Military Review

The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine

In the previous article "Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter"It was shown how, during the reign of Peter, the" noble truncation "of the Cossack liberties was carried out in response to the betrayal of the Little Russian hetman Mazepa and the revolt of Don ataman Bulavin. 28 January 1725, Peter the Great died. During his reign, he committed many great deeds, but a lot of misdeeds and mistakes. One of the darkest pages of his reign is the murder of his son, heir to the throne, Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich. This monstrous act even struck the crude manners of his contemporaries and no excuse for this barbaric crime in stories not located. Tsarevich, by definition, those who knew all three well, had a mind and character in his grandfather Alexei Mikhailovich and had nothing to do with the psychopathic character of his father. By the definition of Peter himself: "God did not hurt him with his mind." Alexey was well educated, married to the sister of the Austrian Empress, and had a son, Peter Alekseevich, from her. The relationship of the prince with his father and his entourage has never been warm and cordial, and after the birth of Czar Peter by Catherine’s son Peter Petrovich, they completely deteriorated.

Peter's besporodnaya entourage, above all Ekaterina and Menshikov, began to push the king to change the order of succession and they succeeded. To Peter’s surprise, Tsarevich Alexei easily denied the right to the throne, and even agreed to his father’s demand to have a haircut as a monk. But Peter did not believe in the loyalty of his son, and especially his supporters (who were simultaneously opponents of many thoughtless Peter's reforms) and decided to keep him with him at all times. While visiting Denmark, he called his son there. Alex felt the danger and on the advice of like-minded people instead of Denmark went to Vienna under the protection of his brother-in-law, the Austrian emperor Charles VI, who sheltered him in a safe place. Peter, in fact fraudulently, managed to get his son back into the country, convicted and executed on trumped-up charges. Alexey was dangerous only because he sometimes told proxies that after the death of his father, many of his entourage would sit on stakes. However, in the monarchical epoch, such an attitude of princes to their paternal grandees was typical rather than exceptional, and only notorious tyrants considered this circumstance sufficient for the repression of the hereditary princes. In an effort not to go down in history as a son-killer, Peter acted extremely hypocritically. He gave his son to the court of the Senate, that is, to the court of the nobles, many of whom the prince and threatened to put on the stakes after the death of his father. With this murder, Peter undermined his lineage and the legitimate dynasty of the Romanovs in the male line. Because of this insane act, for almost a century, the Moscow throne was replaced by random individuals, first in a straight line of women, and then completely random individuals. Tsarevich Alexey was sacrificed to fanaticism and reforms introduced by Peter, but even more so to family intrigues and security guarantees for his new outbred entourage and son Peter Petrovich, born of Catherine. By his decision, Peter created a dangerous precedent for violating the rules of succession to the throne and the rule of his successors was accompanied by numerous palace coups and the power of omnipotent temporary rulers. Less than a year after the murder of Alexei, as a new heir, Petr Petrovich, a degenerate from birth, also died. Peter I, submitting to fate, left the question of the succession to the throne open.

Figure.1 Peter I and Prince Alexei

The short rule of Catherine I and Peter II had little effect on the Cossacks. Dnieper Cossacks, the activities of the St. Petersburg College and asked the emperor to give them a hetman. Peter II closed the college and Daniel Apostol was elected hetman. After the untimely death of Emperor Peter II, the male line of the Romanovs was interrupted and a long period of "Indian" rule began. The first empress in this row was Anna Ioannovna. Her rule was characterized by the dominance of foreigners in the affairs of internal affairs and the consciousness of their military power in external affairs. Russia actively intervened in the affairs of Poland. Poland was ruled by kings elected by the nobility, and candidates were actively supported or rejected by neighboring states. A good basis for interfering in the internal affairs of Poland was its mixed ethnic group, which also professed different religions. Turkey did not stop friction on border issues. But Turkey was involved in a difficult war with Persia and in every possible way made concessions to Russia in an effort to preserve peace in the Black Sea. In the reign of Anna Ivanovna, there were almost continuous wars, in which the Cossack troops took an active part. In the 1733 year, after the death of the Polish king Augustus II, an internal war of aspirants arose in Poland, but after Russia's intervention, his son Augustus III became king. Having dealt with the Polish question, the government shifted its attention to Turkey. Since the Persian Shah Tahmas-Kuli inflicted a heavy defeat on the Turks, the Russian government found the time to start the war with Turkey, and on 25 in May 1735, it began with the attack on Azov and the Crimea. With the start of this war, the Zaporozhye Cossacks, who had gone to the Turks with Mazepa, were finally rehabilitated and adopted again into Russian citizenship. Austria by that time had made peace with France and the Russian expeditionary corps, in which there were 10 thousands of Don Cossacks, returned to Black Sea coast from Silesia. In addition to them, on the southern front there were 7 thousands of Cossacks, 6 thousands of Dnieper and 4 thousands of Slobodian Cossacks. The army easily took Perekop and occupied part of the Crimea, at the same time General Lassi took Azov. Then the Dnieper army was created, which, in alliance with Austria, launched an offensive against Moldova and Wallachia. This army occupied Iasi and advanced on Bender. Don Cossacks were sent on a deep raid on the Danube. However, the Turks managed to mobilize, defeated the Austrians and forced them into a separate peace. Then they forced Russia to also conclude a forced peace in 1739, by which all previous successes of the Russian troops were reduced to zero. Don Cossacks were cut off in deep enemy rear, but managed to break into Transylvania, where they were interned. In this war, under the command of Minikh, the Don Cossacks first appeared with spikes and from that time onions, serving the Cossacks faithfully and faithfully for thousands of years, were left and became the property of history. In the reign of Anna Ioannovna, the Volga Cossacks, which almost ceased to exist, were restored. Ataman was appointed Don Sergeant Major Makar Persian.

The short rule of the Brunswick dynasty had no effect on the Cossacks. In 1741, a bloodless palace coup came to power, with the help of the guard, Peter I's daughter Elizaveta Petrovna came to power. After the accession to the throne of Elizabeth Petrovna, the Dnieper Cossacks, after the death of the Apostle, once again left without a hetman, received this right and the favorite of the Empress Razumovsky was made a hetman. Other cardinal changes in the life of the Cossacks in the reign of Elizabeth did not happen. All orders concerned current internal affairs, all existing privileges and autonomy remained inviolable, and no new ones were added. 25 December 1761, Elizaveta Petrovna passed away. The short reign of Peter III was accompanied by dramatic events for Russia, but did not affect the fate of the Cossacks. In June 1762, the wife of Peter III, Catherine, with the help of the guard and the clergy, carried out a coup and removed him from power, and in July he died. After his death, there remained his young son Paul, who was supposed to take the throne by law, and Catherine to be with him regent. But she, supported by a circle of confidants and guards regiments, proclaimed herself the empress, having performed a dubious act from the point of view of legality. She understood this perfectly, and decided to strengthen her position with personal authority and influence on others. With her abilities, she succeeded. 22 September 1762, she was solemnly crowned in the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow, according to the custom of the Moscow kings. She caressed and generously favored supporters, attracted opponents to her side, tried to understand and satisfy the national feelings of all and above all Russians. From the very beginning, unlike her husband, she did not see any benefit in helping Prussia in the war against Austria, in the same way, unlike Elizabeth, she did not consider it necessary to help Austria as well. She never took any action without benefit for Russia. She said: “I’m pretty war-loving, but I will never start a war without a reason, but if I start, then ... not to please other powers, but only when I find it necessary for Russia.” With this statement, Catherine identified the main vector of her foreign policy, which was able to reconcile people of opposing views. In domestic policy, Catherine showed great caution and tried as much as possible to become more familiar with the situation. To solve important issues, she appointed a commission, which was chaired by herself. And questions that took alarming forms were often resolved painlessly. In order to familiarize herself with the situation in the country, Ekaterina undertook several trips around Russia. And her amazing ability to select for himself not only the faithful, but also surprisingly capable and talented Companions admires to this day. And an amazing thing, a foreign queen-German with these qualities and deeds managed to achieve excellent results and enormous prestige not only among the nobility, servants and retinue, but also among the masses.

Fig.2 "Katenka"

In foreign policy, the Polish direction was central. In relations between Russia and Poland, 3 was a complex issue, each of which was very disturbing to Poland, threatened with conflict and was sufficient for war, namely:
- Russia strengthened its influence in Kurland, formally vassal Poland
- Russia sought the freedom of Orthodoxy in Catholic Poland
- Russia had an increasing influence on the Baltic coast, which Poland considered a zone of its political interests.
The last question was particularly explosive. The Baltic coast, which was of great importance for Russia, had a long and complicated history connected with the crusades. Since ancient times, the eastern Baltic (Ostsee) was inhabited by various tribes of the Balts and Ugrians. The appearance of the German population in the Baltics dates back to the end of the 12 century. Simultaneously with the movement of the Tatars from the East, from the West began the movement of the peoples of the German race. Swedes, Danes and Germans began to occupy the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. They conquered the Livonian and Finnish tribes that lived on the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and Riga. The Swedes occupied Finland, the Danes Estland, the Germans colonized the mouths of the Neman and Dvina. Colonization was accompanied by the missionary activities of Catholics. The popes called the peoples of the north to a crusade against the pagans of the Baltic states and the Russian schismatics of Eastern Christianity. Bishop Albert, with the blessing of the pope, arrived with troops in Livonia and built the fortress of Riga. In 1202, the Order of the Sword was founded and he became lord of the Baltic states. The chamberlain of the order became the ruler of the region, and the knights owned land plots and the local peasantry. A class of German knights and a peasant class from the Baltic states were created. In the 1225-1230 years between the Neman and the Vistula in the Baltic settled the Teutonic Order. Created during the crusades in Palestine, he possessed great means. Unable to restrain himself in Palestine, he received an offer from the Polish prince Konrad of Mazovia to settle in his domain to protect his lands from the raids of the Prussian tribes. The Teutons began a war with the Prussians and gradually turned their lands (Prussia) into their possessions. In place of the Prussian regions, a German state was formed, which was formerly dependent on the German emperor. After the Livonian War, unsuccessful for Ivan the Terrible, part of the Baltic was forced to surrender to the power of the Polish king, part to the power of the Swedish king. In continuous wars against Poland, Sweden and Russia, the Baltic (Baltic) knightly orders ceased to exist, and there was a struggle between these states for their former possessions. Peter I joined the Swedish territory in the Baltic States and among the nobility of the Baltic nobility began to Russia. After the death of King Sigismund III in 1763, international struggles around the Polish succession to the throne also began. In 1764, Ekaterina undertook a trip to inspect the Ostsee region. The Duke of Courland, 80 summer Biron, being formally a vassal of Poland, showed her a worthy master. Relations between Poland and Russia began to get complicated. The plight of the Orthodox population in Poland also continued to not improve. Moreover, the Sejm responded to every note of the Russian ambassador Repnin by increasing repression. In Poland, a confederation began between Russians and Poles; legal armed protection of their rights. To the aid of the Polish confederates were France, the Pope and Turkey. At the same time, the Haidamak movement led by Maxim Zheleznyak began in Polish Ukraine. The king turned to Moscow for help and the Haidamaks were scattered by the Russian army, and Zheleznyak was captured and exiled to Siberia. In response, the Turks demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Poland, after the refusal another Russian-Turkish war began. 15 January 1769, the Crimean Khan Giray invaded Elizabethan province, but was beaten off by serf artillery. This was the last raid of the Crimean Tatars on Russian soil. On the Bessarabian direction, the Russian army advanced and occupied Iasi, then all of Moldova and Wallachia. On the Don direction, Azov and Taganrog were occupied. The following year, the Turks suffered a crushing defeat at Bender and Cahul. Corps Potemkin took Ishmael. The Mediterranean squadron of Count Orlov burned down the Turkish fleet in Chesme. In 1771, a new Crimean front was formed, which occupied Perekop, then the entire Crimea and brought it out of the war and the Turkish patronage. With the mediation of Austria and Prussia, negotiations began in Focsani, but the Turks refused to recognize the independence of the Crimea and Georgia and the war resumed. The Russian army crossed the Danube and occupied Silistria. Only after the death of Sultan Mustafa was a peace treaty concluded in Kucuk-Kaynardzhi, forced and extremely disadvantageous for Turkey. But even in Russia, there was restlessness, at that time a mutiny began that went down in history as the “Pugachev Rebellion”.
- discontent of the Volga peoples with national oppression and arbitrariness of the royal authorities
- discontent of mining workers with hard, hard labor and poor living conditions
- Cossack discontent with harassment of the authorities and theft of atamans appointed since the time of Peter the Great
- historians do not deny the “Crimean-Turkish trace” in these events, some facts from Pugachev point to this. But Emelyan himself did not recognize the connection with the Turks and Crimeans, even under torture.

Although the discontent was universal, but a mutiny began among Yaik Cossacks. Yaik Cossacks in the internal life enjoyed the same rights as the Don. Lands, waters and all lands were the property of the Army. Fishing was also duty free. But this right was violated and the Army began to impose taxes on catching and selling fish. The Cossacks complained about the chieftains and the foremen, and a commission arrived from St. Petersburg, but it took the side of the foremen. Cossacks raised a riot and killed the foremen and crippled the capital commissars. Punitive measures were taken against the Cossacks, but they fled and disappeared into the steppes. At this time Pugachev appeared among them. He declared himself a miracle who had survived the death of Peter III, and under his name began to publish manifestos with the promise of wide freedoms and material blessings to all disgruntled. There were dozens of such impostors at the time, but Pugachev turned out to be the most successful. In fact, Pugachev was a Don Cossack from Zimoveyskaya stanitsa 1742, born. During military service he participated in the Prussian campaign, was in Poznan and Krakow, rose to the orderly regimental commander. Then he participated in the Polish campaign. In the Turkish campaign participated in the capture of Bender and was promoted to Cornet. In 1771, Pugachev got sick "... and his chest and legs were rotting," returned to Don due to illness and was treated. Since 1772, on suspicion of criminal activity, he has been on the run, visited the Terek Cossacks, in the Crimean-Turkish territory beyond the Kuban Cossacks-Nekrasovtsy, in Poland, lived among Old Believers. He was arrested several times but escaped. After another runaway from Kazan prison in May 1773, he headed to the lands of the Yaik Cossacks and the disgruntled began to gather around him. In September 1773, they launched an offensive on the border villages and outposts, easily taking away the weak border fortifications. Dissatisfied with the crowds joined the rebels, a Russian revolt began, as Pushkin later said, "senseless and merciless." Pugachev moved through the Cossack villages and raised Yaik Cossacks. His assistant Khlopusha raised and excited the factory workers, Bashkirs, Kalmyks and inclined the Kirghiz-Kaysak Khan to an alliance with Pugachev. The rebellion quickly swept the whole Volga region to Kazan and the number of insurgents reached several tens of thousands of people. Most of the Ural Cossacks, workers and peasants turned to the side of the rebels, and the weak rear units of the regular army were defeated. Not many people believed that Pugachev was Peter III, but many followed him, such was the thirst for rebellion. The scope of the uprising accelerated the conclusion of peace with the Turks and regular troops led by General Bibikov were sent from the front for suppression. From the regular army, the rebels began to suffer defeat. But General Bibikov soon in Bugulma was poisoned by a captive Polish confederate. Lieutenant-General A.V. was sent to suppress the uprising. Suvorov, who captivated Pugachev, and then escorted him to Petersburg in a cage. At the beginning of 1775, Pugachev was executed on Bolotnaya Square.

The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
"Execution of Pugachev." Engraving from a picture by A.I. Charlemagne. Mid XIX century

For Don, the Pugachev rebellion had a positive meaning. On the Don, the Council of Elders of 15-20 was ruled by a man and a leader. The circle met only annually on January 1 and held elections for all elders, except for the ataman. The prescription of chieftains introduced by Tsar Peter (most often life-long) strengthened the central authority in the Cossack regions, but at the same time led to the abuse of this authority. Under Anna Ioannovna, the glorious Cossack Danil Efremov was appointed Don Ataman, after some time he was appointed Military Ataman for life. But the government spoiled it, and when it began the uncontrolled domination of power and money. In 1755, for many achievements of the chieftain, he was granted the rank of major general, and in 1759, for his services in the Seven Years War, he was also a secret adviser with being in charge of the Empress, and his son Stepan Efremov was appointed ataman on the Don. Thus, the power on the Don by the highest order of the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna turned into hereditary and uncontrolled. From that time on, the Ataman family passed all moral boundaries into acquisitions, and in retaliation, an avalanche of complaints fell upon them. Even with 1764, according to the complaints of the Cossacks, Catherine demanded from Ataman Efremov a report on income, land and other possessions, his and foremen’s fisheries. The report did not satisfy her, and according to her instructions, the commission on the economic situation in the Don worked. But the commission worked not shaky, not roll. In 1766, a land survey was carried out and illegally occupied yurts were selected. In 1772, the commission finally gave an opinion on the abuse of ataman Stepan Efremov, he was arrested and sent to St. Petersburg. This case, on the eve of the Pugachev rebellion, took a political turn, especially since Ataman Stepan Efremov had personal services to the empress. In the 1762 year, being at the head of the light village (delegation) in St. Petersburg, he took part in the coup that raised Catherine to the throne and was awarded a nominal weapons. The arrest and the investigation into the case of Ataman Efremov defused the situation on the Don and the Don Cossacks turned out to be practically not involved in the Pugachev rebellion. Moreover, the Don regiments took an active part in suppressing the rebellion, capturing Pugachev and reconciling the rebellious regions over the next few years. If the empress had not condemned the thieving chieftain, Pugachev would undoubtedly find support on the Don and the scope of the Pugachev rebellion would be completely different.

According to Kuchuk-Kaynardzhsky world, Russia acquired the Azov coast and decisive influence in the Crimea. The left coast of the Dnieper to the Crimea was called Little Russia, it was divided into 3 provinces, the boundaries of which did not coincide with the former borders of the regiments. The fate of the Dnieper Cossacks was made dependent on the measure of their adaptation to the conditions of peaceful labor. The Zaporozhye Cossacks turned out to be the least suitable for such a lifestyle, because their organization was adapted exclusively for military life. With the termination of the raids and the need to repel them, they had to cease to exist. But there was another good reason. After the uprising of Pugachev, in which some Zaporizhzhya Cossacks took part, there was a fear that the uprising would spread to Zaporizhia and it was decided to eliminate Sich. 5 May 1775, the army of Lieutenant-General Tekeli at night approached Zaporozhye and removed the posts. The suddenness demoralized the Cossacks. Tekeli placed the artillery, read the ultimatum and gave 2 an hour to think. The elders and the clergy convinced the Cossacks to surrender the Sich. In the same year, by a decree of the Empress, the Zaporizhian Sich was destroyed administratively, as expressed in the decree, “as a godless and unnatural community, not suitable for extending the human race.” After the liquidation of the Sich, the former foremen were given a nobility and given a place of service in various parts of the empire. But Catherine did not forgive the previous insults to the three foremen. Kosheva ataman Peter Kalnyshevsky, military judge Pavel Golovaty and clerk Ivan Globa for treason and transitions to the side of Turkey were sent to different monasteries. The lower ranks were allowed to join the hussar and dragoon regiments of the regular army. The discontented part of the Cossacks first went to the Crimean Khanate, and then to the territory of Turkey, where they settled in the Danube Delta. Sultan allowed them to establish the Transdanian Sich (1775 − 1828) under the terms of providing the 5-thousandth army to their army.

The dissolution of such a large military organization as the Zaporizhzhya Sich brought a number of problems. Despite the departure of a part of the Cossacks abroad, about 12-ti thousand Zaporozhets remained in the citizenship of the Russian Empire, many did not withstand the strict discipline of regular army units, however, the empire could serve and wanted to continue. The Cossacks were personally sympathized with Grigory Potemkin, who, being the "chief commander" of the attached Black Sea coast, could not help but use their military force. Therefore, it was decided to restore the Cossacks and in 1787, Alexander Suvorov, who, by order of Empress Catherine II, organized army units in southern Russia, began to form a new army from the Cossacks of the former Sich and their descendants. The great warrior treated all assignments extremely responsibly and also to this. He skillfully and thoroughly filtered contingent and created the "Army of the faithful Zaporozhtsev." This Army, renamed 1790 in the Black Sea Cossack Army, very successfully and adequately participated in the Russian-Turkish war 1787 — 1792. But after the death of Prince Potemkin, having lost his patronage, the Cossacks felt extremely insecure on the allotted lands. At the end of the war, they were asked to Kuban, closer to the war and the border, away from the king's eye. As a token of gratitude for their faithful service in the war, they separated from Catherine II the territory of the right-bank Kuban, which they immediately settled in 1792-93. In the Azov region, the ancient cradle of their Cossack family, they returned, after seven hundred years of their stay on the Dnieper, with a language that became one of the dialects of Cossack speech to our time. The Cossacks, remaining in the Dnieper basin, soon melted among the masses of the multiplying mixed ethnic Ukrainian population. The Black Sea Army (which later became part of the Kuban) took an active part in the Caucasian War and other wars of the empire, but this is a completely different and very glorious history.

Gordeev A.A. History of the Cossacks
Letopisnoe.povestvovanie.o.Malojj.Rossii.i.ejo.narode.i.kazakakh.voobshhe.1847. A. Rigelman
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign

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  1. Ross
    Ross 7 October 2013 10: 57
    Under the rebellion of Pugachev, Catherine’s war with Great Tartaria, the Russian Siberian Empire, is hidden. The Forts line along the border with Muscovy, the Omsk line of modern forts, maps, a lot of indirect evidence, help restore that picture hidden by Ekaterina and Romanovs from their descendants.
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 7 October 2013 12: 10
      Quote: Ross
      Under the rebellion of Pugachev, Catherine’s war with Great Tartaria, the Russian Siberian Empire, is hidden.

      Do not be offended, of course, but "when you speak, the impression is that you are delusional ..."
    2. Horde
      Horde 7 October 2013 19: 56
      Quote: Ross
      Under the rebellion of Pugachev, Catherine’s war with Great Tartaria, the Russian Siberian Empire, is hidden. Line of Forts along the border with Muscovy, Ohm

      Eugene welcome. hi
      The truth is even worse
      -Peter the German son of Friedrich of Brandenburg Hohenzoyulern 3-1 that is how the Elector suddenly became the kingdom of Prussia for no reason and Sophia, father Aleksey1
      Peter's parish was preceded by the LATIN seizure of Russia by Sophia.
      -The ancient Russian princely families were destroyed,
      Patriarch Nikon, the support of the Orthodox faith destroyed
      -in the HUGE CONCENTRATING war of the West and Russia, the so-called Razin Rebellion, the forces of the West were able to defeat Russia, the archers were DESTROYED completely
      - In place of the destroyed ancient Russian clans, foreigners were put, mostly Germans were assigned ancient Russian surnames
      - Slavery was introduced for the Russian people
      -Pugachev rebellion -Big CIVIL war between the fragment of the Horde-MOSCOW KINGDOM TARTAR in western and Romanov German Russia
      THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA IS MONSTERLY distorted, everything is rewritten
      everything is taken
    3. projdoha
      projdoha 9 October 2013 19: 59
      It is strange that Pushkin was deeply imbued with the Russian spirit, ancient epics, legends, did not support Pugachev in his works, and even condemned and didn’t understand him somewhere.
      There is a simple explanation for this - with good intentions the road to hell has been paved ... 1917 and 1991 confirm this. Puppeteers hold the strings tight.
  2. Avenger711
    Avenger711 7 October 2013 14: 31
    Peter I was not a tyrant; his son, like his father, probably also loved. But only when the son begins to openly go against politics, then this is an occasion to think, for those who even steal, like Menshikov, but he does the job, Peter beat the weather and shook the stolen, but did not execute.
    1. BBM
      BBM 7 October 2013 18: 15
      another nonsense, which aims at all costs to justify this freak.
      and the facts will not change from this. Petrukha killed his own son from an unloved wife (illegally imprisoned in a monastery), in fact exchanging his life for tricks with a Chukhonsky problem, which he himself then burned on a hot one when he gave some Mons. and if Katerina and Menshikov had not poisoned this "miracle" he would have executed the "empress" along with her brood. As a result, the Empire would have been left without anything at all - there would have been no Nikokai Ekaterina Petrovna and the "Russian Renaissance"
      Here is such a hero. As the saying goes, when a man thinks of chromium instead of his head, nothing good will come of it.
      And you can talk about his commanderly greatness as much as you like - but the Prut campaign, as it were, proves the opposite.
  3. Ross
    Ross 7 October 2013 14: 46
    Quote: Alekseev
    Quote: Ross
    Under the rebellion of Pugachev, Catherine’s war with Great Tartaria, the Russian Siberian Empire, is hidden.

    Do not be offended, of course, but "when you speak, the impression is that you are delusional ..."

    In fact, not everyone is ready to realize the true story. Already a lot of materials have appeared:
    and a lot of materials.
  4. Walking
    Walking 7 October 2013 17: 03
    For the first part of the article he put a minus. Peter is shown as a psychopath, a fanatic, his comrades-in-arms who have made for the good of the country are called an outbred environment, the country's reforms, the creation of an army, and a fleet are called thoughtless. Alexei wanted to curtail the reforms and return Russia to the pre-Petrine times, and all the sacrifices incurred in Peter's rule would be in vain - but this is practically a betrayal. Little is said about the Puchachev uprising itself.
    1. BBM
      BBM 7 October 2013 18: 16
      Quote: Hiking
      .Peter shown by a psychopath

      it is a real fact
      1. Avenger711
        Avenger711 7 October 2013 20: 52
        Psychopaths have not ruled for 30 years. It is time to know, and conflicts between fathers and children at such a level are often critical for the whole country.
        1. BBM
          BBM 7 October 2013 22: 47
          And Vanya is a cursed tormentor, whom court historians will obsequiously call a torturer, although the people have honored this nickname with his grandfather and not with him at all. And just do premieres in the history of the whole world ...
    2. BBM
      BBM 7 October 2013 18: 24
      Alexei wanted to curtail reform and return Russia to pre-Petrine times.

      and who told you that. Real voices whispered in the ear.
      And what kind of "reforms" could Alexei curtail? that the institution of parliament was created in Russia (just don’t remember the cheap booth called the Senate), that some land or political reform was carried out? In fact, under Peter, everything remained the same as under his father - I am the sovereign, what I want is to turn. And all these so-called "reforms" are so dear to the Russian heart - in truth, ordinary territorial conquests. And what are your reasons that Alexei would refuse the Baltic coast ???
      1. Avenger711
        Avenger711 7 October 2013 20: 53
        You don’t like Peter's conquests, so go to Sweden, although yes, you’ve already thrown Russia, to ask you something.
  5. nikcris
    nikcris 7 October 2013 17: 19
    Yes, uh. Horses-people mixed in a bunch. Everything mixed up in the Balconian house.

    The author made such an inconceivable nonsense that he himself got confused in it. Pugachev’s Cossacks are either Yaitsky or Ural. A bunch of Cossack villages took Pugachev (treacherous), but the capital - Yaitsky town was not mastered, and about this in the article not a word. By the way, the defense was commanded by Captain Krylov - the father of the future famous fabulist.
    In short - 100500 minuses to the graphomaniac. hi
    1. corn
      corn 7 October 2013 20: 34
      Sorry, of course, but Yaik and Ural are the name of the same river, if I'm not mistaken.
      1. rezident
        rezident 7 October 2013 21: 06
        You are not mistaken.
      2. Lexx
        Lexx 8 October 2013 16: 23
        Then they were Yaitsky Cossacks, the Ural Cossacks then did not exist.
  6. rezident
    rezident 7 October 2013 21: 17
    There were enough riots before Pugachev. The peoples there did not want to live under serfdom. That's when the Cossacks rebelled the rest considered it a continuation of the banquet and did not stand aside
  7. Sour
    Sour 7 October 2013 22: 24
    Quote: rezident
    The peoples there did not want to live under serfdom.

    Everything is much more complicated.
    The same Bashkirs were not going to enslave (which of them plowmen?), But they rebelled most often.
    And the Pugachev riot was attended not only by foreigners, but (much more actively) by Russian peasants of the Right-Bank Volga.
    If anything, I myself am from these lands. There are still preserved stories about Pugachev's "field commanders" like Ivan Dmitriev. And about the mass executions of local landowners.
  8. Sour
    Sour 7 October 2013 22: 29
    Regarding the departure of the Cossacks to Turkey.
    It has long been, but the Ukrainian mentality was the same.
    Better to sell to the Muslim Sultan than to serve the Russian crown. That’s how they reasoned.
    "Brotherly people," you say? Or even a "united nation"? Oh well...
    1. Horde
      Horde 7 October 2013 22: 45
      Quote: Sour
      It was a long time ago, but the Ukrainian mentality was the same

      say nonsense UKRAINIANS appeared only in 20 years of the 20th century by Lenin’s order.
      Cossacks always considered themselves RUSSIAN, and to the Sultan Saltan they left the German lawlessness unleashed by Sophia, Peter, and then the rest of the German tsars.
      In Atamania they were always willingly accepted by the JANISTERS, the same Cossacks only Muslims.
      1. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 9 October 2013 23: 27
        Horde: Catch a quote from the Political Dictionary of 1928 p. 187.
        Cossacks -1) the Turkish population of the Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Orenburg and Astrakhan lips. and the Uzbek SSR. In total, there are 3 thousand or 959% of the total population of the USSR in the USSR. To. Are engaged in cattle breeding and partially farming; religion - Muslims - Sunnis. K. should not be confused with other nationalities - the Kyrgyz (or Kyrgyz).
        2) K. - one of the classes in pre-revolutionary Russia. To. Were organized into special Cossack troops (a total of 11 troops: the Don, Kuban, Orenburg, Ural, Tersk, Astrakhan, Siberian, Transbaikal, Semirechensk, Amur and Ussuri). K. enjoyed a number of privileges of a socio-economic nature. This determined K.'s reactionary nature, their support for the tsarist regime, and the participation of the majority of K. in the civil war on the side of the whites.
      2. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 9 October 2013 23: 35
        Add about Janissaries. Janissaries were the children of Christians (not necessarily Russians) living in the Ottoman Empire, who, according to a special "Christian quitrent", were taken from their parents at the age of 7 and transferred to the Ottoman army in the "Janissaries", who were thrown into the most difficult places of battles, so that there were fewer Christian geeks in the Ottoman Empire. Although those who distinguished themselves in battles could receive special privileges.
    2. projdoha
      projdoha 9 October 2013 20: 36
      I wonder what is better with the Muslim Sultan in the wild or in slavery of German Christians?
  9. corn
    corn 7 October 2013 23: 17
    The question is most likely to the author:
    What is the connection between the uprising of Pugachev and the Zaporizhzhya Sich.
    If the article is about the uprising, then little is understood if you do not know the history of Russia.
    If the article about the Zaporizhzhya Sich was not needed, but the community living in the war was no longer needed.
    Maybe the name should be changed to the sunset of the Cossacks in Ukraine.
  10. nikcris
    nikcris 8 October 2013 00: 18
    Quote: rezident
    You are not mistaken.

    You are both mistaken. Yaik and Yaitsky town were renamed after the suppression of the riot in the Urals and Uralsk, respectively. The Cossacks were deprived of privileges, actually liquidated, control was transferred to Astrakhan. The Ural Cossack army was recreated a little later.
  11. nikcris
    nikcris 8 October 2013 00: 31
    Quote: rezident
    There were enough riots before Pugachev. The peoples there did not want to live under serfdom. That's when the Cossacks rebelled the rest considered it a continuation of the banquet and did not stand aside

    There NEVER was serfdom. And the desire to rob was present. Just imagine. There is a battle in Stalingrad, and Vlasov forms an army. Vlasov is a hero? It seems that for most - no. His name is a thousandfold cursed. But here Pugachev rebels in the rear of the country at war with Turkey (and just at that time the Crimea was conquered), but cities and villages with streets were named after him. Nonsense !!! But the Vlasovites, who have never fought against the USSR, are traitors. I never justify the ROA, but I don’t understand why the bandits Razin and Pugachev are still listed as heroes negative
    The Pugachevs were smashed to smithereens by the Great Commander Suvorov. This, if anyone did not know about the "royal satrapop"
    1. shasherin_pavel
      shasherin_pavel 9 October 2013 23: 55
      The uprisings there occurred more from the fact that peace treaties with Russia with neighbors did not allow to rob the neighbors, in violation of treaties at the international level, predatory raids on neighbors continued, for the Cossacks no longer had where to get money from, since it was possible to pay for agriculture with their heads at the Cossack gathering. Those who violated the international peace treaty were awaited by the state punishment, and this was the reason for the uprising. It all started with a desire to rob. We were hammered into our heads that all who fought against capitalism in the country are already heroes. And now they do not want to remember the Bloody Resurrection and the tsar, during whose reign the soldiers in the army stopped going to Easter in 90% of the composition, we call it "a saint - a passion-bearer." The one who led the country by his inaction to the revolution, and who was shot for the same, now we exalt to the icons. If extracts from the "political dictionary of 1928", which I have already sent, are published on this site, then you can see what the revolution gave the people: 8 hour slave. day, vacation with allowance, which by the year 28 was not in the world, pension allowance, which was given only to officials and soldiers disabled by the war. But now we are raising "rebellions" against the communist innovations after the revolution and are rolling back towards capitalism. Perhaps there is a reason to compare and understand why the Cossacks raised the uprisings, whom the tsarist government fed with grain deliveries.
  12. nikcris
    nikcris 8 October 2013 01: 54
    Quote: nikcris
    Quote: rezident
    You are not mistaken.

    You are both mistaken. Yaik and Yaitsky town were renamed after the suppression of the riot in the Urals and Uralsk, respectively. The Cossacks were deprived of privileges, actually liquidated, control was transferred to Astrakhan. The Ural Cossack army was recreated a little later.

    For some reason, the site is not possible to make changes. Therefore I will continue like this.
    The Ural Cossacks received such an inoculation from the "heresy" of the Pugachevshchina that after the return of even the curtailed rights they began to serve simply immensely. It is immeasurable - I will leave it behind, because it is impossible to reflect in words what the Ural Cossacks have already done for the crown.
  13. nikcris
    nikcris 8 October 2013 02: 39
    Quote: nikcris
    Quote: rezident
    There were enough riots before Pugachev. The peoples there did not want to live under serfdom. That's when the Cossacks rebelled the rest considered it a continuation of the banquet and did not stand aside

    There NEVER was serfdom. And the desire to rob was present. Just imagine. There is a battle in Stalingrad, and Vlasov forms an army. Vlasov is a hero? It seems that for most - no. His name is a thousandfold cursed. But here Pugachev rebels in the rear of the country at war with Turkey (and just at that time the Crimea was conquered), but cities and villages with streets were named after him. Nonsense !!! But the Vlasovites, who have never fought against the USSR, are traitors. I never justify the ROA, but I don’t understand why the bandits Razin and Pugachev are still listed as heroes negative
    The Pugachevs were smashed to smithereens by the Great Commander Suvorov. This, if anyone did not know about the "royal satrapop"

    And the Soviet media on this occasion reported, without naming the name of the commander - well, on - buy a textbook yourself and read the nonsense about the brutal suppression of a peaceful uprising and the SIK !!! betrayal of the Pugachev corefans. Further naturally.
  14. nikcris
    nikcris 8 October 2013 03: 09
    And then the same Ural Cossacks from the Emba line with a company of four guns made a rustle in Khiva, after which the maintenance of Orthodox slaves was punishable by death for landlords. And the khan carefully observed this. But the train had already left, and the old grievances did not say goodbye (were not forgotten) - the Cossacks, by common forces not exceeding the division, erased these states from the globe. Russian slaves were freed, and local elites, in return for loyalty, were forgiven.
  15. Tartary
    Tartary 8 October 2013 03: 39
    Yes-ah-ah-ah ..... It is urgent to invent a time machine ... Otherwise, how can Russia continue / live ??