Military Review

Siberian Cossack Epic

41
Only when the Cossack squad of Yermak crossed the “Stone Belt” of the Ural Mountains and defeated the Siberian Khanate, one of the last fragments of the Golden Horde, was the foundation of Asian Russia laid. And although Russian people got acquainted with Siberia long before this event, our ideas about the beginning of Russian Siberia are connected with Yermak and his colleagues.


After the terrible Siberian khan Kuchum, one of the royal descendants of Genghis Khan, was knocked down from a kuren by a handful of simple Cossacks, an unprecedented, impetuous, grandiose movement eastward into Siberia began. In just half a century, the Russian people made their way to the Pacific coast. Thousands of people walked "meet the sun" through mountain ranges and impassable swamps, through impassable forests and immense tundra, making their way through sea ice and rapids. Yermak struck the wall like a breach in the wall, holding back the pressure of the colossal forces that had awakened among the people. Gangs of people eager for freedom, harsh but endlessly enduring and bravely courageous, rushed to Siberia.

It was incredibly difficult to move across the gloomy expanses of Northern Asia with its wild, harsh nature, with a rare, but very militant population. All the way from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean is marked by numerous unknown graves of explorers and sailors. But the Russian people stubbornly went to Siberia, pushing further and further east to the limits of their homeland, transforming this desert and gloomy land with their work. Great feat of these people. For one century, they have three times increased the territory of the Russian state and laid the foundation for everything that gives and will give us Siberia. Now Siberia is called the part of Asia from the Urals to the mountain ranges of the Okhotsk coast, from the Arctic Ocean to the Mongolian and Kazakh steppes. In the 17th century, the concept of Siberia was more significant and included not only the Ural and Far Eastern lands, but also a significant part of Central Asia.

Siberian Cossack Epic
Map of Siberia by Peter Godunov, 1667


Coming out into the expanses of North Asia, the Russian people entered a country that had long been settled. True, it was inhabited extremely unevenly and weakly. By the end of the XVI century on the square in 10 million square meters. km lived only 200-220 thousand people. It is not numerous, scattered throughout the taiga and tundra, the population had its ancient and complex history, was very different in language, economic structure and social development.

By the time the Russians came, the only people who had their own statehood were the Tatars of the Kuchum kingdom defeated by Yermak, some ethnic groups had patriarchal-feudal relations. Most of the Siberian peoples, Russian Cossack land explorers found at various stages of patriarchal-tribal relations.

The events of the end of the XVI century proved to be crucial in the historical fate of North Asia. The “Kuchum Kingdom”, which closed the closest and most convenient way deep into Siberia, crumbled in 1582 from the daring blow of a small group of Cossacks. Nothing could change the course of events: neither the death of the "Siberian conquistador" Yermak, nor the departure of the remnants of his squad from the capital of the Siberian Khanate, or the temporary accession of the Tatar rulers in Kashlyk. However, only government troops were able to successfully complete the work begun by free Cossacks. The Moscow government, realizing that Siberia cannot be mastered by a single blow, proceeds to its tried and tested tactics. Its essence was to consolidate on a new territory, building cities there, and, relying on them, gradually move forward. This “offensive cities” strategy soon yielded brilliant results. From 1585, the Russians continued to oppress the indomitable Kuchum and, having founded many cities, until the end of the 16th century, conquered Western Siberia.

In the 20-s of the XVII century, the Russian people came to the Yenisei. Began a new page - the conquest of Eastern Siberia. From the Yenisei into the depths of Eastern Siberia, Russian explorers advanced rapidly.

In the 1627 year, the 40 Cossacks, led by Maxim Perfilyev, reached Ylim on Upper Tunguska (Angara), took a yasak from the neighboring Buryats and Evenks, housed a cabin, and a year later returned to the Yeniseisk steppe, pushing a new expedition to the north-east. In 1628, Vasily Bugor went to Ilim with 10 Cossacks. There was built Ilimsky burg, an important stronghold for further advance on the Lena River.

Rumors about the wealth of the Lena lands began to attract people from the most distant places. So, from Tomsk to Lena in 1636, a detachment in 50 was equipped with a man led by ataman Dmitry Kopylov. These service people, having overcome unheard of difficulties, in 1639, the first of the Russian people came to the expanse of the Pacific Ocean.



In 1641, the Cossack foreman Mikhail Stadukhin, having equipped the detachment at his own expense, went from Oimyakon down to the mouth of the Indigirka, and then sailed by sea to Kolyma, securing its connection by building a strong point for new campaigns. A detachment of Cossacks from 13, left in prison, led by Semyon Dezhnev, withstood a brutal attack of the Yukagir army numbering more than 500 people. Following this, the Cossack Semyon Dezhnev took part in the events that immortalized his name. In June, 1648, a hundred Cossacks on 7 Kochi, came out of the mouth of the Kolyma in search of new lands. Sailing to the east, overcoming inhuman difficulties, they circled the Chukchi Peninsula and entered the Pacific Ocean, proving the existence of a strait between Asia and America. After that Dezhnev founded the Anadyr fortress.

Having reached the natural limits of the Eurasian continent, the Russian people turned south, which allowed them to quickly master the rich lands of the Okhotsk coast and then go to Kamchatka. In 50, the Cossacks came to Okhotsk, founded earlier by a detachment of Semyon Shelkovnik who had come from Yakutsk.

Another route for the development of Eastern Siberia was the southern route, which became increasingly important after the Russians consolidated in the Baikal region, attracting the main stream of immigrants. The beginning of the accession of these lands was laid in the construction of the Verkholensky fortress in 1641. In the 1643-1647 years, with the efforts of atamans Kurbat Ivanov and Vasily Kolesnikov, most of the Baikal Buryats took Russian citizenship and the Verkhneangarsky prison was built. In subsequent years, the Cossack detachments went to Shilka and Selenga, founding Irgen and Shilka jails, and then another chain of fortresses. The rapid accession of this land to Russia was promoted by the aspiration of the indigenous people to rely on Russian fortresses in the fight against the raids of the Mongol feudal lords. During these years, a well-equipped detachment led by Vasily Poyarkov made his way to Amur and descended to the sea, clarifying the political situation in the Daur land. Rumors about the rich lands of Poyarkov spread throughout Eastern Siberia and shook hundreds of new people. In 1650, a squad led by ataman Yerofey Khabarov reached Amur, and being there 3 of the year became the winner of all clashes with the local population and defeated a thousand Manchu detachment. The general result of the actions of the Khabarovsk army was the accession of the Amur region to Russia and the beginning of the mass migration of the Russian people there. Following the Cossacks, already in the 50 of the 17th century, industrialists and peasants rushed to Amur, who soon formed the majority of the Russian population. By the 80 years, despite its foreign position, the Amur region was the most populated in the whole of Transbaikalia. However, further development of the Amur lands was impossible due to the aggressive actions of the Manchu feudal lords. Small Russian troops, with the support of the Buryat and Tungus populations, more than once defeated the Manchus and the Mongols allied with them. The forces, however, were too unequal, and according to the terms of the Nerchinsk peace treaty of 1689, the Russians, defending the Trans-Baikal region, were forced to leave part of the developed territories in the Amur region. The possessions of the Moscow sovereign on the Amur were now limited only to the upper tributaries of the river.

At the end of the 17th century, the beginning of the accession to Russia of new vast lands in the northern regions of the Far East was laid. In the winter of 1697, a detachment led by Cossack Pentecostal Vladimir Atlasov set off from Anadyr fortress on Kamchatka to Kamchatka. The hike continued on 3 of the year. During this time, the detachment traveled hundreds of kilometers across Kamchatka, defeating a number of tribal and tribal associations that had resisted it and founded the Verkhnekamchatsky fortress.

In general, by this time, Russian explorers had collected reliable information on virtually all of Siberia. Where, on the eve of “Yermakov take”, European cartographers could only bring out the word “Tartary” began to draw the real outlines of a giant continent. The history of world geographical discoveries did not know such a huge scale, such speed and energy in the study of new countries.



Most of the Siberian taiga and tundra, the small Cossack detachments passed without encountering serious resistance. Moreover, the locals supplied the Cossack detachments the main contingent of guides to new lands. This was one of the main reasons for the phenomenally fast movement of explorers from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean. Successful advance to the east was favored by the extensive river network of Siberia, which allowed it to move up the Pacific Ocean from one river basin to another. But overcoming the portages presented great difficulties. This required several days and it was a way “through great mud, swamps and small rivers, and in other places there is dragging and mountains, and the forests are dark everywhere”. For transporting goods, except for people, only pack horses and dogs could be used, “while using carts through the portage to go after mud and swamps never happens”. Due to the lack of water in the upstream rivers, it was necessary to raise the water level with the help of sailing and earthen dams or to reload it repeatedly. On many rivers, swimming made it difficult to numerous rapids and rapids. But the main difficulty of navigation on the northern rivers was determined by an extremely short period of navigation, often forcing to spend the winter in places unfit for habitation. The long Siberian winter frightens the inhabitants of European Russia with its frosts and at the present time, meanwhile, in the XVII century, the cold weather was more fierce. The period from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the 19th century is designated by paleogeographers as the “Little Ice Age”. However, the hardest trials fell to those who chose the sea routes. The oceans that washed Siberia had deserted and inhospitable shores, and strong winds, frequent fogs and heavy ice conditions created extremely difficult navigation conditions. Finally, a short but hot summer plagued not only by the heat, but also by the inconceivably bloodthirsty and numerous hordes of gnats - this scourge of taiga and tundra spaces that could bring an unusual person to a frenzy. “Gnus is all flying nasty filth, which in summer, day and night, devours people and animals. This is a whole community of bloodsuckers, working in shifts, around the clock, the whole summer. His possessions are immense, power is boundless. He infuriates horses, driving elks into a marsh. He leads a man into a dark, stupid bitterness. "

Cossacks of the Siberian Cossack troops


The picture of the accession of Siberia will be incomplete, if you do not cover such a factor as armed clashes with the local population. Of course, in most regions of Siberia, resistance to the Russian advancement could not be compared with the battles within the “Kuchumov Yurt”. In Siberia, the Cossacks more often died from hunger and disease than from clashes with Aborigines. However, in armed clashes, Russian explorers had to deal with a strong and experienced adversary in military affairs. The contemporaries were well aware of the warlike inclinations of the Tungus, Yakuts, Yenisei Kirghiz, Buryats and other peoples. Often, not only did they not shy away from battle, but they themselves challenged the Cossacks. At that, many Cossacks were killed and wounded, often for several days "they were sitting under siege from that car." Cossacks, having firearms weapons, had a great advantage on their side and clearly recognized him. They were always very worried if the reserves of gunpowder and lead came to an end, realizing that "without firing of fire in Siberia, you cannot be." At the same time, it was prescribed to them “that they should not be considered for foreigners and that they did not indicate any firing of food”. Without a monopolistic possession of "fiery fighting", the Cossack detachments would not have been able to successfully withstand the military forces of the indigenous Siberian population that were immeasurably superior in number. Squeaking in the hands of the Cossacks were a formidable weapon, but even a skilled shooter could not make them more than 20 shots for a whole day of fierce battle. Hence the inevitability of melee fights, where the advantage of the Cossacks was negated by the multiplicity and good armament of their opponents. With constant wars and raids, the inhabitants of taiga and tundra were armed from head to toe, and artisans produced excellent cold and defensive weapons. Especially highly Russian Cossacks valued weapons and equipment of Yakut artisans. But the Cossacks had the hardest time confronting the nomadic peoples of South Siberia. The life of a nomadic cattleman made the entire male population of nomads professional warriors, and the natural militancy made their numerous, highly maneuverable and well-armed army an extremely dangerous adversary. A one-time performance of the aboriginal population against the Russians would not only lead to a halt in their advance into the depths of Siberia, but also to the loss of already acquired lands. The government understood this and sent instructions to “bring foreigners under the sovereign's hand with caress and greetings, and if possible not to repair the fights and fights with them”. But the slightest miscalculation in the organization of the expedition in such extreme conditions led to tragic consequences. So, during V. Poyarkov's campaign against Amur, more than 40 people from 132 died from hunger and disease over one winter, and as many more died in subsequent clashes. From 105, the people who traveled with S. Dezhnev around Chukotka returned 12. Of the 60 who marched with V. Atlasov to Kamchatka, 15 survived. There were completely lost expeditions. Siberia cost the Cossack people dearly.

And with all this, Siberia was passed by the Cossacks up and down for some half a century. The mind is incomprehensible. To realize their grueling feat of lack of imagination. Whoever imagines at least a little these great and ruinous distances, cannot but suffocate with admiration.

The accession of the Siberian lands cannot be separated from their active development. It became part of the great process of transformation of the Siberian nature of the Russian people. At the initial stage of colonization, Russian settlers settled in a residence in the winter quarters built by Cossack pioneers, towns and ostrogahs. Knocking axes is the first thing that the Russian man proclaimed about his settlement in every corner of Siberia. One of the main occupations of those who settled beyond the Urals was fishing, because, due to the lack of bread, the fish first became the main food. However, at the earliest opportunity, the settlers sought to restore the traditional bread-and-flour basis of nutrition to the Russians. To provide the settlers with bread, the tsarist government massively sent peasants from central Russia to the Cossacks and made them to the Cossacks. Their descendants and Cossacks-pioneers gave in the future the root of the Siberian (1760 year), Trans-Baikal (1851 year), Amursky (1858 year) and Ussurian (1889 year) Cossack troops.

The Cossacks, being the main support of the tsarist government in the province, were at the same time the most exploited social group. Being in the conditions of an acute shortage of people, extremely busy with military affairs and administrative tasks, they were widely used as a labor force. As a military class for the slightest negligence or evil slander, they suffered from the arbitrariness of local commanders and the governor. As a contemporary wrote: “Nobody was flogged as often and as hard as the Cossacks”. The answer was the frequent uprisings of the Cossacks and other servicemen, accompanied by the murders of the hated commanders.

Despite all the difficulties in the time allotted to one human life, the vast and rich region has changed drastically. By the end of the 17th century, about 200 thousand displaced people already lived beyond the Urals - about the same as the Aborigines. Siberia emerged from centuries of isolation and became part of a large centralized state, which led to the cessation of communal-clan anarchy and internal strife. The local population, following the example of the Russians, in a short time significantly improved their life and diet. For the Russian state entrenched extremely rich in natural resources of the earth. It is appropriate to recall the prophetic words of the great Russian scientist and patriot M.V. Lomonosov: "The power of Russia will grow Siberia and the North Ocean ...". And after all, the prophet said this at a time when the initial stage of the development of North Asia was barely over.

The history of the Siberian Cossacks in watercolors of Nikolai Nikolaevich Karazin (1842 - 1908)

Yamskaya and convoy service in the steppe


Great-great-grandmother of the Siberian Cossacks. The arrival of the party "wife"


Last Kuchumovsky defeat 1598 of the year. The defeat of the Siberian Khan Kuchum on the Irmeni River, which flows into the Ob, during which almost all members of his family, as well as many notable and ordinary people were captured by the Cossacks


Entrance of the captured family Kuchumova in Moscow. Xnumx


The first half of the XVIII century. Ceremony of the meeting of the Chinese Amban by the caretaker of the military Bukhtarma fishing


The Cossacks in the construction of linear fortresses - fortifications on the Irtysh, built in the first half of the XVII century.



Explaining the middle Kirghiz-Kaisack horde


Intelligence centurion Voloshenin in Semirechki and Ili Valley in 1771 g


Pugachev in Siberia. The defeat of the crowds of the impostor near Troitsk 21 in May 1774.


Fight with Pugachev


Anxiety in the fortress redoubt


Alien ancestors of the current Siberian Cossacks. Enrollment in the Cossacks of the captured Poles of the army of Napoleon, 1813 g


Siberian Cossacks in the Guard.


In the snow


Siberian Cossacks (caravan)


The military settlement service of the Siberian Cossacks


Without a signature



Author:
Photos used:
http://humus.livejournal.com
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign
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  1. donchepano
    donchepano 29 November 2012 08: 39 New
    +3
    yes there were times in Russia and there were men
    1. Black
      Black 29 November 2012 19: 25 New
      +3
      I apologize ... It's not about the MUSIC, but about the Cossacks.
  2. omsbon
    omsbon 29 November 2012 09: 42 New
    13
    Without extermination of tribes, without reservations, without blankets infected with smallpox and other paraphernalia of conquering America, our Cossacks annexed Siberia!
    Glory to the Russian Cossacks!
    1. Ross
      Ross 29 November 2012 19: 52 New
      -2
      omsbon,
      Our Cossacks joined Siberian Russia to Muscovite Russia.
      1. Ross
        Ross 29 November 2012 23: 56 New
        0
        Ross,
        In place of modern Surgut stood the ancient Cossack prison. Local Cossacks greatly assisted the tsarist troops in consolidating Western Siberia.
        Then came the baptist priests. The Cossacks refused, burned the entire prison.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 30 November 2012 10: 33 New
          +1
          Ross"На месте современного Сургута стоял древний казачий острог." Вы где такие сведения берете. В этом древнем осроге жили казаки - китайцы. Но Вы об этом не знали -так как их не было! Сургут основал князь Барятинский и казачий голова Оничков. Через пару лет они основали Томск.
  3. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 29 November 2012 10: 08 New
    +6
    I think that the history of the development of Siberia is quite strongly corrected! Although the story written by the author, more precisely assembled into one whole, is very attractive ...
    I think that the history of development was started much earlier, then everything immediately falls into place ...
    1. sq
      sq 29 November 2012 10: 35 New
      +2
      In history, in general, there are a lot of materials, far-fetched and even frankly invented, but gradually at least general concepts of the true state of affairs appear at that time.
      1. Krilion
        Krilion 30 November 2012 03: 18 New
        +1
        Quote: kvm
        In history, in general, there are a lot of materials, far-fetched and even frankly invented, but gradually at least general concepts of the true state of affairs appear at that time.


        even if part of the story is invented, the mere fact of the Russians' advance to the east is such a grandiose and incredible accomplishment that many do not fully realize it .... in order to at least partially understand the deeds of our great ancestors, it’s enough to at least imagine ourselves as one of the Cossacks ... and if you add to everything else the annexation and settlement of Alaska, then nothing else can be experienced than admiration ..
  4. Setrac
    Setrac 29 November 2012 12: 09 New
    -12
    Corrected - poorly said, it is composed from scratch. Find on the map the old capital of Siberia - the city of Simbirsk - now the city of Ulyanovsk, and ask the question, where was the territory that our ancestors called Siberia?
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 29 November 2012 13: 34 New
      +8
      Setrac"Откорректированна - слабо сказанно, она сочинена с нуля. Найдите на карте старииную столицу Сибири - город Симбирск - ныне город Ульяновск, и задайтесь вопросом, а где находилась та территория, которую наши предки называли Сибирью? Мда... увлекательное дело корректировать свою историю! Вот уже и Симбирск- Сибирь. Как насчет географию подтянуть? А далее как всегда стрельцы-гномы и казаки эльфы! Болеем? Головушкой буйной? А может ребятки не надо Вам придумывать историю России обчитавшись альтернативщины? Даю вводную был под Самарой город Ставрополь- так там тоже был Кавказ? Кстати к этому Самарскому Ставрополю относилось и калмыцкое Ставропольское войско.
    2. The centurion
      29 November 2012 14: 55 New
      +4
      Quote: Setrac
      where was the territory that our ancestors called Siberia?
    3. ramzes1776
      ramzes1776 29 November 2012 20: 06 New
      +4
      I serve in Buryatia. I recently learned that the capital of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, received this name in 1934, and before that there was Verkhneudinsk, which was formed by the Cossacks in 1666.
  5. predator.3
    predator.3 29 November 2012 13: 23 New
    +3
    In general, this site has excellent articles on history, I recommend to use it in history lessons, or release a separate book! good
  6. Joonkey
    Joonkey 29 November 2012 13: 46 New
    +3
    Iron people were !!!
  7. Northerner
    Northerner 29 November 2012 14: 27 New
    +6
    And mind you! Very little is said about these iron people at school to our future generation! But in vain! We have something to be proud of! And these people not only conquered Siberia!
    It was these people who were respected by the highlanders, and it was with them in the Caucasus that it was relatively calm! And now, you watch on TV how people dressed in military uniforms and high rank epaulets for distillation with a certain channel operator chase grannies in crossings for illegal trade! At the same time, people honestly earn money trying to somehow live not at the expense of theft! Let these mummers try to drive through the region when the peasants pick up their crops for free and resell for huge money in Moscow! Let them protect farmers from the arrivals of those who are not satisfied with the lack of a rent and the reluctance to sell their crops at market prices!
  8. xan
    xan 29 November 2012 16: 25 New
    +5
    Setrac,
    with what fright was Simbirsk the capital of Siberia?
    maybe Kuchum wasn’t.
    Ermak died in modern northern Kazakhstan.
    Before Ermak, Kuchum was a tributary of some Uzbek khans
    thanks to the author for the drawings and for this

    And with all this, Siberia was passed by the Cossacks up and down for some half a century. The mind is incomprehensible. To realize their grueling feat of lack of imagination. Whoever imagines at least a little these great and ruinous distances, cannot but suffocate with admiration.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 29 November 2012 20: 06 New
      +2
      xan"Ермак погиб в современном северном казахстане." А может все же в Вагайском районе, Тюменской области?
    2. Dikremnij
      Dikremnij 30 November 2012 06: 03 New
      0
      It seems that Simbirsk is now called Ulyanovsk, although I like Simbirsk more.
      There is a great deal of honor for such a Judas as Lenin, in order to name cities in his honor.
  9. Northerner
    Northerner 29 November 2012 16: 55 New
    +3
    xan, You +!
    "Задохнуться от восхищения"! Это именно то, что испытывает человек, который хоть раз побывал за Уралом, в заполярье! Хоть раз видел эти бескрайние и суровые просторы! Подумать только, даже сейчас обладая современными средствами передвижения и выживания в экстремальной среде люди не смогли бы вот так повторить! Я знаю, что говорю, я 20 лет в заполярье прожил и не понаслышке знаю, что такое спать в сугробе в -40 мороз и по студёной тундре в обжигающие холодом ветра ходить и по лесу бесконечному передвигаться, не заблудившись и не сгинув на просторах этой самой СИБИРИ!
    ! The spirit in modern man is not the same, but maybe it’s all gone!
    1. xan
      xan 29 November 2012 21: 42 New
      +4
      about the modern spirit
      read on the internet the memoirs of officers who fought in Chechnya. many say that there are no questions about conscript soldiers
      I have a cousin, a Muscovite, before the army of Tyunya-Matyunya, he was embarrassed to get acquainted with the girls, he came from Chechnya with a medal and matured at once.
      and I look at my friends and work colleagues, there are negligible little
      our people are not ordinary.
      1. Northerner
        Northerner 29 November 2012 23: 49 New
        +2
        xan, You +
        I agree not ordinary people, but unfortunately not all! Yes, there are modest young men who in extreme conditions become men since they have it in their blood and are transmitted through generations! But there are also vegetables in which the brain is configured only to satisfy a set of its miserable needs and in life they don’t notice anyone but themselves and those who can give them something! Unfortunately, such people often declare themselves not in the best deeds! I lived most of my life in the far north and it was wild for me to see the habits of some individuals of the human sex which I see in abundance in Moscow! They have nothing human, but a western cult of worship for them!
        1. xan
          xan 30 November 2012 00: 05 New
          +2
          there is such
          if it is 20 years old, then there is hope
          if 30 is already an enemy
  10. Black
    Black 29 November 2012 19: 19 New
    -1
    Glory to my people who have gone into oblivion!
    Once upon a time, 70% of the lands of the empire were brought to them at the feet of the throne .....
    А вот как то на днях в Москве "ряженых" попытались привлечь к проверке торговли в ларьках( что само по себе недостойно для казака) и такой вой в сми- святых выноси!

    Oh, love, love, my people.
    Gaitan strong boldly
    Mountain wind
    I tightly wove the loop,
    He skillfully tightened his neck.
    "The Cossack went from the Cossack", -
    Not faith is the plaintiff!
    But completed thorny
    Way. Steppe bagatitsa
    Silver ash
    She covered dear faces.

    Gourde won't shine
    Over the neck of a basurman
    Forever in the dust of the museum
    ataman's insect.
    Gobim yourself. Not for us
    Go like old
    Sharpe yasar.
    Scarlet lamps found
    Someone to trousers, some to pants,
    Crosses handed down
    Entrusted to grandfathers.

    What are we Cossacks !? Kaliki!
    My great-grandfather’s hand didn’t flinch
    above us only the laughter of the media.
    Ordinary, and the love !!! !!! -
    We are now called Russian.
    Ethnogenesis knows no tears
    But at night it cries
    As the wind offered a prayer
    Above the sweet heart stanitsa:
    "Glory to you, Lord, that we are Cossacks!"

    **** from the Cossack ......
    gaitan - a rope for pectoral incense, a cross;
    mountain wind Oy - wind from the north, that is, from Muscovy;
    bagatitsa - flashes of a distant fire;
    gurda is an expensive blade of Caucasian origin;
    gob-save, save ...;
    love-of-the-will;
    blisses, it seems;
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 30 November 2012 10: 28 New
      0
      Чёный"Когда то к ногам престола было принесено им 70 % земель империи...." Сибирь осваивали кроме казаков еще вятские и устюжане - если быть уж совсем объективным. Их заслуги никак не меньше казачьих! До начала 20 века жители Сибири четко себя различали.
  11. ramzes1776
    ramzes1776 29 November 2012 19: 58 New
    0
    Glory to the Russian Cossacks !!! Today in the news they said that Cossack patrols appeared in Moscow. Can they put things in order on the streets?
  12. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 29 November 2012 21: 41 New
    +3
    Ermak was an irregular personality and without a doubt legendary. It was he, with his team, that demolished the last fragments of the horde - the Nogai and Siberian Khanates ... These events were of great historical importance, and to a large extent predetermined the further history of Russia ...
    Not every eminent commander who had at his disposal a regular army can boast of such acts ...
  13. rexby63
    rexby63 29 November 2012 22: 15 New
    +3
    К слову о казачестве, как об этносе. Дежнев Семен Иванович, уроженец Великого Устюга. Русский город Великий Устюг знаю, казачьего не знаю. Затем Поярков Василий Данилович, тверской, из служилых людей. К казакам, как представителям этноса, никакого отношения не имеет. Хабаров Ерофей Павлович, родом из под Котласа. Тоже казак?. Так какого хрена тут про одних казаков "песни соловьиные "льются. Русский мужик для вас, чубатых нагаечников , что - быд..о? Статье, не смотря на видимую познавательность , минус за однобокость и субъективность
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 30 November 2012 06: 23 New
      +1
      Krukovsky Felix Antonovich (major general, hero of the Caucasian war, 1804-1852.), too, after all, was not a Cossack from birth. But he became him, and he was considered to be him ... But after all, by his birth, a Pole, a gentry ...
      So you minus, dear rexby63. For one-sidedness and subjectivity. And for the lack of cognition ... Already do not blame me. Not from evil, but exclusively for prevention ...
      1. rexby63
        rexby63 30 November 2012 18: 06 New
        -1
        Cognitive, cognitive - the integrity that promotes cognition, the expansion of knowledge. The cognitive value of literature. Explanatory Dictionary Ozhegova. S.I. Ozhegov, N.Yu. Shvedova. 1949 1992 ...
        I hope I expanded the knowledge of the members of the forum to some extent about the ethnicity of the conquerors of Siberia, and you minus me for one-sidedness. Where is the logic?
        By the way, Ermak. Who can prove to me that he is a native of Don? Do not offer fiction
  14. I-16M
    I-16M 30 November 2012 03: 05 New
    +5
    Glory to the Cossacks !!! Russia owes a lot to them.
    Please do not confuse with modern mummers.
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 30 November 2012 03: 13 New
      +3
      you can’t confuse mummers with clowns
  15. Gavril
    Gavril 2 December 2012 10: 25 New
    +3
    With regard to Yakutia, the decree “to bring foreigners under the sovereign’s hand kindly and kindly, if possible not to repair enthusiasm and fights with them” came out after the stream of furs going to the capital began to dry up - the people fled from the arbitrariness of the governor en masse, and could not pay yasak (took furs). At that time, furs were exported and currency was extracted for it for the treasury. There were few Cossacks, but they had a firearm that could not be compared with an arrow, so they built fortifications to keep the locals away. And in order for the Yakuts to pay yasak regularly, they took hostages by fire and sword from the local toyon who were held in the same prison - for their life the yasak who collected the same toyon was paid. By the way, service Cossacks sent complaints to the governor to the tsar, he even hesitated - in some uprisings led by the Yakuts, the Cossacks were on the side of those who followed them. But of course we are a small Yakut people, thanks at least for the fact that they have not been erased from the face of the earth)))
    А так "свет" в наш народ зажег Советский Союз а не Царская Россия!
  16. vladek64
    vladek64 2 December 2012 13: 00 New
    0
    Thanks to the author for unique watercolors!

    Recently, more and more often the question arises: what so attracted KAZAKOV to Siberia? It is the Cossacks. All descriptions of the development of Siberia by Cossacks give the impression that Cossacks are some kind of geographic society with a military bias. Well, just don’t feed the Cossacks with bread, but let some new land be discovered. Why did they need this? !!
    Мои предки были кубанско-запорожскиим казаками и тема мне родная. Все рассказы, что я слышал и то что видел своими глазами - говорит о том, что казаки - это сильные вояки и крепкие хозяева. Но очень практичные люди. То есть чтобы собраться ватагой и куда-то отправиться должна быть очень веская причина. Обычно это поход "за зипунами" (за добычей) или вызволение своих из плена.
    И если глянуть на историю освоения Сибири с этой точки зрения, то и возникает этот вопрос - что тянуло казаков в Сибирь? Пленных казаков в Сибири не было. "За зипунами" обычно ходили на юг (Крым, Турция, Кавказ), на запад (Бессарабия, Польша) или на север (Русь, Москва). Тут всё понятно - в этих местах есть много городов, в которых удобно собрано разное добро. Приходи и бери, если сможешь. А в Сибири, если верить историкам, городов нет, население прячется в тайге мелкими племенами. То есть за добычей надо гонять по огромной сложной местности, с гораздо большим риском для жизни чем в Польше или Турции. И сама добыча вызывает вопросы: если это мех, то что - казаки сами его добывали? Если золото, то что - сами его мыли? Это не в "казачьем стиле". Даже на приведенных акварелях вы этого не увидите. Казакам проще было перехватить караван с пушниной или золотом, и получить свою добычу. Или взять какой-нибудь город и найти добычу там.

    A completely different matter if we assume that Siberia (contrary to historians) was full of rich cities that were part of a strong state. So strong that the Cossacks at first preferred not to mess with him and go south and west. And then, when this state (unknown to our historians) weakened or collapsed, and production became easier, the Cossacks moved to Siberia. Conquer these cities and take prey, or they themselves settled in those places.
    Появившиеся в последнее время сведения о Великой Тартарии и о раскопках неизвестных городов (возраст - несколько тысяч лет) на берегах сибирских рек - очень вписываются в мою версию истории "освоения Сибири казаками". С удовольствием восприму конструктивную критику этой версии.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 2 December 2012 20: 08 New
      0
      vladek64"Появившиеся в последнее время сведения о Великой Тартарии" К великой Тартарии необходимо добавить Великую Казакию и Великую Украинарию!!! Там жили неведомые украинарцы о трех головах!!! Мда... кому чего. А Великие Тартарцы- это вообще жесть у них уже тогда была космонавтика и аэрография. Внешне они напоминали эфиопов.
      1. vladek64
        vladek64 2 December 2012 22: 02 New
        0
        Somehow not constructively ...
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 3 December 2012 09: 28 New
          0
          vladek64"Как-то не конструктивно" Как-то да... Поймите правильно- достали мифы и легенды о пигмеях и прочих тартарцах.
          1. vladek64
            vladek64 3 December 2012 11: 24 New
            0
            Understand. These myths got me too. Therefore, due to the lack of truthful information, I try to include logic and common sense.
            Иначе, глядя на нынешних "казаков", "атаманов", "всевеликие казачьи войска" никогда не поверишь в то, о чем написано в этой статье. Возникает четкое ощущение, что большую часть нынешнего "казачества" финансируют те кто хотят дискредитировать казачество как идею. Иначе не могу объяснить появление казачьих полковников женского рода (Бабкина) или посвящение в казаки Шуфутинского ну и т.п. Вот недавно наткнулся на подборку фотографий: "Вот такие казаки (70 фотографии)" http://www.webpark.ru/comment/vot-takie-kazaki Сравните с акварелями из этой статьи и почувствуйте разницу.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 3 December 2012 11: 56 New
              0
              vladek64 "Сравните с акварелями из этой статьи и почувствуйте разницу." Даже смотреть неохота. Я их вживую видел. Знаете я с Вами согласен! Финансируй -не финансируй реального казачества не будет, пока у них не будет своей земли. Войсковой земли если хотите. Так, все и будет с бабами полковниками! И насчет мифов. У нас в истории и так достаточно белых пятен. Их изучать надо, а не фантазировать как это делают некоторые товарищи.
  17. vladek64
    vladek64 3 December 2012 13: 32 New
    0
    Quote: Nagaibak
    there will be no real Cossacks until they have their own land

    I agree half. While there is nothing to protect - there will really be clowns, not defenders.
    Но если всё ограничится только войсковой землей, повторится история1918-1920 годов. Когда казачество пыталось отгородиться, создать свою "казачью республику". На чем крупно и погорели все казаки (и белые и красные). А потом ещё в Великую Отечественную войну Шкуро с Красновым под эту сказку собирали казаков в 15-й казачий кавалерийский корпус СС воевать за Гитлера. Закончилось это трагедией у Линца.
    Cossacks themselves are an army. And an army that does not serve any state turns into a gang. This was understood by Cossack chieftains and strove to establish close ties (with Russia, Poland, Turkey). And those Cossack anarchists who did not recognize any authority and went to the Haidamaks, the Cossacks themselves caught and hung them.

    About the study of the white spots of history. How to study them without having true information? Where can truthful information be obtained? And how to distinguish true information from false? Please share your experience in studying the white spots of history.
    Мне например очень хотелось бы найти где-нибудь информацию о своём пра-пра-прадеде, который был пластуном сначала в Запорожском войске, а затем на Кубани. Но отец не знает, деда уже нет, а ни исторические музеи, ни нынешние "казаки" ничем помочь не могут. А было бы интересно узнать как он появился на Сечи, как попал на Кубань.
  18. 020205
    020205 26 September 2013 12: 14 New
    0
    in the article it is written in black and white that ordinary men were imposed on the Cossacks for the development of Siberia, the picture even shows how the Poles made Napoleon’s army prisoners of the captives, to be sent to Siberia, four generations of these Cossack troops were formed from these ordinary people through generations in the territory they mastered, among Siberian Cossacks there were a lot of later and not only Russians, but also children from mixed marriages of Russians and the local population, so the Siberian Cossacks and the Don