who wrote it, but as I mentioned above A. Nilus.
            He is supported by French experts - describing machine tools from the era of the Napoleonic wars. Read and find it !!!
            Several photos for comparison.




            Which is stronger than a straight two-inch board or a composite board?
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 31 August 2020 08: 41 New
              -3
              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              It is immediately clear that you (if you insist)

              fool Are you sick? Where did he insist?
            2. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 7 September 2020 18: 26 New
              0
              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka

              In addition, the weight of the gun increased, which forced the French let loose carriage due to the bending of the beds.
              It was not I who wrote it, but as I mentioned above A. Nilus.
              fool fool fool Are you sure Nilus wrote exactly that and the translators didn't screw it up? I'm talking about the nonsense you cited. The meaning can only appear with the correct translation. Not to weaken, but to lighten the carriage, due to constructive solutions. request
          2. Icelord
            Icelord 7 September 2020 18: 07 New
            +1
            Eeee .... to chop the enemies with an ax, yes, every man could? Vikings however
        2. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 30 August 2020 16: 38 New
          -1
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          where with an ax on You was every second.

          I missed it, it's my fault. In Russian will be on You.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 30 August 2020 09: 14 New
      +6
      Hi, Igor! hi
      Without Shpakovsky, a day off is not a day off, it has already become a tradition. smile
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 30 August 2020 20: 21 New
        +2
        Konstantin, would you prefer Samsonov? I very much doubt it
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 31 August 2020 00: 32 New
          +4
          And what does Samsonov have to do with it, did you see me commenting on his articles? You have a strange reaction to my compliment to Vyacheslav. Here is the trouble with you, aunts, turn everything inside out, trouble, and only ...
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 31 August 2020 16: 28 New
            +1
            Konstantin, you probably didn't understand the joke?
            And if I say: "Here's the trouble with the guys: they are even more emotional than women."
            Р
            S
            I respect your erudition, but as a woman, I will reserve the right to be offended
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 30 August 2020 08: 07 New
    +2
    As always, a lot has been written hi and fabulous belaybut with links to sources. hi
    As a result, it could well be that the core, flying only 300 m, then ricocheted several times and flew already 1680 m!
    crying
    At the same time, the lethal force of the nuclei when hitting a live target was lost insignificantly and only at very large distances was weakened so much that it could no longer inflict wounds and injuries incompatible with life. So, for example, it is known that Nadezhda Durova, a well-known cavalry girl in the battle of Borodino, an Uhlan orderly at Kutuzov's headquarters, was concussed by a cannonball, which apparently hit her leg with a ricochet. She writes that the leg was all crimson and was in severe pain, so that she limped, but could still walk.
    belay I understand the memories of a historical person! But this is exactly the case when it is worth approaching them critically. The ball hit your leg and flew further or fell at your feet? request Rave. Most likely, a piece of a stock, a carriage wheel, or a twisted cobblestone arrived.
    Although such a case is also known, all with the same Nadezhda Durova, when an enemy grenade exploded under the belly of her horse during a horse attack. Although she heard the whistle of shrapnel, none of them touched her or her horse.
    crying Here the horse and ND would definitely be concussed, a shock wave, you know. I have not read the memoirs. And again the captions under the drawings, go again, girls-students?
    Diagram of Griboval's 12-pounder gun. A feature of all his guns was that the pins on them were located below the axis of the barrel
    bully the pins are clearly aligned with the axis of the barrel. Well and so on.
    Not being soldiers, these people often fled at the very first shots, but in case of victory they were the first to rush to plunder.
    Did you mean looting? repeat
    1. Liam
      Liam 30 August 2020 08: 54 New
      -1
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      The ball hit your leg and flew further or fell at your feet? Rave. Most likely, a piece of a stock, a carriage wheel, or a twisted cobblestone arrived.

      Optional. The nucleus could concussion or kill a person without even touching him and without changing its trajectory accordingly. It was enough that the nucleus flew close enough (in centimeters) and the person was concussed or killed by the shock wave caused by the high speed of the nucleus
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 11: 37 New
        +2
        About Walter's reform.
        And again he thought about saving money, demanded that the gunners shoot "rarely, but accurately", which is why he refused to use caps with gunpowder.

        And also the sights were removed from the French guns for half a century and even the flies were cut down !!!
        Doubtful actions to improve shooting accuracy!
      2. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 30 August 2020 12: 54 New
        -1
        Quote: Liam
        concussion or was killing shock wave caused by the high velocity of the core
        belay belay
        Now I believe you can get a shell shock on the stove too. bully This is me about myself. repeat You get up in the morning, look at your favorite site and that's it .... A nucleus flying at a speed of 200-300 m will fly in a centimeter and a poleax head.
        When the blank hits the turret of the tank, if there was contact between the tanker and the armor, it could kill without a crumb.
        1. Liam
          Liam 30 August 2020 14: 57 New
          -1
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          A nucleus flying at a speed of 200-300 m will fly in a centimeter and a poleax head.

          4-5 kg ​​nucleus at a speed of 200/300 m / s if it flies a centimeter from a person's chest / abdomen, then a shock wave will cause him such minor troubles as soft tissue contusion, rupture of internal organs, liver, spleen, etc. And if next to the leg, the vessels burst and an ugly bruise will remain, for example.
          1. BAI
            BAI 30 August 2020 15: 22 New
            +5
            4-5 kg ​​core per speed 200/300 m / s if it flies a centimeter from a person's chest / abdomen, then a shock wave

            A SHOCK WAVE is a front of a sharp, almost instantaneous, change in the parameters of the medium: density, pressure, temperature, velocity, propagating through the medium. Shock waves are also called strong discontinuities or surges. Causes of shock waves in gases - flights at supersonic speeds (sonic boom), high-velocity outflow through nozzles, powerful explosions, electrical discharges, intense combustion.

            There was no shock wave from the core. In principle, it could not be.
            1. Liam
              Liam 30 August 2020 15: 33 New
              0
              Quote: BAI
              There was no shock wave from the core. In principle, it could not be.

              Yes you..
              a shock wave in an ordinary medium is always a compression wave.

              The described mechanism predicts the inevitable transformation of any sound wave into a weak shock wave. However, in everyday conditions this takes too long, so that the sound wave has time to decay before the nonlinearities become noticeable. The rapid transformation of the density fluctuation into a shock wave requires strong initial deviations from equilibrium. This can be achieved either by creating a sound wave at a very high volume, or mechanically, by transonic movement of objects in the environment. That is why shock waves easily arise during explosions, during near- and supersonic motions of bodies, during powerful electrical discharges, etc.
              1. BAI
                BAI 30 August 2020 17: 55 New
                +3
                I hope you took this from WIKI, and not from the forums. But it's better to use physics textbooks.
      3. Serg4545
        Serg4545 30 August 2020 20: 00 New
        +3
        Quote: Liam
        Optional. The nucleus could concussion or kill a person without even touching him and without changing its trajectory accordingly. It was enough that the nucleus flew close enough (in centimeters) and the person was concussed or killed by the shock wave caused by the high speed of the nucleus


        Sorry, but you wrote complete nonsense. The passing nuclei did not create any significant shock wave.
        The article states that the guns fired at 4 km. According to your logic, if we put 4000 people close to the flight path of the nucleus (one for each meter), then all of them will be injured or killed? And if people stand both to the left and to the right of the trajectory, the number of victims will grow to 8000 !?
        And this despite the fact that the same core, with a direct hit, is capable of killing only 38 people maximum (again, there is in the article).
        1. Liam
          Liam 30 August 2020 20: 20 New
          -1
          You have a very rich imagination
    2. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 30 August 2020 23: 11 New
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      the pins are clearly aligned with the axis of the barrel. Well and so on.

      The pins are made slightly below the axis of the barrel so that when recoil, the barrel is pressed against the frame.
    3. kalibr
      31 August 2020 08: 10 New
      +3
      Diagram of Griboval's 12-pounder gun. A feature of all his guns was that the pins on them were located below the axis of the barrel
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      the pins are clearly aligned with the axis of the barrel.
      - You have obviously slanting eyes! The diagram below clearly shows that they are shifted down.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 31 August 2020 08: 48 New
        -5
        Quote: kalibr
        You have obviously slanting eyes!

        negative Are you rude, lad? (12 chairs) However, the blood of ancestors seems to have leapt. Or maybe not only her? ... crying
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Liam
          Liam 31 August 2020 14: 12 New
          -2
          Basically you are rude because of ignorance of materiel.

          Cannons: Gribovalev's 12-, 8- and 4-pounders,
          Year XI systems 12 and 6 lb.

          The channel ended with a flat bottom with a 1/8 caliber rounding. A fuse with a diameter of 2,5 lines. Note that the French inch was duodecimal, as opposed to English decimal) was drilled at an angle in the seed screw.

          The diameter of the pins was equal to the diameter of the cores, and they all had shoulders. The axis of the pins of the Gribovalev guns is 1/12 of the diameter of the core below the axis of the gun
          .
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 31 August 2020 16: 34 New
          +1
          Poking is not the best argument in an argument.
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 30 August 2020 09: 06 New
    +7
    ... the "highlight" of the design of the 6-pounder Marmont cannons was that their caliber was slightly larger than that of the 6-pounder guns of the potential enemies of France. Thanks to this, the French could shoot from their cannons with their ammunition, but the enemy could not use French ammunition.

    Sumptuously!!! A purely "Jewish" solution to the problem. Test! good laughing
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 30 August 2020 09: 18 New
      +8
      The caliber of the company mortar of the Soviet army is 82 mm, the European standard is 81,4 mm. The same case.
      1. 41st region
        41st region 30 August 2020 12: 19 New
        +4
        Battalion. Battalion mortar. Company caliber - 50 mm.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 30 August 2020 11: 49 New
      +8
      At the same time, the "highlight" of the design of the 6-pounder Marmont cannons was that their caliber was slightly larger than that of the 6-pounder guns of the guns of potential opponents of France.
      There was no "zest". It's all about the difference between French and British units.
      The British pound is equal to 0,454 kg, the French (livre) - 0,490 kg. An English inch is 25,4 mm. Old French inch (pus) - 27 mm. Hence the difference in size.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 30 August 2020 12: 05 New
        +5
        Since in the Mauser cartridge 7,63x25 and in the TT cartridge 7,62x25?

        1. Undecim
          Undecim 30 August 2020 12: 31 New
          +5
          Well no. In caliber from 7 mm to 8 mm there are 7 mm, 7,62 mm, 7,63 mm, 7,65 mm, 7,7 mm, 7,92 mm. Obviously, in each specific case, the designer was guided by some of his own considerations when choosing a caliber.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 30 August 2020 12: 34 New
            +6
            And who measures how? Some in the fields, some in the grooves? Or is there a single standard for everyone?
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 30 August 2020 12: 57 New
              +4
              The Americans measure by fields, the rest, mainly by cuts. Details need to be clarified.
              1. 41st region
                41st region 30 August 2020 13: 41 New
                +4
                We're in the fields too smile
                And "the rest" is Europe.
        2. mikstepanenko
          mikstepanenko 30 August 2020 15: 07 New
          +2
          The difference is that in one case, the measurement is by the inner diameter of the grooves, and in the other, by the outer diameter. It was possible to shoot Mauser cartridges from TT, the opposite was fraught with a barrel rupture. The TT cartridges have a different, stronger gunpowder.
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 30 August 2020 20: 06 New
          +2
          I certainly didn't shoot like that. I saw TT only in pictures, but PSM is well known
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 August 2020 12: 16 New
        +4
        But, in fact, nothing changes?
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 30 August 2020 09: 46 New
    +6
    ("How much are oats today?")
    "Oats are expensive today" (C)
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 30 August 2020 12: 45 New
      +3
      "What, oats are expensive today?" - Ostap's question to Korobeynikov when "buying" orders.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 August 2020 12: 47 New
        +3
        Initially, the phrase belongs to the pen of Averchenko.
  5. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 30 August 2020 10: 38 New
    +4
    Thanks to the author.
    It becomes clear that the war at all times was a difficult and very expensive business, at each time - in its own way. The production of guns, gunpowder and cannonballs required a lot of effort and a lot of money. Horses that were distracted from useful production by fondling cannons and carts. But, for some reason, humanity cannot do without wars ...
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 30 August 2020 12: 03 New
    +9
    Finally, it was he who developed a new method of drilling barrel bores in a cast blank and on a special machine.
    Griboval did not develop barrel drilling methods. The vertical drilling method was developed by Swiss mechanic Jean Maritz in 1713.

    The weight of the barrel was used, which was lowered onto a rotating cutter. The method was ineffective and did not provide accuracy.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 30 August 2020 12: 06 New
      +6
      Therefore, Maritz in 1734 develops a method of horizontal drilling.

      This technology provided both productivity and accuracy, so Vallière (not Griboval) immediately introduced it into production.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 August 2020 12: 18 New
        +3
        Hmmm, and in the second case, the workpiece rotates?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 August 2020 12: 38 New
          +3
          The roulette wheel spins and zero appears, and the client bet on red, "as a result, the gentleman shot himself."
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 August 2020 12: 43 New
            +4
            "Will stay in their gambling houses,
            Some vaunted green tables "(C)
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 August 2020 13: 03 New
              +5
              "On the table there are bottles-glasses,
              Hey, hostess, pour some wine! "(C)
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 August 2020 13: 08 New
                +4
                "There is a green damask in the taverns,
                White napkins "(C)
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 30 August 2020 13: 48 New
                  +6
                  "Paradise for beggars and fools,
                  Well, I'm like a bird in a cage! "(C)
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 30 August 2020 19: 23 New
                    +4
                    Even if the alcohol freezes,
                    I won’t leave him anyway.
                    I will bite his teeth
                    Because he is good!
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 30 August 2020 12: 48 New
          +5
          Yes, what surprises you? Drilling with a non-rotating tool.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 August 2020 12: 56 New
            +5
            Nothing, actually, just asked the question. It turns out that centering the rotating workpiece (800kg?) Relative to the cutter turned out to be easier than vice versa. Well, plus productivity, as I understand it, 4 trunks were bored at the same time. By the way, what kind of drive was used?
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 30 August 2020 13: 08 New
              +6
              In those years, I think, water. Par took his first steps.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 August 2020 13: 10 New
                +5
                And in the first case, I thought it was manual.
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 30 August 2020 13: 16 New
                  +6
                  "Horse". The horse was driven in a circle.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 30 August 2020 13: 21 New
                    +5
                    That is, the uniformity of rotation left much to be desired, hence the seizure in the bore.
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 30 August 2020 13: 52 New
                      +6
                      The feed and cutting speed affect the surface quality. But with the speed and feed, which was available on the vertical machine and the drive from the mare ... It is unlikely that her gait especially influenced the quality of the trunk. Here is the quality of the casting influenced exactly.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 August 2020 14: 01 New
                        +5
                        Do you think that casting quality has improved dramatically in 21 years?
                      2. Undecim
                        Undecim 30 August 2020 14: 09 New
                        +7
                        For technology, 21 years is sometimes a very serious period. I remember, for example, TVs from the 60s and 80s. In addition, on a vertical machine the barrel reamed.
                        That is, the barrel was already cast with a channel, and then reamed to the desired diameter.
                        Naturally, during casting, it is problematic to ensure the alignment of the bore and the casting itself, as well as to ensure the absence of cavities in the layer around the "bump" that forms the bore.
                        A solid casting was drilled on a horizontal machine.
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 August 2020 14: 16 New
                        +4
                        Thank you, Victor Nikolaevich! Now everything fell into place. The technological chain has changed a lot.
                      4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 15: 51 New
                        +4
                        The problems with the vertical machine were mainly due to the fact that when the drill broke it was almost impossible to remove it.
                        (Artillery of the era of the Napoleonic wars: a comparative historical study, Korneev, Penza 2018).
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 August 2020 21: 14 New
                        +3
                        Thank you Vlad! I present the mechanics of the process.
                    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 20: 46 New
                      +2
                      ... A solid casting was drilled on a horizontal machine.

                      The first in our country to propose to cast solid bodies of tools, followed by drilling, was master Nart. Contemporary of Peter and Elizabeth. Alas, his project was shelved.
                    3. Undecim
                      Undecim 30 August 2020 21: 54 New
                      +9
                      They didn't. I spent a lot of time to sort out this issue. After all, there are no drawings for the machine - the invention was considered secret. It would be correct to say that Nartov did not offer to cast the barrels without a channel, but was able to successfully repeat and improve the Maritsa technology.
                      They knew about the method of Maritsa in Russia and the Swiss Johann Gonzet was instructed to develop a similar one. In case of success, a prize of 60 rubles was promised. But the Swiss failed. On the recommendation of the president of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Korf, the task was set before Nartov and he solved it, and the conclusion of the Senate was preserved. In the Sverdlovsk regional archive, a local historian Aleksandrov found a diagram of this presumably machine.
                      They tried to restore the machine using it in Kiev. Here's what happened.
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 16: 05 New
        +4
        Quote: Undecim
        In those years, I think, water. Par took his first steps.

        The first steam engines of James Watt - in Europe since the 70s. XVIII century. In our country, by order of Arakcheev, steam for drilling barrels began to be used in 1811. The first such engines began to function at the St. Petersburg Arsenal.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 August 2020 21: 21 New
          +2

          The first steam engines of James Watt - in Europe since the 70s. XVIII century.

          1705, Severy and Newcome
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 30 August 2020 23: 47 New
            +6
            This is an atmospheric car. It can only be used as a pump.
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 16: 10 New
      +5
      On our horizontal machines, up to five trunks were simultaneously bored (drilled). Moreover, our horizontal method, developed in Gatchina to the primitives of Maurice, was much more perfect than the French one.
      In Kamensk, a water drive was used.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 16: 48 New
        +4
        Primitives to read based on! Sori !!!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 August 2020 21: 31 New
          +3
          Well, the general meaning is clear!
  • hohol95
    hohol95 30 August 2020 19: 17 New
    +3
    So on lathes there is a similar principle - the workpiece rotates, the drill or cutter is stationary and only with effort is fed forward.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 August 2020 21: 29 New
      +4
      Optionally, Alexey, there are also carousel machines.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 30 August 2020 23: 21 New
        +3
        I had nothing to do with carousels. Simple and ancient machines 16K20.
  • gorenina91
    gorenina91 30 August 2020 12: 35 New
    +2
    ... the "highlight" of the design of the 6-pounder Marmont cannons was that their caliber was slightly larger than that of the 6-pounder guns of the potential enemies of France. Thanks to this, the French could shoot from their cannons with their ammunition, but the enemy could not use French ammunition.

    -So personally, I was always amazed (and today it never ceases to amaze) the fact that the "main caliber" of our Russian "today's guns" (artillery) remained ...- 152 mm ... -Almost everywhere (about NATO countries and it is not necessary to speak ... -even China has "mastered" this caliber) all over the world a long time ago "the caliber has been set" ... - 155 mm ...
    - Personally, I've already written about this in some topic ...
    -Does it really remain decisive that the warehouses are filled with old 152 mm shells (from the time of the Second World War) and there is a hope that everyone will use them sometime ??? - After all, many are already of rather dubious quality ... - Even the fighting in Novorossiya showed this ...
    -And if Russia also switched to a caliber ... 155 mm ... -Probably NATO shells (155 mm) could be used for our guns ... -Is this possible ...
    -And can our enemies use our 155 mm shells for NATO's 152 mm guns (in the case of "deep extreme") .. -Of course it will be problematic, but still ... - is this possible ??? -Already ... once I asked this question ...
    1. mikstepanenko
      mikstepanenko 30 August 2020 15: 13 New
      +5
      The trick is that 152 and 155 are the same caliber. Measured in one case on the inner, and in the other on the outer diameter of the grooves. Another question in the shape and size of the cartridge case with gunpowder, I don't know.
  • BAI
    BAI 30 August 2020 15: 13 New
    +5
    When I see vertically placed cannons, I immediately recall the version that the Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell were to be used like this:
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 18: 08 New
      +4
      Quote: BAI
      When I see vertically placed cannons, I immediately recall the version that the Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell were to be used like this:

      I wonder where you can find a first grader with a similar bell!
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 30 August 2020 19: 12 New
    +4
    I read somewhere that the French during the revolutionary wars cast cannons by inserting a cylinder of unbaked clay into the mold. Thus, after casting, it was necessary to drill out not metal, but clay, which, essno, is much easier.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 20: 50 New
      +2
      Quote: Senior Sailor
      I read somewhere that the French during the revolutionary wars cast cannons by inserting a cylinder of unbaked clay into the mold. Thus, after casting, it was necessary to drill out not metal, but clay, which, essno, is much easier.

      That's right, we experimented with the XI system. But overall it was unsuccessful.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 August 2020 21: 52 New
      +4
      which, essno, is much simpler.
      Well, how to say, drilling over-heated clay is still fun!
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 4 September 2020 18: 56 New
        +1
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        overheated clay

        Overheated - yes, but why would it become overheated?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 4 September 2020 21: 13 New
          0
          From the "adroid", in which the letters "yyeeeeoooo" - no !!!!
          Ivan, with nagging spelling, this is for the authors of the materials. Do you want to compete with me on the subject of "Russian language"?
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 4 September 2020 22: 30 New
            +1
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            with nagging spelling

            Not understood... request
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Would you like to fight with me on the subject of "Russian language"?

            No, but with the brick firing technology, it's easy. yes
            In short, although the melting point of bronze is, in principle, sufficient to obtain a burnout, this is not the only factor. The composition of the charge, drying and firing modes are important here. If desired, you can choose such a mode that the product (rod) does not even need to be drilled out. Get enough sleep from the blow am
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 30 August 2020 19: 56 New
    +4
    "fortress cannon of the X1g system." It is very "zahezana", others are also made of bronze, but more accurate
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 August 2020 20: 55 New
      +4
      Quote: Astra wild
      "fortress cannon of the X1g system." It is very "zahezana", others are also made of bronze, but more accurate

      Child of revolutionary corruption, apparently, did not keep the proportion. Her field and regimental counterparts at the Kremlin walls also look sour.
  • Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 30 August 2020 23: 29 New
    +2
    Griboval also invented a “pick-up” - an original and very simple device in the form of a thick rope eight meters long, which was attached at one end to the front end, and at the other to the ring of the gun carriage. Thanks to the "removal" it became possible almost instantly to transfer the gun from the traveling position to the combat position.

    "Otvoz", as the name suggests, was used for retreat shooting. The range of buckshot is not great, because the guns rolled out in front of the advancing enemy, fired, and immediately, without lifting them to the front, they were dragged back by a team.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 31 August 2020 00: 00 New
      +6
      The haul is a long rope, sometimes used to move implements over relatively short distances. At the same time, time was saved due to the fact that the trunk was not superimposed on the front end, but dragged along the ground. In horse artillery, removal was not used.
      There were two transfers - front and rear. The front one had a wooden block at one end - a rivet, and at the other - one loop. When it was necessary to go forward (on the front haulage), the rivet was threaded through the ring on the front end under the kingpin, then into the loop, and the haulage was hooked on the combat cushion on the gun carriage. When moving backward (on a back lift), a different lift was used, consisting of tied ropes with four ends. A rivet was tied to the shortest end, a large loop on the longest, and two identical loops on the middle two. As in the case of a front pull, the rivet was threaded into the ring and a large loop, and the small loops were hooked onto the rear monitor hooks located on the trunk.
      In Russian field artillery it was in the form of a hemp rope 4 dm. in circumference and about 46 ft. length, preserved until rearmament with rapid-fire samples, remaining with guns mod. 77, only as an aid for auxiliary actions, since with the introduction of long-range rifled artillery, firing while driving on transports was canceled.
  • hostel
    hostel 7 September 2020 22: 58 New
    0
    Great article.