NGSW Advanced Small Arms Program: Causes, Current and Expected Results

Despite the saturation of the battlefield with sniper and grenade launchers, anti-tank guided missiles and mortars, the most important weapon of any modern army is still the main weapon infantryman - automatic / automatic rifle.



The latest models of small arms, which are in service with the leading countries of the world, do not give significant advantages compared to the AK-47 and M-16, adopted in the mid-20th century


The origins of the problem


Currently in service with the largest armies in the world, assault rifles and automatic rifles, such as a Kalashnikov assault rifle or M-4 / M-16 rifle family, either have their pedigree since the mid-20th century, or, although they are based on new materials and design solutions, practically do not differ from them in their characteristics.

The main problem is that over time, the main ammunition used in machine guns is still intermediate cartridges of the caliber 5,56x45 mm, 5,45x39 mm and 7,62x39 mm. Periodically, disputes arise between adherents of the calibers 5,45x39 mm and 7,62x39 mm, but in fact this is the notorious replacement of sewed soap. Each cartridge has its own advantages and disadvantages, which are manifested in certain regions and scenarios of warfare.

A complicating factor is the rapid improvement of personal protective equipment (NIB). In particular, the use of ceramic armored elements, for example, of boron carbide, can significantly reduce the effectiveness of small arms of calibers 5,56x45 mm, 5,45x39 mm and 7,62x39 mm.

NGSW Advanced Small Arms Program: Causes, Current and Expected Results

Diagram of an armored element with a ceramic plate on the outside, a composite substrate and a layer of material that protects against damages


For example, the Russian military equipment of the Ratnik soldier includes the 6B45 body armor that can withstand ten hits from the SVD with an armor-piercing incendiary cartridge.


6B45 body armor, armor plates and a deformed bullet core of the 7,62x54R cartridge, fired from the SVD rifle, after falling into the armor plate


Given this, it can be assumed that the cartridges 5,56x45 mm, 5,45x39 mm and 7,62x39 mm have almost exhausted their modernization potential, and the scales in the opposition of the "sword and shield" began to lean towards the "shield".

The lack of effectiveness of the cartridges 5,56x45 mm, 5,45X39 mm and 7,62x39 mm led to the appearance in certain units of the US armed forces of rifles of the caliber 7,62x51 mm, designed to engage the enemy at a longer range than that of weapons of caliber 5,56x45 mm. For example, the US Special Operations Forces (MTR), as part of the purchase of Belgian FN SCAR rifles, refused to purchase the SCAR-L modification of the 5,56x45 mm caliber, focusing on the purchase of the SCAR-H modification of the 7,62x51 mm caliber.


Rifle FN SCAR-H caliber 7,62X51 mm


Responding to requests from the military to increase firepower, the German company Heckler & Koch also introduced the HK417 caliber 7,62x51 mm, in addition to the HK416 caliber 5,56x45 mm.


Rifle HK417 caliber 7,62X51 mm


However, all of these solutions can only increase the range of target destruction, but do not solve the issue of target destruction, protected by modern and promising NIB. Negative factors are also the reduction in wearable ammunition due to the increased mass of cartridges 7,62x51 mm compared to cartridges 5,56x45 mm, and higher recoil of the weapon.

Thus, having fully felt the flaws of the 5,56x45 mm caliber in Afghanistan, as well as being impressed by the progress in creating LEDs in Russia and China, the USA decided to significantly increase the firepower of the fighters due to the creation of a completely new weapon-cartridge complex, and began Next Generation Squad Weapons (NGSW) program - (new generation squad small arms).

NGSW Program: Ammunition


The NGSW program includes the creation of the Next Generation Squad Weapon Rifle (New Generation Squad Weapon Rifle), designed to replace the M-4 rifle, and the Next Generation Squad Weapon Automatic Rifle (New Generation Squad Weapon Automatic Rifle), designed to replace M249 machine gun. Companies including VK Integrated Systems, Bachstein Consulting and MARS Inc. took part in the competition. and Cobalt Kinetics, AAI Corporation Textron Systems, General Dynamics-OTS Inc. and Sig Sauer Inc.

In principle, such programs have been carried out by the U.S. forces more than once, of the latter we can recall the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) program, in which an attempt was made to develop a small-grenade launcher system including an 5,56x45 mm caliber assault rifle and an 20-mm automatic grenade launcher.


Prototype rifle-grenade launcher complex program OICW


The complexity, high cost and unsatisfactory characteristics of the grenade launcher complex led to the separation of the OICW program for the creation of a separate XM8 modular machine gun of the 5,56x45 mm caliber and the XM25 self-loading grenade launcher of the 25 mm caliber. Ultimately, all of the above programs were closed despite the fact that the XM25 grenade launcher managed to be noted in Afghanistan, and received quite positive reviews from the military.


Modular machine XM8 caliber 5,56x45 mm and self-loading hand grenade launcher XM25 caliber 25 mm


The key difference between the NGSW program is that it is planned to adopt not only new weapons, but also a fundamentally new 6,8 mm cartridge. And speaking of the NGSW program, you need to start with the new cartridge.

MARS and Cobalt have developed an 6,8 mm caliber cartridge with a bullet weight of 9,07 grams, which provides an initial bullet speed of 976 m / s. Based on these parameters, you can see that the initial energy of the bullet of this ammunition will be more than 4300 J, which exceeds the initial energy of bullets in most cartridges of calibers 7,62x51 mm and 7,62x54R. The case of the sleeve is supposedly made of stainless steel to provide the ability to withstand increased pressure and to provide a reduction in the weight of the ammunition.

VK Integrated Systems introduced the 6,8 Sherwood cartridge, developed on the basis of the .284 Winchester cartridge. The characteristics of the 6,8 Sherwood cartridge are unknown, but based on the characteristics of the .284 Winchester cartridge, which provides a bullet weighing 9,7 grams with an initial speed of 858 m / s at a muzzle energy of the order of 3600 J, it can be assumed that the characteristics of the 6,8 Sherwood cartridge will be comparable to those of the 6,8 mm cartridge MARS and Cobalt.


6,8 mm cartridge from MARS and Cobalt companies next to 5,56x45 mm and 7,62x51 mm cartridges (left) and VK Integrated Systems 6.8 Sherwood cartridge (right)


The most innovative ammunition can be considered a telescopic cartridge with a polymer sleeve from the company Textron Systems. Presumably, it will reduce to the maximum extent the weight of the ammunition load, taking into account the increase in ammunition power, but at the same time, the diameter of cartridges made in a telescopic form factor can exceed that of a cartridge of the same power made in a traditional layout. That which is uncritical for a light machine gun, with its voluminous box, may not be acceptable for an automatic rifle with a box magazine. However, it seems that an increase in the diameter of the cartridge case of all declared ammunition is expected, so this drawback can be considered uncritical.

A more significant argument is the lack of experience in the long-term operation of telescopic munitions with a polymer sleeve in real combat conditions, which could potentially lead to unsolvable problems during the operational phase, for example, cartridge deformation due to heating of weapons, mechanical or climatic influences.


Telescopic cartridge Textron Systems 5,56 CT, standard NATO cartridge 5,56x45 mm, telescopic cartridge Textron Systems 6,8 CT / 7,62 CT (their external dimensions are the same) and cartridge 7,62x51 mm, telescopic cartridge in section (bottom)


General Dynamics-OTS Inc. and Sig Sauer Inc. 6,8 True Velocity and 6,8 Hybrid round cartridges were submitted to the competition respectively. The sleeve of the 6,8 True Velocity cartridge is made of a polymer composite with a metal base. The 6,8 True Velocity cartridge sleeve is made of brass with a stainless steel base. Both companies claim a reduction in the mass of wearable ammunition. Sig Sauer explains its choice of a hybrid metal sleeve with the inability of existing polymer composites to provide resistance to high pressure.


6,8 True Velocity cartridges from General Dynamics-OTS Inc. and 6,8 Hybrid round by Sig Sauer Inc.


Given some conservatism inherent in the military, it should be noted that the solution is from Sig Sauer Inc. may well get priority. Also to the benefits of ammunition design from Sig Sauer Inc. we can attribute the fact that at the initial stage the 6,8 Hybrid round cartridges can be used in a variant with a hybrid metal sleeve, and in the future the user (US Armed Forces) can switch to the use of fully or partially composite ammunition, for example, with a stainless steel bottom and a polymer shell body .

It can be assumed that the initial energy of the promising cartridge adopted by the NGSW program will lie within 4000-4500 J. This is necessary to solve the problem of breaking through existing and perspective NIBs, which are already able to withstand not only intermediate cartridges 5,56х45 mm, 5,45х39 mm and 7,62х39 mm and mm, but also for rifle cartridges of the caliber 7,62x51 mm and 7,62x54R. A distinctive feature of promising ammunition will be the pressure, approximately two times higher than the pressure developed in the barrel by the existing ammunition of army small arms.

NGSW Program: Weapons


The need to use ammunition separation in promising small arms, the initial energy of which will significantly exceed not only the initial energy of intermediate ammunition of the caliber 5,56x45 mm, 5,45x39 mm and 7,62x39 mm, but also rifle cartridges of the caliber 7,62x51 mm and the 7,62X gun design reduce the impact of recoil on the arrow.

It should be noted that the US armed forces already had experience using automatic weapons under powerful rifle cartridges. We are talking about an automatic rifle M14 under the then new cartridge caliber 7,62x51 mm. In pursuit of the US ammunition capacity, the appearance of the Soviet intermediate cartridge 7,62x39 mm “missed”, creating as a result, although powerful, but large-sized and slow-moving weapon.

The M14 rifle did not perform well during the US military operations in Vietnam, especially when compared to the Soviet AK-47 assault rifle available to the Vietnamese. Due to the large size and weight of the 7,62x51 mm cartridge, compared to the 7,62x39 mm cartridge, the magazine capacity (20 cartridges versus 30 to AK-47) and the wearable ammunition of an American soldier with M14 were 1,5 times inferior to those of a Vietnamese soldier with AK-XNUM. Shooting in bursts from an M47 rifle with a minimum acceptable accuracy is actually possible only with bipods or an emphasis, and at a range of about 14 meters. However, replacing the M100 with the M4 did not greatly improve the position of the American military due to the behavior of small-caliber 16 mm bullets in the dense jungle.


14X7,62 mm automatic rifle M51


Back to the NGSW program. Of all the candidates announced above, General Dynamics-OTS Inc., AAI Corporation Textron Systems and Sig Sauer Inc. were allowed to create prototypes. Some sources also mention FN America LLC and PCP Tactical, LLC, but their status in the NGSW program is not clear.

As we recall, the recoil of the aforementioned M14 rifle of the caliber 7,62x51 mm did not allow us to ensure any acceptable accuracy and accuracy of fire bursts. In a new weapon under the NGSW program, this problem should be solved in spite of the fact that the initial energy of a new cartridge of caliber 6,8 mm should exceed the initial energy of a cartridge of 7,62x51 mm.

The proposed solutions include the use of standard silencers on promising rifles and machine guns, which reduce the return by a third.

An additional advantage that an integrated silencer will provide can be a reduction in the impact on the fighter's hearing organs, especially indoors. Of course, the soldier of the modern army should have hearing protection equipment - active headphones, but in reality a huge number of situations are possible when they either will not exist or they will fail. Also, the use of silencers on an ongoing basis will reduce the detection range of a soldier by a muzzle flash and the sound of a shot.


Prototypes of General Dynamics-OTS with a silencer made by 3D printing method of inocel alloy


As other ways to reduce recoil, recoil impulse schemes, balanced automation, various designs of shock absorbers and other design solutions can be used, information about which may appear closer to the final of the NGSW program in 2022.


Textron Systems prototypes for 6,8 CT telescopic cartridge


It can be assumed that the main mode of firing a weapon of caliber 6,8 mm will be the regime with a cut-off line for the 2 cartridge, which is declared as desirable in the developed weapons models.


Sig Sauer prototypes for 6,8 Hybrid round


conclusions


What advantages will the American army give weapons under the NGSW program if it is successfully implemented?

Actually, for what this program was conceived for: increasing the range of hitting targets and confident hitting targets protected by modern and promising NIBs. Of the minuses, a possible decrease in the density of fire from small arms of the caliber 6,8 mm at short range is possible due to increased recoil and a high probability of reducing the stores of promising automatic rifles to twenty rounds.

In general, based on the prospects for the implementation of the American NGSW program, two questions can be asked:

1. How big a threat is the promising weapon created by the NGSW program for the Russian armed forces?

It can be assumed that in the event of a conflict between Russia and the United States, machines may not reach the point, so you can take your time responding to NGSW. But with a high probability the United States will want to test new weapons in the field, and in this context it is impossible to exclude its appearance, for example, in Ukraine, or among fighters of various private military companies (PMCs), for example, in Syria. And the likelihood of a clash between fighters of Russian and American special forces cannot be completely ruled out due to the specifics of their activities, combined with increased secrecy. In this case, the absence of a weapon adequate to the potential enemy’s available may lead to unacceptable losses of personnel of the Russian special forces.

Of course, you can hope that nothing "they" will not work out under the NGSW program, or that this is just another cut. But, in my opinion, this is somewhat risky.

2. Is there any need for a reaction from the Russian armed forces if the American NGSW program is successfully implemented?

The most interesting thing is that the reaction should be regardless of whether the US Armed Forces are successfully implementing the NGSW program or not. The need for a new weapon-cartridge complex has been brewing for a long time, and the NGSW program is a litmus test showing the need to develop a new generation of small arms. The starting point here is not the appearance of a new weapon in the U.S. Armed Forces, but the appearance of NIBs that can effectively withstand both intermediate ammunition of the caliber 5,56x45 mm, 5,45x39 mm and 7,62x39 mm, and rifle ammunition of the caliber 7,62x51 mm and 7,62XN.

In the following material, we will try to figure out what developments can be used by domestic gunsmiths to create promising small arms.
Author:
Photos used:
militaryarms.ru, army-news.ru, bronegilet.ru, tvzvezda.ru, thefirearmblog.com, soldiersystems.net, warhead.su
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  1. Jerk 6 November 2019 06: 15 New
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    Next Generation Squad Weapons (NGSW) - (new generation squad small arms).

    "Squad" is not a generation, but a division
    1. Vladimir_2U 6 November 2019 07: 19 New
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      And not a generation, or a division, but a separation! What is generally written.
      1. Jerk 6 November 2019 08: 54 New
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        learn English, it’s useful
        Yes, and buy glasses, "written"
        1. Vladimir_2U 6 November 2019 11: 06 New
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          Quote: Jerk
          Next Generation Squad Weapons (NGSW) - (new generation squad small arms).

          "Squad" is not a generation, but a division


          In your post there is also a separation and a generation, are you able to understand your letters? English, sorry hospadi.
    2. English tarantas 6 November 2019 07: 22 New
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      Squad is a branch in the US Armed Forces. Generation - generation.
  2. rocket757 6 November 2019 07: 14 New
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    The shooter will "steer" until they invent something completely deadly, new.
    It seems nothing fundamentally new, but "perverted" at the completion, modernization of a long time invented in full!
  3. Jack O'Neill 6 November 2019 07: 45 New
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    Next Generation Squad Weapons (NGSW) - (new generation squad small arms)
    .

    "Squad" is not a generation, but a division


    And not a generation, or a division, but a separation! What is generally written.


    Squad is a branch in the US Armed Forces. Generation - generation.

    Khe khe ... laughing


    So Squad is Squad!
    1. Vladimir_2U 6 November 2019 08: 17 New
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      Well, yes, the "squad" is part of the platoon. Not everything is literally translated.
    2. Lopatov 6 November 2019 12: 00 New
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      Quote: Jack O'Neill
      So Squad is Squad!

      Ага.
      And the "department" is part of the concert.
  4. sen
    sen 6 November 2019 07: 48 New
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    And why did the Americans get the idea that their 6,8-mm cartridge will penetrate our promising body armor if it does not break through the ammunition of the caliber 7,62x51 mm and 7,62x54R?
    1. Shopping Mall 6 November 2019 07: 57 New
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      Quote: sen
      And why did the Americans get the idea that their 6,8-mm cartridge will penetrate our promising body armor if it does not break through the ammunition of the caliber 7,62x51 mm and 7,62x54R?


      Because 7,62x51 mm and 7,62x54R have an initial bullet energy of the order of 3000-4000 J, and the promising 6,8 mm will presumably have 4000-4600 J. In fact, this is a rifle cartridge, not an intermediate one.
      1. riwas 6 November 2019 08: 06 New
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        Please reference to the numbers on 6,8 mm. And who said ours will not make a more powerful body armor under the 6,8 mm cartridge?
        1. tesser 6 November 2019 08: 29 New
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          Quote: riwas
          And who said ours will not make a more powerful body armor under the 6,8 mm cartridge?

          They will do the same American armor plates for helicopter machine gunners (transport, who are sitting in the door) for a long time. Only such a moment, helicopter shooters are sitting on the seat. And do not run with a bunch of other iron in the mountains. Everything has a price.
          1. Narak-zempo 6 November 2019 09: 13 New
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            Quote: tesser
            They will do the same American armor plates for helicopter machine gunners (transport, who are sitting in the door) for a long time. Only such a moment, helicopter shooters are sitting on the seat. And do not run with a bunch of other iron in the mountains. Everything has a price.

            So ours will run in exoskeletons
            https://tvzvezda.ru/news/opk/content/201809262036-4vf2.htm
            It remains only to come up with batteries for them. Well, we have Rusnano, and Petrik and Gryzlov are not sitting idle. For a long time, by the way, I have not heard about them, probably, the research is classified laughing
            1. Lopatov 6 November 2019 09: 41 New
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              Quote: Narak-zempo
              It remains only to come up with batteries for them.

              He does not need any batteries.
              1. Narak-zempo 6 November 2019 21: 33 New
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                Quote: Spade
                He doesn't need any batteries

                This is not needed.
                But in order to run through the mountains in armor, with a trunk and supplies for a more or less reasonable period, you will need an active exoskeleton. And here without batteries in any way.
                1. Lopatov 6 November 2019 22: 25 New
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                  Quote: Narak-zempo
                  run through the mountains in armor

                  I'm afraid they haven’t been developed yet. And exoskeletons with such high mobility and coordination of movement will appear not very soon. After a couple of decades.

                  And the creation of the company, the company that develops and manufactures batteries of Rusnano, was funded back in 11 http://liotech.ru/newsection7159
                  1. LastPS 22 November 2019 01: 20 New
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                    Yeah, and also Liotech bankrupt since 2016.
          2. YOUR 6 November 2019 14: 02 New
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            Exactly, you don’t run in iron. And until they come up with material that is lightweight and bulletproof, with a system for distributing the impact of a bullet over an area, 5.45 or 5.56 bullets will be enough
          3. sen
            sen 7 November 2019 06: 56 New
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            Judging by the assumptions of the author of the article, the initial energy of the bullet will rise by only 34% compared to 7,62 mm (bullet weight 9,6 g), respectively, and the weight of the bulletproof vest will increase. Not so critical.
            1. tesser 7 November 2019 08: 53 New
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              Quote: sen
              accordingly, the weight of the body armor will increase. Not so critical.

              Firstly, you should not think that + 34% of the weight of the armor from Pecheneg is uncritical (the armor plates that are now, after all, are from SVD, that is, they suggest a different fire density).
              Secondly, when and if this happens, it will be necessary to look at what the miners are with the bullet, both materials and geometry. Modern long bullets with the same kilojoules are more dangerous than Didovs.
        2. Operator 6 November 2019 09: 34 New
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          6,8x51 mm - bullet weight 9,1 g, initial speed 950 m / s.
      2. Vladimir_2U 6 November 2019 08: 23 New
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        7,62 * 54Р is the rifle cartridge, but judging by the barrel of 6,8 gunpowder in it, if not much less.
        1. Operator 6 November 2019 10: 56 New
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          The 6,8x51 uses more powerful gunpowder, and the charging chamber of the liner is larger due to the reduction in bullet dimensions.
          1. Vladimir_2U 6 November 2019 11: 10 New
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            A heavy bullet, now it’s clear why she has such energy, at such a speed.
  5. arkadiyssk 6 November 2019 08: 45 New
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    Something about the author all skewed in the article. He considers the lethality of weapons exclusively in the context of the caliber of the cartridge and all weapons he has “rifles”. The fact that all the armies of the world without exception switched from rifles to carbines, i.e. on the version with a shortened trunk, he apparently does not even suspect. And the whole problem of slaughter came precisely from this - the shortened barrel of the carbine now simply does not allow (in fact - does not have time) to disperse the cartridge to the desired speed of penetration of the armor. That's why they want to switch to a new cartridge - to leave carbines in the army (i.e. a rifle gun with a barrel length in the 400 mm region) and increase the kill
    1. Shopping Mall 6 November 2019 09: 04 New
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      Quote: arkadiyssk
      Something about the author all skewed in the article. He considers the lethality of weapons exclusively in the context of the caliber of the cartridge and all weapons he has “rifles”. The fact that all the armies of the world without exception switched from rifles to carbines, i.e. on the version with a shortened trunk, he apparently does not even suspect. And the whole problem of slaughter came precisely from this - the shortened barrel of the carbine now simply does not allow (in fact - does not have time) to disperse the cartridge to the desired speed of penetration of the armor. That's why they want to switch to a new cartridge - to leave carbines in the army (i.e. a rifle gun with a barrel length in the 400 mm region) and increase the kill


      PMSM assault rifle / automatic rifle / machine gun / carbine is largely a pun. In the bullpup version, the barrel length can be like that of a “normal” rifle. If it would be possible to simply increase the effectiveness of small arms by simply lengthening the barrel, then this opportunity would immediately be used.

      Muzzle velocity, m / s:

      M-16 - 990 (M16A1), 930 (M16A2), 848 (M16A4) - (barrel length 508 (M16A2 / A3), 533 (M16AXNXNXNXNXNXNXX),

      M-4 - 936 (M193), 910 (M855) - (barrel length 370 without compensator)

      Barrel length, mm - 415 (AK-101), 314 (AK-102)

      Muzzle velocity, m / s - 910 (AK-101), 850 (AK-102)

      Is the difference not that big?
      1. Engineer 6 November 2019 13: 24 New
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        I am not an expert on this topic, but I had to work a little on the topic of body armor, so if it does not complicate, please specify the following point:
        In 2007, I worked for a well-known protective equipment company.
        The main discovery that shocked me was that our 4 class bulletproof vests did not hold the M855 bullet at all (at that time I did not know this designation, the company used the designation ss-109), the 5 class was kept very poorly (50% penetration and higher at a distance of 100 m) . In this case, it was not a question of army body armor, but of their expensive counterparts for special forces of the highest level.
        In the photographs, pierced body armor looked like T-shirts hacked with an ax. The brittle fracture of the plates caused extensive cracking and the edges of the debris had to go deep into the victim's body. All plates were air-conditioned.
        The company was completing the final stage of the ROC and announced a new body armor confidently holding the M855 at 100 meters (but not from 5 -10 meters as in tests to confirm compliance with protection class). This served as an unprecedented success.
        Correctly, I understand that since then our protective equipment has stepped far forward and now they keep the M855 bullet confidently and this applies to most army body armor?
        1. Operator 6 November 2019 14: 12 New
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          We are talking about domestic analogues (of the 2018 model of the year) of American ceramic armor plates of the ESAPI type, 10 mm thick, made of boron carbide, coated on the outside with a thin layer of titanium, and on the inside with several layers of Spectra-type polyester film.
          1. Engineer 6 November 2019 14: 15 New
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            That is, armor steel in vests already yesterday?
            made of boron carbide, coated on the outside with a thin layer of titanium, inside - with several layers of a Spectra type polymer film.

            It sounds high-tech, but expensive. What are the odds that this will be an army standard?
            1. Operator 6 November 2019 14: 28 New
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              After the development in 2000 of the technology of the reaction bonded Ceramic composite В4С (2 / 3) + SiC (1 / 3), baked in reusable steel molds, wholesale prices for ESAPI fell to 500 dollars per tile.

              The United States has reserves in store for the more expensive XSAPI from pure boron carbide, baked in disposable carbon forms, whose durability is more than about a quarter.
              1. Engineer 6 November 2019 14: 35 New
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                Thank you for your reply. Progress really does not stop
        2. Shopping Mall 6 November 2019 14: 55 New
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          Quote: Engineer
          I am not an expert on this topic, but I had to work a little on the topic of body armor, so if it does not complicate, please specify the following point:
          In 2007, I worked for a well-known protective equipment company.
          The main discovery that shocked me was that our 4 class bulletproof vests did not hold the M855 bullet at all (at that time I did not know this designation, the company used the designation ss-109), the 5 class was kept very poorly (50% penetration and higher at a distance of 100 m) . In this case, it was not a question of army body armor, but of their expensive counterparts for special forces of the highest level.
          In the photographs, pierced body armor looked like T-shirts hacked with an ax. The brittle fracture of the plates caused extensive cracking and the edges of the debris had to go deep into the victim's body. All plates were air-conditioned.
          The company was completing the final stage of the ROC and announced a new body armor confidently holding the M855 at 100 meters (but not from 5 -10 meters as in tests to confirm compliance with protection class). This served as an unprecedented success.
          Correctly, I understand that since then our protective equipment has stepped far forward and now they keep the M855 bullet confidently and this applies to most army body armor?


          Or they stepped forward, or someone is lying (I mean the manufacturer). But boron carbide tiles are declared in the body armor "Warrior".
          1. Operator 6 November 2019 15: 05 New
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            Boron carbide is already used in the protective equipment of Russian sappers in Syria and in the newly created assault engineering brigade of the RF Armed Forces - complete with a passive exoskeleton and a water cooling system based on an ice tank, a battery pump and a wearable mesh tube (45 operating time of minutes).

            There was a corresponding report on the Zvezda channel, if I am not mistaken.

            Very similar equipment also appeared in reports on the work of the FSB special forces in the North Caucasus.
        3. ogrim 6 November 2019 15: 04 New
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          M855 bullet is not armor-piercing. Even M855a1 is not a problem for modern western bulletproof vests. Actually the cartridge with an armor-piercing bullet is M995. But he also does not penetrate the NATO armored 4 plate. Unfortunately, I do not know about our body armor.
          1. Engineer 6 November 2019 15: 11 New
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            I never wrote that this is an armor-piercing bullet. I wrote that her action on OUR body armor of THAT time was destructive.
            1. ogrim 6 November 2019 15: 36 New
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              And against our bullets, did our body armor of that time confirm the declared characteristics? It seems there is nothing special in m855.
              There is still one vile feature of the production of armor. Non-compliance of serial samples with quality standards. Again, I don’t know about NIB, but the armor of the 2 BMP, which theoretically should have protected (and on the test samples it was completely protected) from rifle-caliber armor-piercing bullets, made its way through some serial samples like paper.
              1. Engineer 6 November 2019 15: 54 New
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                Specifically, the body armor of that company confidently confirmed. The company's specialists, not without reason, considered themselves leaders precisely in steel armor plates. That was their competitive advantage.
                The company worked with SPC Alpha. The tests were very stringent. Stricter than GOST.
                I am not strong and not a metallurgist. I can only guess.
                Here are my conclusions from a layman.
                Crucial for breaking through is not so much energy as the nature of the interaction. The first is the type of impact elastic or inelastic. The more inelastic the more dangerous. The second is the nature of the movement of the projectile in the armor and the nature of fragmentation.
                Our body armor was designed to withstand bullets with TUS according to GOST. To do this, they were hardened for high hardness - from 56 HRC and higher. When meeting with the bullet from the TUS, the solid slab should have been chopped into pieces.
                And then the M855 bullet without a superhard (as far as I know) core, but heavier. Hard, and therefore with a slightly lower toughness, the plate breaks from an impact. A deformed bullet and fragments of the plate cause serious contusion injury. Another principle of breaking through for which we were not ready.
                1. ogrim 6 November 2019 16: 22 New
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                  And the plates were, as I understand it, ceramics? Type 6б5-15? It seems that titanium and steel should not break. You puzzled me. Oh, and another question. Namely, the armor-piercing cartridges (such as m995) did you experience? If so, what are the results?
                  1. Engineer 6 November 2019 16: 38 New
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                    No no
                    Only special steel.
                    Broke, not break in half. The type of destruction is brittle. Cracks are plentiful. The area of ​​plastic deformation is minimal or not visible.
                    About testing the actual armor-piercing rounds are not in the know
                    1. ogrim 6 November 2019 17: 20 New
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                      Interestingly, how would Soviet boron carbide plates work? It seems that modern Western counterparts show themselves well!
        4. Private-K 7 November 2019 08: 53 New
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          Since 2007, in the 2010-e years the quality of wearable armor flew far up.
          Actually, the Russian Federation is confidently one of the five countries of absolute leaders in the development and production of BZ and helmets. Moreover, China is not among them. And the UK too.
  6. Mainbeam 6 November 2019 08: 48 New
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    Cool article! It is easy to read, well structured, a small concentration of special terms per liter, the logic is not interrupted and leads to unambiguous intermediate conclusions, visual materials to the place and in a small amount.
  7. Basarev 6 November 2019 08: 52 New
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    And we have the same AK. And it is unlikely to be new. Thousands of Kalash in warehouses destroyed more than one rearmament program.
    1. Shopping Mall 6 November 2019 11: 27 New
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      Quote: Basarev
      And we have the same AK. And it is unlikely to be new. Thousands of Kalash in warehouses destroyed more than one rearmament program.


      By the way, not the worst "Kalash" can lie in warehouses by the way. It is believed that AK produced by 70x-beginning 80x in quality is much better than those that are produced now. Personally, did not compare, did not happen.
      1. Basarev 6 November 2019 11: 52 New
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        The only trouble is that, against the backdrop of Western advancements, AK is rapidly becoming technically obsolete. Even its reliability is no longer unique. But AK has no other competitive advantages over Western systems. We run the risk of getting into a situation like the Crimean one again, when the Western troops, completely armed with rifled, easily smashed ours with a smoothbore. Russia also needs promising models, and ahead of Western ones.
        1. Droid 6 November 2019 12: 30 New
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          The superiority of the AK74 over the M16A2 in shooting efficiency is now called obsolescence?
          1. Basarev 6 November 2019 13: 56 New
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            There is no such superiority. The accuracy of M16 is always greater. That's for sure, you don’t even have to think about it.
            1. Droid 6 November 2019 14: 11 New
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              Yes, you do not think, but distribute.
              The main was a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of firing from the AK74 machine gun and from the M16A2 rifle. It consisted of two parts - experimental and theoretical. The experimental, in terms of the frequency of hitting the N8 target when shooting in short bursts, showed:
              1. when shooting while lying down, the AK74 and M16A2 are almost equivalent;
              2. when shooting while lying with your hand, the AK74 is 1,48 times better;
              3. when shooting from a standing position, the AK74 is better 1,2 times.
              The theoretical calculation of the effectiveness was carried out taking into account the results of accuracy of fire:
              1. when firing a single fire lying from an emphasis, accuracy from M16A2 is 1,44 times better;
              2. when shooting in short bursts, accuracy from the AK74 assault rifle is better (in area) than from the M16A2 rifle: lying from the stop - 2,5 times, lying from the hand - 1,25 times, standing from the hand - 1,2 times.
              Calculations from the source data showed:
              1. when shooting with single shots lying down from the stop, the M16A2 rifle exceeds the AK74 assault rifle by 1,28 times;
              2. when shooting in short bursts, the AK74 submachine gun surpasses the M16A2 automatic rifle: lying on the stop - 1,03 times, lying on the hand - 1,22 times, standing on the hands 2,05 times.
              The report on the results of comparative tests concluded: 'The AK74 submachine gun exceeds the M16A2 rifle by 1,34-1,43 times in the frequency of hits when firing automatic fire, while in single-shot shooting it is inferior to 1,28 times in single shots due to the best 1,44 accuracy of rounds of ammunition SS109 from the M16A2 rifle'
              V.N. Nobles 'Combat cartridges of small arms' vol. 4, p. 33
        2. Shopping Mall 6 November 2019 14: 53 New
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          Quote: Basarev
          Russia also needs promising models, and ahead of Western ones.


          This will be the next article on this topic.
        3. psiho117 9 November 2019 13: 51 New
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          Quote: Basarev
          against the backdrop of Western advancements, AK is rapidly becoming technically obsolete. Even its reliability is no longer unique. But AK has no other competitive advantages over Western systems.

          Nonsense.
          1) Technically, not a single production model is fundamentally superior to the AK circuit. On the contrary, AK design solutions are implemented in the AR-scheme (HK416 / 417 series).
          There were samples that provided principled superiority - AN-94 and HK G11, but their fate is known to all.
          2) The reliability of AK (and other products "originally from the USSR") is still unsurpassed! No one in the world has even come close to this indicator!
          Some relief was made only on the AK-12, but no one has matzed it in bulk, and whether it is serious is still unknown.
          3) The competitive advantages of AK have long been known, and its popularity in the world is proof of this
          1. Basarev 9 November 2019 14: 28 New
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            I see such propaganda almost every day and am already used to not taking it seriously, like all sane people.
  8. Private-K 6 November 2019 09: 07 New
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    The patent of the American company SIG Sauer Inc for their prototypes submitted to the NGSW contest, a new generation of weapons, the US Army [media = https: //www.mediafire.com/file/t0ii4z9au7r5g5e/US_20190331450_A1.pdf/file]
    IMHO, weapons are brutally complicated for production. All the details of complex milling requiring advanced CNC machines. Guaranteed high cost.
    SIG Sauer falls into the twilight German technoeres. am
    1. Shopping Mall 6 November 2019 09: 46 New
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      Quote: Private-K
      The patent of the American company SIG Sauer Inc for their prototypes submitted to the NGSW contest, a new generation of weapons, the US Army [media = https: //www.mediafire.com/file/t0ii4z9au7r5g5e/US_20190331450_A1.pdf/file]
      IMHO, weapons are brutally complicated for production. All the details of complex milling requiring advanced CNC machines. Guaranteed high cost.
      SIG Sauer falls into the twilight German technoeres. am


      Do you think that everything should be done by stamping?
      The whole problem is that no one already considers milling to be an extremely complicated technical process. In modern factories, they use modern CNC machines that spit out finished parts like a machine gun. Now 3D printing is being pulled there too.
      1. Operator 6 November 2019 11: 40 New
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        I looked at the latest patent from SIG Sauer US 2019 / 0331450 A1 issued on October 31 for the gas evacuation mechanism of small arms submitted to the NGSW-R / AR contest - nothing fundamentally new or particularly complicated (including the flight haulage option machine gun).

        It is not clear why a patent was issued specifically for an invention, and not for a utility model laughing
        1. Engineer 6 November 2019 13: 38 New
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          I could be wrong, but there are no “utility models” in Anglo-Saxon patent law.
          1. Operator 6 November 2019 14: 18 New
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            They call it "industrial design."
  9. Operator 6 November 2019 09: 31 New
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    The Sheffield cartridge has the designation 6,8x51 mm.
    1. Undecim 6 November 2019 10: 37 New
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      The Sheffield cartridge has the designation 6,8x51 mm.
      And what size does this cartridge have a value of 51 mm?
      1. Undecim 6 November 2019 15: 26 New
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        Interestingly, minusers understood at least the essence of the issue?
  10. Yrec 6 November 2019 09: 57 New
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    I have long believed that existing rifle ammunition has exhausted itself. In my opinion, the chambers of the squad-squad link should be about 6,5x50 in dimension. This is a machine gun, a sniper rifle (unified with a machine gun and with the possibility of firing bursts), a machine gun with tape power and a variable rate of fire. The characteristics of the cartridge + weapon complex should be issued by 4000-4500 J, as with mattresses. Naturally, the main fire will be single. Its accuracy will be ensured by a sufficient barrel length (bulpap) and a special moderator on a single one, which holds the movable mechanisms of the weapon until the bullet leaves the barrel. The next ammunition of the platoon-company link should be a cartridge with something near 8,48x67. Weapons - sniper rifle and machine gun, armament of individual sniper / machine gun units (compartments) subordinate to the company commander. Well, 12,7x108 in the link of the company battalion has long existed. Hybrid cartridges cause me doubts: steel + brass = electrocorrosion, polymer + metal bottom - automatic fire will not pull.
  11. Undecim 6 November 2019 10: 28 New
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    Site authors obviously decided to organize a rewriting competition. On 23 of October there were already two articles on this subject, today is the third attempt to present the same information. True Mitrofanov introduced several new photos.
    In my opinion, Roman Krivov and Roman Skomorokhov are the leaders (https://topwar.ru/163891-na-smenu-m4-ne-hk416.html).
    We look forward to another attempt next week. Interestingly, Ryabov will participate?
  12. Droid 6 November 2019 10: 38 New
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    A classic example of how a false conclusion is obtained from false premises.
    NIB did not significantly reduce the effectiveness of the shooting. The difference is only ~ 1,12 times, which is offset by an increase in the density of fire in the same 1,12 times
    1. Operator 6 November 2019 10: 57 New
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      Yes yes yes believe laughing

      1. Droid 6 November 2019 12: 33 New
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        For faith in the church. And the area of ​​that plate is 7,5 sq. dm., which is 12% of the frontal area of ​​the traveling figure. People who are not able to handle numbers will never understand that there is absolutely no need to punch a plate.
        1. Operator 6 November 2019 12: 38 New
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          People unfamiliar with the army instruction for firing at a growth target with targeting the torso just at the location of the bulletproof vest can go to the political education office of the CPSU laughing
          1. Droid 6 November 2019 13: 03 New
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            There is no instructions for firing at a growth target and never was. And people who do not have an idea of ​​the dispersion characteristics, shooting errors and the results of the shooting efficiency tests when shooting at targets in the NIB should be educated.
            1. Michael HORNET 8 November 2019 08: 51 New
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              Droid is right. The effectiveness of body armor is greatly exaggerated. And in this program it looks more like an excuse, but what about the terrible Russian body armor that does not break through 5.56. Let's stir up an expensive program with 6.8 magnum, which will give a guaranteed rollback)
              In the 6.8 Magnum Rifle system - the shooter, the weakest link is the shooter)
              The plates occupy 7.5 square dm frontal projection and 1 square dm lateral projection of the body (and often there are no side plates at all, none). Well, in your opinion, what is the area of ​​protection?
              The bulletproof vest of absolutely any degree of protection in battle (and not special operations with shield and packed juggernauts) protects very little from bullets of small arms. It is very heavy and really will be weakly applied.
              In fact, soft anti-splinter guards with a maximum protection area will be used - wow. And even 5.45 is not really safe from bullets. Of course, someone is lucky
  13. Operator 6 November 2019 13: 51 New
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    Quote: Droid
    There is no instruction for shooting a growth target

    See the relevant section of the NSD.
    1. Droid 6 November 2019 14: 24 New
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      Those. no instructions for firing at a growth target Can't you show? What actually was to be expected, in the absence of such instruction.
      Now we turn to the dispersion characteristics and errors. Please tell us what are the total errors of a shot from AK74 at a distance of 400 m, taking into account the guidance error in 1 thousandth, the errors in determining the range 10% and the errors in determining the wind speed in 1,5 m / s? Dispersion characteristics for middle shooters from TS GRAU from a prone position with an emphasis by a single fire. What is the probability of getting solitary in growth and the likelihood of damage taking into account body armor?
      1. Operator 6 November 2019 14: 39 New
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        We are talking about shooting with aiming at the center of a growth target - at the solar plexus, covered with body armor.

        And where will the bullet go in reality - with the technical accuracy of AK-74 in three angular minutes and dispersion of 1 / 1000, which will be 400 meters at a distance of 0,75 meters (that is, past a growth figure with a trunk thickness of 0,5 meters) - this is already a question for To the lord god laughing
        1. Droid 6 November 2019 15: 11 New
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          We are talking about shooting with aiming at the center of a growth target - at the solar plexus, covered with body armor.

          It is about her.
          And where will the bullet go in reality ...


          I’m not God, so I took the calculator and calculated according to the appropriate formulas - the probability of getting a single into the growth 0,1806, the probability that the bullet will hit the armor plate is 0,0215. The difference in the probability of damage between the naked carcass and the carcass in the NIB will be ~ 1,14 times.
          1. Operator 6 November 2019 15: 21 New
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            So, for this, they embarrassed the NGSW program in order to rearm the infantry with self-loading rifles with an accuracy of 1 angular minute (12 cm at 400 meters), at which the bullet deflection when shooting at a growth target does not go beyond the dimensions of the body armor plate.
            1. Droid 6 November 2019 15: 36 New
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              Have you carefully read about shooting errors?
              At the same time, look at how the Marxams shoot in battle, it is marked with a cross there.
              1. Operator 6 November 2019 15: 38 New
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                USArmy ets do not agree with you.
                1. Droid 6 November 2019 15: 58 New
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                  I’m absolutely not interested in someone’s consent. I'm interested in the facts, and they are presented in the illustration above.
        2. gross kaput 7 November 2019 22: 20 New
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          Quote: Operator
          We are talking about shooting with aiming at the center of the growth target - the solar plexus

          Hmm, as I understand it, we are talking about dwarfs with crooked little legs?
          Quote: Operator
          See the relevant section of the NSD.

          Well, show the smoke - shaw there is no such thing in the NSD? wink
          Quote: Operator
          People unfamiliar with the army instruction for firing at a growth target with targeting the torso just at the location of the bulletproof vest can go to the political education office of the CPSU

          People who served in the army, and even gained a little knowledge there, know that when shooting at ranges up to 300 (AKM) -400 (AK74) meters with the installation of the “P” sight, you need to aim at the center of the growth target - i.e. in the belt buckle, or in the lower edge of the chest. When shooting at ranges of up to 300 meters at small targets (the head), you need to aim under the target, the magnitude of the downward pointing point depends on the range and on the experience of the shooter (which is why in urban combat it is recommended to put the sight not on P but 100 - in the city ranges revolve around a hundred square meters, small-sized targets, therefore it’s more efficient to set on the 100 and shoot in the center, a little lower, a little higher, but you will get a big chance that the bullets will go higher).
          When shooting at ranges greater than 400, it is recommended to increase the scope against the intended range and aim at the target - the full-height on 500 is already completely and completely blocked by the front sight, therefore it is more optimal to choose TP under the target so that it is located above the front sight, while increasing the range of the sight we get hits higher aiming points.
          1. Operator 7 November 2019 23: 28 New
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            And faith does not allow to establish a collar of an aiming strip at risk of 4? laughing
            1. Michael HORNET 8 November 2019 08: 58 New
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              Yes, all the same, the fact is that the protection area behind the projection of the bronic is small relative to the total mercy of the body.
              And it is better to prefer a weak recoil and a quick repeat of the shot with a capacious magazine, if it hits the plate, to a heavy monster with terrible recoil and sound (whatever they say that they will solve these problems)
              I understand the 6.5 Grendel, which combines reasonable energy and the size of a cartridge, with a marked increase in efficiency, but the 6.8 magnum is too much. Yes, and the trunks have not yet received technologies for a sharp increase in survivability with 500 shots at 975 m / s speeds and double the pressure of the modern one (these 975 are then achieved on a very short barrel)
              That is, the barrel resource will be 500 shots and the barrel will essentially be a consumable
              A more realistic idea is to increase the effective firing range, yes here - but it requires optics such as 1-8x30 for each weapon (well, although the existing 1 / 4 Spectrum will more or less fit), a completely different shooter preparation (this is important), the rangefinder to 1000 m at least for a sergeant, and better for each fighter (this is a very difficult task, since hunting rangefinders at this range are not confidently able to work)
              In general, the topic is in many ways interesting, but runs into the weakness of the soldier himself for this rifle
              1. Operator 8 November 2019 11: 09 New
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                Quote: Michael HORNET
                the area of ​​protection behind the projection of the bronik is small relative to the total mercy of the body

                The SIBZ area is quite sufficient to protect the fighter when firing at an estimated range from 300 to 400 meters - when aiming at the center of a growth target, which is provided for by the NSD.

                And when installing the AK-74 sight at risk “P” (corresponding to the range of 440 meters), for which some VO participants drown in the comments - all the more since all shots will go above the “belt buckle”.
                1. Droid 8 November 2019 11: 28 New
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                  Quote: Operator
                  The SIBZ area is quite sufficient to protect the fighter when firing at an estimated range from 300 to 400 meters

                  It is not true. The calculation is given above.
                2. Michael HORNET 9 November 2019 23: 26 New
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                  If you look at the chart of real hits, then there will be less optimism. And if you deploy a fighter in the perspective of 3 / 4 then everything will be generally sad
                  1. Operator 10 November 2019 16: 48 New
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                    Can I see the diagram of real bullet hits?
  14. parkello 6 November 2019 16: 42 New
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    NK 417 is impressive. winked
  15. psiho117 9 November 2019 13: 23 New
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    But with high probability the United States will want to test new weapons in the field, and in this context its appearance, for example, in Ukraine cannot be ruled out
    Even overdue Javelins didn’t trust Ukraine. Who will give them the “NEXT GENE” gunner?
    1. agond 12 January 2020 20: 54 New
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      Quote: Droid
      It is not true. The calculation is given above.

      So the Americans want to make the rifle’s scope “smart”, it will shoot on its own, that is, it should have options,
      1 image recognition and target identification
      2 calculation of the aiming point taking into account
      a) predicting the future movement of the target, for example, by 0.5 sec
      b) prediction of the involuntary displacement of the rifle by the shooter when aiming in the future for 0.1 sec
      3 constantly on the screen highlight the target with a mark and another mark show the point of impact if the shot was fired at the moment
      4 when the shooter manages to reduce both marks into one “smart” sight, he will give a command to shoot, if the capsule in the cartridge were electric, then it worked quickly.
      Thus, the consumption of cartridges will be piecewise and you do not need to carry a large ammunition with you, that's what their plan is.
  16. Maksim_ok April 30 2020 23: 32 New
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    About running in Ukraine and Syria in the hands of PMCs are bold fantasies. And returning to the weapon itself, it is worth saying that the main thing here is the cartridge as the most conservative in small arms. There is a desire and tendency to increase the distance of effective fire from small arms. For this, new ammunition (including the promising .338 Norma Magnum for the LWMMG machine gun) and new sights. For example, the American company Vortex Optics received a contract for the production of sights for NGSW (1-8x magnification, a grid in the first focal plane, a laser rangefinder, ballistic computer, environmental sensors) firing accuracy will be achieved not by constructive tricks like “recoil impulse shift”, but modern and perfect sights to compensate for the human factor. This is more practical and ultimately effective, since the mass of a soldier can not realize the technical accuracy of weapons. Roughly speaking, the technical accuracy of the long-existing AK-74 and M-16 is quite high, but due to errors in aiming the bulk of the fighters, it cannot be realized. And for how much possible compensation for the shooter's mistakes, “smart sights” are needed. In general, these “shifted recoil impulses” and sophisticated “cuckoo clock” weapons are useless if the shooter does not know how to shoot.