Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state

Early Information stories Dnieper Cossacks fragmentary, fragmentary and contradictory, but at the same time very eloquent. The earliest mention of the existence of Dnieper wanderers (ancestors of the Cossacks) is associated with the legend about the founding of Kiev by Prince Kiy. Any saying, as you know, is a concentrated clot of the philosophy of the past. So, the old Cossack saying “how war is like brothers, like the world is so sons of bitches” did not appear yesterday or even the day before yesterday, but it looks like when the world was created. For people always fought and in every tribe, if it wanted to survive, there were special soldiers and field commanders for military purposes, capable of organizing, inspiring, building a crowd of tribal militiamen, building them into battle formations and turning them into an efficient army. In different nations these military defenders of the clans were called differently, in the Türks the Beks (bei, run), in the Russian boyars (derived from the word battle). Relations between the boyars and princes (the so-called military leaders of the tribes) with the secular and religious authorities of the tribes have never been cloudless, especially during periods of prolonged reconciliation, because while the war is on, the activities of the military are urgently needed. But as soon as a more or less lasting pacification happens, a violent, drunk, reckless, frostbitten, wayward and expensive in content, the host begins to annoy and strain the peaceful life of ordinary inhabitants of the tribe, part of the government and, especially, the liberal-pacifist part of the servants, courtyards and retinues power itself. They, because of their historical myopia, see in this peace the advent of the era of universal peace, prosperity and happiness for all time, and the scabby condition appears to get rid of all defenses. Close and distant neighbors, as well as other geopolitical rivals immediately begin to support and sponsor this naively-pacifist part of society, and, given their epilepsy for all kinds of freebies, can be easily turned into their “fifth column”. And if victorious princes and boyars raised their hands and attempted to supreme power of tribal elders and wise men, they had no mercy, in spite of any past achievements. So it was, is and always will be, sometimes unfortunately, sometimes fortunately. So it was in Porosye. While Prince Ky with his brothers and his team bravely, skillfully and reliably, in the hard times they defended the tribe of dews (the Proto-Slavs who lived in the Ros River basin) from the encroachments of neighboring tribes and nomads, they had honor, praise and glory, and the vocal accordions sang "a song to the madness of the brave" . But then the dashing neighbors bowed their heads before the winners' bunny and came a long pacification. The victorious prince and his fighters (boyars) demanded a fair share of power for victory, but the elders and magicians (priests) did not want to share it, aroused the people against the rebels and expelled the heroes from the tribe. Then, according to the legend, Kyi, along with his clan and closest warriors, lived for a long time on the Dnieper carriage of Samvatas, became the chieftain of roving people and founded a town in 430 year.

The early history of Zaporozhye is also no less stormy, rich and deep than the history of the Volga-Don Perevoloki. Nature has created in this place on the Dnieper a natural barrier to navigation in the form of rapids. No one could overcome the rapids without bringing the ships to the shore to move them around the rapids. Nature itself ordered to have here an outpost, a notch, to whip (at least as you call it) for the protection, defense of the Zaporozhye perevoloki and the Black Sea steppe from the dashing northern boat rote, which constantly sought to raid the Dnieper on the deep rear of the nomads and the Black Sea coast. This intersection on the islands at the rapids probably existed always, because there was always a portage around the rapids. And about this in the history there is evidence. Here is one of the loudest. The mention of the existence of Zaporizhzhya fortifications and garrisons is found in the description of the death of Prince Svyatoslav. In 971, Prince Svyatoslav returned to Kiev from his second and unsuccessful campaign in Bulgaria. After making peace with the Byzantines, Svyatoslav with the remnants of the army left Bulgaria and safely reached the mouth of the Danube. Voevoda Sveneld told him: “Go around the prince on horsebacks, for the Pechenegs are at the doorstep.” But the prince wished to set sail on the Dnieper to Kiev. According to this disagreement, the Russian squad is divided into two parts. One, led by Sveneld, walks through the lands of Russian tributaries, streets and Tivertsi. And the other part, led by Svyatoslav, returns by sea and is ambushed by the Pechenegs. The first attempt of Svyatoslav in the fall of 971 of the year to climb the Dnieper failed, he had to spend the winter in the mouth of the Dnieper, and in the spring of 972 a year to try again. However, the Pechenegs still guarded the rapids. “When spring came, Svyatoslav went to the thresholds. And smoking, the Pechenezh prince, attacked him, and killed Svyatoslav, and took his head, and made a cup from the skull, bound it, and drank from it. Sveneld also came to Kiev to Yaropolk. ”So the dashing Zaporizhzhya Pechenegs, led by their Khan (according to other sources Otaman) Kurei outplayed the famous governor, Svyatoslav was killed, killed and beheaded, and Smoking ordered the head to be made from his head.

Figure.1 The last battle of Svyatoslav

At the same time, the great warrior, prince (kagan of the Rus) Svyatoslav Igorevich can rightfully be considered one of the founding fathers of the Dnieper Cossacks. Earlier in 965, he, together with the Pechenegs and other steppe peoples, defeated the Khazar Khaganate and conquered the Black Sea steppe. I act in the best traditions of the steppe kagans, part of the Alans and Cherkas, Kasogs or Kaisaks, to protect Kiev from the raids of the steppe people from the south, moved from the North Caucasus to the Dnieper and in Porosye. This decision was promoted by an unexpected and treacherous raid on Kiev by his former Pecheneg allies in 969, when he himself was in the Balkans. On the Dnieper, along with other Turkic-Scythian tribes who had previously arrived and subsequently arrived, mingling with rodents and the local Slavic population, assimilating their language, the settlers formed a special nation, giving it their Cherkasy ethnic name. Until today, this region of Ukraine is called Cherkasy, and the regional center is Cherkasy. Approximately by the middle of the XII century, according to the chronicles around 1146, on the basis of these Cherkas from different steppe peoples, an alliance gradually formed, called the black hoods. Later, already under the Horde, a special Slavic people formed from these Cherkas (black hoods) and then the Dnieper Cossacks were formed from Kiev to Zaporozhye. Svyatoslav himself was fond of the appearance and boldness of the North Caucasian Cherkas and Kaisaks. From early childhood, brought up by the Vikings, nevertheless, under the influence of Cherkas and Kaisaks, he willingly changed his appearance, and most of the later Byzantine chronicles describe him with a long mustache, shaved head and with an olead chubom. More details about the early history of the Cossacks are described in the article "Old Cossack ancestors".

Some historians call the predecessor of the Zaporozhian Sich also the Edisan Horde. This is not the case at the same time. Indeed, in the Horde, to protect against Lithuania, there was a crossing near the Dnieper rapids with a powerful Cossack garrison. Organizationally this fortified area was part of the ulus with the name of the Edisan Horde. But the Lithuanian prince Olgerd defeated her and included in his possessions. The role of Olgerd in the history of the Dnieper Cossacks is also difficult to overestimate. With the disintegration of the Horde, its fragments were in constant hostility between themselves, as well as with Lithuania and with the Moscow State. Even before the final disintegration of the Horde, during the inter-war strife, the Muscovites and Litvins placed part of the Horde lands under their control. Bezachalie and distemper in the Horde were especially remarkable were used by the Lithuanian prince Olgerd. Where by force, where by cleverness and cunning, where, along with the 14 century, he incorporated many Russian princedoms into his domain, including the territories of the Dnieper Cossacks (former black hoods) and set himself broad goals: to do away with Moscow and the Golden Horde. The Dnieper Cossacks were armed forces up to four topics (tumenov) or 40000 well trained and trained troops and proved to be significant support for the policy of Prince Olgerd and from the 14 century begin to play an important role in the history of Lithuania, and as Lithuania was united with Poland and in the history of the Commonwealth. The son and heir of Olgerd, the Lithuanian prince Jagiello, having become the Polish king, founded the new Polish dynasty and made the first attempt through personal union to unite these two states. Later there were several more such attempts and, ultimately, the united kingdom of the Commonwealth was created. At this time, the Don and Dnieper Cossacks were influenced by the same reasons related to the history of the Horde, but there were also features and their fate went in different ways. The territories of the Dnieper Cossacks were the outskirts of the Polish-Lithuanian kingdom, the Cossacks were replenished with the inhabitants of these countries and inevitably gradually strongly “poured and doused”. In addition, the suburban population, the peasantry and the townspeople have long lived on their territory. The Dnieper divided the territory of the Cossacks into right-bank and left-bank parts. The Sloboda population also occupied the territories of the former Kiev principality, Chervonnaya Rus with Lviv, Belarus and the Polotsk Territory adjacent to the Dnieper Cossacks, and when the Horde was in decline, they fell under the rule of Lithuania and then Poland. The nature of the ruling elite of the Dnieper Cossacks was formed under the influence of the Polish "gentry" who did not recognize the supreme power. Shlyakhta was an open class of warring gentlemen, opposing commoners. The true gentleman was ready to die of hunger, but not to disgrace himself by physical labor. Representatives of the nobility differed disobedience, inconstancy, arrogance, arrogance, "ambition" (honor and dignity, from the Latin. honor "honor") and personal courage. Among the gentry, the idea of ​​universal equality within the class (“lords-brothers”) was preserved, and even the king was perceived as equal. In case of disagreement with the authorities, the gentry reserved the right to revolt (rokosh). The above-mentioned gentry habits turned out to be very attractive and infectious for the power elite of the entire Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and so far the relapses of this phenomenon are the most serious problem for stable statehood in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, but especially in Ukraine. This “superfreedom” became a distinctive feature in the ruling elite of the Dnieper Cossacks. They fought an open war against the king, under whose authority they were, if they failed, they came under the rule of the Moscow prince or tsar, the Crimean khan or the Turkish sultan, whom they also did not want to obey. The inconstancy of their caused mistrust to them from all sides, which led to tragic consequences in the future. The Don Cossacks, in relations with Moscow, also often had strained relations, but the edge of reason rarely passed. They never had the desire for treason and, defending their rights and “liberties”, they regularly carried their duties and service in relation to Moscow. As a result of this service in the 15-19 centuries, along the lines of the Don Army, the Russian government formed eight new Cossack regions settled on the borders with Asia.

Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state

Fig. 2 Ukrainian Cossack gentry ambition

Despite the difficult relations with the Cossacks in 1506, the Polish king Sigismund I legally assigned to the Cossack community all the land occupied by the Cossacks under the Horde’s rule in the lower reaches of the Dnieper and on the right bank of the river. Formally, free Dnieper Cossacks were run by a royal official, the headmen of Kanevsky and Cherkasy, but they really depended on and conducted their policies very little, and they built relations with their neighbors solely on the balance of power and the nature of personal relations with adjacent rulers. So in 1521, numerous Dnieper Cossacks led by hetman Dashkevich together with the Crimean Tatars went on a campaign against Moscow, and in 1525 the same Dashkevich, also elder Cherkassky and Kanevsky, in response to the treacherous betrayal of the Crimean Khan, he emptied the Cossacks Crimea. Getman Dashkevich had extensive plans to strengthen the statehood of the Hetmanate (the Dnieper Cossacks), including the plan to recreate the Zaporizhzhya Zasek as an advanced outpost in the struggle of the Polish-Lithuanian state with the Crimea, but he did not succeed in implementing this plan.

Again, the Zaporozhye zasek in the post-Ardynsk history in 1556 re-created the Cossack hetman Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Vishnevetsky. This year, part of the Dnieper Cossacks, who did not want to submit to Lithuania and Poland, formed on the Dnieper on the island of Khortytsya a society of single free Cossacks called “Zaporizhian Sich”. Prince Vishnevetsky was descended from the Gediminovich family and was a supporter of the Russian-Lithuanian rapprochement. For this, he was repressed by King Sigismund II and fled to Turkey. Returning after opals from Turkey, with the permission of the king, he became the elder of the ancient Cossack cities of Kanev and Cherkasy. Later he sent ambassadors to Moscow and Tsar Ivan the Terrible accepted him with "kazatstvo" for service, issued a security certificate and sent a salary. Khortytsya was a convenient base for controlling shipping along the Dnieper and raids on the Crimea, Turkey, Carpathian and Danubian principalities. Since the Sich closest to the Dnieper Cossack settlements approached the Tatar possessions, the Turks and Tatars immediately tried to dislodge the Cossacks from Khortitsa. In 1557, the city of Sich withstood a Turkish and Tatar siege, but having fought off the Cossacks, they nevertheless went back to Kanev and Cherkasy. In 1558, the 5 of thousands of blunt Dnieper Cossacks once again occupied the Dnieper Islands right under the nose of the Tatars and Turks. Thus, in the constant struggle for border lands, a community of the most courageous Dnieper Cossacks was formed. The island they occupied became the foremost military camp of the Dnieper Cossacks, where only the single, most desperate Cossacks constantly lived. Hetman Vishnevetsky himself was an unreliable ally of Moscow. By order of Ivan the Terrible, he made a foray into the Caucasus to help the allied Muscovy Kabardians against the Turks and the Nogai. However, after a campaign in Kabarda, he withdrew to the mouth of the Dnieper, fell down with the Polish king and re-entered his service. Vishnevetsky's adventure ended tragically for him. By order of the king, he undertook a campaign in Moldova in order to take the place of the Moldavian ruler, but was treacherously captured and sent to Turkey. There he was sentenced to death and dropped from the fortress tower on iron hooks, which he died in agony, cursing Sultan Suleiman I, who is now widely known to our public thanks to the popular Turkish TV series “The Magnificent Century”. The next hetman, Prince Ruzhinsky, again entered into relations with the Moscow tsar and continued to raid the Crimea and Turkey until his death in 1575.

Fig. 3 Terrible Zaporozhye infantry

Since 1559, Lithuania, as part of the Livonian coalition, waged a heavy war with Muscovy over the Baltics. The prolonged Livonian war exhausted and drained Lithuania and weakened in the fight against Moscow so much that, avoiding military-political collapse, she was forced to fully recognize the Union with Poland at 1569 in the Lublin Diet, effectively losing a significant part of sovereignty and losing Ukraine. The new state was called Rzeczpospolita (the republic of both peoples) and headed by its elected Polish king and Sejm. Lithuania had to give up exclusive rights to its Ukraine. Previously, Lithuania did not allow any settlers from Poland here. Now the Poles are eagerly starting the colonization of the newly acquired land. The voivodships of Kiev and Bratslavskoye were founded, where, first of all, crowds of servicemen of the Polish nobility (gentry) with their leaders, high tycoons, rushed. According to the decision of the Seimas, “deserts lying near the Dnieper” should have been settled as soon as possible. The king was authorized to distribute land to deserved nobles for rent or use by office. Polish hetmans, governors, elders and other official tycoons immediately became the lifelong owners of large estates, albeit deserted, but equal in size to specific princedoms. They, in turn, with advantage for themselves distributed them for rent in parts by smaller nobility. Emissaries of new landowners at fairs in Poland, Kholmshchyna, Polesie, Galicia and Volyn announced appeals to a new land. They promised to help with the resettlement, protection from Tatar raids, the abundance of black earth and liberation from all taxes for the period from 20 to 30 the first years. Crowds of multi-tribal Eastern European peasants began to flock to the fat lands of Ukraine, willingly leaving their native places, especially because at that time they were turned from free plowmen into the position of “involuntary servants.” Over the next half century, dozens of new cities and hundreds of settlements have appeared here. New peasant settlements grew like mushrooms on the indigenous lands of the Dnieper Cossacks, where, according to the Khan's decree and royal decrees, the Cossacks had already settled before. Under the Lithuanian authorities in Lubny, Poltava, Mirgorod, Kanev, Cherkasy, Chigirin, Belaya Tserk, only Cossacks were the masters, only elected atamans had the power. Now everywhere were planted Polish elders, who behaved like conquerors, regardless of the customs of the Cossack communities. Therefore, all kinds of troubles began to emerge between the Cossacks and the representatives of the new government: about the right to use the land, about the desire of the elders to turn the entire unserviceable part of the Cossack population into tax and clandestine estates, and most of all because of the violation of old rights and outraged national pride of free people . However, the kings themselves supported the old Lithuanian order. The tradition of elected atamans and hetman, directly subordinate to the king, was not broken. But here the tycoons felt themselves here as “cruels”, “crucians” and in no way limited the gentry subordinate to them. The Cossacks were treated not by the citizens of the Commonwealth, but by the "subjects" of the new lords, as "schismatic mob", flakes, conquered people, fragments of the Horde, behind which, from Tatar times, incomplete bills and offenses for attacks on Poland were drawn. But the Cossacks felt for themselves the natural right of the local indigenous people, did not want to obey the aliens, were outraged by the lawless violations of royal decrees and contempt of the gentry. They did not arouse in them the warm feelings and the crowd of new, mixed tribal settlers, who rushed to their lands along with the Poles. From the peasants who came to Ukraine, the Cossacks kept themselves apart. weapons. The peasants, under all conditions, remained the "subjects" of their lords, the dependent and almost disenfranchised working people, the "cattle". The Cossacks differed from the aliens and their speech. At that time, it had not yet merged with the Ukrainian and differed little from the language of the lower Dontsov. If some other people, Ukrainians, Poles, Litvins (Belarusians) were admitted to the Cossack communities, then these were isolated cases, which were the result of especially cordial relations with local Cossacks or as a result of mixed marriages. New people came to Ukraine voluntarily and "stole" plots in areas that, according to historical tradition and according to royal decrees, belonged to the Cossacks. True, they performed someone else's will, but the Cossacks did not take this into account. They had to make room and watch as their land more and more goes into the wrong hands. The reason is enough to feel dislike for all aliens. Leading a life separate from the newly arrived people, in the second half of the 16th century, the Cossacks began to be divided into four household groups.

The first is Nizovtsy or Zaporozhtsy. They did not recognize any other authority than the Ataman, no extraneous pressure on their will, no interference in their affairs. The people are exclusively military, often unmarried, they served as the first cadres of the continuously growing Cossack population of Zaporizhzhya Niz.

The second is the Hetmanate, on the former Lithuanian Ukraine. The closest to the first group in spirit was a layer of Cossack farmers and cattle breeders. They were already attached to the land and to their occupation, but under new conditions they were sometimes able to speak in the language of rebellion and at some moments left the masses "in their old-aged place, in Zaporogi."

Of these, the third layer stood out - the Cossacks court and registry. They and their families were endowed with special rights, which gave them reason to consider themselves equal with the Polish gentry, although every seedy Polish nobleman treated them haughtily.

The fourth group of social order was a full-fledged gentry, created by the royal privileges of the Cossack serving sergeant. Decades of joint campaigns with the Poles and Litvins showed many Cossacks worthy of the highest praise and reward. They received from the royal hands "privileges" to the gentry rank, along with small estates in the outlying lands. After that, on the basis of "fraternity" with fellow friends, they acquired Polish surnames and coats of arms. From this nobility were selected hetmans with the title "Hetman of His Royal Majesty of the Zaporizhia Army and both sides of the Dnieper". Zaporizhzhya Bottom never obeyed them, although sometimes he acted together. All these events influenced the stratification of the Cossacks, who lived along the Dnieper. Some did not recognize the authorities of the Polish king and defended their independence on the Dnieper rapids, adopting the name "Ground Forces Zaporozhskoe". Part of the Cossacks turned into a free sedentary population engaged in agriculture and cattle breeding. Another part entered the service of the Polish-Lithuanian state.

Fig. 4 Dnieper Cossacks

In the 1575 year, after the death of King Sigismund II on the Polish throne, the Jagiellonian dynasty was interrupted. The warrior Transylvanian prince István Batory, better known in our and Polish history as Stephen Batory, was elected king. Having taken the throne, he set about reorganizing the army. Due to the mercenaries, he raised her fighting capacity and decided to use the Dnieper Cossacks as well. Formerly under the hetman Ruzhinsky, the Dnieper Cossacks were in the service of the Moscow Tsar and defended the borders of the Moscow State. So in one of the raids the Crimean Khan captured up to 11 thousands of Russian people. Ruzhinsky with the Cossacks attacked the Tatars on the way and freed the whole is full. Ruzhinsky made sudden raids not only on the Crimea, but also on the southern coast of Anatolia. Once he landed in Trapezund, then occupied and destroyed Sinop, then he approached Constantinople. From this campaign, he returned with great fame and loot. But in 1575, hetman Ruzhinsky died during the siege of Aslam fortress.

Stefan Batory decided to attract the Dnieper Cossacks to his service, promising them independence and privileges in the internal organization. In 1576, he published the Universal, in which the Cossacks installed the registry in 6000 people. Registered Cossacks were consolidated into 6 regiments, divided into hundreds, neighborhoods and companies. At the head of the regiments was a sergeant, he was given a banner, a horsetail, a seal and a coat of arms. He was appointed a consignment, two judges, a clerk, two captains, troop corps and a horseman, colonels, regimental officers, centurions and atamans. From the environment of the Cossack elite, a commanding foreman stood out, who caught up with the rights of the Polish gentry. The lower Zaporozhye army did not submit to the elder, chose their chieftains. The Cossacks who were not included in the register turned into a tax-paying estate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and lost their Cossack position. Some of these Cossacks did not obey the Universal and went to the Zaporizhian Sich. Later, at the head of the regiment regiments, a Cossack chief began to be selected - hetman of his royal majesty, the Zaporizhia Army and both sides of the Dnieper. The king appointed Chigirin, the ancient capital of chigov (jig), one of the Black Klobuk tribes, to be the main city of the registered Cossacks. A salary was assigned, with the shelves was land ownership, which was given to the rank or rank. Zaporozhtsy king established Kosovo ataman.

Having reformed the armed forces, in 1578, Stefan Batory resumed hostilities against Moscow. To protect themselves from the Crimea and Turkey, Batory forbade the Dnieper Cossacks to attack their lands, indicating to them the raids - Moscow lands. In this war of Poland with Russia, the Dnieper and Zaporozhye Cossacks were on the side of Poland, were part of the Polish troops, made raids and carried out destruction and pogroms no less brutal than the Crimean Tatars. Batory was very pleased with their activities and praised for the raids. At the time of the resumption of hostilities with Poland, Russian troops controlled the Baltic coast from Narva to Riga. In the war with Batory, Moscow troops began to suffer big failures and leave occupied territories. There were several reasons for the failures:
- depletion of the military resources of a country waging war for more than 20 years.
- the need to divert large resources to maintain order in the newly conquered areas of Kazan and Astrakhan, the Volga peoples constantly rebelled.
- constant military tension in the south due to the threat from the Crimea, Turkey and the nomadic hordes.
- the continuous and merciless struggle of the king against the princes, the boyars and internal treason.
- great dignity and talent of Stefan Batory as an effective military and political leader of that time.
- a large moral and material assistance to the anti-Russian coalition from Western Europe.
The war of many years has exhausted the forces of both sides, and in 1682, the Yam-Zapolsky peace was concluded. With the end of the Livonian war, the Dnieper and Zaporizhzhya Cossacks began to make attacks on the Crimea and the Turkish possessions. This created the threat of a war between Poland and Turkey. But Poland, no less than Muscovy, was exhausted by the Livonian War and did not want a new war. King Stephen Batory openly fought with the Cossacks, when they attacked the Tatars and Turks in violation of the royal decrees. Such he ordered "to seize and forge."

And the next king, Sigismund III, took even more decisive measures against the Cossacks, which allowed him to conclude an "eternal peace" with Turkey. But this completely contradicted the main vector of the then European policy directed against Turkey. At this time, the Austrian emperor created another union to expel the Turks from Europe, and invited Muscovy to this union. For this, he promised Russia Crimea and even Constantinople, and asked 8-9 thousands of Cossacks "hardy in hunger, useful for seizing booty, for devastating the enemy country and for sudden raids ...". Seeking support in the fight against the Polish king, Turks and Tatars, the lower-level Cossacks often turned to the Russian tsar and formally recognized themselves as his subjects. So, in 1594, when the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation hired the Cossacks to his service, they sought permission from the Russian tsar. The tsarist government tried to maintain appropriate relations with the Cossacks, especially with those who lived in the upper reaches of the Donets and protected Russian lands from the Tatars. But there was no great hope for the Zaporozhian Cossacks, and the Russian ambassadors always “visited”, “whether the sovereign would be direct” these “subjects”.

After the death of Stephen Batory in the 1586 year, the efforts of the gentry to the Polish throne raised King Sigismund III from the Swedish dynasty. The magnates were his opponents and advocated for the Austrian dynasty. A “rokosh” began in the country, but Chancellor Zamoysky defeated the troops of the Austrian challenger and his supporters. Sigismund entrenched on the throne. But the royal power in Poland by the efforts of the gentry was reduced to a complete dependence on the decisions of the general assembly, where each pan had veto power. Sigismund was a supporter of absolute monarchy and an ardent Catholic. By this he placed himself in hostile relations with the Orthodox magnates and the population, as well as with the gentry - supporters of democratic privileges. A new “rokosh” began, but Sigismund coped with it. The magnates and gentry, fearing the king's revenge, moved into the neighboring countries, above all in the troubled Muscovy at that time. The activities of these Polish-Lithuanian insurgents in the Moscow domains did not have special national and state goals, except robbery and profit. About these peripetias of the Time of Troubles and about the participation of Cossacks and gentry in it was described in the article “Cossacks in Time of Troubles”. During the rokosha, Russian insurgents, opponents of militant Catholicism adopted by Sigismund, acted along with the Polish opponents of the king. And Mr. Sapega even called on the Russian militia to join the Polish rokosh and to overthrow Sigismund, but negotiations on this topic did not lead to positive results.

And on the distant outskirts of the Commonwealth, in Ukraine, Polish magnates and their surroundings relied little on even the rights of the privileged sections of Cossack society. Land grabs, repressions, rudeness and disregard for the indigenous people of the region, the frequent violence of the incoming troops and the administration annoyed all the Cossacks. Anger grew every day. The aggravation of relations between the Dnieper Cossacks and the central government occurred in 1590, when Chancellor Zamoyskiy subordinated the Cossacks to the Crown Hetman. This violated the ancient right of the Cossack hetmans to appeal directly to the first person, the king, tsar or khan. One of the main reasons for the hostile attitude of the Dnieper Cossacks to Poland was the beginning religious struggle of Catholics against the Orthodox Russian population, but especially from 1596, after the Brest Church Union, i.e. another attempt to merge the Catholic and Eastern churches, as a result of which part of the Eastern Church recognized the authority of the Pope and the Vatican. A population that did not recognize Union was deprived of the right to occupy positions in the Polish kingdom. The Russian Orthodox population was faced with a choice: either to adopt Catholicism or start a struggle to protect their religious rights. The center of the struggle began was the Cossacks. With the strengthening of Poland, the Cossacks also underwent the intervention of the kings and the Sejm in their internal affairs. But it was not easy for Poland to forcefully turn the Russian population into Uniates. Constant persecution of the Orthodox faith and Sigismund’s measures against the Cossacks led to the Cossacks revolting against Poland in 1591. The first hetman to raise a rebellion against Poland was Krishtof Kosinsky. Significant Polish forces were sent against the rebel Cossacks. The Cossacks were defeated, and Kosinsky was captured and executed in 1593. After that, Nalyvayko became the hetman. But he also fought not only with the Crimea and Moldova, but also with Poland and in 1595, when returning from a raid on Poland, his troops were surrounded by hetman Zolkiewski and defeated. Further relations between the Cossacks and the Polish-Lithuanian state assumed the character of a protracted religious war. But for almost half a century, protests did not grow into the elements of a general uprising and were expressed only in individual explosions. Cossacks were busy with campaigns and wars. In the early years of the seventeenth century, they took an active part "in the restoration of the rights" of the alleged prince Dimitri to the throne of Moscow. In 1614 was with Hetman Konashevich Sagaidachny Cossacks reached the shores of Asia Minor and turned the city of Sinop into ashes, in 1615, Trabzon was burned, visited the outskirts of Istanbul, and many Turkish warships were burned and sank in the arms of the Danube and near Ochakov. In 1618 was with King Vladislav went under Moscow and helped Poland to get Smolensk, Chernihiv and Novgorod Seversky. And then the Dnieper Cossacks provided generous military assistance and service to the Polish-Lithuanian state. Once in November 1620 the Turks defeated the Poles under Tsetseru, and the hetman of Zolkiewski was killed, the Seimas turned to the Cossacks, calling them to march on the Turks. The Cossacks did not have to beg for a long time; they went to sea and, with attacks on the Turkish coast, delayed the advancement of the Sultan's army. Then, together with the Poles 47, thousands of Dnieper Cossacks took part in the defense of the camp near Hotin. This was a significant help, because against 300 thousands of Turks and Tatars, Poland had only 65 thousands of warriors. Having met stubborn resistance, the Turks agreed to negotiations and lifted the siege, but the Cossacks lost Sagaidachny, who died of injuries on 10 on April 1622. After such assistance, the Cossacks considered themselves entitled to receive the promised salary with a special surcharge for Hotin. But the commission appointed to consider their claims, instead of surcharges, decided to reduce the registry again, and the Polish magnates intensified the repression. A significant part of demobilized after reducing the register of "dischargers" went to Zaporozhye. The hetmans chosen by them did not submit to anyone and made raids on the Crimea, Turkey, the Danube principalities and Poland. But in November 1625 they were defeated at Krylov and were forced to accept the hetman appointed by the king. The registries were left in the 6000 ranks, the Cossack farmers had to either reconcile with the panschin or leave their plots, leaving them in possession of the new owners. For the new registry, only people of proven loyalty were selected. What are the others?

Fig.5 Rebellious spirit of Maidan

At this time, the Cossacks intervened in the Crimean-Turkish relations. Khan Shahin Giray wanted to secede from Turkey and asked the assistance of the Cossacks. Spring 1628 the Cossacks went to the Crimea with ataman Ivan Kulag. A part of the Cossacks from Ukraine, led by hetman Mikhail Doroshenko, joined them. Having pogroms under Bakhchisarai of the Turks and their supporter Janibek Girey, they moved to Cafu. But at this time, their ally Shagin Giray reconciled with the enemy and the Cossacks had to hastily retreat from the Crimea, and Hetman Doroshenko fell near Bakhchisarai. Instead, the king appointed Gregory Chorny to be the hetman of the submissive to him. This unquestioningly fulfilled all the demands of the magnates, oppressed the lower brotherhood of the Cossacks, did not prevent to subordinate them to the elders and the gentlemen. The Cossacks were leaving the masses from Ukraine to Bottom, and therefore the population of the Sichev lands was greatly multiplied in his time. Under hetman Chorny, the gap between the hetman and the intensified Niz became especially brewing, since Bottom appealed to an independent republic, and Cossack Ukraine was getting closer and closer connected with the Commonwealth. The royal protege was not to the liking of the masses. Zaporozhye Cossacks moved from the thresholds to the north, captured Chorny, tried him for corruption and penchant for union, and condemned the execution. Shortly thereafter, the Nizovtsy under the command of Koshevoy, the ataman Taras Shaked, attacked the Polish camp near the Alta River, occupied it and destroyed the troops standing there. The 1630 uprising began, attracting many registrants to their side. It ended in the battle of Pereyaslav, which, according to the Polish chronicler Pyasetsky, the Poles "cost more victims than the Prussian war." They had to make concessions: the registry was allowed to increase to eight thousand, and the Cossacks from Ukraine were guaranteed impunity for participating in the uprising, but these decisions were not executed by the magnates and gentry. From now on, Bottom is increasingly growing at the expense of the Cossack farmers. A part of the foremen goes to Sich, but on the other hand, many accept the whole order of life from the Polish gentry and turn into loyal Polish nobles. In 1632, the Polish king Sigismund III died. His long reign passed under the sign of compulsory expansion of the influence of the Catholic Church, with the support of supporters of the church union. On the throne came his son Vladislav IV. In 1633-34 years 5-6 th. Registered Cossacks took part in campaigns to Moscow. For several years thereafter, a particularly intensive resettlement of peasants from the west to Ukraine continued. It was 1638 grew to thousands of new settlements, planned by the French engineer Boplan. He also led the construction of the Polish fortress Kudak at the first Dnieper threshold and in place of the old Cossack settlement of the same name. Although in August 1635, the Cossacks with ataman Sulima or Suleiman took Kudak off the raid and destroyed a garrison of foreign mercenaries in it, but after two months they had to give it to the loyal king registrants. In 1637 was protection of the Cossack population of Ukraine, constrained by new settlers, again tried to take over Zaporizhzhya Bottom. Cossacks came to the "parish" led by chieftains Pavlyuk, Skidan and Dmitry Guney. They were joined by local Cossacks from Kanev, Stebliev, and Korsun, who were and were not in the register. About ten thousand of them gathered, but after the defeat at Kumayki and Moshny, they had to retreat to the lands of Sich. Soon the Poles suppressed the Cossack movement on the Left Bank, which began next year with Ostryanin and Guna. Judging by the small number of participants (8-10 th. people), Cossack speeches were conducted by the Zaporozhian Cossacks alone. The thinness of their movements and the organization of defense in the camps show the same thing. At this time, the old and new Ukrainian population of the steppe was occupied by setting up hundreds of new settlements under the supervision of the troops of the crown hetman S. Konetspolskogo. In general, in those years, attempts to combat cooperation with the Ukrainians ended for the Zaporozhye Cossacks discord and quarrels, reaching up to mutual murders. But the fugitive peasants Nizovaya Republic accepted willingly. They could engage in free and peaceful labor on the land allocated to them. A layer of "subjects of the Zaporozhyan Lower Army" gradually replenished the ranks of farmers and servants. Some Ukrainian peasants who wanted to continue the armed struggle, accumulated on the shores of the Southern Bug. On the river Teshlyk they founded their own separate Teshlyk Sich.

After the defeats of 1638, the rebels returned to Bottom, and in Ukraine, instead of the registrants who had gone, new Cossacks were recruited. Now the register consisted of six regiments (Pereyaslavsky, Kanevsky, Cherkassky, Belotserkovsky, Korsunsky, Chigirinsky) with a thousand people each. The commanders of the regiments were appointed from the noble gentry, and the rest of the ranks: the regimental captains, captains and below them were elected ex officio. The post of hetman was abolished and his post was replaced by the appointed Commissioner Peter Komarovsky. The Cossacks had to swear allegiance to the Commonwealth, promise obedience to the local Polish authorities, not to go to Sich and not to take part in sea voyages of Nizovtsev. Not entered in the register and living in Ukraine remained "subjects" of the local gentry. Resolutions of the "Final Commission with the Cossacks" were also signed by representatives of the Cossacks. Among others was the signature of the Military Clerk Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Ten years later, he will lead the new struggle of the Cossacks against Poland and his name will thunder to the whole world.

Figure.6 Polish gentry and armored Cossack

The situation was aggravated by the fact that a part of the Ukrainian magnates and gentry not only adopted Catholicism, but also began to demand it from their subjects in various ways. So many pans confiscated local churches and rented them to small townships — artisans, taverns, taverns, wineries and distillers — and they began to pay a fee from villagers and Cossacks for the right to pray. These and other Jesuit measures overflowed with patience. In response, the Cossacks of the Hetmanate united with the Cossacks of the Ground Forces of Zaporizhia and a general uprising began. The struggle continued for more than a decade and ended with the accession of the Hetmanate to Russia in the 1654 year on the Pereyaslav Rada. But this is a completely different and very complicated story.
Gordeev A.A. History of the Cossacks
Letopisnoe.povestvovanie.o.Malojj.Rossii.i.ejo.narode.i.kazakakh.voobshhe.1847. A. Rigelman
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  1. +8
    30 August 2013 09: 22
    in general, those who were in the service of the gentry, Ottomans, Swedes, etc. popularly called "SERDYUKI" ... (Hmm ... Serdyukov .... a descendant of their chtoli ???? direct magic of words)))))
    1. -2
      30 August 2013 12: 15
      The article is something from the realm of Svidomo tales. About Svyatoslav - "one of the founding fathers of the Dnieper Cossacks" I still endured. About the fact that "some historians call the predecessor of the Zaporizhzhya Sich also the Edisan Horde" too. "Historians" from Ukraine, for example, even wrote in the school history textbook for the seventh grade that the Ukrainian people are more than 140 years old. But the Edissan horde has recently been. Even in Ukraine, it is known that these are nogai: But further nonsense went on.

      For a true Svidomo, history as a science is not needed, he will invent any story himself.
      1. +5
        30 August 2013 14: 55
        I live near Khortytsya (you can see it from the window) and I don’t know the history of my land thoroughly but not very bad ... The very early episodes turned out to be quite interesting, you can see the weapons and dishes of the Pechenegs in the museum ... The museum has not changed much since the times of the USSR, only supplemented little by little .... so let's not tell here about the distortions of history, because everything else in the text I went through three times in Soviet and Ukrainian textbooks and at one time was fond of this topic .... your examples are found ugliness of our time

        PS look at your history textbooks ... there are no less idiots if you wish, you can find ....
      2. 0
        30 August 2013 16: 39
        Really. I was especially jarred that speaking about the 15th century, the author freely uses the terms "Ukrainians". "Belarusians". all the more, using the term "Litvin", he does not forget to inform that these are Belarusians, and the Lithuanians who created the state of Lithuania seem to have nothing to do with it ... anecdote .... :))) Well, there were neither Ukrainians nor Belarusians -they appeared only four hundred years later-there were only Russian people, that's it.
        1. reserve
          30 August 2013 17: 03
          The Russians appeared after Peter 1, and before that there were Muscovites. And almost the Russian (Russian) language was invented by Lomonosov. The article is interesting. If the author is Russian, I would like to know the opinion of our historians on this issue. If the opinions coincide, then we can assume that the issue of the formation of the Ukrainian Cossacks in Ukrainian-Russian history has been resolved.
        2. -3
          30 August 2013 17: 37
          Quote: smile
          there were then neither Ukrainians nor Belarusians, they appeared only four hundred years later

          I didn’t finish reading until the 15th century, it turned out to be higher than my strength. For me - this article is the wildest nonsense, but against the already poisoned Svidomitism it is possibly a weapon for further pursuit.

          The term Belaya Rus is generally interesting. The fact is that the Litvin principality of the founder of Mindovg with the capital in Novogrudok was called ... Black Russia. It was also when he annexed, destroying, the Lithuanians (Yatvingians) and the Principality of Polotsk. At what time and in what place did White Russia first appear, historians in past centuries and now put forward hypotheses of varying degrees of persuasiveness. Only.
          1. +1
            31 August 2013 00: 48
            Quote: Nikolai S.
            The term Belaya Rus is generally interesting

            As far as I know, the Slavs term, like the Turkic tribes "white", "white" ("ak" in Turkic) is similar - "northern", as well as "black" ("kara") - "southern"
          2. +1
            31 August 2013 08: 25
            Quote: Nikolai S.
            I have not finished reading until the 15 century

            And in vain, it is necessary to be patient and read to the end, then the opinion would be changed. And in fact it would be good to study the materiel too.
        3. VARCHUN
          23 October 2013 22: 20
          What kind of Russian people were weird, was there a territory of Russia and there was a territory not of Russia, so there were no Russian people there.
  2. +2
    30 August 2013 09: 39
    hehe ... since when in Russia cue is the name of the prince ??????? Is not the name of the handy item i.e. sticks (would you give your son the name of a stick ????) .... is it generally shaw for a sheep or some kind of nerus who is Greek or who is Greek who talked about Tokma from the stories of merchants ....
    1. Jake danzels
      30 August 2013 10: 07
      The founders of Kiev are the brothers Kiy, Schek, Khoryv and sister Lybid. In honor of Kiy’s older brother, they named the city they founded on the Dnieper, and yes that same Kiev.
      Learn the story.
      1. +2
        30 August 2013 10: 30
        Beautiful legend ... smile
      2. 0
        30 August 2013 15: 46
        Hello fellow countryman! only no offense ... Do you really believe in this fable of the Greek Montenegro ????? yeah ... it’s not for nothing that Miller Schletser and Bayer tried ...)))) .. well then golun is an empty phrase for you and Princess Olga is not a manslayer and secret wife of a Byzantine Caesar but the first Christian and Vladimir the bloody is a baptist and not a murderer libertine
    2. LINX
      31 August 2013 13: 25
      "hehe ... since when in Russia is this the name of the prince ??????? is it not the name of an improvised object, ie a stick (would you give your son the name of a stick ????)"

      According to some versions, the name Kiev really comes from the word - cue (stick), since the city arose at the point of crossing the Dnieper and the ferrymen drove their rafts / boats between sticks driven into the bottom.

      And Prince Kiy is probably more of a legend, although anything can be ...
      By the way, according to the same legend, the prince sometimes secretly engaged in his favorite business - transported people by boat across the Dnieper.
  3. +1
    30 August 2013 10: 27
    The Cossacks are the army of the empire. Not the "national guard", not police detachments, not a squad of local rulers, but the IMPERIAL ARMY.

    If we consider the Cossacks from this point of view, it becomes clear why they served different rulers, it would seem different states. And if we assume that the state’s capital has moved? If we assume that one dynasty ruled the empire (albeit a ramified one), then it is clear that at certain intervals, dynastic seniority could go from one verve that ruled in one place to another that ruled in another place. In addition, dynastic seniority could be challenged simply by the strongest. With the transition of dynastic seniority from one branch, which ruled, say, in Moscow, to another nation, which ruled, say, in Constantinople, the capital also migrated. Then seniority passed to the ruler of the Commonwealth, and again to Moscow. We see that for the most time, the Cossacks served the ruler, whose capital was in modern Russia. Therefore, the Cossacks served the king, then the king, then the sultan. With the transition of the center from one capital to another, the main tax center also moved there, where the main flow of funds flowed. And to maintain the army you need a lot of money.

    And do not think that the Turkish sultans are some kind of representatives of another people there. Until the 18th century, the court and senior army officers spoke Russian, or, if you like, Slavic, very close to the then Russian, Belarusian, Serbian, Bulgarian languages.
    1. LINX
      31 August 2013 13: 29
      Cossacks are free people (people, society) with a historically developed military craft and ability, and they could serve any power or empire of their choice or necessity, just as they could serve no one.
  4. +6
    30 August 2013 11: 50
    The article is good, but only, in my opinion, the author went too far with the beginning, about the tribes, the Magi, etc. And it is quite rightly said that the Zaporozhye Cossacks are not reliable people in terms of "loyal feelings".
    1. LINX
      31 August 2013 13: 44
      In terms of "loyalty to feelings", I think it was correctly said about Ivan Sirko:

      "Serko's transitions from the Russian tsar to the Polish king and back cannot be viewed as treason to one and loyalty to the other: Sirko and all the Zaporozhye Cossacks, although they recognized the patronage of the Russian tsar since the time of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, still, according to the old tradition, considered themselves people free and not dependent on anyone - people who considered it their right to resolve issues of peace and peace with neighboring kingdoms and to enter into relations with near and distant kings and rulers. "

      The Kozaks considered themselves free people, and free people themselves have the right to choose for whom they fight.
      1. LINX
        31 August 2013 14: 13
        The Zaporozhye Sich was not just a fortification with a bunch of armed Cossacks inside - it was a "state within a state" with its very large (by European standards, at the beginning of the 17th century - about the size of island England, a lot of truth !!!) territory on which they collected taxes, supported production and farming.

        On this territory the laws of the Zaporizhzhya network were in effect, there was a secular and spiritual power, there were border outposts of the Cossacks, trade was controlled. There were constantly diplomatic representatives of foreign states in the battlefield.

        They were very independent of anyone's power, they made their own decisions and changed their decisions, and that is why they were a "headache" for many rulers
    2. VARCHUN
      23 October 2013 22: 24
      And what about Don Cossacks more reliable, huh? Pugachev, Razin and the like. Catherine 2 threw Kozakov and they fought faithfully. selling.
  5. 0
    30 August 2013 11: 52
    interesting to know about Zaporizhzhya Sich
  6. pinecone
    30 August 2013 12: 19
    Crowds of new diverse tribesmen, who poured onto their lands along with the Poles, did not arouse warm feelings in them.

    Excessive "political correctness" of the author, who did not note the Jewish tenants, who became a real scourge for the indigenous population of the then Ukraine.
  7. Sashko07
    30 August 2013 13: 21
    Quote: Fuzeler
    that the Zaporozhye Cossacks are not reliable people in terms of "loyal feelings".

    Zaporizhzhya Cossacks at one time had everyone in one place, and it does not matter who it was - tribes from the north, Polish gentry or Basurman. But the fact that they were often led by traitors, and lovers to sell themselves to anyone, but more expensive, is another topic for conversation. And let this author write on this site about Cossacks and Ukraine for the night to his children as fairy tales, and not post them on Russian-language sites for the same Russian-speaking audience, who don’t feed Ukraine with bread.
    1. smiths xnumx
      30 August 2013 13: 40
      Zaporizhzhya Cossacks at one time had everyone in one place, and it does not matter who it was - tribes from the north, Polish gentry or Basurman.

      Remarkably they "had", rather they had them. I will modestly keep silent about the Poles, who regularly suppressed Cossack uprisings (Nalyvaiko, Otsryanitsa, etc.), until finally, Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1648 concluded an alliance with the Tatars.
      And here is the campaign of Sagaidachny to Moscow:
      "First of all, he [Sagaidachny] took and ruined the cities of Putivl, Livny and Yelets, destroying many men, women and children in them ...".

      I will add a few specific episodes to the dry description of Yavornytsky. So, in Putivl, the Molgansky monastery was looted, and all the monks were killed. The same thing happened in Rylsk with St. Nicholas Monastery.

      “Depending on Sagaidachny, Mikhailo Doroshenko acted with his comrades, who took the cities of Lebedyan, Dankov, Skopin and Ryaski, beating a lot of men, women, children into them“ to sheer babies ”; and then, bursting into the Ryazan region, set fire to many villages, beat several priests and proceeded to the city of Pereyaslav, but was repulsed and went to Yelets. Sagaidachny himself, taking Livny and Yelets, went to Shatsky and Dankov and from here sent Colonel the Gracious with 1000 ahead of him a man of Kozaks under the city of Mikhailov (Ryazan province), ordering him to break into the city at night and take him. Colonel the Gracious, hesitating for a long time as a result of the terrible thunder and heavy rain, managed to come to the city only on August 12 of the day, on the same day when 40 people of Great Russian military men came to the city of Sapozhkov. The latter, leaving Sapozhkov’s city with several of his inhabitants, did not allow the Merciful to Mikhailov “and defeated many warring constipation”. ”

      Yavornitsky D.I. History of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. T. 2. C. 150.

      The next day, an enraged Sagaidachny announced to the residents of Mikhailov that he would take the city like a bird and put it on fire, and he would order all residents, young and old, to cut off his arm and leg and throw it to the dogs. 23 August Cossacks again began to prepare for the assault. And the defenders in plain sight of the Zaporizhzhya army made a procession with icons and banners on the walls of the fortress.

      With the beginning of the assault, the Mikhailovites again went on a sortie. Not only warriors, but also women and children fired from the city walls from cannons and squeakers. “And the all-pernicious enemy of Sagaidachny, with the rest of his consternations, departing from the city with fear and sorrow of August on the 27th day, and the inhabitants of the God-protected city of Mikhailov perform solemn festivities throughout the summer on those first day of August on the 17th day, the miracle of Archangel Michael, and on the departure from the city, the constipation of August is celebrated on the 27th day to the great miracle worker Nicola. ”

      Yavornitsky D.I. History of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. T. 2. C. 151.
      1. smiths xnumx
        30 August 2013 13: 43
        Well, by the way, Sagaidachny will soon come to his senses and send his chieftain Peter Odints to Moscow “with his comrades” with a request to accept the hetman, along with the entire Zaporizhzhya Army, to serve the tsar.

        In March 1620, Odinets spoke to the boyars. Here is her official record: “They were sent by the entire Zaporizhzhya army, hetman Sagaidachny with comrades, beating the sovereign with the brow, declaring their service that they all want to serve him as their great sovereign as before, as they had served the former great Russian sovereigns and in their state there were commands and went to their enemies, Crimean uluses smashed. Now they also serve the great sovereign, went to Crimean uluses, and there were 5000 people, they had business with Crimean people on this side of Perekopi under the very wall; Tatars were at Perekopi with 7000 people, and at the outpost with 11 000; by the grace of God and the sovereign happiness of the Tatars they beat many, the Christian people freed many from the hands of the Tatars; with this service and with Tatar languages ​​they were sent to the sovereign: God is free and the royal majesty, as he grants them, and they want to serve his royal majesty with all their heads and now they want to seek him for royal mercy ”. The wise clerk Gramotin, praising them for their service, said: “Here in the Russian state, a rumor rushed that the Polish Zygimont king made peace with the Turks in friendship and wants to step on their faith: so they would have declared as the Polish king with the Turks Dad and Caesar? And on their faith from the Poles, what kind of encroachment is there? ”Cherkasy replied:“ There was no encroachment on us from the Polish king; he is with the Turks in the world, and at sea we are forbidden to go on Turkish people from Zaporozhye, but it is not forbidden to go from small rivers; we don’t know anything about the caesar and about the pope, and we were not ordered to go to Crimea. In the spring we all go to Zaporozhye, and to Tsarist Majesty we all beat our brow, so that the sovereign grants us as his servants. ” The king sent the Sahaidachny 300 rubles of “easy salary” and sent a letter.

        Solovyov S. M. History of Russia since ancient times. T.V. S. 439.

        So, that they "had", first they robbed together with the Poles, and then ran arm in arm to the Russian tsar, asking for protection from the same Poles ...
        1. smiths xnumx
          30 August 2013 16: 14
          Yes, the cowardly Svidomo has gone now, only he can minus out from the quiet, but there’s nothing to argue ...
          1. 0
            30 August 2013 16: 44
            smiths xnumx
            Well, you didn’t leave him a choice, sincere, there is nothing to argue .... :)))) Pity the wretched .... :)))
          2. reserve
            30 August 2013 17: 19
            Rusich object to such figures as Kuznetsov-do not respect yourself. It is difficult to object to the fact that the Ukrainian Cossacks were a powerful military force. Negative examples can be collected in any historical event. Hitler was like a scoundrel, but from under Stalingrad Paulus and the command staff did not take out. Exported only the wounded and sick. And Stalin, the day before the fall of Sevastopol, took out all the senior commanders and political workers. And he called the abandoned and captured officers, soldiers and sailors traitors.
            1. smiths xnumx
              30 August 2013 20: 24
              This is since when did people like you become Russians, huh? Not from 862, when Rurik (Norman, but I am more inclined to think that the West Slavic prince) sailed to Ladoga, Or, when Oleg and Igor sailed from NOVGOROD to Kiev, the small Slavic town of Kiev, which paid tribute to the Khazars, killed the Vikings Askold and Dir, who escaped from Rurik from Novgorod and began to rule. Svyatoslav mentioned here was the son of the Varangian prince Igor and Olga, a native of PSKOV. Well, and about the Ukrainian hetmans whom you Svidomo consider their HEROES, their contemporary Ukrainians said best of all:
              For a long time, a record of one of the XNUMXth century archimandrites was kept in a monastery near Baturin. Its name speaks for itself: “Ruin”, and it contains a description of “the acts and atrocities of the hetmans and other leaders of the Little Russian people”, giving their following list:

              Vygovsky Ivan - an oath, fratricide, the drive of the Tatars to destroy the Little Russian people, the sale of Russia to Catholics and Poles, a silver lover Veliy.

              Khmelnitsky Yuri - the oath-breaker three times, Christ seller of faith and people to the Lyakhs and Busurmans; Tatar drive.

              Doroshenko Petr is a bribe taker, a rascal, an oath-breaker, the culprit of fratricide and torment of the people from the Tatars who have undergone, a Busurman servant.

              Teteria Pavel is a money-lover, oath-criminal and servant voluntary lyashsky. The instigator of Yu. Khmelnitsky for treason.

              The many-sinful Damian is a crafty, double-minded slave, prone to betrayal, well-exposed and punished with retribution.

              Here the whole criminal code nervously smokes on the sidelines.
              Well, about Sevastopol, your HERO-cat-dog Bandera, too, was not particularly heroic, he preferred to sit out in Munich until he was poisoned there like a rotten rat. So that it is me with people like you "rusich" to talk to myself do not respect. UKzh would not disgrace calling himself this bright name. Minus and with the deepest disrespect.
              1. +1
                30 August 2013 20: 50
                Or, when Oleg and Igor sailed from NOVGOROD to Kiev, the small Slavic town of Kiev, which paid tribute to the Khazars, killed the Vikings Askold and Dir, who fled from Rurik from Novgorod and began to rule.
                Prince of Kiev Deer was a local Khazar, i.e. a Jew
                And with Askold it is not clear. Toli escaped, felts sent order to restore order in Kiev, but he was bought by Jews (Khazars), felts killed him, no felts all muddy .... But Kiev was freed from tribute to the Jews. They began to take themselves
            2. 0
              30 August 2013 20: 43
              And Stalin, the day before the fall of Sevastopol, took out all the senior commanders and political workers. And he called the abandoned and captured officers, soldiers and sailors traitors.
              Actually, they fled. (Shikorad Admiral Oktyabrsky vs Mussolini)
    2. +1
      30 August 2013 20: 38
      Quote: Sashko07
      Quote: Fuzeler
      that the Zaporozhye Cossacks are not reliable people in terms of "loyal feelings".

      Zaporizhzhya Cossacks at one time had everyone in one place, and it does not matter who it was - tribes from the north, Polish gentry or Basurman. But the fact that they were often led by traitors, and lovers to sell themselves to anyone, but more expensive, is another topic for conversation. And let this author write on this site about Cossacks and Ukraine for the night to his children as fairy tales, and not post them on Russian-language sites for the same Russian-speaking audience, who don’t feed Ukraine with bread.

      Why only Zaporozhye? Donskoy and Kubanskoye are also good fellows.
  8. smiths xnumx
    30 August 2013 21: 47
    Hey, svidomity, well, why are you minus the tihushka, well, at least object to something so-called. "rusichi" or you live by the principle:
  9. smiths xnumx
    30 August 2013 21: 57
    Svidomity your cowardly cons for me the best reward. For I am a Ukrainian, Little Russia, and my ancestors Cossacks like you hung little Uniates at stake ... With contempt!
    1. 0
      31 August 2013 02: 00
      Dude, you need to be treated ...
      1. The comment was deleted.
  10. Tver
    31 August 2013 01: 01
    Svidomites, half-Poles ... Steppe rabble! Deserters, marauders - this is the basis of "Cossacks" There is more respect for the Poles than for this trash. The Poles, though in the past, had a history! They had a state, cities, some kind of culture. And these "svidomites" lived like blacks in dugouts. Because the descendants of deserters and vagabonds ... In the Empire they were not taken into the infantry - they were not suitable for the build. Only in the irregular cavalry. Here in the SS they belong - executions, punitive actions
    1. LINX
      31 August 2013 14: 25
      You have a hole in your head, minus definitely. Look at how many regiments were recruited on Ukrainian lands and they fought as part of the RI forces from the Caucasus to France.
      1. -1
        3 September 2013 14: 04
        in what years? Maybe after coming to these territories Muscovites? And before that was the Wild Field, where the bandits lived?
  11. aleshka1987
    31 August 2013 01: 44
    Quote: smiths xnumx
    Hey, svidomity, well, why are you minus the tihushka, well, at least object to something so-called. "rusichi" or you live by the principle:

    Don't you understand that you are the same Svidomo as our Svidomye, only from the other side. They wash our brains with different crap, us with one, you with another, and here we are organizing "holy wars" because of tales and legends. And for years we will argue whose ancestor was smoother. How, with this approach, can we reach agreement on more important life issues?
    1. Sirozha
      4 September 2013 16: 57
      I applaud while standing !!! Well said!
      Guys, we want to live under the yellow flag, we want to be called Ukrainians, we want to live in Vilnius Ukraine, what did you bother with us? Why can't you sleep, then? Do you scratch all under one comb?
      What wild fields? What are banduks? What's wrong?!!
      1. smiths xnumx
        11 September 2013 13: 01
        Here is your story:
  12. +1
    3 September 2013 14: 11
    As were the Bandyukovo territory, they remained. To whom it is beneficial, they are given.
    Chechnya is resting.

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