Military Review

Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan

In 1853, the Russian troops under the command of General Perovsky, after passing 900 miles through waterless terrain, stormed the Kokand fortress Ak-Mosque, which covered all the routes to Central Asia. Three hundred Ural and two hundred Orenburg Cossacks participated in the campaign. The fortress was renamed Fort Perovsky and began construction of the Syr-Darya line, which was supposed to cover the territory from the Aral Sea to the Lower Urals from raids. In 1856, construction of fortifications from Fort Perovsky to Fort Verny begins, to cover 900 versts of the steppe and connect the Syr-Darya line and Siberia, to establish a connection between the Siberian, Ural and Orenburg troops, who now had to protect the territory in 3 500 versts. In 1860, the Kokand troops were trying to capture Verny, but the Siberian and Semirechensk Cossacks beat off the attack. In 1864, Russian troops occupy Shymkent and defeat the Kokands. Kokandians collect the rest of their forces and go on a raid on Russian troops in the fortress of Turkestan, but on the way they come across a hundred Ural Cossacks, Esaul Serov. In the three-day battle of Ikan, the Cossacks beat off the attack of the entire Kokand army. From 110, the Cossacks survived 11, were injured - 47, killed - 52.

In 1865, Russian troops along with the Ural Cossacks occupy Tashkent. Established Turkestan region. In 1866, hostilities begin against an emir of Bukhara that pretends to Tashkent. Bukhara raid was repelled. In 1868, the Russian troops of General Kaufman, which include the Ural Cossacks, go to Samarkand, and the emir of Bukhara surrenders, recognizes the protectorate of Russia.

Orenburg Cossacks in the conquest of Turkestan

In 1869, Russian troops from the Transcaucasus land on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea. In 1873, a campaign is organized on Khiva, the largest center of the slave trade in Central Asia. Through a waterless desert, troops approach Khiva from three sides - from Turkestan, from the Orenburg line and from the Caspian coast. Siberian and Semirechensk Cossacks, 5 of hundreds of Urals, 12 of hundreds of Orenburgs, Kizlyaro-Grebensky and Sunzhensko-Vladikavkaz regiments from Terek and even part of the Yeysk regiment of the Kuban army participate in the campaign. During the campaign, nature itself was defeated. Then, by a two-day assault on 28 and 29 May, Khiva is taken. In 1875, the Orenburg, Ural, Siberian and Semirechensk Cossacks help Russian troops capture Kokand.

Turkestan and the Transcaspian Territory, where Russia's power is becoming stronger, are divided by the Turkmen steppe, whose nomadic population continues to make raids. Before the oasis, where the Turkmen stronghold, Geok-Tepe, stood, there was a desert on the 500 versts. In 1877 and 1879 Russian troops twice unsuccessfully tried to occupy this fortress. In 1880, General Skobelev begins his march on Geok-Tepe from the Caspian coast. Along with him are the 1 th Labinsk, 1 th Poltava and 1 th Taman regiments of the Kuban Cossack army. Towards Skobelev from Turkestan moves detachment of General Kuropatkin, which includes the Orenburg and Ural Cossacks. Under Geok-Tepe squads meet. 23 December 1880 begins the siege of the fortress, 12 January 1881, it is taken by storm. For this battle, the 1 th Tamansky regiment of Kuban was awarded the St. George banner. Thus, the whole of Central Asia was annexed to Russia.
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign

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    GOLUBENKO 15 December 2012 11: 29
    This should be given to KazaHam. For their "true historians" prove and teach their youth that Russia "occupied Kazakhstan".
    They forgot who hung them from the south, robbed and traded them in Kokand and Khiva. They "resisted the Russian invaders" so much that they raced in herds for the Gorky and Siberian lines to the protection of the Cossacks from the Dzungars and Turkestan "brothers in faith" who saw in them fleeing livestock from the market.
    1. Kasym
      Kasym 15 December 2012 14: 39
      Sergey, look at the dates. Kazakhstan was already part of the Russian Empire for almost 2 centuries and did not have its own army. By this time, Napoleon was already given ass kicks together - at least 60 Kazakhs took part in World War II. And also on the number of participants in these campaigns (one Kazakh clan, and their 000 + 96, could set no less).
      And let's stop teasing each other, this leads to bad consequences.
      1. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 15 December 2012 14: 46
        Did Napoleon get hit together? 60 thousand Kazakhs? And what is not 600?
        Not even funny ...
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 15 December 2012 18: 29
          Where did the figure of 60 thousand Kazakhs come from, not Kazakhs. namely kazakhov? So that your hands are dry, wise guys - read what is written!
          There were no Kazakhs in that war and could not be, and all that is braided about this in Kazakhstan is the stupid nonsense of local nationalists!
          That's about the Bashkirs - the truth, but about the Kazakhs - blatant lies!
          1. Kasym
            Kasym 16 December 2012 14: 31
            Srych, you are a nationalist. I will never forget your phrase: "I HATE THE KAZAKHS". If you served with me, I would cut off your tongue and put it in one place. I didn’t want to answer such an idiot like you. But you would have typed in the search "the participation of the Kazakhs in the Patriotic War of 1812."
            1. Brother Sarych
              Brother Sarych 16 December 2012 18: 24
              I never wrote something like that - "I hate Kazakhs" ...
              Find this quote - then we'll talk about it ...
              And I wanted to spit on threats, especially on the site - look ridiculous ...
              In general, I NEVER wrote that I hate some people as a whole ...
              I typed in a search - I found only fake links to all sorts of crazy Kazakh nationalists ...
            2. slava.iwasenko
              slava.iwasenko 5 January 2013 19: 07
              You do not know if there were Kazakhs in the Macedonian phalanx and in the Roman legions? If so, in what quantity? belay
          2. Prometey
            Prometey 17 December 2012 10: 45
            Also, for the first time I hear about the participation of Kazakhs in the Napoleonic wars, and even in such a large number. Bashkirs, yes, together with the Ural Cossacks fought in the Napom war, but the Kazakhs did not meet any links. And most importantly - who could serve as Kazakhs in the Russian army (we immediately dismiss cavalrymen - no country in the world could feed such a herd)?
        2. FunkschNNX
          FunkschNNX 15 December 2012 21: 28
          In another 20 years, there will be 600 thousand and a million.
          There is a story that Napoleon predicted death (collapse) from wild people who eat horses.
        3. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 16 December 2012 01: 30
          Brother Sarych

          I don’t know about the Kazakhs, better ask Beck, but the Bashkirs, something like this:

          Description of the surrounding area

          12 June 1812 year, French troops began a war with Russia. In the first Patriotic War, in addition to Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars, Kalmyks, and, of course, Bashkirs participated. No matter how good or bad the Russian state is to its peoples, many peoples have risen to defend their homeland, so the Bashkirs, having traveled almost all of Europe, grazed their horses on Parisian Champs Elysees, played kurai and kubyz.

          When the threat of the French invasion of Russia arose, attempts were made to organize additional regiments from the people. In April 1811, the governor of Orenburg, Grigory Volkonsky, ordered the organization of 2 Bashkir regiment, 2 Cossack Orenburg and 2 Cossack Ural.

          When Napoleon invaded Russia, Emperor Alexander I issued a manifesto addressed to the peoples of Russia. This manifesto called on the peoples to defend their homeland and was read in churches, mosques, rural gatherings. At this time, representatives of the Bashkir people also expressed a desire to go to war with the French. In 1818, the Russian composer Sergey Glinka wrote this: “Not only the ancient sons of Russia, but also the nomadic peoples - and those, along with natural Russians, were ready to die for Russian land. Mordovians, fencers, Meshcheryaks, Cheremis zealously and eagerly went to the service: the Bashkirs themselves called out and asked the government if their regiments were needed. ”

          In 1812, bread was not born in many counties, but despite hunger and poverty, the Bashkirs and Cossacks went to war in their uniforms and with their weapons. There were no deserters at the same time.

          In June-October of the 1812 year, 18 mounted Bashkir regiments were organized, and at the end of 1812 - the beginning of the 1813 year, another 8 regiments were organized. And all was organized by 28 Bashkir horse regiments. Each Bashkir district or panton gave one regiment. At that time, the village of Dautovo belonged to the Yekaterinburg district, and the full address of the village of Dautovo was: Siberian road Yekaterinburg county Iset province, Tersyak volost II military canton. At the beginning of the 1813 year, 20 people left the village of Dautovo to the front as part of the 5 Bashkir cavalry regiment. The whole village of Dautovo gathered these five horsemen, since they had to go to the front in their uniforms, with their weapons, provisions and a spare horse. The people of the village of Dautovo were not rich at that time, and the population was only 75-80 people (male - 20, female - 25, children - 30).
          Bashkirs from the village of Dautovo fell into the 20 Bashkir cavalry regiment at the beginning of the 1813 year.
          The cavalry regiment consisted of 500 soldiers, and the commanding staff consisted of 30 people (two regimental commanders - one Bashkir, another Russian officer, 1 foreman, 5 Yasaul, 5 centurions, 5 Khorunzhiev, one mullah, clerk, ten Pentecostals).

          The Bashkir people sent only 20000 people, more than 4000 horses. And what is interesting, along with their husbands and their wives, went to war with Napoleon, and one Bashkir Absalyam Utyashev arrived with his whole family.

          For all this, the Russian military command sent a letter of thanks to the entire Bashkir people. After that, the Bashkirs, including the village of Dautovo, collected 500000 rubles in banknotes.

          In memory of this, the Bashkirs composed the song Baik:

          Oh, a million Frenchmen
          Their king is Napoleon,
          Already approached the capital,
          On her doorstep he

          Oh oh,
          Oh, what a French hero.
          Oh oh,
          He graduated from our country.

          Grins in the face
          Raised his leg on the porch.
          Azamates, like lions:
          Be an enemy without a head!
          The light in the eyes of the lions shines
          Seen a lot of lions.

          Hey hey hey hey
          Pour sweet honey
          Leo - Batyr approving,
          Slam on the back harder.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 16 December 2012 01: 37
            At the same time, 12 thousand Bashkirs guarded the borders of Russia on the border. The French had more than 2 times 180000 people.

            The main weapon of the Bashkir horsemen was a brush, a sword, arrows - a bow, and only a few had a gun and a gun. Some had chain mail that they wore before the battle.
            After another Bashkir sortie, where our fellow countrymen showed heroism and staunchness, General of the Russian Army Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov summoned the commander of the Bashkir regiment Kakhym and without restraining his feelings told him: “My dear Bashkirs, well done you.” When fellow soldiers, upon the return of Kakhym, the colonel asked what Kutuzov said, he, having difficulty in the Russian speech, conveyed Kutuzov’s words “Loving, lyubizar, maladis, maladis”.

            Since then, our people have the song "Lyubizar":

            Went to war
            Left mother, wife.
            And how they returned from the battle -
            Glory to us all over the country.

            Lovers, Lyubizar,
            Maladis, Maladis.

            The enemy was standing near Moscow
            And he came to Moscow.
            Then we pressed him -
            I ran into a clean field.

            Napoleon decided in vain
            In Russia, erect a throne,
            In vain to Moscow, he declared:
            He was smart, now learned.

            The enemy could not take Russia,
            He got a lesson here:
            Russian and Bashkir pressed -
            They ran without feeling their legs.

            And we were in Moscow,
            And we saw Paris
            And the French invader
            We beat well.

            Cobblestone streets
            The French - great!
            Oh, the Frenchman
            On your own head.

            Napoleonic General Marbo for the well-aimed shooting of the Bashkirs called them "northern cupids." And so the Northern Cupids entrenched to our people. The 1th Bashkir regiment participated in the capture of Berlin, and the 4th Bashkir, 2th Misharsky took the Glogau fortress, 5th 9th and 11th Bashkir regiments besieged and captured Leipzig.

            Now near the city of Leipzig there is a monument to Russian troops, where the numbers of the Bashkir regiments are indicated.

            For this battle, many Bashkirs were awarded orders: foreman of the 9th regiment of Kotlogilde Imemgolov, private of the 14th regiment Nasyr Abdulin, Abdulla Suragolov.

            During the capture of Dresden, Private Yantura fought with his wife. “When the French attacked us,” Yantura recalled, “we quickly mounted our horses and rushed into battle with brushes. My horse was not afraid of anything and we shouted attacked the French. I planted a brush in one Frenchman and while he was pulling out of it, someone hit in the head behind me. When I woke up, I saw that half of my comrades were chopped up, the rest are connected, including myself. My woman was not with me, well, they killed her, I thought. An hour and a half later we were surrounded by Don Cossacks and wrested from the hands of the French. And among the Don Cossacks, my woman is jumping. It turns out that she immediately galloped for help, since the forces were clearly not equal. And for this my Asylbik was awarded a medal. ”

            Bashkirs and Cossacks helped expel the French from Hamburg, Erfurt, Weimar and Frankfurt on the Main.

            In the 1814 year in Germany, the scientist, poet Goethe received a bow and arrow from the Bashkir foreman, which are now stored in the Museum of Berlin.
            Even Walter Scott, the illustrious English writer who visited Paris in those days, paid tribute to the Bashkirs by describing them with bows and arrows. And the Decembrist and poet Pyotr Kudryashov could not restrain his warm feelings for the Bashkirs and wrote:

            "Friends! Be proud:
            the whole world
            Find out how powerful

            stole from a pretty site
      2. Ascetic
        Ascetic 15 December 2012 20: 51
        Kazakh soldiers took an active part in the Patriotic War of 1812 from the first battles at the Neman to the “Battle of the Peoples” near Leipzig and the capture of Paris. They fought mainly as part of the Orenburg cavalry regiments, often joined voluntarily in the militia. For example, the Kazakh woman Tanatarova served in the army six sons. Kazakhs, in addition to the traditional bow with arrows, were given Cossack weapons: sabers, peaks and guns. The steppe horses had their own, unpretentious, accustomed to long crossings. Kazakh warriors took them all the way to Europe to the shores of the Seine. History has preserved many names of Kazakh dzhigits who fought with the French. As part of one of the Bashkir regiments, Kazakhs Baybatyrov and Zhanzhigitov participated in foreign campaigns of the Russian army, they reached Paris and were awarded silver medals in memory of the war. Among the glorified heroes of 1812, the names of cavalry officers Major Temirov, Yesaul Yusupov, centurion Yumashev, and others are known. Another interesting fact is that one of the soldiers named Zhantore went to war with his wife. The young woman in numerous battles proved to be a clever rider and a brave warrior. In the second half of the XIX century. Kazakh generals were represented by four sultans from the Younger Zhuz, three of them were major generals, and one was a cavalry general. Earlier than others, the khan of the Inner Bukeev Horde, the great-grandson of Abulkhair, Dzhangir Bukeev, received the general rank. This was the first European-educated Kazakh, he did a lot for the civilization of the people. He was awarded the highest Russian insignia - the imperial gold medal with diamonds on the St. Andrew ribbon, the Order of St. Anna of the 1st degree with the imperial crown and diamond insignia. His eight sons received a military education.

        Taken from Kazakhstan military site

        How well known at the time of the war of 1812. eight Orenburg equestrians were formed Cossack regiments. How many Kazakhs served there probably must not find such data. There could be at least 60000 people along with the militia and the Bashkir regiments
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 16 December 2012 09: 11
          I laugh when reading SUCH sources - it is quite possible that the Orenburg regiments included a certain number of Kazakhs, but mostly they were not formed from Kazakhs at all - remember at least for what this and other Cossack troops were formed! But they were formed to protect against the steppes - who will recruit them there? No data, because the basis for them is not and was not!
          It is necessary to look for the participation of the Kazakhs in the documents of the Cossack troops, and not on semi-pornographic sites ...
          1. Kasym
            Kasym 16 December 2012 14: 52
            Srech, maybe you need eyewitnesses? Read the words Davydov said about the Kazakhs in that war! Or is he also not an authority? I’ll kill you !!!
            1. FunkschNNX
              FunkschNNX 16 December 2012 19: 20
              Davydov did not mention about 60 thousand. To speak - he spoke, spoke positively, but did not specify the number.
              The Kazakhs are normal guys, but the historians-conjuncturists are co.
              1. Brother Sarych
                Brother Sarych 16 December 2012 19: 53
                Are you serious about this? These are fake sites, friends ...
                1. FunkschNNX
                  FunkschNNX 17 December 2012 22: 49
                  Well, why couldn't the Kazakhs fight in that war? Certainly there have been cases. At the expense of mass, of course it is extremely doubtful, but piecewise - completely.
          2. Ascetic
            Ascetic 16 December 2012 17: 02
            Kazakhs converted to Orthodoxy (baptized) and under new names were recorded in the register of Cossack regiments under new names given at baptism For example Ivan Petrov, There was also a militia and irregular national formations in the form of Bashkir regiments. Moreover, in Russian sources at that time Kazakhs were called by the general word "Kirghiz", although in many paintings by famous artists of that time, under the guise of a Kirghiz warrior, Kazakhs are mainly depicted. You can google and find these sources and pictures.
            1. Brother Sarych
              Brother Sarych 16 December 2012 18: 17
              Bashkirs are not Kazakhs - how much can you repeat!
              I know about the "cupids" without you, but these are not Kazakhs ...
              Nagaybaki are not Kazakhs either ...
              What does the Kazakhs have to do with the pictures? What do they have to do with the war of 1812?
              By the way, when they talk about the conquest of Central Asia, they repeatedly mention the so-called "horsemen" - in many cases these are the Kazakhs, but no one ever confuses them with the Cossacks!
            2. Marek Rozny
              Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 30
              Everything is absolutely true!
              1) Most of the Kazakhs in the Cossack army are known under Orthodox names, although there were occasionally Muslim names (as I understand it, this only concerned generous Kazakhs), and so Zhakyp became Jacob, Zhuban became Ivan, Meyirbek became Mikhail.
              Yes, even my family, when she lived in Russia, used Russian names - my father was called Mikhail, my brother was called Zhenya, my cousin was Tolya. And this even though they did not accept Orthodoxy, but remained Muslims.
              2) Kazakhs were then called Kyrgyz (or Kyrgyz-Kaisak), and the real Kyrgyz were called Kara-Kyrgyz.
              3) There are many paintings depicting Kazakhs in the Russian army during the war with Napoleon. Both brushes of Russian artists, and German, French, Italian.
              1. slava.iwasenko
                slava.iwasenko 5 January 2013 19: 20
                But I didn’t know that half of the Russians turned out to be baptized Kazakhs, and the second half should be put by the Chinese? recourse
              2. Nurius
                Nurius 14 January 2013 01: 40
                This link says that there were about 11 thousand of them

                “In total, the Muslim peoples gave the Russian army about 25 thousand soldiers during the Patriotic War,” Nikolai Silvestrovich continues his story. - According to my calculations, 10-11 thousand Kazakhs participated in it.

        2. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 16 December 2012 18: 43
          Ascetic "As far as is known at the time of the war of 1812, eight Orenburg cavalry Cossack regiments were formed" It seems to me that this is a small mistake. 1. Kazakhs could not be part of the regiments of the Orenburg Cossack army, so they were not Cossacks. There could be single, naturalized comrades, so to speak. 60 thousand is a lot even for the entire light cavalry of Russia. In the book "Cavalry in War" V. Taratorin gives the following data. "The Don Army put up 90 regiments, mostly 5-hundred. The Ural army at the beginning of the year 4 regiments, later, apparently, their number increased to 10; Orenburg regiments - 3 regiments; Bashkirs and Meshcheryaks-22; Stavropoltsy-1." The author refers to the data of V.V. Zvyagintsev Russian army 1812-1825 - Paris 1973, part 4, p. 362.
          2. Stavropolites are most likely Kalmyks of the Stavropol army not to be confused with the Caucasus. This is Stavropol in Samara.
          3. Only Cossacks could be in Cossack regiments. For example Nagaybaki. They are not Russian, but, Cossacks! On the Orenburg regiments. The Ataman 1000th squad participated directly in the war. Besieged Danzig. The 3rd Orenburg Cossack Regiment reached Paris. 500 hundredth composition. In it there were about 78 people - Nagaybaks. The rest are Russian.
          The rest of the Orenburg regiments were part of the armies in Ukraine, since before that they fought against the Turks. And they left the army in 1810-11. From non-Russian ethnic groups formed national regiments. I don’t know about the Kazakh national units and have never found anything about them in the archives. By the way, after the war, Cossacks with French surnames appeared in the OKW - no more than 5 people seem to be.
          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 01
            Based on the publication by P. L. Yudin, “Tsesarevich Alexander Nikolaevich in the Orenburg Territory in 1837”, placed in the 10th book of the “Historical Bulletin” for 1891, the Orenburg historian P.E. Matvievsky wrote in the 1950s:
            “We find more accurate, albeit very scarce data in the materials about the stay of the Grand Duke Alexander Nikolaevich, accompanied by the writer V. A. Zhukovsky, in 1837 in Orenburg. On this occasion, a walk was arranged outside Orenburg, outside the Maine Courtyard. The Grand Duke was met here by two Kazakhs, dressed in rich national costumes. They introduced themselves to the prince in pure Russian, one as an orderly, the other as a messenger. The first turned out to be a Cossack officer and had a medal for taking Paris, which he received as a volunteer in one of the Orenburg Cossack regiments that participated in the Patriotic War and the liberation campaign of 1813-1814. The name of this Kazakh who remains unknown until now is first known from a letter to the writer V.I. Dahl in Orenburg, Lieutenant Ivan Vitkevich (adjutant to the ruler of the region V.A. Perovsky), seconded by the government with diplomatic missions to Central Asia through Persia. On August 31, 1837, in the Persian Shah’s summer palace, seven miles from Tehran, Vitkevich read the Russian newspaper Invalid, delivered by the Tauris Courier, on July 17–19, which describes the walk of the Grand Duke in Orenburg. “Then you rejoiced,” writes Vitkevich Dalu, “they had a feast, Vladimir Ivanovich, and he takes me in frustration that he couldn’t see how his fellow Kyrgyz citizens (Kazakhs) seemed to him, especially the prominent ones, from whom I found out from the description in Invalides one - with a medal - this is Narynbay - and I see his wise appearance in front of me. ”
            Matvievsky points out that Narynbay received a medal for the capture of Paris, serving as a volunteer in one of the Orenburg Cossack regiments.
            1. Marek Rozny
              Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 03
              Referring to the materials of the Orenburg State Archive and the Museum of Local Lore, as well as to the work of M. L. Yudin “Orenburgers and Steppes in the Patriotic War of 1812”, Sharapat Kaniev writes:
              “... sixteen dzhigits from the Kipchak clan of the Middle Horde turned to the chieftains of the Orenburg Cossack army with a request to send them to the war with the French. The forty-three-year-old Kazakh woman Tanatarova (she was called Tatyana at baptism) already had six sons in the Cossack troops. He joined the service and went to war also Bektemir Kulkin from the Tabyn clan. "
              1. Marek Rozny
                Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 09
                For heroism in the battle of Borodino Maylybayuly was awarded a silver medal, and foreman Karynbay Zindagululy - a medal on a blue ribbon Under the villages of Malaevo Swamp and Levia Kazakh soldiers distinguished themselves Murat Kulshoranuli и Ruffs of Azamatula, they were awarded the rank of cornet. For heroism near Vyazma Yesaul Sagit Hamitula was awarded the Order of St. Anne. Fought in the Bashkir Regiment Narynbay Zhanzhigituly became the full cavalry of St. George. As part of the Bashkir regiment, the warrior poet fought Amen Baybatyrula. Zhanzhigit-ouly and Baybatyr-ouly, who participated in the assault on the cities of Leipzig and Glogau, then joined the Russian military units sent by General Bennigsen to defeat the French troops that retreated to the city of Erfurt. The soldiers of this regiment were one of the first to enter the French capital on March 18, 1814.
                Amen Baybatyrula in his poems sang the heroism of Kazakh zhigits and Russian soldiers, participated in 1853 in the campaign of the Orenburg governor V.A. Perovsky against the Kokand people, in the capture of the Ak-Mosque and the liquidation of the power of Kokand over the Syr Darya Kazakhs.
                Among the participants of the Patriotic War of 1812 was a baptized Kazakh Jacob Belyakov (Zhakyp), a participant in the Russian-Turkish war, received an award from the hands of M. Kutuzov. The third Orenburg Cossack regiment under the command of Belyakov was at the forefront of the Bennigsen troops, later acted as part of the Seslavin partisan corps, participated in battles near Leipzig, Weimar, Ganau, Meziere, La Rotier. In a petition to the governor, Yakov Belyakov noted that he was Kazakh by nationality, joined the Russian army of his own free will and for many years served him honestly. In connection with the state of health, he asked to be released from service and returned to his native village.
                Kazybay (Nikolay) Chernysh born in 1770. His parents died, and Kazybay brought up the Cossacks. He entered the service as a Cossack, a year later in 1788 he received the rank of Yesaul. He fought with the highlanders in the Caucasus, participated in the war with the Turks in 1807-1811. In 1812 he commanded four Cossack regiments. He distinguished himself in the Battle of Tarutino, for which he was awarded the Order of St. Anna of the I degree. For the successful pursuit of the Napoleonic units retreating from Russia, he received the Order of St. George. In 1814 he fought in France at Saint-Dizier, Briein, La Rotier. He died under the walls of Paris.
                Akim Bulatov - also a pupil of the Cossacks. Born in 1773. He was recruited in 1792. In 1794 he was a participant in the assault on Prague. In 1807, he fought with the French near Heilsberg, for which he was awarded the Order of St. George. In 1812, as the head of the brigade of the Third Cavalry Corps, he participated in many rear-guard battles (battles undertaken in order to delay the advancing enemy and thereby ensure retreat to the main forces).
                Then he fought in the detachment of Adjutant General Golenishchev-Kutuzov at Velizh, Vitebsk, Zvenigorod, during the liberation of Moscow. He died during the pursuit of the enemy to the Russian borders.
                In the battles of Ramonovo warriors heroically fought Boranbai Shuashabay Uly and esaul Yksan Aubakir-uly. For heroism in the battle of Vyazma, Esaul of the first Teppyar regiment Sagit Hamit-uly He was awarded the Order of St. Anne III degree.
                Such a historical fact is known - in Weimar, Kazakh volunteers of the Russian army met with the German writer and thinker I.V. Goethe gave him a bow with arrows and a saz syrnai (Kazakh musical instrument).
                1. Marek Rozny
                  Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 15
                  The Ural Cossacks were also heterogeneous in ethnic composition. During the Pugachev uprising, one of the rebel Cossack detachments included Kazakhs - residents of the Kyrgyz volost of the Ufa district, among whom was known Yesaul Abdurrazak Alimov son. The document of that era says that 10 Kyrgyz Cossacks (qırğız-qazaq - author) became warriors of the “gracious Sovereign”, i.e. E.I. Pugacheva. C. Valikhanov noted that “In some Cossack villages, almost half of the population consists of baptized Kyrgyz, for example, in Yamyshevskaya, Chistaya and some others”.
                  In the 60s gt. published monograph P.E. Matvievsky "Orenburg Territory in the Patriotic War of 1812: Historical Essays." Lighting the history of the Orenburg Territory in the XNUMXth century, P.E. Matvievsky paid great attention to the study of the history of the Orenburg army. Information of particular interest on admission to the Orenburg Cossacks of Kazakhs (Kyrgyz-Kaysakov), also about joining the ranks of the local Cossacks of former French prisoners of war who were in a settlement in the Orenburg province.
                  The Orenburg noble assembly in the 19th century included: Major General Baimukhamedov Mukhamedzhan, Sultan and Major General Baimukhamet Aiguvanov, staff captain Aitov, court counselor (very high civilian rank) Biktashev, college counselor Bikchurin, podsoltunyukoltunkyulnikovich Solunkovniki Solunkovniki Solunkovniki Solunkovnikov Muhammad Gali and many others.
                  In the second half of the XIX century. there is also a tendency towards an increase in the number of Orenburg Cossacks. For 47 years, that is, from 1850 to 1897, it has increased by more than 200 thousand people (more than 2 times). During this period of time, there is an active process of enlisting representatives of local peoples in the ranks of Cossacks, in connection with the Highest Directive of August 14, 1848, which said about the permission of "enrolling in the army of Bashkirs, Kyrgyz-Kaisaks and other Asians."

                  And more interesting information:
                  According to the information of the Orenburg border commission, in 1790-1815, 1226 local residents left their nomad camps, were registered as Bashkirs and were equal with them in rights. You can also remember that the Bashkirs include the Kazakh clan Argyn. And although formally they are considered Bashkirs, they nevertheless clearly know that two centuries ago their ancestors came from the Kazakhs, and they retained their family name. So it is not surprising that the Kazakh volunteers were enrolled in the "Bashkir" regiments. If they were already en masse in the Cossacks, then even more so to the related Bashkirs.
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 18 December 2012 16: 14
                    Marek Rozny Ch. Valikhanov noted that “in some Cossack villages, almost half of the population consists of baptized Kirghiz, for example, in Yamyshevskaya, Chistaya and some others”
                    1. -About the half of the pages is very doubtful. Some part could be. The Ural Cossacks, unlike the Orenburg Cossacks, were largely Old Believers and reluctantly allowed strangers to themselves. And still where Chokan Valikhanov noted it, where you can read, otherwise I do not trust the words.
                    Marek Rozny "Aitov staff captain".
                    2. This is a Nagaybuck. One of the Aitovs was returned by the Kokandans after the unsuccessful campaign of Perovsky from captivity. Maybe we are talking about him.
                    3. The names you listed are not all Kazakh. 10% of the Orenburg Cossack army were Muslim Tatars. 9% Nagaybaki, there were many Kalmyks of 700 families and Mordovians. The most multinational army. Kazakhs al bo Russified, or there were few of them.
                    Marek Rozny "In the second half of the 47th century, there is also a tendency of growth in the number of the Orenburg Cossacks. For 1850 years, that is, from 1897 to 200, it increased by more than 2 thousand people (more than XNUMX times)."
                    4. The number was increased mainly due to retired soldiers (white arable), Russian peasants, Kalmyks. Kazakhs and Bashkirs if there was a meager amount. Read a lot about this.
                    Marek Rozny "According to the information of the Orenburg Border Commission, in 1790-1815, 1226 local residents left their nomad camps, were registered as Bashkirs and equalized with them in rights."
                    - I do not argue with that.
                    1. Marek Rozny
                      Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 12: 45
                      1) Chokan Valikhanov "Selected Works", Alma-Ata, 1958; "On Islam in the Steppe", p. 190. There is the information you are looking for. Moreover, Chokan Valikhanov is difficult to accuse of hyperbolization, he is just like a regular intelligence officer of the General Staff, usually writes based on the accuracy of information. Therefore, his ethnographic and geographical works were highly appreciated not only in RI, but also in Western Europe.
                      2) I can't say anything about Aitov. Aitov may indeed turn out to be both Kazakh and Tatar, and TuA about other surnames - the Kazakhs were often recorded under the "Tatar" version of the name, or rather under the Dzhagatai (Zhusip turned into Yusup, Zhusip-uly into Yusupov; I think you know that Kazakh the dialect differs in Dje-Kanye, unlike other Türkic dialects, including the literary common Türkic Chagatai language, where there was ye-kanye; dzhigit - yigit). In addition, I was always confused by the Kazakh jacking names and surnames of persons recorded as "Tatars". This is strange, at least, and can only be explained by the fact that many Kazakhs were indiscriminately recorded as "Tatars".
                      By the way, I have data on social. and the ethnic origin of the Cossacks of the Siberian army (1813). Among the 6000 Siberian Cossacks, the overwhelming majority, of course, are Slavs, but it is interesting that they have more Kyrgyz (in the sense of Kazakhs) than other Turks: 98 Kazakhs, 18 Bashkirs, 1 Tatar, 1 Teptyar. At the same time, the author of the work suggests that 4 more people from the column "dismissed from slavery" are Kazakhs, and it is also said that Russified foreigners are also included in the number of "Russian Cossacks". We can only guess about their number. Nevertheless, even this information already gives us an idea that, firstly, the Kazakhs during the war with Napoleon really were in the Cossack troops , secondly, the cases of Kazakhs in the Russian armed forces were not isolated, but quite massive. Someone mentioned the figure of 60 thousand people - this, of course, is an unsubstantiated and very inflated figure, but in some sources I had to see figures of 5000 people (although I cannot naturally vouch for this figure).
                      Zh.Artykbaev in his "History of Kazakhstan in the 19th century" (1992) wrote that 3% of the Ural Cossacks were Kazakhs.
                      3) Another interesting detail. According to the Kyrgyz mission of the Russian Orthodox Church, operating in Kazakhstan, from 1882 to 1917, at least half a million Kazakhs were converted to Orthodoxy (Y. Lysenko, "Orthodoxy and Islam: Ethno-confessional communication practices on the example of Russians and Kazakhs of the Upper Irtysh region"). Let me remind you that all baptized Kazakhs were usually immediately ranked among the Cossacks and, less often, were recorded as bourgeois. So even such indirect information gives some idea of ​​the considerable replenishment of the Cossack troops by Kazakhs.
                      1. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 19 December 2012 14: 46
                        Marek Rozny "Someone mentioned the figure of 60 thousand people - this, of course, is an unsubstantiated and very inflated figure, but in some sources I had to see figures of 5000 people (although I cannot naturally vouch for this figure"
                        I, too, for justice. I wrote to you that I did not meet purely national Kazakh formations. On the other hand, the Kazakhs were in the war of 1812. The question is where? Here it is necessary to find an answer to it a little. I think if there were 5 thousand of them, then they would probably be combined into one unit. And so the topic is good to establish the number of Kazakhs. As for the Central Asian campaigns, the picture is generally similar. Everyone knows that there were some details. And if so, then sketchy. I’ve looked at the lists of awards, etc., at the RGVIA, but I didn’t see the record saying that there was a fighter of the 5th Kyrgyz-Kaisatsky hundred. Do you understand? That is, I did not meet any traces of the national Kazakh formations. Let's just say it didn’t come across to me.
                      2. Marek Rozny
                        Marek Rozny 20 December 2012 17: 47
                        There was not a single purely Kazakh unit during the war with Napoleon. In general, by the way, Russian merchants were forbidden to sell to Kazakhs (who were already Russian citizens) all kinds of goods that could be used for military purposes. Even kitchen knives were forbidden to be sold to "Kyrgyz". This suggests that the tsarist government was suspicious of the Kazakhs, and remembering that during the tsarist period about 300 small and large uprisings against the tyranny of the local administration were recorded in the Kazakh steppe, the tsar's fears were quite reasonable. The very first national Kazakh military formation was created in 1918
                        / 5-1-0-321 Moreover, in Saratov. And moreover, it was strictly forbidden to create other Kazakh national units outside the framework of the created Kyrgyz Military Commissariat. The Bolsheviks also did not want to arm the Kazakhs, so most of the Kazakh establishment (being supporters of an alliance with Russia) wanted wide autonomous rights for the Kazakh steppe. The Bolsheviks did not like this idea, as well as the whites.
                        And until the start of World War II, there was only one Kazakh cavalry regiment, and in the 30s it was transferred to neighboring Uzbekistan to be included in the 6th Uzbek cavalry division.
                        The Soviet government was well aware that the armed detachments of the Kazakhs could create a strong upheaval in the region after the excesses of collectivization, and therefore there were no national parts in Kazakhstan. Only the Second World War forced to create national divisions in the KZ for the speediest dispatch to the Western Front.
                        So it’s pointless to look for national parts from the Kazakhs, they were not in nature. Kazakhs were sent to serve in other parts, where most of the fighters were more trustworthy from the point of view of the tsarist government.
                2. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak 18 December 2012 15: 58
                  Marek Rozny "In his petition to the governor, Yakov Belyakov noted that he is Kazakh by nationality, he joined the Russian army of his own free will and served him honestly for many years. Due to his health condition, he asked to be released from service and return to his native village."
                  - Where did you get this, if not a secret? A link to the duckment !!! For your information, the 3rd OKP returned home in 1818. Yakov Belyakov died on a campaign in 1816 and could not ask any governor for leave. Is that in writing. Yudin writes "A very touching song was composed by the Cossacks about the commander of the 3rd regiment, Major Belyakov, who died in 1816 and who, apparently, enjoyed special love of the Cossacks." - Orenburgers in the wars of 1812-1814. Typolithography of the Turkestan Military District. Tashkent. 1912. p. 41. And yet the 3rd OKP was formed in the fall of 1812 and did not participate in the pursuit of the enemy on the territory of Russia. He fought only in the overseas campaign of the Russian army in 1813-1814.
                  1. Marek Rozny
                    Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 12: 52
                    In 1830, Yakov Belyakov petitioned the ruler of the Orenburg Territory P.K. Essen. Of course, in writing. Information on this letter is in all materials relating to Belyakov. I can’t say where the original is stored (if it still managed to survive), but I think in the archives of Orenburg most likely.
                    1. Nagaibak
                      Nagaibak 19 December 2012 14: 25
                      Marek !!! Pancake ! I’ll swear now! Be careful!
                      Marek Rozny "In 1830, Yakov Belyakov submitted a petition to the ruler of the Orenburg region, PK Essen."
                      I wrote to you that he died in 1816 and the Cossacks cried and invented a song about him. In 1816 he died.
                      1. Marek Rozny
                        Marek Rozny 20 December 2012 17: 49
                        Comrade Belyakov seems to me more and more interesting :))) I will slowly dig on the topic :) And is there still any info about it?
                      2. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 21 December 2012 07: 23
                        Marek Rozny "I will slowly dig on the topic :) Is there any other infa about him?" Honestly, no, except that he replaced the regiment commander, Serebryakov, who formed the regiment and armed it with his own savings. That is, there is a mention of him, that before the command he was listed in the Nagaybak fortress. During the war he became a regiment commander and died on the march.
              2. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 18 December 2012 15: 45
                Marek Rozny "Referring to the materials of the Orenburg State Archives and the Museum of Local Lore, as well as to the work of M. L. Yudin" Orenburgers and steppe inhabitants in the Patriotic War of 1812 ", Sharapat Kaniev writes"
                -And you can refer to the materials of the Orenburg state. archive? I will not mention the museum. So dear Marek, in the SAOO-State Archive of the Orenburg Region, there are materials on the war of 1812. For example, "Notes of Colonel Avdeev on the history of the Orenburg Cossack army - here is my reference - GAOO, Fund 96, Inventory -1, Case No. 133. Everything else, more or less significant, is in Moscow in the RSVIA. As far as I know, the work of M.L. Yudin is called Orenburg residents in the wars of 1812-1814 Your researcher Kaniev added the word steppe people out of daring. If those Kazakhs he writes about returned home after the war, then they probably fought in the Bashkir regiments. In the Cossack regiments there could only be, so to speak, naturalized children ...
                1. Marek Rozny
                  Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 13: 35
                  Yes, I agree, with the name of the Yudinskaya work, Kaniev got excited.
                  but nevertheless, evidence of the participation of Kazakhs in the Russian army is above the roof. For example, the work of Vladimir Kuznetsov "Irregular troops of the Orenburg region (XVIII-XIX centuries)":
                  “In the middle of the century, relations between Russia and Kokand worsened, the inhabitants of which, like the Khivans, began to attack trade caravans. In order to put an end to this, it was decided to seize the Ak-Mechet fortress. The expedition was led by Governor-General VA Perovsky. The squad included: an infantry battalion, nearly 10 hundred Ural and Orenburg Cossacks, 5 hundred Bashkirs and Kazakhs each". This is not a war with Napoleon, but nevertheless brings us back to the original theme" Russia in the Turkestan War. "
                  I don’t even argue much with you, whose posts I’m always interested to read and no less interesting to discuss, how much more they are aimed at other members of the forum, who, with little knowledge of the general subject of the conversation, still manage to speak insultingly to neighbors and allies.
                  The Kazakhs are proud to participate in the conquest of Central Asia as well as the Russians. A year ago, in the Almaty region, the Kazakhs restored a pre-revolutionary monument dedicated to the Battle of Uzunagach, in which, among other Kazakhs, Russia, for example, participated in the father of the famous Soviet-Kazakh akyn of Dzhambul - Dzhabay. Well, and the son of Dzhambul, by the way, died in the battles for Ukraine with the Nazis.
                  As soon as the Kazakhs again entered the Empire, they began to fight for it with all firmness and sincerity. And this applies to all Turkic-steppe and Mongol-steppe peoples.
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 19 December 2012 15: 08
                    Marek Rozny "For example, the work of Vladimir Kuznetsov" Irregular troops of the Orenburg region (XVIII-XIX centuries) "
                    1.- The book is super-I know, I read.
                    Marek Rozny "I don't even argue with you so much, whose posts I am always interested in reading and no less interesting to discuss, how many are more aimed at other members of the forum, who, with little knowledge of the subject of the conversation in general, manage to even offensively speak out to neighbors and allies."
                    2. You sometimes react violently. This is not bad since it shows that you are not indifferent. But ... I will advise you, do not spoil your nerves. Prove do not prove. They do not need it. All laugh. By the way, I'm ethnic Russian. Nick Nagaybak took as a sign of respect for this small people. But like any normal Russian person, I have in my relatives not a hypothetical Horde, but my Kazakh grandfather. By mom. They called him the kingdom of heaven. Rod Ormantay. Seem like Jagalbayles, like Junior Zhuz. I wanted to ask you exactly Ormantai is included in the Jagalbayl?
                    1. Marek Rozny
                      Marek Rozny 20 December 2012 17: 59
                      Thanks for the wish :) I already promised the admins to restrain myself, it will be more correct, of course.
                      Regarding the subgenus Ormantai: Yes, this is the genus Jagalbayly (part of the Zhetyru the Younger Zhuz association). Zhagalbayly live in the West Kazakhstan regions (Atyrau, Aktyubinsk) and also in the Orenburg region. In addition, some subgenus live in the south of Kazakhstan - in the Kyzylorda region.
                      By the way, during the Second World War, the 196th Gatchina Red Banner Rifle Division was formed mainly from zhagalbaylintsy. I once cited it on the site as an example on the site, as an example of courage.
                      jut_mify_o_kazakhakh_v_krasnoj_armii / 6-1-0-320
                      Here it is written how your relatives fought on the part of grandfather.
                      1. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 21 December 2012 07: 18
                        Marek Rozny "It is written here how your relatives fought from your grandfather's side."
                        THANKS HUGE for the answer !!! I will restore the pedigree. The grandfather of the orphanage was, it seems, as they say. According to family legend, it seems like from bais. He lived in the eastern part of the Orenburg region. Although I relate to family legends with distrust. Let's say 50 -50. From personal experience. He did not know about the zhagalbaylintsev in the 196 division. I will get acquainted with interest. My grandfather did not fight. He had a reservation. He worked on the railway, they did not let go. Then on the Internet I found a tamga ax from the Ormantai. This is to my liking. Thanks for the help again. I will be glad to meet on the expanses of Military Review! Yes, despite the fact that in my blood 25% of Kazakh blood is glad that I have a relationship with the Younger Zhuz! After all, as they say:
                        Ulujuzdi kauga beryp malga koy,
                        Horta-juzdah kalam beryp daug koy,
                        Kshi juzda nyza beryp jauga koi, i.e.
                        Give the elder horde a stick in your hands and leave the cattle to graze;
                        Let the middle horde sue (or decide cases),
                        Give the younger horde a peak and set against the enemy. That is, the older horde has a large number of cattle, the middle one has good biys, the younger horde has a more belligerent character. Sincerely.
            2. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 18 December 2012 15: 34
              Marek Rozny "Matvievsky indicates that Narynbay received a medal for the capture of Paris, serving as a volunteer in one of the Orenburg Cossack regiments"
              - I have no doubt about the participation of Kazakhs in the war with Napoleon. The Cossack regiments could include naturalized Kazakhs. It is easy. But their number was small.
        3. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 16 December 2012 19: 50
          My comment was deleted for the fact that I spoke unflatteringly about the content of a certain place above the named "Kazakhstan military site" ...
          I can only repeat once again that apart from the blatant lies about the participation of the Kazakhs in the war of 1812, there is nothing there - this is precisely this war, everything else deserves a separate discussion ...
        4. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 12: 40
          St. Petersburg, 1894, "Attack of the Kirghiz on the French camp". From a painting by Professor Villevalde. Gr. A. Kurshinsky.

          "The attack of the Kirghiz on the French camp. Professor Villevalde painted a whole series of paintings of the era of the Patriotic War. The picture we are placing in a copy in this issue of our magazine represents one of those scenes with which wars are always so rich. This is the attack of our Kyrgyz on the enemy camp, full of savagery and terrible confusion. As usual, the picture of the honorary professor is distinguished by the thoroughness of writing and knowledge of the era. "
          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 12: 49
            Bashkir and Kyrgyz (Kazakh) in the Russian army during the time of Napoleon
            1. Marek Rozny
              Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 12: 50
              Kyrgyz (Kazakh) in the Russian army. The era of Napoleonic troops.
              Information about the artist and this series of paintings:
              "Um 1815 veröffentlichte der 1801 von Giovanni (" Johann ") Cappi in Wien gegründete Musikverlag eine Uniformserie, die ausschließlich der Russischen Armee gewidmet ist. Auf der Tafel 9 der vorliegen in deropie, die Signatur "C. Beyer "für Zeichnung und Gravur. Colas gibt die Serie mit nur 18 Tafeln an, das Darmstädter Original umfasst jedoch insgesamt 23 Tafeln".

              And I want to note that this European artist so accurately depicted everything that even on the croup of a horse he painted a sign that he hardly understood what it means, but when looking at the picture it becomes clear to the Kazakh even from which region this rider is. The horse’s croup depicts tamga adaev (a West Kazakh clan living on the Caspian coast).
              1. Marek Rozny
                Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 12: 53
                The author wrote "Kalmyk", but was clearly mistaken. The painting shows 100% Kazakhs.
                And here is what Kalmyks looked like in the Russian army - The difference is obvious.
                1. Marek Rozny
                  Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 12: 55
                  The picture reads "Horse Kirghiz" (in the Russian army). This picture, like the previous ones, was all painted during the era of the war with Napoleon by Russian and European artists. And these are not the only art materials I have on the participation of Kazakhs in the war of 1812.
                  It is a pity that here for some reason pictures on my site have attached a small size. Some of them are literally crammed with interesting details. By the way, almost all the Kazakhs of that era were painted with firearms, but Kalmyks and Bashkirs rarely had karamultuki.
                2. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak 18 December 2012 16: 33
                  [Marek RoznyAnd this is what the Kalmyks looked like in the Russian army "
                  - Marek it is obvious to you. The people of the average are the same. The same malachi on their heads, bathrobes, bows and arrows.
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 18 December 2012 20: 09
                    [Marek Rozny "
                    -If seriously, we can say one thing in the war of 1812, the 60000th detachment was not. There were no national Kazakh formations either. Separate batyrs volunteers could well be. But with the then accounting, finding them will not be easy. Go guys to Moscow and you can find something more in the archives than we know now. There is nothing special to do in Orenburg. It’s better not to go to museums, she’ll tell you such a thing! -Joke! I will be happy for you!
                  2. Marek Rozny
                    Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 13: 39
                    - But I do not like Kirkorov ... He is a kind of sweet one. In a word, Romanian!
                    - He’s actually a Bulgarian ...
                    - What's the difference!

                    1. Nagaibak
                      Nagaibak 19 December 2012 14: 10
                      Marek Rozny "- Who cares!"
                      With rare exceptions, somewhere like that.
              2. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 19 December 2012 08: 19
                Marek Rozny "On the rump of a horse is depicted the tamga of Adaev (a Western Kazakh clan living on the Caspian coast)."
                - Adaev, as I know, there were several types of them. One of them is just turned in the opposite direction. Although it may not have played a role, where is it turned there? Name Air tamga Sadak, approx. Uranus at Adaev-Becket
                1. Marek Rozny
                  Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 13: 56
                  This is Sadak. Where in the picture the spear covers part of the tamga, there should still be a very small dash. Perhaps the European artist simply did not see her. Or deliberately "covered" with a spear, because I did not understand whether it was necessary to draw this dash or it was just a horse's skin that was spoiled :))) The "spear" crosses the tamga right in the middle :))) In general, the tamga is drawn with the correct location.
                  But another tamga of the Adays - "ok" is now more often depicted in a different way - upside down. Probably, just a purely visual arrow, directed upwards looks prettier :) Previously, it was drawn with a sharp point downward. And now, that on souvenirs, that on avatars - the arrow is aimed up. I do not know why they began to portray that. On the other hand, it makes me happy - tamgas have not remained in the past and have not been frozen forever, but they still exist today, are known among modern Kazakhs and even change! So it's too early to take the nation to the museum :))) We'll also sparkle with tamgas on the figurative paintings of all John Painters in the 21st century - "Kazakh tankers from the Eurasian army rush into Washington" :)))) Just kidding :)
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 19 December 2012 14: 18
                    Marek Rozny "They used to draw her with the point down."
                    I have an image where the tip is down. Then S, but turned around suddenly and with it like a comma, maybe it is a wand. Then this = tamga. And it’s kind of like ^ just smooth. The sign is less, more is only up. And it's kind of like tamga adaev, is it like that or not?
                    1. Marek Rozny
                      Marek Rozny 19 December 2012 14: 41
                      S flipped the other way - the same thing.
                      triangle - tamga subgenus Karasakal (genus bayuli) - by the way, are also Western Kazakhstan people.
                      sign = for Naimans (eastern KZ), among western Kazakhs this sign (but vertical) is for several genera - the subgenus Kyzylkurt (genus Bajula), the Kipchaks (Zap.Kz + Northern KZ), the subgenus Tama (genus Zhetyru) and Kereits ( genus zhetyru, they have a tamga with an additional line).
                      Variations of tamgas arose to distinguish in one subgenus the cattle of their family from the neighbor's. Those. deliberately changed the common sign for some small hoarfishes.
      3. slava.iwasenko
        slava.iwasenko 5 January 2013 19: 00
        You probably recorded all Tatars, Bashkirs and Kalmyks as Kazakhs, but in those days there was no such thing as "Kazakh", there were separate scattered nomadic tribes called Kyrgyz-Kaisaks.
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 14: 22
      1) Kazakhstani textbooks do not write about "occupation". Everywhere it is emphasized that the Kazakhs voluntarily entered the growing Empire. Moreover, on certain conditions (not to take land, not to recruit for the army, not to touch the khan's power). And after St. Petersburg violated all these conditions by 100%, the Kazakhs have the formal (but optional) right to call the period of being in the Russian Empire "occupation". The Russian authorities came to the Kazakh steppe on the same terms, and in the end they themselves changed the "rules of the game."
      2) Nobody hung "Pinkov from the South" for us. The armies of these khanates consisted of slightly more than 100% Kazakhs and, to a lesser extent, Turkmens. And when the Kazakh mercenaries joined their relatives who had transferred to Russian citizenship, all these kokands turned out to be "naked" and unarmed. The local authorities stupidly recruited Sarts for the war with the newcomer Russians, who had never held weapons before.
      3) Dzungars were defeated on the battlefield by Kazakhs and Manchurians without Russian help. But in Russia they do not like to remember that the Dzhungars received weapons from Russia. And also that formally, the Dzungars were Russian citizens and constantly asked Saint Petersburg for protection from the Kazakhs. The Russian empire indifferently looked at the Kazakh-Dzungarian centuries-old wars, hanging noodles on the ears of both sides, promising their high protection. As a result, the jungars were completely destroyed, and the last large fragment of the Golden Horde in the person of the Kazakhs was exhausted to the limit by an endless war.
      Well, by calling the Kazakhs and Sart of the 18-19th centuries "brothers in faith" you have completely proved that you have a weak understanding of Turkestan realities. Ordinary Kazakhs until the 20th century had a vague idea of ​​Islam, in contrast to the devout Sarts. Moreover, even now the average Kazakh is a very formal Muslim, and the modern Uzbek, as a rule, is an exemplary Muslim.
      Can you call a German-Baptist and an Orthodox Yakut "brothers in faith"? I think there are much more differences between them than similarities.
  2. Fox
    Fox 15 December 2012 11: 32
    yes ... Eternal Glory to our Ancestors Cossacks, Great Warriors!
  3. anchonsha
    anchonsha 15 December 2012 11: 32
    Comprehending now all the military operations of tsarist Russia in Central Asia, you come to the conclusion that it could not be otherwise. Central Asia was the gateway to Russia for raids, and therefore Central Asia has always been of interest to Small Britain in this regard. How many bribery by the British of different khans and bais about raids on Russia with the aim of its depletion were. Therefore, Asia was annexed to Russia and not so aggressively as through contracts with the population.
    1. Dikremnij
      Dikremnij 15 December 2012 20: 01
      Not everything is as you say: many trade routes passed through Central Asia, and owning them meant having substantial and constant income to the treasury. And as for Great Britain, here you are right, indeed, they tried to drive Russia out of this region and conquer it by themselves. After all, all wars have primarily economic interests.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 16 December 2012 19: 56
        Dikremnij "Not everything is as you say: many trade routes passed through Central Asia and the possession of them meant to have substantial and constant incomes to the treasury." To this must be added -COTTON! For the Russian light industry, the very thing. Do not buy from someone, but have your own.
        1. FunkschNNX
          FunkschNNX 16 December 2012 20: 39
          Before that, they normally managed flax.
          1. Poppy
            Poppy 17 December 2012 14: 32
            it’s hard to make gunpowder out of flax lol
  4. donchepano
    donchepano 15 December 2012 11: 49
    Nice little guys were. Pride of Russia
  5. Alekseir162
    Alekseir162 15 December 2012 12: 00
    The great ones were WARRIORS, the pride of Russia. Eternal glory to them.
  6. Lucky
    Lucky 15 December 2012 13: 07
    Cossack family, no translation, Cossacks are quietly protesting !!!
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 16 December 2012 18: 34
      If Cossacks are reborn, then joyfully, of course, is not joyful when mummers under the guise of Cossacks are reborn. When in the Moscow or Vladimir region some Cossacks appear, it’s ridiculous, right. And to those Cossacks, condo, thank you very much and bow from the descendants.
  7. Black
    Black 15 December 2012 14: 09
    In the wide steppe under Icahn
    We were surrounded by an evil Kokan,
    And three days with a basurman
    We were in full bloody battle.
    We retreated .... he is behind us
    In crowds of thousands walked;
    He covered our path with bodies
    And blood flowed onto a snowy valley.
    We lay down .... bullets whistled
    And the cores tore to pieces
    But we didn’t blink an eye,
    We stood .... we are Cossacks!

    Article-ANY !!!!!
    1. The centurion
      15 December 2012 17: 01
      Quote: Chen
      Article-ANY !!!!!

      Thank you!
      Where does the verse come from, or is it a song?
  8. pioneer
    pioneer 15 December 2012 14: 13
    Do not forget the simple Russian peasant who made up the bulk of the troops. And the Cossack is a pro, from a young age he learned to fight. What can I say - the ETERNAL MEMORY of the HEROES of those forgotten wars!
  9. knn54
    knn54 15 December 2012 14: 32
    And officers. And how they fought! Losses, for example, during the capture of the Andijan fortress were 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the soldiers of the Kokand Khan (despite the British advisers). Your feat is in our hearts.
    It is a pity that the Kyrgyz, Tajiks forgot ... who liberated their ancestors from centuries of slavery.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 15: 08
      Sorry, but you have some kind of strange picture about that period ...
      In fact, the Russian army sided with the "slave owner" and killed, by the way, ordinary farmers who dared to rebel against their khan, who submitted to Russia (and before that, the rebels drove out the previous satrapchiks themselves). And these are not even attempts to "rewrite history" (as people in Russia like to call everything that sounds non-complimentary to the Russian ear), but information from the TSB.

      Kokand rebellion 1873 - 1876

      The Kokand rebellion of 1873-1876, an uprising on the territory of the Kokand khanate. It began as an anti-feudal movement of Kyrgyz nomads, caused by an increase in taxes and taxes by the Kokand khan Khudoyar. A part of the clergy and feudal lords joined the uprising led by Ishaq Mulla Hasan-oglu (acting under the name of Pulat-bey). However, the participation in it at certain stages of the representatives of secular and spiritual nobility did not generally change the popular character of the uprising, for its main driving force was the broad masses of the people, who opposed both khan oppression and the military expansion of Russian tsarism. Khudoyar Khan sent a punitive detachment led by Abdurakhman Aftobachi against the rebels, but he failed to crush the uprisings; during 1874 and mid-1875 clashes took place between the rebel and khan troops. ... Khudoyar Khan turned to the Turkestan Governor-General for help and in the summer of 1875 fled to Tashkent under the protection of the Russian troops. Khan was proclaimed Nasreddin-bek, who secretly from the rebels on September 22, 1875 concluded an agreement with the Turkestan governor-general K.P. Kaufman and recognized himself as a vassal of Russia. The treacherous policy of Nasruddin-khan led to a new upsurge in C. not only against the khan, but also against Russian tsarism. Instead of Nasruddin, Khan was proclaimed Pulat-bek. The rebels gained a number of successes, however, in January-February 1876, Russian troops under the command of General D. M. Skobelev defeated the rebels at Andijan and Assake. Pulat Khan with 5 thousand rebels strengthened in the fortress Uchkurgan, but Skobelev took control of the fortress. The Pulat Khan managed to escape, but he was soon captured and executed (March 1876).
      Regarding the losses of the Russian army in battles with the rebels ... You would also compare the losses of Belarusian residents in the villages with the losses of the SS. In general, the picture will be gorgeous! For one German - several dozen killed "opponents". Or is it unpleasant for you to compare "their" punishers with the notorious Nazi ones?
      So you still offer the Kyrgyz and Tajiks to remember who freed them from slavery "in Andijan"? Honestly, a stupid idea.
  10. Kolchak
    Kolchak 15 December 2012 15: 40
    OUR! Orenburg !!!
    1. chaban13
      chaban13 15 December 2012 17: 11
      OUR! Orenburg !!!

      yeah, countrymen)))
  11. Karlsonn
    Karlsonn 15 December 2012 18: 50
    Excellent article good .

    on the picture:

    Cossacks in Turkestan. Ural Cossack officer Divers.

    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 15 December 2012 19: 02
      Under a vague talk, slender din,
      Through the measured sparkling of balls
      So strange to see on the walls
      Tall old generals.

      Hello voice, clear look
      Eyebrow graying bends
      They don't tell us anything
      About what they could say.

      And it seems like in a whirlwind of days,
      Among dignitaries and dandies,
      They forgot about their
      A fragrant legend.

      They forgot the days of longing
      Night exclamations: "To arms!"
      Sad Salt Flats
      And walk the measured camel;

      Fields of an unknown land
      And the death of an unlucky company,
      And Uch-Kuduk and Kinderli,
      And the Russian flag over white Khiva.

      Forgot? - Not! 'Cause every hour
      Somehow diligent
      The glow of calm eyes fogs
      Reminds them of the former.

      "What's wrong with you?" - "So, my leg hurts."
      - "Gout?" - "No, a through wound." -
      And immediately the heart will pinched
      Longing for the sun of Turkestan.

      And I was told that no one
      Of these old veterans,
      In the midst of the copies of Dream and Watteau,
      Amid soft chairs and sofas,

      Won't hide a decrepit bed
      He served on campaigns,
      To forever excite the heart
      Remembering adversity.

      Photo from Turkestan Album.
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 34
      From Kaufman's album:
      Cavaliers of St. George with the insignia of the military order - "For the cause under Icahn on December 5-7, 1864", Kazakh Zhanmukhamet.
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 35
        Turkestan Kaufman album 1871-1872
        Cavaliers of St. George with the insignia of the military order - "For the cause under Icahn on December 5-7, 1864", Kazakh Akhmet.
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 13: 51
          Dauletpakuly Nogaybay, a major in the tsarist army, served under the command of Chernyaev and Kolpakovsky.
          He was born in 1834 in the territory of the modern Kordai district of the Zhambyl region. The grandson of the famous Biy Maldybai from the Kaskarau-Zhanys clan. He fought with Kokand, took part in the battle of Uzunagash.
          In 1864, disagreeing with the action of General Chernyaev against the civilian population of the city of Aulie-Ata together with the leaders of the clan Shapyrashty and Sikym decides to leave the ranks of the Russian expeditionary forces.
          However, as a result of the mediation of Ch. Valikhanov and Kolpakovsky, an agreement was again reached on the continuation of the military campaign with the participation of Kazakh soldiers. In 1867, by decree of the emperor Nogaybai Dauletpak uly, his first military rank was awarded - captain and a caftan of 3 ranks was granted.
          From 1868 to 1907 he was a volost ruler in Vernensky and Pishpek counties. He took an active part in the negotiations with China.
          In 1881 he took part in the creation of the Issikkul-Tokmak customs, heading the supervisory board of customs.
          When the Cossacks write about their victories, they completely deny the participation of the Kazakhs on their side. Neither archives, nor photographs, nor memoirs of contemporaries can make them believe that the Russian army in Turkestan was not "purely Russian". Turkestan victories (over the Uzbeks) were also made by the hands of the Kazakhs, who by the time of the Turkestan campaigns had long been Russian citizens. And despite the absence of a mandatory army obligation, the Kazakhs willingly went to serve in the Russian army. A separate topic is the help of the Kazakhs to the Russian army with provisions, fodder, water, guides in the Turkestan expeditions and material and financial contributions during the war with Napoleon.

          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 14: 03
            And more.
            All these Kokandy-Khiva-Bukhara were protected with the help of Kazakh army (more precisely, Kazakh mercenaries, whom the Sarts called simply "Kipchaks" after one of the most famous Kazakh families). The "Uzbeks" themselves have never been accustomed to war. They have other professional activities. Sarts are merchants, artisans, dekhkans, etc. But they are not soldiers.
            When the bulk of the Kazakh clans received Russian citizenship, soon the Kazakh mercenaries, who made up the army of the Uzbek khanates, simply also joined Russia. Kokand-Khiva remained defenseless. They did not have people capable of commanding armies that were hastily recruited from yesterday's peasants and merchants. / Numerous Sart armies fled from the first shots, and some Sarts even ran home before the battle. Remember the memories of those who were then in the Russian army - everyone emphasizes that the armies of these khanates were not real. They didn’t even have a weapon, picking sticks most often. After the Russian army defeated the Turkmens (here the Turkmens are soldiers), the khanates remained completely naked in the defense sphere. They were doomed.
            Kazakhs did not care about the mythical Sart aggression. How many times the Kazakhs needed, so many times they took all these Tashkent. But the funny thing is that the main Kazakh sultans, allegedly suffering from the actions of some kokand, not long before that were often themselves former Kokand rulers who were kicked out of the city and now they were eager to return there on the shoulder of Kazakh volunteers and the Russian army. If you carefully read the biographies of some Kazakh sultans who fought against the "bloody regime" of Kokand-Khiva-Bukhara, you will notice that they themselves were once the rulers of these lands :)))
            1. Marek Rozny
              Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 14: 30
              Another photograph and biography of the Kazakh from the Orenburg Cossacks:

              Salyk Babazhanov - Yesaul of the Orenburg Cossack Army, Advisor to the Provisional Council for the Administration of the Astrakhan Province.

              Salyk Karauylkozhauly Babazhanov was born in 1831 in the Inner Bukeev Horde (modern Ural region). His father, Karauylkozha Babazhanov, was the father-in-law of the khan of the Bukeev horde - Zhangir Bukeev. He was the foreman of the coastal Kazakhs, Yesaul.

              In 1841, S. Babazhanov entered the first Russian-Kazakh school that opened in the khan’s horde and finished it in 1844. After that, his parents sent him to study in Orenburg in the Neplyuyev cadet corps. Babazhanov was admitted to the Asian branch. At this department, translators were trained for Russian administrative bodies and military institutions. Together with S. Babazhanov, seven more Kazakh youths studied - the offspring of khans, sultans, biys, volost and foremen. These are Arsylankerey Bukeikhanov, Zulkarnay Nuralikhanov, Mukhamedzhan Bekmukhamedov, Sultanmahmud Zhanturin, Zhusup Niyazov, Sultan Shalabaev, Myrzagali Sangyrykov and others.
              In 1851, having successfully graduated from the Orenburg Cadet Corps, Babazhanov received the military rank of cornet. As a well-graduated cadet corps, a young talented officer S. Babazhanov goes to work in the Orenburg border commission.
              In 1860, the Orenburg authorities awarded him the rank of centurion. He becomes an adviser to the Provisional Council for the Management of the Inner Bukeev Horde.
              Salyk Babazhanov was a student and friend of the outstanding oriental scientist V. B. Grigoriev. He constantly sent materials that had ethnographic significance to the Russian Geographical Society. For active participation in the work of the ethnographic department, a significant contribution to the work, published valuable articles on the life of the Kazakh people in February 1862, Babazhanov was elected a member of the Russian Geographical Society and was awarded a large silver medal. He became the second Kazakh elected as a member of the Russian Geographical Society after Ch. Valikhanov and the first Kazakh officially awarded a silver medal for scientific work. Ethnographic items and archaeological finds discovered by Babazhanov were exhibited at the Museum of the Russian Geographical Society, and later transferred to the Hermitage.

              Along with this, S. Babazhanov was a full member of the Russian Scientific Society of Trade, Industry, and the Free Economy. For the report made at a meeting of the company, he was awarded a special diploma.

              In 1862, S. Babazhanov, having left the clerical service, was engaged in private affairs for some time. However, soon due to material difficulties, he returned to public service. In 1868, he was appointed adviser to the Provisional Council for the Administration of the Astrakhan Province.
              1. Marek Rozny
                Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 14: 37
                Another participant in the Turkestan campaigns is Sultan Gazi Vali Khan. (Photo courtesy of Schubler)

                "The last ruler of the Kirghiz-Kaysakov of the Big and Middle Hordes, Sultan Gazi Bulatovich Vali-Khan, Colonel of the L.-Guards Atamansky EI V. Heir to the Tsarevich Regiment.
                ... The nine-year-old Gazi was sent with his uncle Khan-Khoja and 80 Kyrgyz to Omsk, where he entered the Siberian Cadet Corps. Sultan Gazi Bulatovich, 16 years old, graduated from the corps, was promoted to cornet and appointed to be at the disposal of the Governor-General of Western Siberia.
                In the year Ghazi Bulatovich entered the Siberian corps, his relative, Sultan Chokan Valikhanov, descended from one of the younger wives of Vali Khan, later a traveler and author of Essays on the Dzungaria and other works about the East, who died in 1865 ... left the General Duhamel ... transferred the young cornet of Gazi-Vali-Khan to Tobolsk, having seconded him to a regiment located in this city.
                ... By the Imperial command, Sultan Gazi Vali-Khan was attached to His Majesty's Life-Guards Cossack Regiment and participated with this regiment in the campaign against the Polish rebels. Then, having learned about the departure of a military expedition to Central Asia, he wished to benefit the Russian government and was transferred to the service of the head of the Altava district and the Kirghiz of the Great Horde, in the Vernoe fortification, where the detachment of M.G. Chernyaeva. Appointed head of the entire Kyrgyz militia, on the way to the city of Aulie-Ata, through his family ties with the senior sultans of the Great Horde, uncles Tezek and Ali Ablai-Khan, he persuaded the rebellious tribes of Dulutov and Kara-Kirgiz (Burutov) to transfer to Russian citizenship. After this expedition, in which, during the capture of the Kokan fortress of Aulie-Ata, he showed "personal courage", Sultan Gazi Vali-Khan retired, but was soon again called up to serve in the L.-GV. Atamansky E. I. V. The regiment of the heir to the Tsarevich, in the lists of which it is still listed. From 1879 to 1881, Sultan Gazi Bulatovich was in a training cavalry squadron (now an officer's cavalry school), and during the coronation, by the Highest command, he was an honorary translator for the Khiva Khan and the Bukhara heir to the throne (now the Bukhara Emir). In addition, he was sent by the border authorities to the borders of China more than once to receive embassies and Dungan deputations. "
                1. Marek Rozny
                  Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 14: 46
                  Chokan (Shokan) Chingisovich Valikhanov (Kazakh. Shohan Ukhanikhanly, real name - Muhammed-Khanafiya, November 1835, Amankaragai district, winter Kuntimes, Region of Siberian Kyrgyz, Russian Empire - April 10, 1865, Urochany uchochen-Kochen) ethnographer and folklorist, traveler, enlightener, and also an intelligence officer of the General Staff of the Russian Army.

                  Valikhanov’s studies were published in the works of the Russian Geographical Society, also published in Berlin (1862), in London (1865) and included in the 6th and 7th volumes (1878-1879) of 19-volume French General Geography (fr. " La Nouvelle géographie universelle ") Elise Reclus.
                  He made the famous trip to Kashgar, which was a forbidden region for all representatives of European states.

                  Chokan Valikhanov - Genghisides, great-grandson of the famous Khan Ablai.

                  Participation in the campaign Chernyaeva.
                  "... The city of Verny was a stronghold of the Russian Empire in Semirechye. But the south of modern Kazakhstan was then under the rule of the Kokand Khanate. Russia continued the conquest of Turkestan, sending its troops to these lands inhabited by Kazakhs. Chokan Valikhanov took part in this campaign. -rotmaster, he served as an interpreter at the high command, where, performing his official duties, he contributed to the establishment of friendly relations between the Russian authorities and the local population, as well as a fair resolution of disputes over pastures between Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, etc.

                  However, the reprisal of troops over the civilian population during the capture of the fortresses of Pishpek (Bishkek) and Aulie-Ata (Taraz) in 1864 so deeply outraged Valikhanov that after several heated disputes with Colonel Chernyaev, seeing no other way out, he returned to Verny.

                  The path of Chokan Valikhanov was repeated and expanded by his fellow countryman and blood brother Lavr Kornilov, a well-known tsarist general and one of the founders of the Volunteer White Army. Kornilov’s father is an Irtysh Cossack, and his mother is a baptized Kazakh from the Argyn clan. At the end of the Nikolaev General Staff Academy, Captain Kornilov, using his Asian appearance and knowledge of six languages, carried out reconnaissance expeditions to Persia, Afghanistan, Kashgar, China and India at the end of the 426th and beginning of the 1907th centuries. His book “Kashgaria or East Turkestan” (XNUMX pages with appendices), which became a significant contribution to geography, ethnography, military and geopolitical science and brought the author well-deserved success, was noticed by British experts and, like Valikhanov’s works, was immediately reprinted in England. As the modern researcher M.K. Baskhanov established, the cartographic material for the English edition of the "Military Report on Kashgar" in XNUMX represents the plans of cities and fortifications of East Turkestan, published in the work of L. G. Kornilov.
          2. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 18 December 2012 20: 13
            Marek Rozny "And despite the absence of a mandatory army obligation, the Kazakhs willingly went to serve in the Russian army. A separate topic is the help of the Kazakhs to the Russian army with provisions, fodder, water, guides in Turkestan expeditions and the material and financial contribution during the war with Napoleon."
            - It’s hard to disagree. With what I disagree, with a dismissive attitude towards the Cossacks. Neglect of them was expensive for their opponents of that time and this is a fact!
  12. Follow us
    Follow us 15 December 2012 19: 04
    Current Cossacks can do that? To take five hundred fortresses.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 15 December 2012 20: 30
      So for this Skobelev is needed at the head!
      1. Bubo
        Bubo 17 December 2012 08: 37
        And that’s right ...
    2. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 15 December 2012 20: 38
      Follow us

      now there are no Cossacks, the Cossacks are a military estate that received certain privileges for certain functions, the sunset of the Cossacks began with the appearance of the Border Guard corps in Russia, but under the Soviet regime and the abolition of the estates this sunset ended.
      if interested, here:
      [media = http: // http: // v = 7lMhzTwzU5s & feature = player_embedded

      concise and capacious enough.
    3. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 15 December 2012 20: 42
      Follow us

      now there are no Cossacks, the Cossacks are a military estate that received certain privileges for certain functions, the sunset of the Cossacks began with the appearance of the Border Guard corps in Russia, but under the Soviet regime and the abolition of the estates this sunset ended.
      if interested, here:
    4. Bubo
      Bubo 17 December 2012 08: 37
      Or a hundred from the army to fight back ...
  13. FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 15 December 2012 21: 20
    I met data that about 25 people from all Muslim peoples participated in that war, and 000 thousand Kazakhs are most likely something of modern history tests. In another 60 years, there will be all 20 thousand.
  14. bart74
    bart74 16 December 2012 00: 08
    Glorious were the times! Glory to the ancestors!
    GOLUBENKO 16 December 2012 05: 50
    Sergey, look at the dates. Kazakhstan was already part of the Russian Empire for almost 2 centuries and did not have its own army. By this time, Napoleon was already given ass kicks together - at least 60 Kazakhs took part in World War II. And also on the number of participants in these campaigns (one Kazakh clan, and their 000 + 96, could set no less).
    And let's stop teasing each other, this leads to bad consequences.

    But after all, the Kazakh khans themselves asked for the structure of the Russian Empires, and that is, archives with documents. But since 1992, for some reason you have called Russia the occupier. The monument to the ataman Yermak was demolished; the city was renamed in Pavlodar region and Yermak was also recorded as an occupier of the Kazakh people, although he fought the Siberian Tatars in the Tyumen region.
    Sense of your quantity, it is better a hundred Cossacks of any army than a regiment of Kazakhs, who were insane and cowardly warriors.
    1. Kasym
      Kasym 16 December 2012 14: 41
      SERGEY (GOLUBENKO). "YOU CALL RUSSIA OCCUPANT". I didn't write that.
      "To the point of your ....". And YOU look at the number of Heroes of the USSR, who are Kazakhs by nationality. Or to remind about Panfilov's division. Etc. etc. ...
      Conscience must be written. Or are you, like Srych, brown?
      1. Serge
        Serge 16 December 2012 20: 57
        They need your answers to arrange another srach, just react with facts and your opponents will have nothing to say))
    2. romb
      romb 16 December 2012 15: 34
      I do not know where you heard this, that the opinion of the Russian brothers as "occupiers" is the opinion of the majority of Kazakhs.
      And about the cowardice of the Kazakhs, you put it mildly - very excited. Meet a Kazakh somewhere, and tell him about it in person. I promise, after you come to your senses, I personally will send you a pack of semolina to the hospital)))))))
      As one of the officers of the Kapchagai DShB said: "Give me this brigade, yes, in the Middle Ages. In two weeks I will be working on all the empires of the world." The question, as always, rested on the usual technological superiority - edged weapons, against firearms ... well, obviously not rushing ...
    3. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 15: 31
      The phrase "Russians are occupiers" is usually pronounced by the Russians themselves, frightening each other with mythical nationalism in Kazakhstan. Neither in the speech of state officials, nor in textbooks, and just even on the street, no one will hear such expressions.
      The monument to Ermak was demolished, because Ermak is a real occupier. For Russians, the Siberian and Kazakh Khanates are two unrelated states, and for Kazakhs, the Siberian Khanate is another Kazakh country inhabited by the same Kazakh clans as in the Kazakh Khanate. For the Kazakhs (and indeed for the Turks), a generic name is more important than an ethno-political one. The Siberian Tatars actually consist of the same clans as the Kazakhs of the Middle Zhuz (Argyns, Naimans, Keres, Kipchaks, etc.) Ermak remained an invader in epics, and in Soviet times, the Kazakhs demanded that this monument be removed, well, after the collapse of the USSR - immediately they demolished everything that was poked around here related to this hated enemy.
      Let us erect a monument to Batu in Russia in Kozelsk, Kaluga Region, and then we will be naively and sincerely surprised, why are the locals freaking out? Batu is a normal chuvachok, our native Horde, which means by default a good fellow, a humanist and peacemaker. He simply annexed peacefully the Russian lands, which suffered from their beys and princes. Kozeltsy should cherish the monument to Batu, respect history and not dare to call the holy hero of the Kazakh people Batu Sain-khan (as the Kazakhs called him) - "occupier". Will such an arrangement be clear to you? Ermak is the enemy of the Kazakhs. And the Kazakhs on this score did not change their views either before the revolution, or in Soviet times, or now.
    GOLUBENKO 16 December 2012 17: 01
    "To the point of your ....". And YOU look at the number of Heroes of the USSR, who are Kazakhs by nationality. Or to remind about Panfilov's division. Etc. etc. ...

    Here is a theme about the events of the XNUMXth century. And I touched on the topic of the entry of (voluntary) khans of your zhuzes into the empire.
    At the same time, the imperial authorities, using the Cossacks, had to restore order for almost the entire XNUMXth century. For your buys were very fond of robbing each other (the barant is called) and also attacking the trade caravans that went to Irbit from Turkestan and back.
    By the way, my great-grandfather took part in a campaign in Turkestan, where he earned an officer rank.
    I do not know where you heard this, that the opinion of the Russian brothers as "occupiers" is the opinion of the majority of Kazakhs.

    I was born and raised like the four generations of my ancestors of the Siberian Cossack lands of the Siberian Cossack army. And I heard and read this in the press repeatedly.
    You from the Mattress Country can’t understand this at all.
    And about the cowardice of the Kazakhs, you put it mildly - very excited. Meet a Kazakh somewhere, and tell him about it in person. I promise, after you come to your senses, I personally will send you a pack of semolina to the hospital)))))))

    Yes, we have beaten these Rimbos in their youth, and quite a few, the hero in a crowd for one.
    Moreover, their international was beaten by Russians, Ukrainians and Germans.
    And save your green candy wrappers for yourself.
    As one of the officers of the Kapchagai DShB said: "Give me this brigade, yes, in the Middle Ages. In two weeks I will be working on all the empires of the world." The question, as always, rested on the usual technological superiority - edged weapons, against firearms ... well, obviously not rushing ...

    Do not smoke more than this, it is generally not rushing to this topic.
    1. romb
      romb 16 December 2012 17: 17
      Well, if you "beat" the way you did it in the area of ​​the small stanitsa or the upper reaches of the "Big Almatinka" - then everything is clear))))))
      This means that we went there regularly in vain, and you "fighters" were removed from the Chechen counter)))))
      1. marshes
        marshes 16 December 2012 17: 41
        There, on the small page, the Nokhchi were tough. smile
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 15: 41
          And I am from Koktem and KIZ, we often fought with ardager and "snowflake" in the 90s :))) We had no relationship with the small village :)
  17. marshes
    marshes 16 December 2012 17: 44
    In Almaty, a group of young Kazakhstani public figures made an appeal not to succumb to the provocations of the Russian "political strategist" - the rabid nationalist Alexander Belov (real name Alexander Potkin), the newspaper "Vremya" writes.

    Alexander Belov
    According to media reports, this figure, convicted in the Russian Federation for inciting ethnic hatred, an active member of the ethnopolitical association "Russians", conducted systematic trainings with Kazakh youth.
    Kazakh students were allegedly taken to study in Kyrgyzstan, where they mastered the skills of organizing meetings, countering police officers, working with political information, etc. The ideological essence of classes was expressed in the idiom "Kazakhstan - for the Kazakhs."
    It turned out to be simple to calculate the main customer of the “courses of the young fighter” - the video portal “STAN”, which belongs to the fugitive oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov, took over the sponsorship of the training.
    - The possible organization of unrest on ethnic grounds is an encroachment on the independence of our country. We urge Kazakhstanis not to succumb to provocations. In Kazakhstan, we will not allow this, ”Kenesary Kaptagaev, co-chair of the Zheltoksan Koterlisi NGO, noted at a press conference.
    Recently there was information that Belov’s comrades-in-arms, Peter Miloserdov, a member of the Russian national liberation movement “People”, and Eduard Limonov, press secretary of the National Bolshevik Party, Alexander Averin, visited Almaty.
    Speakers at a press conference yesterday expressed concern that these people are directly involved in a project developed by Belov-Potkin with the working title “Angry Kazakh”.
    Its essence boils down to discrediting the legitimate authority, depriving it of support by the titular nation and, as a result, to its delegitimization. However, Kazakhstani Russian and Slavic organizations came out with a sharp condemnation of Belov’s actions and in support of interethnic accord in the country.
    “It must be understood that Belov is just a tool in the hands of Ablyazov.” His plans, which have become public, perfectly describe his criminal plans, ”summed Dauren Babamuratov.
  18. ddmm09
    ddmm09 16 December 2012 20: 21
    Everyone ... In vain do you make swearing Kazakh-Russian - bad-good, which once I meet it on the forum. We are united by common values ​​- love for the Motherland, humanity, a benevolent attitude towards compatriots and neighbors, kind-heartedness, etc. This is how we differ from the people of the Western world, selfish in essence. The weak-willed of us accept their values, destroying our common culture. We always carried the creation to the world, thanks to this we can resist the enemy being in the minority. By internal quarrels we only weaken ourselves.
    Before and now Russia has tried to protect its citizens, it makes no sense to accuse our state of its right to do this, even if it comes to the use of force. In Central Asia, Russia never acted on the American principle - the destruction of the indigenous population. No one will be able to accuse Russia that some people have disappeared from the face of the Earth or at least its number has decreased. Most of our opponents begin to talk about Russia's actions from the perspective of someone’s genocide. This has never happened in our history. Russians, as a people, never put themselves above other nations, just like Russia, as a state, never set itself the goal of enslaving anyone. And the Kazakhs in tsarist Russia and the USSR were not in the position, for example, of the US Indians or the natives of Australia, South Africa, etc. (you can list for a long time). We went to the same kindergarten, studied at the same school, one institute. Household grievances do not need to be transferred to the whole people - this is stupidity, this is egoism.
    1. FunkschNNX
      FunkschNNX 16 December 2012 20: 28
      Quote: ddmm09
      In Central Asia, Russia never acted on the American principle - the destruction of the indigenous population.

      It's not the same for everybody. In modern textbooks on the history of Kazakhstan and even on the website of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, they clearly explain that Russia staged the genocide of the Kazakh people. It is true that they forget that the Slavs then died many times more, and Kazakhs themselves introduced the surplus appraisal system. But who cares now, now we're all sovereign and proud.
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 18 December 2012 15: 47
        From 1920 to 1932, Kazakhs lost more than half of their numbers. In percentage terms, Kazakhs suffered the most in the USSR. When a large part of the nation was destroyed in a decade, is this not genocide? Look even at the Soviet data on the number of Kazakhs in the first decades of Soviet power, I no longer offer to read information about the Kazakh losses of Kazakh and foreign authors. Otherwise, blame that the Kazakhs falsified everything :) A lot of Soviet materials are on this topic.
        Only Ukrainians constantly reiterate the guilt of today's Russia about the famine, and the Kazakhs are trying once again not to remind them of the tragedy.
        1. FunkschNNX
          FunkschNNX 18 December 2012 20: 31
          Here fascists staged genocide against Jews. And the famine in the country has slanted everyone, not just the Kazakhs.
          And there’s no need to tell what is there in Kakhakhstan and how, I lived in Alma-Ata for 30 years, including the dashing 90s. And I heard the suitcase-station-Russia, not for me personally, but mainly for women. What is the loudest than all the oralmans and Mulbichi aul who screamed loudly in Almaty themselves turned out to be obscure ways.
          With the collapse of the union, Kazakhstan experienced a serious decline in society. Many of the best national cadres chose to move to Moscow and London. I had many teachers with dimloms from Moscow State University and other leading universities, intelligent and intelligent people, but unfortunately in the guests' views my beloved city of Alma-Ata is associated precisely with marginalized people from "Green", "Tastak", etc.
          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 20 December 2012 19: 20
            1) How many percent of Russians died of hunger? And how many percent of Kazakhs died from him? The difference is enormous. Almost like: one says: "My house burned down", and the second consoles him: "Damn, I also have grief - the TV is broken" ...
            2) Indeed ... How did the aul Kazakhs and the descendants of Kazakhs who fled from hunger to other countries dare to come to the capital of Kazakhstan? Let them sit in their zadryuchinsk. Is this your logic? My parents are also from auls. Mother graduated from the Veterinary Institute in Leningrad, father - from the Leningrad Military School. I was born in a military town in the village of the Orenburg region ... Is it okay that my parents and I are aul Mambichi, it is not clear how they ended up in a "big city"? And by the way, formally, I am also considered an oralman, because moved from Russia to KZ.
            I have never heard the phrase "suitcase-station-Russia" in KZ. Like all my friends Slavs in KZ. Usually they talk about such things, referring to the cousin of a neighbor's wife's work colleague. Like, someone somewhere heard this. Although I fully admit that some individuals could be told this if they deserved their behavior. I think you know how some Russians were not ashamed of expressions addressed to Kazakhs. And we are Mambichi, and Calbits, and apricots, and "Indians", and Moors, and simply "ungrateful". Let's not pretend to be naive schoolgirls and admit that during the collapse of the Russian majority in Kazakhstan, the collapse of the economy was associated with the fact that now the Kazakhs began to rule the country. With all that it implies. Do you remember our Almaty newspapers of those years? I even once made clippings from them. One Giller's "Caravan" was worth what. Until he was kicked in the ass, he hounded him with nationalism throughout Ivanovskaya. It's good that our people on the whole are sane, and as soon as the bawlers got out of the country with good health, the tension in society instantly subsided. Well, the Kazakhs took their Kazakh bawlers out of society even earlier, some are still behind bars, considering themselves a "political prisoner".
            I still managed to work for several years in the organization of Kazakh Germans, in which every week those who left were celebrating the farewell. I was the only Kazakh there, like "my own". I heard so many things. The softest "when we leave, and the Kazakhs will bend in their fucking country." And you will surprise me very much if you say that you have never heard such phrases among your friends. Even if they are "the most intelligent and intelligent people".
            Left and left. Out of sight, out of mind, as the Russian proverb says. I associate the word "Natsik" with these "forced migrants", but the concept "Russian people" is associated with the Russian people with whom I communicate every day in Kazakhstan. And I am glad that all Russians in my personal environment know how to preserve their national pride and, at the same time, respect Kazakh or any other culture. Well, and for whom the Kazakhs are "a crowd of aul mambiches", I do not even consider that a Russian. It's the same as if I had declared: "Russians are a crowd of unwashed rednecks who have come in large numbers to cities." Is this analogy unpleasant? And I hate to write such nonsense to the Russians.
            Moreover, one might think that after the collapse of the USSR, Russia experienced an upsurge in culture and economy, and Moscow did not come across the concept of "brain drain". If "many of the smartest people" left Kazakhstan, then who left Russia over the years? Who drove the Russians out of Russia by the millions in 20 years? Again Kazakh mambets?
            I often agree by reading your posts. You are a very sober-minded person. However, some of them are quite offensive. Reminds, as the Almaty "starshak" condescendingly trembling on the cheek of a goldfinch, considering himself already "passed this life". I think the native Almaty courtyard terminology will be easier to understand.
            Z.Y. Greetings from Koktem and Kizov! ;)
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 20 December 2012 18: 38
      There is a very curious book "Turkestan under the rule of the Soviets" by Mustafa Shokay. His book is based exclusively on the newspaper periodicals of Soviet Turkestan in the 20-30s. The book helps to remove rose-colored glasses in this matter.
      And in 70-80, of course, everything was different. Indeed, they went to kindergartens and schools in Kazakhstan. The truth is exclusively Russian. Paradoxically, there were practically no Kazakh schools in the Kazakh SSR. In the entire one and a half million Alma-Ata, there was one single school with the Kazakh language of instruction. So there were excesses in the national policy. And sometimes very serious.
      Well, and the fact that the Russian tsarist policy was colonial is so simple to leaf through the files of Russian pre-revolutionary newspapers in the library. The words "colony", "natives", "our colonial power" are present in every Russian note about Turkestan. In 1897, according to the census of the population of the Russian Empire, the Kazakhs were 4 million people, 30 years later in 1926 - 3,9 млн man, in 1936 - 3,1 million people (at the same time, all historians, even of the Soviet period, unequivocally consider the last figure to be greatly overstated, since the losses of the Kazakhs were really stunning). Only in the mid-70s of the 20th century, the Kazakhs were able to restore their numbers to the level of 1926. And this despite the fact that Kazakhs are usually large families.
      Yes, we were not Indians, but we suffered unimaginable losses during the first decades of Soviet power that no other people of the USSR experienced - neither Russians, nor Uzbeks, nor Belarusians. So, at best, the Kazakh will perceive any phrases that the Kazakhs allegedly have no right to complain about the Soviet regime with a bad grin. For Kazakhs, the events of five hundred years ago are fresh as yesterday, and the disaster of the 20-30s is still remembered by the elders. And the Kazakhs do not perceive the whole period of Soviet power as the oily-stagnant Brezhnev years, but they also remember how it all began.
      At the same time, Kazakhs do not put forward any demands for repentance, like Ukrainians, Georgians or Balts, do not spit on the past, and the establishment even organizes gala evenings and concerts on the anniversary of the Komsomol.
      But the Russians simply do not need to tell the Kazakhs about the "wonderful" attitude of the Soviet or Russian authorities to the Kazakhs. Not a single Kazakh touches this sensitive topic until he hears all sorts of garbage about any "nishtyaks" given to Kazakhs by the tsarist or Soviet authorities. Don't want to hear accusations of genocide? Don't start talking about "Russian gingerbread". Almost all of the Kazakhs are descendants of those who were repressed or suffered from the famine. We, according to the Soviet classification, were enrolled in bai without exception because even the poor man had a lot of cattle, which was very unusual for the Russian Bolsheviks who came from their half-starved villages to do "Small October" in our steppe.
  19. Serge
    Serge 16 December 2012 20: 55
    It’s a pity of course that it was hushed up at one time, an interesting article, it is necessary to inflame the gaps in the history of the Cossacks
  20. radio operator
    radio operator 17 December 2012 11: 45
    Good article!
    Another ideologically forgotten victory of the Russian Army.
  21. enot555
    enot555 31 January 2013 16: 50
    the whole trouble is that the bulk of the Cossacks were exterminated or forced to go abroad. there were only a few left ... A small example in the N-Territory --- now all sorts of obscure people who just drink, engage in useless dances, stand guard parking lots and do other nonsense, suck money (by the way they get some amounts, I don’t know exactly what, but judging by how many people are torn to the posts of attamans, apparently not small) And no one thinks about educating young people, about teaching them military art. Ask the gentlemen the Cossacks, what are you doing here and what are you for? Naturally, no intelligible answer. Many people do not even bother to read the story - where it is written that the Cossacks are primarily WARS !!! Cossacks have a lot of examples of feats, which if you list here, you can write for days and do not describe everything. Why are there only examples of the Caucasian war where battles with the enemy took place almost always exceeding the number of Cossacks, and the Cossacks fought them all !!!! and now some kind of miserable parody is happening, although things are better in the Krasnodar Territory, Tkachev is doing the right thing.