Sub-caliber bullets and a tungsten carbide conical barrel: the future of small arms?


Telescopic cartridge (in the center) - a projectile for a 40 mm automatic cannon 40 CTAS (Cased Telescoped Armament System) in a reduced scale


Article "Forgotten Soviet cartridge 6x49 mm against the cartridge 6,8 mm NGSW" We examined one of the possible ways to respond to the American NGSW program if it is successfully implemented. Possible evolutionary paths of small arms weapons in the Russian Federation in the event of a clear failure of the NGSW program, we considered earlier in the article “The evolution of an automaton in the USSR and in Russia in the context of the American NGSW program”.

One of the priority tasks for promising small arms, which is indicated as the reason for the appearance of the NGSW program, is the appearance in the armed forces of Russia and China existing and prospective means of individual armor protection (NIB).

Despite its apparent simplicity, small arms are incredibly effective in the destruction of enemy soldiers, which shows medical statistics of the largest military conflicts of the XX century, With the cost of re-equipping the armed forces with even complex and expensive small arms is only a small fraction of the cost of financial expenses for other types of weapons.

As we have already considered earlier, there are two main ways to increase the armor penetration of ammunition: increase its kinetic energy and optimize the shape and material of the ammunition / ammunition core (of course, we are not talking about explosive, cumulative or poisoned ammunition). A bullet or core for it is made of ceramic alloys of high hardness and sufficiently high density (to increase mass), they can be made harder and stronger, denser - hardly. Increasing the mass of a bullet by increasing its dimensions is also almost impossible in the acceptable dimensions of handguns. There remains an increase in bullet speed, for example, to hypersonic, but even in this case, developers are faced with enormous difficulties in the form of the lack of necessary gunpowder, extremely rapid barrel wear and high recoil acting on the shooter.

Nevertheless, there are several ways to increase the armor penetration of a bullet: the use of sub-caliber bullets and conical trunks.

Caliber bullets


Active research on the possibility of using sub-caliber bullets (feathered sub-caliber bullets, OPP) in small arms has been carried out since the middle of the XNUMXth century. Prior to this, the creation of armor-piercing feathered sub-caliber shells (BOPS) was considered a more popular and promising direction, which, in fact, was confirmed by their creation and successful operation to date.

Work on BOPS in the USSR began in 1946, and since 1960 at NII-61 the possibility of using BOPS in fast-firing automatic guns under the guidance of A. G. Shipunov was studied. At the same time, work was underway to create a new automatic weapon of 5,45 mm caliber, in connection with which A.G. Shipunov was asked to develop a cartridge with a firearm for small arms.

The preliminary design was developed by D. I. Shiryaev as soon as possible. However, theoretical studies have not been experimentally confirmed. The actual ballistic coefficient of swept bullets turned out to be two times worse than the calculated one, the pressed pallet was torn off the bullet, the production of cartridges with AKI required laborious turning, milling, locksmithing and subsequent manual assembly.

In 1962, tests were carried out for the lethal action of arrow-shaped bullets, which, as it turned out, was inferior not only to the requirements of the military for promising ammunition, but also to existing regular ammunition.


A sketch of a cartridge with a feathered sub-caliber bullet developed by D. I. Shiryaev. Photo of the first version of the swept bullet to it and mock-ups of the processed prototype 7,62 / 3-mm cartridges of 1963–64

In 1964, work on swept bullets was resumed by I.P. Kasyanov and V.A. Petrov, who carried out a preliminary design of a rifle-machine gun cartridge of 10 / 4,5 mm caliber with an initial RPM speed of 1300 m / s. Since 1965, young designers Vladislav Dvoryaninov was appointed executive performer for a promising cartridge.

In the process of designing a new cartridge, solutions were implemented that increase the lethal effect: a flat in the front of the OPP to provide a tipping moment when it gets into dense fabrics and a transverse groove along which the arrow was bent under the influence of the arising tipping moment.


Cartridge and feathered subcaliber bullet V.N.Dvoryaninova caliber 10 / 4,5 mm

The most difficult task was to increase the accuracy of firing with sub-caliber feathered bullets to the level of accuracy of bullets fired from rifled barrels. It was necessary to eliminate the influence of the pallet sectors on the runway at the time of their separation after departure from the trunk. In 1981, the tests of experimental 10 / 4,5-mm cartridges with an OPP in the OTK TSNIITOCHMASH showed accuracy of 88-89 mm with requirements not exceeding 90 mm.

It should be separately noted that the laboriousness of manufacturing an experimental cartridge with an OPP was only 1,8 times higher than the laboriousness of manufacturing a standard 7,62 mm rifle cartridge, and the resource of smooth-walled machine-gun barrels when firing this cartridge exceeded 32 thousand shots. For comparison: the resource of the barrel of the AK-74 assault rifle of 5,45x39 mm caliber is 10000 rounds, the PKM machine gun of the caliber 7,62x54R 25000 rounds.

Simultaneously with the development of the main 10 / 4,5-mm variant, a single-bullet 10 / 3,5-mm cartridge with an initial OPP speed of 1360 m / s and a three-bullet 10 / 2,5 mm cartridge, which could be used as a single cartridge for the machine gun, were developed and a light machine gun.

Sub-caliber bullets and a tungsten carbide conical barrel: the future of small arms?
Comparative characteristics of experimental cartridges with OPP, as well as serial and experimental cartridges for rifled trunks

A single-bullet 10 / 3,5-mm cartridge could be used at long ranges, while the use of a three-bullet cartridge would provide a higher destructive and stopping effect at close range. As we said in the article “Stop cannot be killed. Where to put a comma? ", if we consider the stopping effect as a dependence of the probability of death on time, from the moment a bullet hits the target, then hit at the same time several munitions with a high probability will provide a higher probability of damage to vital organs and, accordingly, the speed of death.

The ammunition with the OPP was never taken into service. Formally, priority was given to the more classic 6x49 mm cartridge for rifled weapons, which we talked about in the article "Forgotten Soviet cartridge 6x49 mm against the cartridge 6,8 mm NGSW". At that time, the characteristics of the 6x49 mm cartridge fully met the requirements of the military, while its development in production would be an order of magnitude simpler than cartridges with AKI. In addition, some tests pointed to a potential shortage of ammunition with an AKP - too wide an expansion of pallets that could hit their own soldiers located in front of the gunner. On the other hand, it was suggested that these tests were used as a formal reason to give priority to the cartridge 6x49 mm, since earlier tests did not show significant problems with the expansion of pallets.


The zones of expansion of the sectors of the pallet of cartridges with OPP on tests conducted in 1973 and 1981

However, the collapse of the USSR drew a line both over the topic for cartridges with AKP, and with the topic for the cartridge 6x49 mm.

In details история the creation of sub-caliber ammunition for small arms is described in the article “Swept bullets: the path of false hopes or the history of missed opportunities?” (Part 1 и Part 2).

Conical trunk


Article “9 mm caliber and stopping action. Why was 7,62x25 TT replaced with a 9x18 mm PM? ” the “Gerlich bullet” was mentioned as an example of creating a small-caliber cartridge with extreme damaging parameters.

Initially, the idea of ​​using a conical barrel belonged to the German professor Karl Puff, who in 1903-1907 developed a rifle for a bullet with a belt for rifled firearms, with a slight taper of the barrel. In the 1920s and 1930s, this idea was finalized by the German engineer Gerlich, who managed to create weapons with outstanding characteristics.

In one of the experimental samples of the German Gerlich system, the diameter of the bullet was 6,35 mm, the mass of the bullet was 6,35 g, while the initial velocity of the bullet reached 1740-1760 m / s, muzzle energy - 9840 J. At a distance of 50 m, the Gerlich bullet broke through steel armor plate with a thickness of 12 mm, a hole with a diameter of 15 mm, and in a thicker armor made a funnel of 15 mm in depth and 25 mm in diameter. The usual 7,92 mm Mauser rifle bullet left only a small depression of 2-3 mm on such armor.

The accuracy of the Gerlich system was also significantly superior to conventional army rifles: at a distance of 100 meters 5 bullets weighing 6,6 g fit into a circle with a diameter of 1,7 cm, and when firing at 1000 meters 5 bullets weighing 11,7 g laid in a circle with a diameter of 26,6 see. Due to the high speed of the bullet, it was practically not affected by wind, humidity, air temperature. A flat flight path simplified aiming.


Images and photos of ammunition 28 / 20x188 mm with Gerlich bullets (shells) for the German anti-tank rifle sPzB 41, below is a general diagram of the work of Gerlich's bullets

The weapons of the Hermann Gerlich system did not receive distribution primarily because of the low resource of the barrel, which is about 400-500 shots. Another possible reason, most likely, is the complexity and high cost of manufacturing both the bullets themselves and the weapons.

Technology promising automatic rifle (machine gun)


Why in promising small arms we may need feathered sub-caliber bullets and a conical barrel?

Several key factors are important here:

1. Feathered sub-caliber bullets can be dispersed to substantially higher speeds than rifled bullets, without increasing barrel wear.

2. The weapons of the Gerlich system can significantly increase the speed of the bullet, in fact, to hypersonic speeds, and it can be assumed that the main reason for the wear of the weapons of the Gerlich system was previously the presence of rifling in it.

Based on this, it can be assumed that in a promising small arms can be combined feathered subcaliber bullet and a conical barrel. The role of the obturating rings, which are programmably deformed during the shot, will be played by the pallet of the feathered sub-caliber bullet of a certain configuration. In this case, barrel survivability corresponding to or superior to existing modern small arms can be obtained.

Most likely, the most optimal format for a promising cartridge will be a telescopic munition, in which the projectile is completely sunk in a powder charge. In fact, there are two charges in it. The knock out charge is the first to fire, pushing the bullet / projectile out of the sleeve into the barrel and fill the freed space with the combustion products of the knockout charge, after which the main charge of high density is ignited.


Telescopic ammunition with a feathered sub-caliber bullet

A telescopic cartridge with a fully recessed bullet will give developers a wide field for experiments, will provide opportunities for creating automation of small arms, different from those implemented for weapons with classic ammunition.


Automation of the prototype rifle, with a vertical-movable chamber, created by Textron as part of the NGSW program under a telescopic cartridge



Scheme for supplying telescopic ammunition to a 40 mm automatic cannon 40 CTAS [/ size
]
To optimize the density of ammunition in the weapons store, advanced cartridges can be made not only round, but also square or triangular in cross section.


Shellless telescopic ammunition for the German experimental rifle G-11 from Heckler & Koch


Triangular ammo for American designer David Dardic with revolving feed pattern

The shell case is likely to be made of polymer, this will reduce the mass of the cartridge, keeping it at the level of low-pulse cartridges of 5,45x39 mm, therefore, prevent the ammunition of the fighters from being reduced.

The spread and improvement of computers, as well as specialized software, can lead to the appearance of sub-caliber ammunition, significantly different in layout from those that were developed in the Soviet period.


Managed bullet concept. Probably, it can be considered as a basis for creating a promising unmanaged OPP


The concept of a telescopic cartridge SPEAR with a conical striking element, proposed by Alexander Vasiliev

By varying the mass of the OPP in the range of 2,5-4,5 grams and the speed of the OPP in the range of 1250-1750 m / s, you can get the initial energy in the region of 3000-7000 J. For three-bullet cartridges, the initial energy, respectively, will be 1500-2000 J per striking element, with a mass of one element of 1,5 grams. Based on the above table comparing the energy and recoil force of various ammunition, we can expect returns in the range from the level of the cartridge 7,62x39 mm to the cartridge 7,62x54R. At the same time, a line of ammunition with various types of equipment designed for combat in various tactical situations can be released.

For example, if the battle is conducted in an open area, with the primary defeat of targets at a long distance, then single-bullet cartridges with an energy of about 6000-7000 J are used, which are more effective when shooting with single fire. In the event that there is a battle in a city building where penetration of a large number of obstacles (duvalls, relatively thin walls of buildings, thickets of vegetation) is required, then single-bullet cartridges with an energy of 3000-4500 J are used, which are more effective when firing in bursts. If penetration of obstacles is not required, but it is necessary to ensure maximum density of fire at close range, then three-bullet ammunition is used.

This will provide an advantage over weapons developed under the NGSW program, in the entire range of ranges of weapons, in various tactical situations.

OPP speeds of up to 1360 m / s were obtained at the stage of development of this topic by Vladislav Dvoryaninov, during the Soviet era. This means that a combination of new gunpowder and a cone-shaped barrel can reach OOP velocities of the order of 2000 m / s. With such an initial velocity of the AKP, approximately 500 seconds will elapse between shots and hitting the target at a distance of 0,3 meters, which will greatly simplify shooting and reduce the impact of external factors on the AKP.

The manufacture of the core of the OPP from an alloy based on tungsten carbide in combination with high speed and a small diameter of the OPP will ensure the penetration of all existing and promising NIB.

To reduce friction and reduce barrel wear, the OPP pallet can be made of modern polymer materials, for example, those used to make the leading belt in new Russian shells for 30-mm automatic guns.


Russian 30-mm shell with a leading belt of polymer material

Despite the lack of rifling and the use of OPP pallets made of polymer materials, the high speed of the bullet and the pressure in the barrel, combined with the taper of the barrel, may require measures to increase the barrel's strength of a promising automatic rifle. And here a smooth barrel is a significant advantage, simplifying the technological operations for its manufacture. For example, a combination of a steel or even titanium (hereinafter referred to as titanium alloys) barrel with an insert made of an alloy based on tungsten carbide can be realized.

Pre-billet preparation can be formed by 3D printing, followed by mechanical processing on high-precision machines.

Scientists at the Rhenish-Westphalian Technical University of Aachen and the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology of the Community (Germany) have begun research on laser powder 3D printing with tungsten carbide and cobalt carbides. To do this, an upgraded version of a 3D laser printer is used, supplemented by emitters in the near infrared spectrum with a power of up to 12 kW, installed above the work area and heating the sintered layers. The emitters raise the temperature of the upper layer of the consumable material above 800 ° C, after which sintering lasers come into play.

One of the proposed scenarios for the use of such equipment is the integration of cooling channels directly into the manufactured tools and parts. The production of such structures by conventional sintering is either very expensive or technically impossible at all. The manufacture of such products using 3D printing technology by selective laser sintering allows you to equip them with internal cavities of complex shape.


3D printing can be used to manufacture products with a complex internal structure.

The use of 3D printing with tungsten carbide and steel / titanium will allow the formation of internal cavities along the entire length of the barrel, which in turn will ensure its effective cooling, for example, by blowing air along the entire length, or even an analog of heat pipes used in modern electronics.


A heat pipe is a smooth-walled or porous closed pipe made of heat-conducting metal (e.g. copper) with a low-boiling liquid inside (from liquid helium for ultra-low temperatures to mercury or indium for high-temperature applications, in most cases, ammonia, water, methanol and ethanol are used). Heat transfer occurs due to the fact that the liquid evaporates on the hot end of the tube, absorbing the heat of vaporization, and condenses on the cold, from where it moves back to the hot end. Heat pipes with a filler (wicks, ceramics) can work in any position, since the liquid returns to the evaporation zone along the filler pores under the action of capillary forces

3D printing can also be used for the manufacture of the main parts of weapons, both plastic and metal. Elements of the receiver can be made with hidden cavities to cool the weapon and reduce its weight. Polymer elements can be made in the form of a honeycomb structure, again, to reduce the weight of the weapon, and / or with the aim of additionally absorbing the recoil momentum.

An increase in the recoil momentum compared to small arms using low-pulse cartridges of 5,45x39 mm or 5,56x45 mm caliber will require the comprehensive implementation of recoil compensation systems to an acceptable level.

First of all, it can be a silencer - a muzzle brake compensator (DTC) of a closed type, similar to what is supposed to be used in weapons developed under the NGSW program.


3D Delta P Design silencers manufactured by XNUMXD printing from titanium alloy or Insonel alloy

Automation circuits can also be implemented with an accumulation (offset) of recoil momentum providing accurate firing in short bursts at a high rate, or other advanced recoil damping / absorption systems.


Weapons with a biased recoil momentum: automatic machine AN-94, automatic machine TKB-0146, rifle G11

Interesting to consider is proposed by Alexei Tarasenko, recoil vibration absorption circuit.


The concept of a Tarasenko automaton with a system of vibrational absorption absorption

No less difficult a problem than the development of the weapon itself and its cartridge is the organization of large-scale production of promising ammunition. The production of promising cartridges can be based both on the basis of classic advanced automatic rotor lines, and on the basis of new technological solutions, using 3D printers capable of printing with metal and polymers, high-speed delta robots, high-precision optical scanning systems that allow “on the fly” analyze the received ammunition and sort them by accuracy class.


Drawing of a production line for the manufacture of feathered sub-caliber bullets


Production of plastic bullets on a 3D printer


It can be assumed that large-scale production of promising telescopic cartridges is not an unsolvable task, at least due to the fact that production of 30 mm caliber BOPs for automatic guns, which are also far from being sold in individual copies, has long been debugged. At the same time, the French-British consortium CTA International is already mass-producing telescopic ammunition for the 40 mm 40 CTAS automatic cannon, including a variant with BPS, and in the USA, Textron is preparing to produce telescopic cartridges for small arms under the NGSW program.

Also, do not worry about the shortage of tungsten for these purposes - its reserves are quite large in Russia, and more than large in neighboring China, with which we still have fairly smooth partnerships.


Distribution of reserves and volumes of tungsten production in Russia and in other countries of the world

As for the high cost of promising weapons and ammunition, this is quite normal for new equipment. In the end, everything depends on the criterion of cost-effectiveness, which shows how promising a weapon-cartridge complex surpasses existing models. At the initial stage, special units are equipped with promising weapons, then the most warring units, in parallel there is a refinement of the design and technological processes for the manufacture of weapons and ammunition in order to reduce their cost.

Without this, it is almost impossible to create a breakthrough weapon-cartridge complex. Recall how they reacted to the creation of the first assault rifles: they say that it is impossible to produce so many cartridges to provide them with an army armed with assault rifles, and what this led to in the future.

History is made in a spiral. Many designs and technologies that were previously discarded as unrealizable can be re-examined, taking into account the emergence of new materials and technological processes. It is possible that rethinking the feasibility of using feathered subcaliber bullets in a promising small arms in combination with the conical barrel of the Gerlich system at a new technological level will allow us to create small arms that are significantly superior to existing models made according to established traditional schemes and technological processes.
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  1. Pessimist22 30 January 2020 06: 17 New
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    I thought the future was with laser weapons and laser swords, and here is all the kinetic ammunition.))
    1. Siberia 75 30 January 2020 09: 46 New
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      In the coming decades, no major breakthrough is expected, so we will work with what we have. Fortunately, the possibilities of modernization are not exhausted. In addition, in order not to spray an article on ammunition, the author as a specialist did not interfere in one heap, and did not consider "Integrated Rifle Systems"
      1. georg.prokudin 5 February 2020 12: 13 New
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        If you are right, then this is very bad. It can turn out like during the “Crimean war” of the 50s of the 19th century, when the Russian infantry because of imperfect guns could not conduct an equal battle with either the British or the French, etc. to. the destruction range was significantly less than theirs. Now the “adversary” is armed or on the way with bulletproof vests that are unlikely to be “tough” to our Kalashnikov infantryman. The Americans and other NATO troops, as can be seen from the article, force rearmament to more lethal ones ammunition. and as a result, new small arms. No matter how late we are again.
        1. shinobi 5 March 2020 03: 05 New
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          Well, that’s you enough of a comrade. Not every bronik holds a conventional bullet from a Kalash.
    2. ANB
      ANB 30 January 2020 11: 58 New
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      In the 60s, they thought they would launch a fusion here.
      And now in Europe they are switching back to thermal stations laughing
      1. tima_ga 1 February 2020 02: 23 New
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        If it goes on like this, then the Greta will be forced to collect dung and drown it :)
    3. Art
      Art 3 February 2020 12: 57 New
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      In science fiction there is this type of weapon - an igloo, quite "common"
      1. shinobi 5 March 2020 03: 08 New
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        Yes, but it’s just that the needle is accelerated in the rail accelerator, or Gaussian. There are already prototypes, only the batteries are the size of a large suitcase. They will solve the problem of the power source, there will be a breakthrough.
  2. Timeout 30 January 2020 06: 19 New
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    At the initial stage, special units are equipped with promising weapons, then the most warring units, in parallel there is a development of the design and technological processes for the manufacture of weapons and ammunition in order to reduce their cost.

    Well, in the event of a global military conflict it will simply not be relevant, for many industries will simply be destroyed ... And again, LPS and PS are in service.
    1. Narak-zempo 30 January 2020 15: 41 New
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      Quote: Timeout
      Well, in the event of a global military conflict it will simply not be relevant, for many industries will simply be destroyed ... And again, LPS and PS are in service.

      If you think in terms of the destruction of production, then unitary cartridges have to be forgotten altogether. The musket and the round bullet are our everything. Well, a maximum needle rifle with a paper cartridge.
      1. tima_ga 1 February 2020 02: 25 New
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        So there will be no gunpowder either, bows and arrows will remain ...
        1. psiho117 1 February 2020 09: 15 New
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          smoke powder is produced elementarily.
          1. tima_ga 2 February 2020 02: 13 New
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            I agree, but not on an industrial (modern) scale, my comment is higher from the category of jokes.
  3. KJIETyc 30 January 2020 06: 38 New
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    Here is an article! And not brochures with fantasies from any plow or dreamers.
    1. Sckepsis 31 January 2020 22: 46 New
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      Well, in general, just this article can be attributed to the category of dreams.
  4. Vladimir_2U 30 January 2020 06: 39 New
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    Mom, dear, well, the author has paused! Even the taper of a smooth trunk, with a detachable pallet, is enough for the Schnobel Prize! Something tank guns do not cone, and there hypersound has long been achieved!
  5. Cowbra 30 January 2020 07: 21 New
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    Well this is more logical than
    Quote: Pessimist22
    the future is laser weapons
    smile However, the author in vain rested on 3D printing, mass. It means cheapness. In a very distant future - perhaps, and so - purely in terms of energy consumption, 3-te will never be cheaper than a machine tool.
    1. Shopping Mall 30 January 2020 08: 04 New
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      Quote: Cowbra
      Well this is more logical than
      Quote: Pessimist22
      the future is laser weapons
      smile However, the author in vain rested on 3D printing, mass. It means cheapness. In a very distant future - perhaps, and so - purely in terms of energy consumption, 3-te will never be cheaper than a machine tool.


      3D printing can do what cannot be done on the machine, for example, the same hidden ventilation channels for cooling the barrel. I myself saw a part printed in titanium alloy, with an internal cooling channel of complex shape. Other than 3D it can not be done.

      Or, if we are talking about a liner in the trunk, then using tungsten carbide seal and steel at the same time, you can get a smooth transition, a kind of artificial adhesion, if it is of course required.

      It is likely that just a steel barrel, for example, with zone hardening, will be enough. Or just tungsten carbide spraying. And make cooling with external grooves. Then 3D Printing is not required.
      1. Cowbra 30 January 2020 08: 27 New
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        Here's the liner - it could very well be. And with the channels - I won’t believe in the near future - it’s too prohibitive, it’s a transition not even after two, but after three generations (1-needles, 1,5-telescopic ammunition with needles, 2nd generation - a cone, and in a cone just something will need to be done with pallets - they will be pressed in, 3rd - needles of complex shape). For three generations - already guessing the old man Nostradamus, what kind of technology will be - no one can predict close.
        And in the next generation - stamping needles is clearly cheaper
      2. abrakadabre 30 January 2020 09: 15 New
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        Or, if we are talking about a liner in the trunk, then using tungsten carbide seal and steel at the same time, you can get a smooth transition, a kind of artificial adhesion, if it is of course required.
        Declaring an idea without regard to the possibility of production is certainly great, but when trying to implement it, the authors of the idea are often very surprised.
        Tungsten carbide is generally quite fragile. Which is not so critical for a disposable BOPS, but it will be very important for a reusable barrel. You can also compare the expansion coefficients of steel and tungsten carbide. As well as other properties.
        Another important point when using 3D printing will be the inevitable accumulation of stresses and inhomogeneities due to the local, within the print zone (and not entirely for the part) strong and long heating.
        Further ... read the technology for producing tungsten carbide itself. Estimate how this can be combined with the complex printing you are offering with several materials.
        More ... Print speed ... the more precise the print, the thinner the layers and the longer the print time. And this means that during the production and printing of one barrel, it is possible to produce a whole batch of trunks using conventional technology.
        Summarizing: this is how to make a mass baby stroller based on helicopter technologies: it is fundamentally possible, but almost doubtful.
        1. psiho117 1 February 2020 09: 18 New
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          Quote: abrakadabre
          Tungsten carbide is generally quite fragile

          and Uranus is even more fragile - but everything is solved - additives, hardening.
      3. Nikolaevich I 30 January 2020 09: 35 New
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        3D printers ... 3D printing ... Oh, ho, how much troublesome anxiety is on our heads! They don’t give their lives a peaceful life! This is what happens when people try to introduce the “age of cybernetics”! Our ancestors didn’t know such tricks, but they lived "in a jubilant fashion!" As I recall right now, when in the journal Science and Technology they described the technology of powder metallurgy! You can call it "metal powder explosive pressing" (!), Although one "metal powder" could not get off! Along with "metal powder", it was possible to use, for example, "carbide" powders, or ceramics ... Moreover, the "explosive" pressing could be carried out both by the "hot" method and the "cold" ... Scheme of such a "production plant "could, for example, represent a gun-type barrel ... at the" muzzle "is the press form ... in the" breech "is a charge (for example, powder ...) in the barrel-piston ... As" projectile "-" portion "of powder (metal, carbide ...). The mold could heat up if technology required. "A shot is being fired" ... and, again (!), The product is ready! With the necessary accuracy! No modifications to the file or cutter of the lathe! There was a time when this technology predicted a "wonderful future"! Dominance in production! Even, pilot production appeared! A tepericha, "guide ento us?" Will this work with 3D printing? Especially if "3MV breaks out and production degrades ..."? Will the "Cybernete Century" end? Well, if Kalashnikov manages to “rivet on his knees” ... But “powder explosive pressing”, by and large, can do without this vulnerable “cybernetics”! By the way, in "powder pressing" you can do without "explosions", use the pressure of the electromagnetic "piston" ...
        1. voyaka uh 30 January 2020 12: 06 New
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          "3D-printers ... 3D-printing ... Oh-ho, how much troublesome concern on our heads" ////
          ----
          I was also so amazed when I first read in English about the 3-D print that I re-read it 3 times, I thought that I was raving ...
          Fantastic coup in technology! This is once a thousand years.
          Nevertheless ... the spread is rapid in all areas of production: they also made machines, jewelry, bio-technologies, and even food production.
      4. Simargl 31 January 2020 20: 09 New
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        Quote: AVM
        3D printing can do what cannot be done on the machine, for example, the same hidden ventilation channels for cooling the barrel.
        You do not seem to understand the technique at all.
        The use of 3D printing with tungsten carbide and steel / titanium will allow the formation of internal cavities along the entire length of the barrel, which in turn will ensure its effective cooling, for example, by blowing air along the entire length, or even an analog of heat pipes used in modern electronics.
        The barrel was blown through the tubes with a Lewis machine gun. Do you know a lot of similar ones? Heat pipes are a means to transfer heat, not cooling.
        Quote: AVM
        printing with tungsten carbide and steel at the same time, you can get a smooth transition, a kind of artificial adhesion, if it is of course required.
        Too different melting point and hardness.
        Quote: AVM
        It is likely that just a steel barrel, for example, with zone hardening, will be enough.
        Before the first turn?
        Quote: AVM
        And make cooling with external grooves.
        What for?
        Automation circuits can also be implemented with the accumulation (offset) of the recoil impulse providing accurate firing in short bursts at a high rate, or other advanced return depreciation / absorption systems.
        Automation with recoil accumulation / displacement does not depreciate / absorb recoil at all! In principle, everything was said, everything had to explain the words "accumulation / displacement": if you look a little, you can understand that these automation schemes allow you to delay the moment of the main impact of recoil at the time of the last bullet's departure from the queue at a fast pace.
        There are systems with balanced automation, where they seek to compensate for the moving masses of the bolt group (as in the opposition), but they do not save much from momentum.
        Interesting to consider is the scheme proposed by Alexei Tarasenko with vibrational absorption absorption.
        Spurious resonance circuit? Cute.
    2. Sergey_G_M 30 January 2020 09: 11 New
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      Purely on energy consumption, count on correctly. For example, a lathe is needed to work on a lathe, one operator is enough to work on ten 3D printers, and the CMM (material utilization factor) of the machine and the 3D printer are not at all in favor of a conventional machine.
      When developing the part, its own technical process is laid, including on the basis of the economic component.
      The same printed silencers - in terms of the total parameter of structural excellence and prices seem profitable. The same silencer made by the classical technology will be heavier and more dimensional due to joints or more difficult to manufacture if welding is used.
  6. GenNick 30 January 2020 09: 48 New
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    Quote: KJIETyc
    Here is an article! And not brochures with fantasies from any plow or dreamers.

    Also really liked the article.
    ,, ... here the bullet flew and ... yeah ... ''
  7. Glory1974 30 January 2020 10: 13 New
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    I remember there were cartridges for a smoothbore gun, made on the model of tank sub-caliber shells. They provided very good accuracy, penetration and range up to 300 meters. In practice, it was possible to hunt with a smoothbore like a rifled one.
    But the high cost, and maybe administrative barriers did not give development.
    1. Simargl 31 January 2020 20: 14 New
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      Quote: glory1974
      But the high cost, and maybe administrative barriers did not give development.
      At short distances, “Zenith” does not give particular advantages, but at large distances - dispersion, nevertheless, is high.
      TKM is the triumph of casuistry.
  8. husband 30 January 2020 11: 24 New
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    A gorgeous article for fans to think about. Insertion into the cavity of the electronics will allow the guidance to be organized. Or gas-dynamic or a bullet shape.
  9. ANB
    ANB 30 January 2020 12: 03 New
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    Good article. Much has been thought out and investigated.
    And even technologies are offered.
    Maybe not optimal, but the author is clearly not a technologist, but I, too, to mind.
    Shooters need to start a new design, since everyone has already done it. And not to grind existing schemes, but to come up with breakthrough ones. Here is one of the options.
  10. Operator 30 January 2020 12: 49 New
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    In the NGSW-T program (the predecessor of the NGSW-R / AR program), a carbonitride coating of the steel barrel of a small arms was developed, additionally coated with a molybdenum layer. This solution protects the barrel bore not only from thermoplastic wear, but also from thermochemical corrosion, which hindered the introduction of carbonitrides into weapons.

    It is impossible to make a gun barrel from ceramics (tungsten carbide, etc.) because of its fragility - the barrel for a thousandth of a second experiences pressure from several thousand to several hundred atmospheres at a temperature of several thousand to several hundred degrees (which is unique to everyone other reusable engineering structures). Requires structural material with elastic deformation (steel or titanium alloy).

    It is not necessary to use a conical barrel to accelerate the bullet to the maximum rate of expansion of powder gases in the barrel - a regular cylindrical barrel and a sub-caliber bullet with a pallet, the cross-sectional area of ​​which is several times larger than the cross-sectional area of ​​the bullet, are quite suitable.

    At supersonic speeds, conical bullets and shells have the best ballistic coefficient, because their feathered analogs have greater aerodynamic drag due to twice as many shock fronts - the head and tail (on the plumage blades).

    And yes, the author of the article is completely right - a sub-caliber bullet, which has 1,4 times higher speed and half as much mass as a caliber bullet (despite the fact that both are made of the same material), is much more profitable than the latter due to the smaller 1,4 times the recoil momentum and greater penetration (due to the greater lateral load in the contact patch with the barrier).
    1. Passing 30 January 2020 20: 19 New
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      Quote: Operator
      At supersonic speeds, conical bullets and shells have the best ballistic coefficient.

      And what do you want to stabilize the bullet? In sub-caliber bullets, in fact, accuracy is chronically behind rotating ones. According to the author, the accuracy of 88-89 mm was barely achieved. This is 3 MOA. For hand-made cartridges! For rotating bullets, this is a ridiculous achievement, their gross cartridges have less than 1 MOA.
      I read about the German program of sub-caliber bullets, as far as I understood the English text, they could not overcome the problem of accuracy there. Something like the fact that they could not provide a stable friction force of the pallet against the barrel, and therefore the pressure in the barrel jumps, the accuracy, respectively, too. Although I can’t vouch, I don’t know English well.
      1. Operator 30 January 2020 22: 39 New
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        The conical bullet is stabilized as well as the swept one: aerodynamically by means of a conical skirt - an analogue of the tail. The accuracy of shooting with a conical bullet is higher due to the simpler shape (cone), which allows to achieve greater manufacturing accuracy than the arrow-shaped bullet (consisting of a conical head part, a cylindrical middle part and a lobed tail part).

        Moreover, the conical bullet has better accuracy than the ogive bullet (stabilized by rotation) due to the absence of precession - a spiral-shaped oscillation of the longitudinal axis of the bullet relative to the tangent to the ballistic flight path.

        The only drawback of the conical bullet is the greater aerodynamic drag at subsonic flight speed. But the transonic transition is carried out by a conical bullet weighing 2 grams and an initial speed of 1400 m / s at a range of at least 600 meters, which is quite enough for both an automatic machine and a Marxman rifle and light machine gun.
  11. L-39NG 30 January 2020 15: 12 New
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    What's the point? All one scorched in white light, like a pretty penny. Who is with experience under the art, so tell me how they shot at the enemies after the raid, in urban conditions "And you see, the heroes are around.
  12. Operator 30 January 2020 16: 27 New
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    As for the design of the Tarasenko assault rifle with vibrational absorption of the recoil impulse (published in the Kalashnikov magazine No. 7 for 2017), the recoil impulse from a shot from a small arms can be repaid only by converting the kinetic energy of the moving parts into heat, and not into vibration or another form mechanical movement. The conversion to heat is achievable using a hydraulic / pneumatic shock absorber (which is not in the Tarasenko project), but after a few shots the heat capacity of such an absorber will be exhausted.

    Therefore, in reality, the recoil impulse is not absorbed, but reduced by expanding / cooling / decreasing the speed / redirection of the outflow vector of the powder gases by using a muzzle brake / silencer, plus decreasing the peak value of the impulse by increasing the time of its impact on the support (shoulder arrow) by using a mobile carriage (consisting of a barrel with a shank, bolt, bolt and gas engine), which is mounted on the guides of the receiver and rests on a spring. These solutions are implemented in two of the three experimental weapons models presented in the NGSW-R / AR competition.
    1. riwas 31 January 2020 07: 30 New
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      A 40 mm Swedish-German Striker / CG-40 grenade launcher has a hydraulic brake, which reduces the recoil force when fired by 60%.
      1. Operator 31 January 2020 14: 16 New
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        Grenade launcher Striker / CG-40 - easel weapon weighing 32 kg plus 18 kg machine. In the description of the grenade launcher, I did not find mention of a shock absorber, the recoil momentum is suppressed by firing a shot at a free shutter (which allows you to halve the recoil force).

        Hydraulic and pneumatic shock absorbers are mainly used in artillery pieces.
        1. riwas 31 January 2020 18: 35 New
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          The data was taken from the old magazine ZVO for his article "Weapons of anti-terror" in 2005.
          http://www.sinor.ru/~bukren1/anti_t_b.htm
          1. Operator 31 January 2020 19: 03 New
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            The grenade launcher at the end of the receiver has an elastic buffer (as in the M16 rifle) for elastic, but not shock contact of the bolt with the box. The buffer spring material, of course, has a certain hysteresis, but not so large as to translate tens of percent of the recoil energy into heat.

            In contrast to the buffer, the shock absorber (gun, automobile, etc.), by pumping liquid or gas through profiled holes, heats the liquid / gas and thereby absorbs recoil energy.
            1. riwas 1 February 2020 08: 02 New
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              Checked with the archive - quoted correctly. Probably a mistake in the article ZVO.
              However, our AGS-17 uses a hydraulic brake that slows the shutter by interacting with its rod, respectively, with the recoil pad of the grenade launcher (when rolling back) and the stops of the box (when rolling).
              1. Operator 1 February 2020 12: 24 New
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                I didn’t know - indeed, a full hydraulic shock absorber is located in the AGS-17 bolt.

                The easel design of the grenade launcher makes it possible to use additional devices in its composition that increase the mass of the weapon.
      2. Simargl 31 January 2020 20: 21 New
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        Quote: riwas
        hydraulic brake, which allowed to reduce recoil force when fired by 60%.
        This applies to monitors, where the return is extinguished during the conversion of energy and / or smeared in time / distance / speed.
  13. Fishery 30 January 2020 20: 13 New
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    and when will the nuclear bullets be? in childhood, an article came across that they supposedly experienced it but it was necessary to constantly cool the container where they were stored, most likely a fable about the world of the future, but it’s interesting) to take a tank out of a gun)
    1. missuris 30 January 2020 21: 18 New
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      it was a joke
    2. Simargl 31 January 2020 20: 22 New
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      Quote: Tonya
      and when will the nuclear bullets be?
      With a gun on the tanks?
      But it’s possible to make a 23 mm cumulative ammunition under a smooth barrel, I think ...
      1. Fishery 31 January 2020 20: 25 New
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        https://russian7.ru/post/atomnye-puli-pochemu-sssr-svernul-yetot/
        this is a fable, in a truncated version the truth
        1. Simargl 31 January 2020 20: 58 New
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          Quote: Tonya
          this is a fable, in a truncated version the truth
          Yes, a fable. And for the newfangled - fake:
          1 - the price of California is from $ 3 million, i.e. it’s easier to take artifacts and hammer on the area.
          2 - the effect of the shot is comparable to 2-3 shells of 152 mm.
          3 - the flash from the shot does not allow the arrow to survive normally. And there will be not only light.
          4 - a hint of fakeness - cartridges for a machine gun: the price of the queue is the cost of ammunition for a small war.
  14. riwas 31 January 2020 07: 19 New
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    Speaking of sub-caliber fields, mention should be made of star-shaped bullets. For example, ALPHA HUP, caliber 12,7 mm, bullet weight 21 g, initial velocity 1005 m / s, Astra Defense Systems and Alpha Ammunition Ltd., United Kingdom. With an equal Midel area, the axisymmetric shape has worse aerodynamics at high supersonic speeds than a star-shaped one.
  15. Grigory kaganitsky 31 January 2020 16: 56 New
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    There is another way to solve the problem of high-precision weapons with a conical barrel without using abstruse and extremely expensive technologies - Koganitsky heavy machine gun - Kpk -
    http://samlib.ru/k/koganickij_g_a/sistemagasta.shtml
  16. bars1 31 January 2020 17: 53 New
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    We do the blades for turbofan engines with internal cavities for cooling, which means we can also see the cooled barrel!
  17. CTABEP 31 January 2020 19: 47 New
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    The truth about the 30-mm BOPS was blown away by the author, we do not really have a PSU in the troops, and where there are complaints that the gun automation does not work well with them.
  18. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 11: 19 New
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    Hypersonic bullets for small arms have critical flaws. Firstly, they can be seen as tracers (they give out position and goals). In order to keep the recoil kinetics at a level convenient for the shooter, the mass of the hypersonic bullet needs to be reduced several times, the braking distance to the sound threshold will be shorter at the same time (the supersonic caliber is not very important at supersonic, there is no flow around), the effective distance is shorter. In general, this option is unlikely to suit the military.
    1. psiho117 1 February 2020 11: 28 New
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      Quote: Andrey.AN
      Hypersonic bullets for small arms have critical weaknesses

      there is no talk about any hypersound - a maximum of 1700 m / s, in a hypothetical perspective - 2000 m / s
      1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 14: 38 New
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        1700 m / s in dense layers of the atmosphere (close to sea level) is hypersound.
    2. Operator 1 February 2020 12: 11 New
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      The article deals only with supersonic bullets.

      Hypersound starts at 1800 m / s, but then gunpowder with a slower rate of gas expansion from its combustion will no longer be suitable, and liquid propellants have still not been able to work out even for artillery guns.

      Plus, a hypersonic bullet in flight will have additional resistance to plasma formation, which will reduce the effective firing range.
      1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 14: 54 New
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        And without plasma formation, a decrease in the mass of the bullet leads to a decrease in the mass of the displaced air (it does not flow around at supersonic, but breaks through), the higher the speed - the more energy is given to each displaced gram of air, the smaller the mass - the less capacity and less energy will remain to the sound barrier , well, by logic.
      2. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 15: 07 New
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        It’s like resistance in a conductor, there is current and voltage, here is mass and speed.
        1. Operator 1 February 2020 15: 11 New
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          So, caliber bullets exactly fly the majority of the distance at supersonic (800-1000 m / s), as do the sub-caliber bullets (1200-1400 m / s) considered in the article.
          1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 15: 24 New
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            if the sub-caliber is lighter and at a faster speed, then it is more powerful at short distances, the graphics probably draw at what distances their energy coincides.
            1. prodi 1 February 2020 15: 28 New
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              well, a killer distance of 200m for a warrior would be more than enough, at least for an assault rifle
              1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 15: 33 New
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                Don’t tell me, the vast majority of losses from stray aimless bullets will give a bucket of ammunition and an order to process a certain area from a safe distance, 200 meters is not enough for such work.
                1. prodi 1 February 2020 15: 35 New
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                  machine guns are, it's purely their job
                  1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 15: 38 New
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                    The military is more visible. The market generally dictates what they like and buy.
            2. Operator 1 February 2020 15: 48 New
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              That's right - when you take off from the barrel, a 4-gram caliber bullet at a speed of 1000 m / s has the same kinetic energy as a 2-gram sub-caliber bullet at a speed of 1414 m / s (the recoil momentum of the first is 1,414 times greater than that of the second )

              But the aerodynamic drag (proportional to the square of the speed) of the sub-caliber bullet will by no means be two times greater than that of the animated caliber, since the taper angle (proportional to the divergence angle of the supersonic shock wave) of the latter will also be two times greater than that of the sub-caliber (arrow-shaped) or conical).

              According to estimates, the aerodynamic drag at the supersonic arrow of a swept bullet will be slightly larger than that of an animated caliber bullet, the aerodynamic drag of a conical sub-caliber bullet will be slightly less (due to the absence of a shock wave from the tail).
              1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 15: 54 New
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                Agree aerodynamic drag in the sub-caliber is a little less only when the speeds are equal, despite the fact that its mass is much less, like kinetic energy.
                1. Operator 1 February 2020 16: 02 New
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                  I already explained that in supersonic conditions, air resistance is influenced not only by the speed, but also by the degree of pointedness of the bullet head - the smaller the taper angle, the lower the resistance.

                  The smallest taper angle is for a conical bullet (with the same length as a lively and swept).
                  1. prodi 1 February 2020 16: 13 New
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                    about a different taper angle is never obvious
                    1. Operator 1 February 2020 16: 40 New
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                      The bluntest (with a front divergence angle of the order of 120 degrees) supersonic shock wave generates the cylinder end, the next body in order to reduce the shock wave dullness is a ball (90 degrees), the cone generates a wave depending on its sharpness (from 60 degrees for the live bullet to 30 degrees for conical).

                      The dumber the shock wave, the greater the aerodynamic drag - a supersonic body is mainly braked by the front of its shock wave, and not by the friction of air on its surface.
                  2. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 16: 15 New
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                    It is impossible to dispute, the angle of incidence of air is equal to the angle of reflection, energy transfer depends on the angle of reflection, which is why some individuals sharpen the tip of a bullet like a needle, but this is percent, the mass gives at times.
                    1. prodi 1 February 2020 16: 18 New
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                      yeah, as well as more returns
                      1. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 16: 21 New
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                        In return, the whole problem, most of what can make it comfortable reduces the density of fire, rate of fire.
                    2. Operator 1 February 2020 16: 30 New
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                      Mass as such does not affect aerodynamics at all - the latter depends only on the size and shape of the body.

                      The taper angle is reduced not by sharpening the tip, but by lengthening the head, until it occupies the entire lateral surface - i.e. the bullet will turn into a continuous cone.
                      1. prodi 1 February 2020 16: 37 New
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                        theoretically true, but how to put the arrow-shaped and conical bullet into an acceptable size (and caliber)? Rather, who will have the advantage?
                      2. Operator 1 February 2020 16: 52 New
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                        The right question: the frontal solution is to use tungsten with more than double the specific gravity instead of steel; a rational solution is to use a biconical steel bullet (equal to the revitalizing aerodynamic drag), pressed powder with the addition of HMX (occupying a smaller volume) and a telescopic cartridge (the size of a caliber).
                      3. prodi 1 February 2020 16: 59 New
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                        yes here it’s not even so much about the ratio of angle and mass, but about the ratio of the diameter and length
                      4. Operator 1 February 2020 17: 04 New
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                        A 2-gram tungsten conical bullet or a steel biconical bullet fits perfectly (together with a plastic tray and pressed powder with HMX) into a 10x40 mm telescopic cartridge.

                        The presence of the pallet is compensated by the absence of a brass sheath and a lead shirt.
                      5. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 17: 41 New
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                        Don’t say that if you change the fuel in the charge and increase the diameter of the crowbar of the sub-caliber projectile, the main role will be played by the mass of the crowbar and the acceleration charge, and also the strength of the gun.
                    3. prodi 1 February 2020 17: 14 New
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                      those. Is there anything other than a standard lead-core bullet?
                    4. Operator 1 February 2020 17: 23 New
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                      Observed - a standard NATO M855A1 bullet with a steel hardened core, a brass half-shell and a bismuth alloy weighting compound in the tail.
                    5. prodi 1 February 2020 17: 43 New
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                      by sight, just more expensive, maybe not even falling apart on a notch when colliding with an obstacle
                    6. Operator 1 February 2020 18: 58 New
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                      M855A1 solved the issue of freeing the top of the steel core from the shell (to increase penetration), but replacing the lead shirt with the tail weight led to a threefold increase in the wear of the barrel bore.

                      In the sub-caliber bullet, the role of the brass shell and the lead shirt is played by a plastic tray, and therefore the barrel’s life does not decrease, but grows.
                    7. prodi 1 February 2020 20: 26 New
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                      - the sub-caliber bullet in the rifled barrel does not roll at all, you should not even consider
                      - where did you get about the threefold increased wear from the M8555A1?
                    8. Operator 1 February 2020 21: 43 New
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                      At Max Popenker in LJ.
                    9. prodi 2 February 2020 09: 57 New
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                      in my opinion, they did it right, only it was necessary to make the bullet heavier, and not lighten, keeping the initial speed the same
    3. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 16: 38 New
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      The mass (like voltage in a current) primarily affects the resistance in the conductor (air). You’re mistaken, in supersonic air the nose doesn’t push apart conically, there are vector additions everywhere, from the dullness of the nose, the air diverges at one angle, from the tip walls under another, these diverging vectors also add up with parabola (which have seen the track of a meter-long comet in the sky?) .
    4. prodi 1 February 2020 16: 43 New
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      that’s how he breaks the stupidity of the nose, and goes to the 200m we need
    5. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 16: 58 New
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      Still, 200m is only for urban combat, from one corner of the building to shoot through the quarter to another, you still need to go into the city.
    6. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 17: 04 New
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      They will set you the task with a bucket of cartridges, in this place no one should gather strength for an attack, 200 m will be few, they will shoot.
    7. prodi 1 February 2020 17: 09 New
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      I strongly doubt the possibility of effective fire of the average shooter at a distance of more than 200m
    8. Andrey.AN 1 February 2020 17: 15 New
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      I agree completely, further and don’t recognize the person in ordinary optics, all of a sudden their own intelligence, and after reading about the Second World War, let them go closer on the defensive and didn’t spend cartridges in the attack before, well, the physiology of a person is such that a unit, a sniper are caught at a greater distance , and there was no talk of aiming fire, but aimless fire is also very effective.
  • Intruder 1 February 2020 23: 15 New
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    Quote: Pessimist22
    I thought the future was with laser weapons and laser swords, and here is all the kinetic ammunition.))

    and a source of energy, where to get for a laser sword or hand blaster !?
  • Intruder 1 February 2020 23: 19 New
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    Quote: Simargl
    Quote: Tonya
    and when will the nuclear bullets be?
    With a gun on the tanks?
    But it’s possible to make a 23 mm cumulative ammunition under a smooth barrel, I think ...

    and who needs it and where, that's 40 mm., but in smooth - it looks more cashier !? :)
  • shinobi 5 March 2020 03: 21 New
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    All these are reflections. The practice of wars shows that the simpler the weapon / ammunition, the more reliable it is. Actually all the main design decisions were found before the end of the 40s. Now everything revolves around production, its cheapening and construction materials. The future for energy types of weapons based on railgun and Gauss, as soon as the problem of powerful compact power sources is solved. In the meantime, most likely, there will be a revision of the caliber in favor of 6,5-6,8 mm for cartridges. The potential of sleeveless ones may be revealed.