Siberian Cossack Epic

Only when the Cossack squad of Yermak crossed the “Stone Belt” of the Ural Mountains and defeated the Siberian Khanate, one of the last fragments of the Golden Horde, was the foundation of Asian Russia laid. And although Russian people got acquainted with Siberia long before this event, our ideas about the beginning of Russian Siberia are connected with Yermak and his colleagues.

After the terrible Siberian khan Kuchum, one of the royal descendants of Genghis Khan, was knocked down from a kuren by a handful of simple Cossacks, an unprecedented, impetuous, grandiose movement eastward into Siberia began. In just half a century, the Russian people made their way to the Pacific coast. Thousands of people walked "meet the sun" through mountain ranges and impassable swamps, through impassable forests and immense tundra, making their way through sea ice and rapids. Yermak struck the wall like a breach in the wall, holding back the pressure of the colossal forces that had awakened among the people. Gangs of people eager for freedom, harsh but endlessly enduring and bravely courageous, rushed to Siberia.

It was incredibly difficult to move across the gloomy expanses of Northern Asia with its wild, harsh nature, with a rare, but very militant population. All the way from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean is marked by numerous unknown graves of explorers and sailors. But the Russian people stubbornly went to Siberia, pushing further and further east to the limits of their homeland, transforming this desert and gloomy land with their work. Great feat of these people. For one century, they have three times increased the territory of the Russian state and laid the foundation for everything that gives and will give us Siberia. Now Siberia is called the part of Asia from the Urals to the mountain ranges of the Okhotsk coast, from the Arctic Ocean to the Mongolian and Kazakh steppes. In the 17th century, the concept of Siberia was more significant and included not only the Ural and Far Eastern lands, but also a significant part of Central Asia.

Siberian Cossack Epic
Map of Siberia by Peter Godunov, 1667

Coming out into the expanses of North Asia, the Russian people entered a country that had long been settled. True, it was inhabited extremely unevenly and weakly. By the end of the XVI century on the square in 10 million square meters. km lived only 200-220 thousand people. It is not numerous, scattered throughout the taiga and tundra, the population had its ancient and complex history, was very different in language, economic structure and social development.

By the time the Russians came, the only people who had their own statehood were the Tatars of the Kuchum kingdom defeated by Yermak, some ethnic groups had patriarchal-feudal relations. Most of the Siberian peoples, Russian Cossack land explorers found at various stages of patriarchal-tribal relations.

The events of the end of the XVI century proved to be crucial in the historical fate of North Asia. The “Kuchum Kingdom”, which closed the closest and most convenient way deep into Siberia, crumbled in 1582 from the daring blow of a small group of Cossacks. Nothing could change the course of events: neither the death of the "Siberian conquistador" Yermak, nor the departure of the remnants of his squad from the capital of the Siberian Khanate, or the temporary accession of the Tatar rulers in Kashlyk. However, only government troops were able to successfully complete the work begun by free Cossacks. The Moscow government, realizing that Siberia cannot be mastered by a single blow, proceeds to its tried and tested tactics. Its essence was to consolidate on a new territory, building cities there, and, relying on them, gradually move forward. This “offensive cities” strategy soon yielded brilliant results. From 1585, the Russians continued to oppress the indomitable Kuchum and, having founded many cities, until the end of the 16th century, conquered Western Siberia.

In the 20-s of the XVII century, the Russian people came to the Yenisei. Began a new page - the conquest of Eastern Siberia. From the Yenisei into the depths of Eastern Siberia, Russian explorers advanced rapidly.

In the 1627 year, the 40 Cossacks, led by Maxim Perfilyev, reached Ylim on Upper Tunguska (Angara), took a yasak from the neighboring Buryats and Evenks, housed a cabin, and a year later returned to the Yeniseisk steppe, pushing a new expedition to the north-east. In 1628, Vasily Bugor went to Ilim with 10 Cossacks. There was built Ilimsky burg, an important stronghold for further advance on the Lena River.

Rumors about the wealth of the Lena lands began to attract people from the most distant places. So, from Tomsk to Lena in 1636, a detachment in 50 was equipped with a man led by ataman Dmitry Kopylov. These service people, having overcome unheard of difficulties, in 1639, the first of the Russian people came to the expanse of the Pacific Ocean.

In 1641, the Cossack foreman Mikhail Stadukhin, having equipped the detachment at his own expense, went from Oimyakon down to the mouth of the Indigirka, and then sailed by sea to Kolyma, securing its connection by building a strong point for new campaigns. A detachment of Cossacks from 13, left in prison, led by Semyon Dezhnev, withstood a brutal attack of the Yukagir army numbering more than 500 people. Following this, the Cossack Semyon Dezhnev took part in the events that immortalized his name. In June, 1648, a hundred Cossacks on 7 Kochi, came out of the mouth of the Kolyma in search of new lands. Sailing to the east, overcoming inhuman difficulties, they circled the Chukchi Peninsula and entered the Pacific Ocean, proving the existence of a strait between Asia and America. After that Dezhnev founded the Anadyr fortress.

Having reached the natural limits of the Eurasian continent, the Russian people turned south, which allowed them to quickly master the rich lands of the Okhotsk coast and then go to Kamchatka. In 50, the Cossacks came to Okhotsk, founded earlier by a detachment of Semyon Shelkovnik who had come from Yakutsk.

Another route for the development of Eastern Siberia was the southern route, which became increasingly important after the Russians consolidated in the Baikal region, attracting the main stream of immigrants. The beginning of the accession of these lands was laid in the construction of the Verkholensky fortress in 1641. In the 1643-1647 years, with the efforts of atamans Kurbat Ivanov and Vasily Kolesnikov, most of the Baikal Buryats took Russian citizenship and the Verkhneangarsky prison was built. In subsequent years, the Cossack detachments went to Shilka and Selenga, founding Irgen and Shilka jails, and then another chain of fortresses. The rapid accession of this land to Russia was promoted by the aspiration of the indigenous people to rely on Russian fortresses in the fight against the raids of the Mongol feudal lords. During these years, a well-equipped detachment led by Vasily Poyarkov made his way to Amur and descended to the sea, clarifying the political situation in the Daur land. Rumors about the rich lands of Poyarkov spread throughout Eastern Siberia and shook hundreds of new people. In 1650, a squad led by ataman Yerofey Khabarov reached Amur, and being there 3 of the year became the winner of all clashes with the local population and defeated a thousand Manchu detachment. The general result of the actions of the Khabarovsk army was the accession of the Amur region to Russia and the beginning of the mass migration of the Russian people there. Following the Cossacks, already in the 50 of the 17th century, industrialists and peasants rushed to Amur, who soon formed the majority of the Russian population. By the 80 years, despite its foreign position, the Amur region was the most populated in the whole of Transbaikalia. However, further development of the Amur lands was impossible due to the aggressive actions of the Manchu feudal lords. Small Russian troops, with the support of the Buryat and Tungus populations, more than once defeated the Manchus and the Mongols allied with them. The forces, however, were too unequal, and according to the terms of the Nerchinsk peace treaty of 1689, the Russians, defending the Trans-Baikal region, were forced to leave part of the developed territories in the Amur region. The possessions of the Moscow sovereign on the Amur were now limited only to the upper tributaries of the river.

At the end of the 17th century, the beginning of the accession to Russia of new vast lands in the northern regions of the Far East was laid. In the winter of 1697, a detachment led by Cossack Pentecostal Vladimir Atlasov set off from Anadyr fortress on Kamchatka to Kamchatka. The hike continued on 3 of the year. During this time, the detachment traveled hundreds of kilometers across Kamchatka, defeating a number of tribal and tribal associations that had resisted it and founded the Verkhnekamchatsky fortress.

In general, by this time, Russian explorers had collected reliable information on virtually all of Siberia. Where, on the eve of “Yermakov take”, European cartographers could only bring out the word “Tartary” began to draw the real outlines of a giant continent. The history of world geographical discoveries did not know such a huge scale, such speed and energy in the study of new countries.

Most of the Siberian taiga and tundra, the small Cossack detachments passed without encountering serious resistance. Moreover, the locals supplied the Cossack detachments the main contingent of guides to new lands. This was one of the main reasons for the phenomenally fast movement of explorers from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean. Successful advance to the east was favored by the extensive river network of Siberia, which allowed it to move up the Pacific Ocean from one river basin to another. But overcoming the portages presented great difficulties. This required several days and it was a way “through great mud, swamps and small rivers, and in other places there is dragging and mountains, and the forests are dark everywhere”. For transporting goods, except for people, only pack horses and dogs could be used, “while using carts through the portage to go after mud and swamps never happens”. Due to the lack of water in the upstream rivers, it was necessary to raise the water level with the help of sailing and earthen dams or to reload it repeatedly. On many rivers, swimming made it difficult to numerous rapids and rapids. But the main difficulty of navigation on the northern rivers was determined by an extremely short period of navigation, often forcing to spend the winter in places unfit for habitation. The long Siberian winter frightens the inhabitants of European Russia with its frosts and at the present time, meanwhile, in the XVII century, the cold weather was more fierce. The period from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the 19th century is designated by paleogeographers as the “Little Ice Age”. However, the hardest trials fell to those who chose the sea routes. The oceans that washed Siberia had deserted and inhospitable shores, and strong winds, frequent fogs and heavy ice conditions created extremely difficult navigation conditions. Finally, a short but hot summer plagued not only by the heat, but also by the inconceivably bloodthirsty and numerous hordes of gnats - this scourge of taiga and tundra spaces that could bring an unusual person to a frenzy. “Gnus is all flying nasty filth, which in summer, day and night, devours people and animals. This is a whole community of bloodsuckers, working in shifts, around the clock, the whole summer. His possessions are immense, power is boundless. He infuriates horses, driving elks into a marsh. He leads a man into a dark, stupid bitterness. "

Cossacks of the Siberian Cossack troops

The picture of the accession of Siberia will be incomplete, if you do not cover such a factor as armed clashes with the local population. Of course, in most regions of Siberia, resistance to the Russian advancement could not be compared with the battles within the “Kuchumov Yurt”. In Siberia, the Cossacks more often died from hunger and disease than from clashes with Aborigines. However, in armed clashes, Russian explorers had to deal with a strong and experienced adversary in military affairs. The contemporaries were well aware of the warlike inclinations of the Tungus, Yakuts, Yenisei Kirghiz, Buryats and other peoples. Often, not only did they not shy away from battle, but they themselves challenged the Cossacks. At that, many Cossacks were killed and wounded, often for several days "they were sitting under siege from that car." Cossacks, having firearms weapons, had a great advantage on their side and clearly recognized him. They were always very worried if the reserves of gunpowder and lead came to an end, realizing that "without firing of fire in Siberia, you cannot be." At the same time, it was prescribed to them “that they should not be considered for foreigners and that they did not indicate any firing of food”. Without a monopolistic possession of "fiery fighting", the Cossack detachments would not have been able to successfully withstand the military forces of the indigenous Siberian population that were immeasurably superior in number. Squeaking in the hands of the Cossacks were a formidable weapon, but even a skilled shooter could not make them more than 20 shots for a whole day of fierce battle. Hence the inevitability of melee fights, where the advantage of the Cossacks was negated by the multiplicity and good armament of their opponents. With constant wars and raids, the inhabitants of taiga and tundra were armed from head to toe, and artisans produced excellent cold and defensive weapons. Especially highly Russian Cossacks valued weapons and equipment of Yakut artisans. But the Cossacks had the hardest time confronting the nomadic peoples of South Siberia. The life of a nomadic cattleman made the entire male population of nomads professional warriors, and the natural militancy made their numerous, highly maneuverable and well-armed army an extremely dangerous adversary. A one-time performance of the aboriginal population against the Russians would not only lead to a halt in their advance into the depths of Siberia, but also to the loss of already acquired lands. The government understood this and sent instructions to “bring foreigners under the sovereign's hand with caress and greetings, and if possible not to repair the fights and fights with them”. But the slightest miscalculation in the organization of the expedition in such extreme conditions led to tragic consequences. So, during V. Poyarkov's campaign against Amur, more than 40 people from 132 died from hunger and disease over one winter, and as many more died in subsequent clashes. From 105, the people who traveled with S. Dezhnev around Chukotka returned 12. Of the 60 who marched with V. Atlasov to Kamchatka, 15 survived. There were completely lost expeditions. Siberia cost the Cossack people dearly.

And with all this, Siberia was passed by the Cossacks up and down for some half a century. The mind is incomprehensible. To realize their grueling feat of lack of imagination. Whoever imagines at least a little these great and ruinous distances, cannot but suffocate with admiration.

The accession of the Siberian lands cannot be separated from their active development. It became part of the great process of transformation of the Siberian nature of the Russian people. At the initial stage of colonization, Russian settlers settled in a residence in the winter quarters built by Cossack pioneers, towns and ostrogahs. Knocking axes is the first thing that the Russian man proclaimed about his settlement in every corner of Siberia. One of the main occupations of those who settled beyond the Urals was fishing, because, due to the lack of bread, the fish first became the main food. However, at the earliest opportunity, the settlers sought to restore the traditional bread-and-flour basis of nutrition to the Russians. To provide the settlers with bread, the tsarist government massively sent peasants from central Russia to the Cossacks and made them to the Cossacks. Their descendants and Cossacks-pioneers gave in the future the root of the Siberian (1760 year), Trans-Baikal (1851 year), Amursky (1858 year) and Ussurian (1889 year) Cossack troops.

The Cossacks, being the main support of the tsarist government in the province, were at the same time the most exploited social group. Being in the conditions of an acute shortage of people, extremely busy with military affairs and administrative tasks, they were widely used as a labor force. As a military class for the slightest negligence or evil slander, they suffered from the arbitrariness of local commanders and the governor. As a contemporary wrote: “Nobody was flogged as often and as hard as the Cossacks”. The answer was the frequent uprisings of the Cossacks and other servicemen, accompanied by the murders of the hated commanders.

Despite all the difficulties in the time allotted to one human life, the vast and rich region has changed drastically. By the end of the 17th century, about 200 thousand displaced people already lived beyond the Urals - about the same as the Aborigines. Siberia emerged from centuries of isolation and became part of a large centralized state, which led to the cessation of communal-clan anarchy and internal strife. The local population, following the example of the Russians, in a short time significantly improved their life and diet. For the Russian state entrenched extremely rich in natural resources of the earth. It is appropriate to recall the prophetic words of the great Russian scientist and patriot M.V. Lomonosov: "The power of Russia will grow Siberia and the North Ocean ...". And after all, the prophet said this at a time when the initial stage of the development of North Asia was barely over.

The history of the Siberian Cossacks in watercolors of Nikolai Nikolaevich Karazin (1842 - 1908)

Yamskaya and convoy service in the steppe

Great-great-grandmother of the Siberian Cossacks. The arrival of the party "wife"

Last Kuchumovsky defeat 1598 of the year. The defeat of the Siberian Khan Kuchum on the Irmeni River, which flows into the Ob, during which almost all members of his family, as well as many notable and ordinary people were captured by the Cossacks

Entrance of the captured family Kuchumova in Moscow. Xnumx

The first half of the XVIII century. Ceremony of the meeting of the Chinese Amban by the caretaker of the military Bukhtarma fishing

The Cossacks in the construction of linear fortresses - fortifications on the Irtysh, built in the first half of the XVII century.

Explaining the middle Kirghiz-Kaisack horde

Intelligence centurion Voloshenin in Semirechki and Ili Valley in 1771 g

Pugachev in Siberia. The defeat of the crowds of the impostor near Troitsk 21 in May 1774.

Fight with Pugachev

Anxiety in the fortress redoubt

Alien ancestors of the current Siberian Cossacks. Enrollment in the Cossacks of the captured Poles of the army of Napoleon, 1813 g

Siberian Cossacks in the Guard.

In the snow

Siberian Cossacks (caravan)

The military settlement service of the Siberian Cossacks

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  1. donchepano
    November 29, 2012
    yes there were times in Russia and there were men
    1. +3
      November 29, 2012
      I apologize ... It's not about the MUSIC, but about the Cossacks.
  2. +13
    November 29, 2012
    Without extermination of tribes, without reservations, without blankets infected with smallpox and other paraphernalia of conquering America, our Cossacks annexed Siberia!
    Glory to the Russian Cossacks!
    1. -2
      November 29, 2012
      Our Cossacks joined Siberian Russia to Muscovite Russia.
      1. 0
        November 29, 2012
        In place of modern Surgut stood the ancient Cossack prison. Local Cossacks greatly assisted the tsarist troops in consolidating Western Siberia.
        Then came the baptist priests. The Cossacks refused, burned the entire prison.
        1. +1
          November 30, 2012
          Ross "An ancient Cossack prison stood on the site of modern Surgut." Where do you get such information. Cossacks - Chinese lived in this ancient osrog. But you didn’t know about it, because they weren’t there! Surgut was founded by Prince Baryatinsky and the Cossack head Onichkov. A couple of years later they founded Tomsk.
  3. Brother Sarych
    November 29, 2012
    I think that the history of the development of Siberia is quite strongly corrected! Although the story written by the author, more precisely assembled into one whole, is very attractive ...
    I think that the history of development was started much earlier, then everything immediately falls into place ...
    1. sq
      November 29, 2012
      In history, in general, there are a lot of materials, far-fetched and even frankly invented, but gradually at least general concepts of the true state of affairs appear at that time.
      1. +1
        November 30, 2012
        Quote: kvm
        In history, in general, there are a lot of materials, far-fetched and even frankly invented, but gradually at least general concepts of the true state of affairs appear at that time.

        even if part of the story is invented, the mere fact of the Russians' advance to the east is such a grandiose and incredible accomplishment that many do not fully realize it .... in order to at least partially understand the deeds of our great ancestors, it’s enough to at least imagine ourselves as one of the Cossacks ... and if you add to everything else the annexation and settlement of Alaska, then nothing else can be experienced than admiration ..
  4. -12
    November 29, 2012
    Corrected - poorly said, it is composed from scratch. Find on the map the old capital of Siberia - the city of Simbirsk - now the city of Ulyanovsk, and ask the question, where was the territory that our ancestors called Siberia?
    1. +8
      November 29, 2012
      Setrac "Corrected - poorly said, it was composed from scratch. Find on the map the old capital of Siberia - the city of Simbirsk - now the city of Ulyanovsk, and ask the question, where was the territory that our ancestors called Siberia? Hmm ... a fascinating thing to correct your history! Now and Simbirsk-Siberia. How about the geography to tighten? And then, as always, the archers-gnomes and Cossacks elves! Are we sick? A violent head? Or maybe the guys do not need to come up with the history of Russia after reading the alternative? so there was also the Caucasus? By the way, the Kalmyk Stavropol army also belonged to this Samara Stavropol.
    2. +4
      November 29, 2012
      Quote: Setrac
      where was the territory that our ancestors called Siberia?
    3. +4
      November 29, 2012
      I serve in Buryatia. I recently learned that the capital of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, received this name in 1934, and before that there was Verkhneudinsk, which was formed by the Cossacks in 1666.
  5. predator.3
    November 29, 2012
    In general, this site has excellent articles on history, I recommend to use it in history lessons, or release a separate book! good
  6. +3
    November 29, 2012
    Iron people were !!!
  7. +6
    November 29, 2012
    And mind you! Very little is said about these iron people at school to our future generation! But in vain! We have something to be proud of! And these people not only conquered Siberia!
    It was these people who were respected by the highlanders, and it was with them in the Caucasus that it was relatively calm! And now, you watch on TV how people dressed in military uniforms and high rank epaulets for distillation with a certain channel operator chase grannies in crossings for illegal trade! At the same time, people honestly earn money trying to somehow live not at the expense of theft! Let these mummers try to drive through the region when the peasants pick up their crops for free and resell for huge money in Moscow! Let them protect farmers from the arrivals of those who are not satisfied with the lack of a rent and the reluctance to sell their crops at market prices!
  8. xan
    November 29, 2012
    with what fright was Simbirsk the capital of Siberia?
    maybe Kuchum wasn’t.
    Ermak died in modern northern Kazakhstan.
    Before Ermak, Kuchum was a tributary of some Uzbek khans
    thanks to the author for the drawings and for this

    And with all this, Siberia was passed by the Cossacks up and down for some half a century. The mind is incomprehensible. To realize their grueling feat of lack of imagination. Whoever imagines at least a little these great and ruinous distances, cannot but suffocate with admiration.
    1. +2
      November 29, 2012
      xan "Yermak died in modern northern Kazakhstan." Or maybe it’s still in the Vagai district, the Tyumen region?
    2. Dikremnij
      November 30, 2012
      It seems that Simbirsk is now called Ulyanovsk, although I like Simbirsk more.
      There is a great deal of honor for such a Judas as Lenin, in order to name cities in his honor.
  9. +3
    November 29, 2012
    xan, You +!
    "Suffocate with admiration"! This is exactly what a person who has at least once visited beyond the Urals, in the Arctic, experiences! At least once I have seen these endless and harsh expanses! Just think, even now, possessing modern means of transportation and survival in an extreme environment, people would not be able to repeat like this! I know what I am saying, I have lived in the Arctic for 20 years and I know firsthand what it is like to sleep in a snowdrift at -40 frost and walk along the icy tundra in the winds that burn with cold and move through the endless forest without getting lost and not perishing SIBERIA!
    ! The spirit in modern man is not the same, but maybe it’s all gone!
    1. xan
      November 29, 2012
      about the modern spirit
      read on the internet the memoirs of officers who fought in Chechnya. many say that there are no questions about conscript soldiers
      I have a cousin, a Muscovite, before the army of Tyunya-Matyunya, he was embarrassed to get acquainted with the girls, he came from Chechnya with a medal and matured at once.
      and I look at my friends and work colleagues, there are negligible little
      our people are not ordinary.
      1. +2
        November 29, 2012
        xan, You +
        I agree not ordinary people, but unfortunately not all! Yes, there are modest young men who in extreme conditions become men since they have it in their blood and are transmitted through generations! But there are also vegetables in which the brain is configured only to satisfy a set of its miserable needs and in life they don’t notice anyone but themselves and those who can give them something! Unfortunately, such people often declare themselves not in the best deeds! I lived most of my life in the far north and it was wild for me to see the habits of some individuals of the human sex which I see in abundance in Moscow! They have nothing human, but a western cult of worship for them!
        1. xan
          November 30, 2012
          there is such
          if it is 20 years old, then there is hope
          if 30 is already an enemy
  10. -1
    November 29, 2012
    Glory to my people who have gone into oblivion!
    Once upon a time, 70% of the lands of the empire were brought to them at the feet of the throne .....
    But one of these days in Moscow they tried to involve the “mummers” in checking the trade in the stalls (which in itself is unworthy for a Cossack) and endure such a howl in the saints!

    Oh, love, love, my people.
    Gaitan strong boldly
    Mountain wind
    I tightly wove the loop,
    He skillfully tightened his neck.
    "The Cossack went from the Cossack", -
    Not faith is the plaintiff!
    But completed thorny
    Way. Steppe bagatitsa
    Silver ash
    She covered dear faces.

    Gourde won't shine
    Over the neck of a basurman
    Forever in the dust of the museum
    ataman's insect.
    Gobim yourself. Not for us
    Go like old
    Sharpe yasar.
    Scarlet lamps found
    Someone to trousers, some to pants,
    Crosses handed down
    Entrusted to grandfathers.

    What are we Cossacks !? Kaliki!
    My great-grandfather’s hand didn’t flinch
    above us only the laughter of the media.
    Ordinary, and the love !!! !!! -
    We are now called Russian.
    Ethnogenesis knows no tears
    But at night it cries
    As the wind offered a prayer
    Above the sweet heart stanitsa:
    "Glory to you, Lord, that we are Cossacks!"

    **** from the Cossack ......
    gaitan - a rope for pectoral incense, a cross;
    mountain wind Oy - wind from the north, that is, from Muscovy;
    bagatitsa - flashes of a distant fire;
    gurda is an expensive blade of Caucasian origin;
    gob-save, save ...;
    blisses, it seems;
    1. 0
      November 30, 2012
      Black "Once upon a time 70% of the empire's lands were brought to the feet of the throne ...." Besides the Cossacks, Siberia was also mastered by the Vyatka and Ustyuzhan people - to be completely objective. Their merits are no less than the Cossack ones! Until the beginning of the 20th century, the inhabitants of Siberia clearly distinguished themselves.
  11. 0
    November 29, 2012
    Glory to the Russian Cossacks !!! Today in the news they said that Cossack patrols appeared in Moscow. Can they put things in order on the streets?
  12. +3
    November 29, 2012
    Ermak was an irregular personality and without a doubt legendary. It was he, with his team, that demolished the last fragments of the horde - the Nogai and Siberian Khanates ... These events were of great historical importance, and to a large extent predetermined the further history of Russia ...
    Not every eminent commander who had at his disposal a regular army can boast of such acts ...
  13. +3
    November 29, 2012
    By the way about the Cossacks as an ethnic group. Dezhnev Semyon Ivanovich, a native of Veliky Ustyug. I know the Russian town of Veliky Ustyug, I don’t know the Cossack town. Then Poyarkov Vasily Danilovich, Tver, from the service people. He has nothing to do with the Cossacks, as representatives of an ethnic group. Khabarov Erofei Pavlovich, a native of Kotlas. Also a Cossack ?. So why the hell is there about some Cossacks "nightingale songs" pouring. Russian peasant for you, chubaty nadayechnikov, what - byd..o? The article, despite the apparent cognition, minus for one-sidedness and subjectivity
    1. +1
      November 30, 2012
      Krukovsky Felix Antonovich (major general, hero of the Caucasian war, 1804-1852.), too, after all, was not a Cossack from birth. But he became him, and he was considered to be him ... But after all, by his birth, a Pole, a gentry ...
      So you minus, dear rexby63. For one-sidedness and subjectivity. And for the lack of cognition ... Already do not blame me. Not from evil, but exclusively for prevention ...
      1. -1
        November 30, 2012
        Cognitive, cognitive - the integrity that promotes cognition, the expansion of knowledge. The cognitive value of literature. Explanatory Dictionary Ozhegova. S.I. Ozhegov, N.Yu. Shvedova. 1949 1992 ...
        I hope I expanded the knowledge of the members of the forum to some extent about the ethnicity of the conquerors of Siberia, and you minus me for one-sidedness. Where is the logic?
        By the way, Ermak. Who can prove to me that he is a native of Don? Do not offer fiction
  14. I-16M
    November 30, 2012
    Glory to the Cossacks !!! Russia owes a lot to them.
    Please do not confuse with modern mummers.
    1. +3
      November 30, 2012
      you can’t confuse mummers with clowns
  15. +3
    December 2 2012
    With regard to Yakutia, the decree “to bring foreigners under the sovereign’s hand kindly and kindly, if possible not to repair enthusiasm and fights with them” came out after the stream of furs going to the capital began to dry up - the people fled from the arbitrariness of the governor en masse, and could not pay yasak (took furs). At that time, furs were exported and currency was extracted for it for the treasury. There were few Cossacks, but they had a firearm that could not be compared with an arrow, so they built fortifications to keep the locals away. And in order for the Yakuts to pay yasak regularly, they took hostages by fire and sword from the local toyon who were held in the same prison - for their life the yasak who collected the same toyon was paid. By the way, service Cossacks sent complaints to the governor to the tsar, he even hesitated - in some uprisings led by the Yakuts, the Cossacks were on the side of those who followed them. But of course we are a small Yakut people, thanks at least for the fact that they have not been erased from the face of the earth)))
    And so the "light" in our people was lit by the Soviet Union and not Tsarist Russia!
  16. 0
    December 2 2012
    Thanks to the author for unique watercolors!

    Recently, more and more often the question arises: what so attracted KAZAKOV to Siberia? It is the Cossacks. All descriptions of the development of Siberia by Cossacks give the impression that Cossacks are some kind of geographic society with a military bias. Well, just don’t feed the Cossacks with bread, but let some new land be discovered. Why did they need this? !!
    My ancestors were Kuban-Zaporozhye Cossacks and the topic is dear to me. All the stories that I heard and what I saw with my own eyes suggests that the Cossacks are strong warriors and strong masters. But they are very practical people. That is, there must be a very good reason to get together and go somewhere. Usually this is a campaign "for zipuns" (for prey) or the release of their own from captivity.
    And if you look at the history of the development of Siberia from this point of view, then this question arises - what attracted the Cossacks to Siberia? There were no captured Cossacks in Siberia. “For zipuns” they usually went to the south (Crimea, Turkey, Caucasus), to the west (Bessarabia, Poland) or to the north (Rus, Moscow). Everything is clear here - in these places there are many cities in which various goods are conveniently collected. Come and take it if you can. And in Siberia, according to historians, there are no cities, the population is hiding in the taiga in small tribes. That is, you have to chase the prey over a huge difficult terrain, with a much greater risk to life than in Poland or Turkey. And the production itself raises questions: if it is fur, then what - did the Cossacks get it themselves? If gold, then what - did you wash it yourself? This is not "Cossack style". Even in the above watercolors, you will not see this. It was easier for the Cossacks to intercept a caravan of furs or gold and get their spoils. Or take a city and find prey there.

    A completely different matter if we assume that Siberia (contrary to historians) was full of rich cities that were part of a strong state. So strong that the Cossacks at first preferred not to mess with him and go south and west. And then, when this state (unknown to our historians) weakened or collapsed, and production became easier, the Cossacks moved to Siberia. Conquer these cities and take prey, or they themselves settled in those places.
    Recent information about Great Tartary and about excavations of unknown cities (age - several thousand years) on the banks of Siberian rivers - fits very well into my version of the history of "the development of Siberia by the Cossacks". I will gladly accept constructive criticism of this version.
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      December 2 2012
      vladek64 "Recent information about the Great Tartary" To the great Tartary it is necessary to add the Great Cossack and Great Ukraine !!! There lived unknown Ukrainians about three heads !!! Hmm ... to whom. And the Great Tartars is generally a tin, they already had astronautics and airbrushing. Outwardly, they resembled Ethiopians.
      1. 0
        December 2 2012
        Somehow not constructively ...
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          December 3 2012
          vladek64 "Somehow not constructive" Somehow yes ... Understand correctly, got myths and legends about pygmies and other tartars.
          1. 0
            December 3 2012
            Understand. These myths got me too. Therefore, due to the lack of truthful information, I try to include logic and common sense.
            Otherwise, looking at the current "Cossacks", "atamans", "great Cossack troops" you will never believe what is written in this article. There is a clear feeling that most of the current "Cossacks" are financed by those who want to discredit the Cossacks as an idea. Otherwise I cannot explain the appearance of female Cossack colonels (Babkin) or the initiation into the Cossacks of Shufutinsky, etc. I recently came across a selection of photographs: "These are the Cossacks (70 photos)" Compare with the watercolors from this article and feel the difference.
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              December 3 2012
              vladek64 "Compare with the watercolors in this article and feel the difference." Even reluctant to watch. I saw them live. You know, I agree with you! Fund-do not finance the real Cossacks will not exist until they have their own land. Army land if you like. So, everything will be with the women colonels! And about the myths. We have enough white spots in our history. It is necessary to study them, and not to fantasize as some comrades do.
  17. 0
    December 3 2012
    Quote: Nagaibak
    there will be no real Cossacks until they have their own land

    I agree half. While there is nothing to protect - there will really be clowns, not defenders.
    But if everything is limited only to military land, the history of 1918-1920 will repeat itself. When the Cossacks tried to fence themselves off, to create their own "Cossack republic". On which all the Cossacks (both white and red) were burned. And then, even in the Great Patriotic War, Shkuro and Krasnov gathered the Cossacks into the 15th SS Cossack Cavalry Corps to fight for Hitler under this fairy tale. It ended in tragedy at Linz.
    Cossacks themselves are an army. And an army that does not serve any state turns into a gang. This was understood by Cossack chieftains and strove to establish close ties (with Russia, Poland, Turkey). And those Cossack anarchists who did not recognize any authority and went to the Haidamaks, the Cossacks themselves caught and hung them.

    About the study of the white spots of history. How to study them without having true information? Where can truthful information be obtained? And how to distinguish true information from false? Please share your experience in studying the white spots of history.
    For example, I would very much like to find somewhere information about my great-great-great-grandfather, who was a scout first in the Zaporozhye army, and then in the Kuban. But the father does not know, the grandfather is gone, and neither the historical museums, nor the current "Cossacks" can help. And it would be interesting to know how he appeared in the Sich, how he got to the Kuban.
  18. 0
    26 September 2013
    in the article it is written in black and white that ordinary men were imposed on the Cossacks for the development of Siberia, the picture even shows how the Poles made Napoleon’s army prisoners of the captives, to be sent to Siberia, four generations of these Cossack troops were formed from these ordinary people through generations in the territory they mastered, among Siberian Cossacks there were a lot of later and not only Russians, but also children from mixed marriages of Russians and the local population, so the Siberian Cossacks and the Don

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