Military Review

The assault on Konigsberg: an “impregnable” fortress was taken in four days

The assault on Konigsberg: an “impregnable” fortress was taken in four days

Soviet soldiers are fighting on the outskirts of Königsberg

The Agony of the Third Reich. 75 years ago, on April 6, 1945, troops of the 3rd Belorussian Front launched an assault on Koenigsberg. On the fourth day of the operation, the garrison of the most powerful Reich fortress surrendered.

The defeat of the East Prussian Wehrmacht group

On January 13, 1945, the Red Army (troops of the 2nd and 3rd Belorussian fronts, part of the 1st Baltic Front) launched the East Prussian strategic operation with the aim of defeating and liquidating the East Prussian Wehrmacht group (Army Group Center, p. 26 January - Army Group “North”), occupation of East Prussia, the most important military-economic region of the Third Reich. The German high command demanded to keep East Prussia at all costs.

The armies of the 2nd Belorussian Front under the command of K.K. Rokossovsky broke through the enemy’s powerful defenses, blocked the Mlava fortified area, and took the city of Mlava on January 19. On the southern flank, Soviet troops took Modlin Fortress. Soviet strike groups made their way to the sea, creating a threat to the environment of the 4th German army. German troops began to retreat to the fortified line along the Masurian Lakes. As a result, the troops of the 3rd Belorussian Front under the command of I. D. Chernyakhovsky (after his death on February 18, 1945, the front was headed by A.M. Vasilevsky) and the 43rd Army of the 1st Baltic Front defeated the Nazis in the Tilsit-Insterburg direction . Our troops took powerful German resistance nodes: Tilsit (January 19), Gumbinnen (January 21) and Insterburg (January 22). January 29, Chernyakhovsky troops went to the coast of the Baltic Sea, bypassed Koenigsberg from the north.

On January 26, 1945, Rokossovsky’s troops broke through to the Baltic north of Elbing, cutting off the East Prussian force from the rest of the Wehrmacht. The Germans organized strong counterattacks from East Prussia and East Pomerania in order to restore the land corridor along the coast. Troops of the 2nd BF: 48th and 5th Guards tank the army, the 8th Guards Tank, the 8th Mechanized and the 3rd Guards Cavalry Corps, repelled the enemy’s attacks by February 8. The East Prussian group was cut off. After this, the Rokossovsky front began an operation in Eastern Pomerania, and the 3rd BF and 1st PF were to complete the defeat of the enemy in the Königsberg area. To accelerate the defeat of the enemy group and strengthen the 3rd BF, the 2th, 50rd, 3th and 48th Guards Tank Armies were transferred to it from the 5nd BF. Chernyakhovsky’s armies were to destroy the Heilsberg group of the enemy.

Also, the 1st Baltic Front under the command of I. Kh. Baghramyan was to take part in the defeat of the German group. The Soviet high command regrouped forces. The 1st PF from the 3rd Belorussian Front included the 43rd, 39th and 11th Guards Army, 1st Tank Corps. And the units of the 1st PF, which fought in Courland, except for the 3rd Air Army, were transferred to the 2nd Baltic Front. Baghramyan’s troops were given the task of destroying the Germans’s Zemland and then Konigsberg group at the first stage of the offensive. On February 24, 1945, the 1st PF was abolished, and its troops, reorganized into the Zemland group of forces, were quickly subordinated to the 3rd BF.

Tank IS-2 at the head of a convoy on the street of the city of Mława. January 1945

The soldiers on the street of the taken German city of Tilsit

Refugees and German soldiers on the road in the Brownsberg area. February - March 1945

A column of German prisoners goes along the Hindenburg Strasse in the city of Insterburg. April 1945

The destruction of the Halesberg group

Soviet troops bypassed Koenigsberg from the south and north, besieged the capital of East Prussia, occupied a significant part of the Zemland Peninsula and most of East Prussia. The main defensive lines of the enemy, except for Königsberg and the Heilsberg fortified area, fell. The East Prussian group (Army Group North) lost its land connection with the Reich and was divided into three isolated groups: Heilsberg, Konigsberg and Zemland. The Germans had large forces: 32 divisions (including 2 tank and 3 motorized), 2 groups and 1 brigade. Several German divisions continued to defend on the Zemland Peninsula - troops of the 3rd Panzer Army (its command was taken to Pomerania). Five divisions plus a city garrison were blocked in the Königsberg area. The strongest group - 23 divisions, 2 groups and 1 brigade (4th Army), was pressed against the Baltic coast southwest of Koenigsberg, in the Brownsberg area - Heilsberg. The German command hoped to detain the enemy for a long time in the Königsberg area, which was considered an impregnable fortress, to forge large forces of the Russian army here. Isolated groups were going to unite, then restore the land corridor with Pomerania.

The command of the 3rd BF planned by converging strikes of the 5th Guards Tank Army of Volsky from the west and the 5th Army of Krylov to cut off the Heilsberg group from the sea, and other armies were to separate it and destroy it in parts. The main role was to be played by the tank army - to cut off the Nazis from the Frishes-Huff Bay and prevent them from escaping to the Frisch-Nerung Spit. An important role in the operation played aviation: 1st and 3rd air armies, Baltic Fleet aviation.

However, it was not possible to implement this plan in February 1945. The Germans relied on the most powerful fortified area (after Königsberg), where there were over 900 reinforced concrete fire structures, as well as many bunkers, barriers. The troops had a large number of artillery and armored vehicles. A significant number of troops in a relatively small area allowed the German command to consolidate battle formations, to allocate strong reserves. The Nazis fought stubbornly, constantly counterattacking, maneuvering reserves, quickly closing dangerous sections, did not allow themselves to get around and surround, and if necessary retreated to the rear and reserve defense lines. If necessary, the Germans destroyed numerous hydraulic structures (canals, dams, pumps, etc.), flooding some areas and obstructing the enemy’s movement. Soviet troops were weary and bloodless of previous heavy battles, there were few replenishment (they went to the Berlin direction), the rear was behind. In addition, winter returned in early February: frost and snow, and in the middle of the month the thaw again. Snowstorms alternated with rains, dirt roads became almost impassable, and airdromes without concrete cover could not be used. As a result, the rate of movement of troops fell to 1,5–2 km per day. By February 21, the German bridgehead could be halved, along the front, to 50 km and in depth to 15-25 km. But the Nazis still fiercely resisted.

The troops of the 1st PF also could not immediately succeed, fighting in two directions: the Zemland Peninsula and Königsberg. Baghramyan’s front did not have enough tank formations and ammunition. On February 19, 1945, the Nazis struck in the Königsberg area: from the capital of East Prussia itself and from the Zemland Peninsula. After three days of stubborn battles, the Germans pressed our troops and created a corridor between Königsberg and Zemland. The two German groups joined forces, which allowed Koenigsberg to hold out until early April.

The Soviet high command decided to combine the forces of two fronts: the 1st PF and the 3rd BF. Unified guidance and thorough preparation of the operation were necessary. The 1st PF was reorganized into the Zemland group subordinate to the 3rd BF. Baghramyan was appointed deputy commander and commander of the Zemland Group of Forces. Until March 12, 1945, Soviet troops were preparing for a new offensive. The operation was carefully prepared, the front was replenished with manpower and material and technical part. Vasilevsky temporarily suspended the offensive in the Zemland direction and concentrated his efforts on the destruction of the Heilsberg group.

March 13, our troops again went forward. The enemy inflicted two powerful blows from the east and south-east in a general direction to Heiligenboyle. This time the offensive was successful. By March 19, the enemy bridgehead was reduced to 30 km along the front and 7-10 km in depth. Soviet artillery completely shot through enemy positions. A large role in the elimination of the enemy group was played by aviation, which bombed the Germans day and night. The situation was hopeless. On March 20, the German command decided to evacuate troops to the Pillau area. However, the Germans did not have enough transports to take out the 4th Army. The soldiers had to bury themselves in the ground and fight. Soviet troops reached Frishes Huff Bay in several sections, breaking up the group into parts. By March 26, the Germans continued to hold only a small bridgehead on the Balga Peninsula. Three days later, the remnants of the Heilsberg group were liquidated. About 140 thousand Germans were killed or captured. Only a small part of the German group (about 5 thousand people) made their way to the Frisch-Nehrung spit and to Pillau.

After the liquidation of the Heilsberg group, the Soviet Headquarters abolished the management and headquarters of the Zemland group of forces, which became part of the 3rd BF. Now Vasilevsky’s troops had to complete the East Prussian operation and take Koenigsberg, then cleanse the Zemland Peninsula from the enemy and occupy Pillau.

Battery gunners captain V. Leskov delivering shells of a 203-mm gun B-4 on the outskirts of Koenigsberg

Abandoned German self-propelled gun StuG IV on the street of the Steindamm district (Koenigsberg)

The 280-mm mortar of the 1939 model (BR-5) of the battery commander, Captain Smirnov of the 3rd Belorussian Front in the Königsberg area at a firing position

Konigsberg operation. Forces of the parties

The 39th, 43rd, 50th and 11th Guards armies, 1st and 3rd air armies, formations of the 18th long-range army, aviation took part in the assault on the fortress fleet, two bombing aircraft corps RVGK. In total, over 185 thousand people (the city itself was stormed, according to various sources, 100–130 thousand people), over 5 thousand guns and mortars, over 500 tanks and self-propelled guns, 2500 aircraft. At the same time, over 45% of the artillery systems were heavy guns, guns of large and special power to destroy German fortifications. To solve the same problem, about 45% of combat aircraft were bombers.

The front command decided to strike at the capital of East Prussia from the north (the 43rd and 50th armies of Beloborodov and Ozerov) and from the south (the 11th Guards Army of Galitsky). Ludnikov’s 39th Army was located northwest of Koenigsberg and was supposed to go to the coast of the Frisher Huff Bay, cutting off the Konigsberg garrison from the Zemland group. In addition, the offensive of the 39th Army prevented the Konigsberg garrison from moving towards Pillau.

The Germans had large forces in the area. At the beginning of April 1945, our troops were confronted by the Zemland task force under the command of the 4th Army commander, General Müller, which included the Konigsberg garrison. The Zemland group consisted of 4 corps (9th, 26th army corps, the remnants of the 4th army — 55th and 6th corps), the Konigsberg garrison, and several separate units. Only 11 divisions, 1 brigade, separate infantry and special regiments, special and militia battalions. The German command also tried to restore several divisions from the defeated 4th Field Army. According to Soviet intelligence, German troops as a whole numbered about 200-250 thousand people.

The capital of eastern Prussia itself was defended by four full-blooded infantry divisions (548th, 561st, 367th and 69th infantry divisions, headquarters of the 61st infantry division, combat division of the Mikosh type, police combat group Schubert) , several separate infantry regiments, a number of security, serf units and militia battalions. In total, the Konigsberg garrison numbered about 130 thousand people, about 4 thousand guns and mortars, more than 100 tanks and self-propelled guns. From the air, the garrison of the city was supported by an aviation group, which was based on the Zemland Peninsula (170 vehicles). The commandant of the city and the Königsberg fortress was General Otto von Lyash.

The Germans relied on a powerful system of fortifications. They equipped three defensive lines around the city, which were saturated with long-range firing points, external and internal forts, shelters, anti-tank and anti-personnel obstacles, which were supplemented by field positions. The German command believed that after heavy fighting in the Heilsberg area, the Russians would take a break. That there is time for the restoration of the 4th Army and the strengthening of the defense of Zemland and Königsberg. The Hitlerites even planned to launch a counterattack in the future with the aim of expanding the bridgehead in the region of the coast and the capital of East Prussia. In addition, the Germans made a mistake in choosing the direction of the main blow of the Russians. It was believed that at first the Russians would strike in the Zemland direction and only then would they storm the completely cut off Koenigsberg. As a result, part of the troops from the city was withdrawn to the peninsula (including the 5th Panzer Division) and weakened the garrison.

Concrete shelter destroyed and captured by Soviet troops during the assault on the Königsberg fortress

Barricade of scrap metal, iron barrels and stones on Königsberg street

Attackers of the 182nd ShAD strike objects in Königsberg

Fighters of the 3rd Belorussian Front and self-propelled guns ISU-122 in a street battle in Königsberg


A few days before the decisive assault on the capital of East Prussia, Soviet artillery began to systematically destroy the enemy’s fortifications and positions. Weather conditions did not allow the full use of aviation, so preliminary fire training was less effective than expected. April 6 at 12 o'clock the assault on the fortress city began. Already on the first day of the operation, units of the 39th Army intercepted the Königsberg-Pillau railway. The connection of the Konigsberg garrison with the Zemland group was interrupted. At the same time, the troops of other Soviet armies occupied 15 settlements near the city, broke into Koenigsberg itself and liberated more than 100 quarters. In the division and regiments, assault groups were formed that took house after house, street after street, quarter after quarter.

On April 7–8, the weather improved significantly. Soviet aviation was actively involved in the destruction of enemy fortifications. On April 7, our planes made over 4700 sorties, and on the 8th, over 6 thousand. The attacks of our bombers significantly reduced the combat potential of the enemy. By the end of April 8, Soviet soldiers occupied the port and railway junction, a number of important military and industrial facilities. The blockade of the city from the Zemland direction was strengthened. The Germans were offered to lay down weaponbut they refused. On the morning of April 9, Soviet troops repulsed attempts by a part of the German garrison to break through towards the Zemland Peninsula. The German Zemland group threw its reserve (5th Panzer Division) into battle to punch the way to the city. However, this attack was repelled. Meanwhile, our artillery and aviation (about 1,5 aircraft) delivered powerful blows to the remaining enemy positions. Then parts of the 11th Guards Army defeated the Nazis in the city center. By 21 o’clock the remains of the German garrison laid down their arms. The last centers of resistance were suppressed on April 10th.

During the battle for Koenigsberg, the Germans lost more than 40 thousand people killed, about 90 thousand people were captured. The Konigsberg group was destroyed. The hopes of the German high command for an “impregnable” fortress were destroyed. Soviet soldiers took the second most important center of the Reich. The ancient Slavic-Russian lands of Prussia-Porussia returned to the Russians (Rus).

Read more about the Koenigsberg operation in the articles: Koenigsberg operation; Destruction of the Heilsberg Group (4 Army); Sturm Konigsberg. Breakthrough German Defense; The second day of the storming of Königsberg. Root change in battle; Konigsberg Fall; The defeat of the group "Zemland". Storm Pillau.

Soviet gunners (at the 57-mm anti-tank gun ZiS-2) and fighters of the assault group conduct street battles for Koenigsberg

T-34-85 tanks of the 3rd Belorussian Front in the center of Konigsberg

Soviet soldiers are sleeping, resting after the fighting, right on the street taken by the assault of Konigsberg

[A column of German prisoners of war follows the assembly point in the Königsberg area

A column of German prisoners of war passes by a monument to William I in the Koenigsberg captured by Soviet troops. Under the monument is visible a map with the inscription “From Königsberg to Moscow 1275 km”
Photos used:
Articles from this series:
The agony of the Third Reich

The Agony of the Third Reich. 75 years of the Vistula-Oder operation
The assault on the East Prussian fortress of the Reich
How Soviet troops liberated Warsaw
How Stalin created the foundations of a new world
The fierce battle for the Slavic Pomerania
75 years ago, Soviet troops stormed Budapest
The stubborn battle for Silesia
The Miracle of Breslau. How they stormed Hitler’s last fortress
"Spring Awakening." The last blow of the Reich
The defeat of the German army in Upper Silesia
How the Red Army stormed Gdynia and Danzig
How the Red Army stormed the capital of Slovakia
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  1. svp67
    svp67 April 6 2020 05: 30 New
    Yes, our ancestors learned to fight by the end of the war, and that there Koenigsberg, with its forts, they were ready to storm the heavens, just to finish off the Nazis and quickly end this war, but it was not enough to be ready. they knew how to do it.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 6 2020 06: 03 New
      I, in fact, the elder brothers fought, uncles, mother, and ancestors, probably, only in the Crimean company under the leadership of Nakhimov, and rather even earlier. )))
      And I completely agree about the fact that they learned to fight, it’s only expensive for us to do this, but there’s no other way.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey April 6 2020 06: 29 New
        Quote: Sea Cat
        expensive only this teaching cost us

        Well, it didn’t grow together with the planned one - they didn’t give time, so you can assume anything, but you have to pay more for an accelerated one ...
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 6 2020 06: 39 New
        How did you manage to read the article, all in a narrow column ....... request

        The operation, of course, is brilliant in execution.

        Hitler was furious and sentenced commandant Lyash and his family to be shot for surrendering the city.
        And the family was arrested, but did not have time to shoot ...
        1. Errr
          Errr April 6 2020 07: 17 New
          Quote: Olgovich
          How did you manage to read the article, all in a narrow column ....... request
          Apparently, like you, I first see such a "narrow column", but it turns out that this can be read normally in the "reading mode". You just need to right-click on the page and select this mode in the drop-down menu ("Go to read mode"), and to get into the" Comments "return to the main mode ("Exit reading mode). hi
        2. Catfish
          Catfish April 6 2020 08: 41 New
          Even without this article, I read quite a lot about this operation in various publications. And here, if desired, everything is quite readable. Annoying only the inability to view photos.
        3. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid April 6 2020 09: 08 New
          Quote: Olgovich
          How did you manage to read the article, all in a narrow column. ........
          I thought only I had a tablet glitches, reboots, buzz-syudy. .... And how turned 90 ° ---- it became normal.
          I read everything .---- photos became for the entire tablet at the same time
          1. 26rus
            26rus April 6 2020 11: 50 New
            Quote: Reptiloid
            Quote: Olgovich
            How did you manage to read the article, all in a narrow column. ........
            I thought only I had a tablet glitches, reboots, buzz-syudy. .... And how turned 90 ° ---- it became normal.
            I read everything .---- photos became for the entire tablet at the same time

            A similar situation.
        4. maksbazhin
          maksbazhin April 6 2020 09: 11 New
          Scale 200%
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 6 2020 09: 28 New
            Quote: maksbazhin
            Scale 200%

            The best answer.

            Even 150% helped

            Thank you! hi
      3. bubalik
        bubalik April 6 2020 08: 49 New
        During the battle for Koenigsberg, the Germans lost more than 40 thousand people killed, about 90 thousand people were captured.

        1. Looking for
          Looking for April 6 2020 16: 43 New
          n-yes. I believe this document .. Author-NO.
          1. The comment was deleted.
      4. mat-vey
        mat-vey April 6 2020 12: 46 New
        My grandfather just in 117 artillery brigade - Konigsberg and ended the war.
      5. Looking for
        Looking for April 6 2020 16: 33 New
        And you yourself. It’s no coincidence that the “son of the regiment” was born on the 60th?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 6 2020 17: 28 New
          Why the question? All people are like people, and someone without being rude does not think of life. Learn Russian for a start ... commentator. fool
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 April 6 2020 20: 53 New
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Why the question?

            Version- * Self-isolation *?!?! bully
            Damn! But the topic !!!! * Self-isolation and its role in the mental health of the nation *? what
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 6 2020 21: 15 New
              Hello Seryozha! The nation is healthy, and everything else is an inevitable marriage of production. drinks
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 April 6 2020 21: 19 New
                Good evening Konstantin! Ha, ha! A week has passed and there are already losses. But before April 30 / and this is not a fact! / Is still far! negative
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 6 2020 21: 48 New
                  So I'm not talking about a virus, I'm talking about brains. They will cure the virus, I hope, but the lack of brains cannot be cured. request drinks
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 7 2020 15: 58 New
                    Hi Konstantin! So, there’s a connection: -the person has four walls, one. And if you also have a drink, you’ll go to any roof! Yes, even if you’re not a fan, it’s still a difficult test for the individual’s psyche. It’s good if you have a hobby! good
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish April 7 2020 16: 17 New
                      Well, if you have a hobby!

                      "Your hobby has formed
                      When you were still in the womb.
                      Here is my advice: not to ruin life,
                      Make life a hobby. "

                      So, not everyone in life is lucky. request
        2. mat-vey
          mat-vey April 7 2020 13: 27 New
          Quote: Seeker
          And you yourself. It’s no coincidence that the “son of the regiment” was born on the 60th?

          And for what purpose are you interested?
    2. 210ox
      210ox April 6 2020 14: 18 New
      On my avatar, my grandfather, an artilleryman. East Prussia - spring 1945 .. The battle was difficult, and it did not begin in January, but in the autumn of 1944. Then, on the wave of the success of the Bagration operation, ours tried to storm East Prussia. But in the fall it didn’t work- enemy resistance and the fatigue of our troops were strong .. So they stormed for almost six months ..
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 April 6 2020 21: 11 New
        - We tried to enter from the direction of Gerdauen (Zheleznodorozhny) ... And this is from Kaliningrad nearly a hundred kilometers. ...
  2. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya April 6 2020 08: 42 New
    It is good that the Kaliningrad region was not included in the Lithuanian SSR, as some "smart" heads in Moscow suggested. If Khrushchev were not Ukrainian, but Lithuanian, then instead of including Crimea in the Ukrainian SSR, Kaliningrad Oblast would be included in the Lithuanian SSR. In general, in fairness, it was necessary to include the entire coast to Klaipeda in the Kaliningrad region, since Memel was always inhabited only by Germans:

    And proud, but poor Lithuanians would live now without the first-class port of Klaipeda, actually cut off from the sea. And who would need them then?
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 6 2020 09: 42 New
      Quote: Kot_Kuzya
      . If Khrushchev were not Ukrainian, but Lithuanian

      He was not Ukrainian.
      I already told you how I agreed that I am not Ukrainian: everyone knows that both the passport and the place of birth I am a chicken, and my village is Russian

      That his wife was the most that no matter, from the Kholm region is generally Poland today.
      Quote: Kot_Kuzya
      In general, in fairness, it was necessary to include the entire coast to Klaipeda in the Kaliningrad region

      In fairness, ALL East Prussia was supposed to go to Russia, but two-thirds it was presented .... to the Poles, who by her capture were almost no side ......

      It was there that the first monuments to our soldiers were demolished ..
      1. Xnumx vis
        Xnumx vis April 6 2020 21: 21 New
        Quote: Olgovich
        In fairness, ALL East Prussia was supposed to go to Russia, but two-thirds gave it .... to the Poles, who by its capture were almost no side ......

        For that you slammed cons? And I realized for Khrushchev .... Minusators !!! fellow
      2. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya April 7 2020 01: 54 New
        Since when did the kuryan become a nationality? Then the Volgograd and Vladivostok nationalities too? Khrushchev is a typical rogue.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 7 2020 09: 06 New
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          Since when did the kuryan become a nationality?

          Kuryanin practically means RUSSIAN, for NEVER that region was part of Little Russia, the village is Russian, and the Ukrainian population in that region was 0,54%.
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          Khrushchev is a typical rogue.

          Khrushchev about himself: "I am an internationalist. I love very much Ukrainian intelligentsia ""
          1. Kot_Kuzya
            Kot_Kuzya April 8 2020 06: 27 New
            As if Ukrainians cannot live in a Russian village. Khrushchev is Ukrainian by nationality, he loved to wear an embroidered shirt and dance a hopak.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich April 8 2020 08: 31 New
              Quote: Kot_Kuzya
              As if Ukrainians cannot live in a Russian village.

              1. there and the Jews could live.
              maybe he ... a Jew?
              2. SAM Khrushchev:
              I already said that I am not Ukrainian

              Voroshilov, of course, handed over Crimea to Ukraine at the suggestion of Khrushchev. But we will not forget that Khrushchev eliminated the so-called ugly freak. "Kfssr" and returned to Russia Russian Karelia
      3. samarin1969
        samarin1969 April 7 2020 15: 55 New
        [quote = Olgovich] [quote = Kot_Kuzya]. If Khrushchev were not Ukrainian, but Lithuanian [/ quote]
        He was not Ukrainian.
        Khrushchev: [quote] I already told you how I agreed then that I am not Ukrainian: everyone knows that both the passport and the place of birth I am a chicken, and my village is Russian[/ Quote]
        His wife was the very thing to eat — from the Kholmshchyna — it’s generally Poland today. [Quote = Kot_Kuzya] A. [/ quote]

        hi My ancestors from the kurshchina ... They loved to remind "on occasion" that Khrushch was their fellow countryman. Moreover, his attachment to Ukraine is strange. Maybe Nikita Sergeevich was too fond of southern Russian rustic outrageous.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 8 2020 08: 33 New
          Quote: samarin1969
          Moreover, his attachment to Ukraine is strange. Maybe Nikita Sergeevich was too fond of southern Russian rustic outrageous.

          He, in his confession, LOVED the Ukrainian intelligentsia. And his super-beautiful wife
  3. maksbazhin
    maksbazhin April 6 2020 09: 12 New
    How did you manage to read the article, all in a narrow column

    Scale 200%
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 6 2020 10: 18 New
    The forts are solid there, in Königsberg, in Pillau. Even now they make a strong impression.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 6 2020 18: 46 New
      Quote: Korsar4
      Even now they make a strong impression.

      Hi Sergey! And I served there in 83. The part was located under the city of Ladushkin / Ludwigsort /. So, from those times underground vaults were preserved there, our barracks and a partially destroyed guardhouse on the perimeter. What is most interesting, legends circulated in many parts about the non-freezing swastika on the parade ground, about underground factories, railway lines, bunkers, and so on. For example, we had a bike saying that several pig carcasses with the stamp in the form of an eagle were preserved in the food warehouse. But I really didn’t see it. But ... And more! We had a lake around the perimeter ro and, accordingly, according to local legend, there was an underground plant underneath it. It's somehow like that. Almost off topic, but close to it. hi
  5. Mexican. 29
    Mexican. 29 April 6 2020 15: 44 New
    I would like to see Hitler's face when he was informed that the great stronghold of the Prussian spirit fell under the blows of the Red Army in 4 days
  6. BAI
    BAI April 6 2020 17: 05 New
    Neither in this nor in earlier articles does the author mention the assault groups that ensured success and relatively small losses during the assault.
    The assault tactics consisted in the widest possible use of assault groups, which were to conduct street battles. In each rifle battalion they were created in two, leaving one more company in reserve.

    Two 45-mm guns, two regimental artillery guns (usually short-barreled 76-mm guns), two ZiS-3 type divisions, a 122 mm cannon or howitzer, one or two tanks or self-propelled guns, 82 platoon were assigned to each company of attack aircraft millimeter mortars, platoon of machine guns, sapper platoon and the department of flamethrowers. In addition, the assault group was supposed to be supported by a battery (and in especially important areas of the division) regimental or division artillery.

    The company, in turn, was divided into four assault subgroups: two attacking (20-25 fighters, which included sappers and flamethrowers), one fastening (8-10 people with machine guns and a pair of guns) and fire (all other guns, tanks and self-propelled guns). In the reserve there were 10-15 riflemen, 1-2 guns, a department of "machine gunners" and a department of sappers.

    The stormtroopers most readily recruited soldiers who had experience of street fighting in Stalingrad. The rest, taking into account the real situation in which they were to act, were taught to throw grants at the windows of houses, dig dug-outs, move in dashes from cover to cover, overcome various obstacles, penetrate as quickly as possible into any openings and breaks of buildings, and overcome water barriers using improvised means, quickly convert captured homes into fortified locations. Particular attention was paid to hand-to-hand combat using knives and sapper blades. The most thoroughly worked out methods of interaction between units.

    If possible, the assault groups were armed with submachine guns, not rifles. With fleeting, often sudden contact with the enemy, there is simply no time to distort the “mosinki” shutter, let alone aim, and PPSh or PPS perfectly provided the necessary rate of fire and density of fire over a short distance. The rule "survives the one who shoots faster and more often" is the best suited for military operations in a city. For the same purposes, the attack aircraft were supplied with an increased number of grenades - 4-5 pieces of fragmentation, compared to 2 prescribed by the charter, plus one anti-tank and a couple of bottles with Molotov cocktail. Some of the fighters also carried smoke grenades or checkers.

    The most important role in the actions of the assault groups was played by sappers, without which in many cases it was simply not enough. They were the ones who made passages in barbed wire fences, blew up barricades, made breaches in the walls, removed enemy mines and set their own. Therefore, the “pioneers” were heavier than the rest of the fighters: the squad carried 2-4 elongated and 5-8 concentrated explosive charges of 15-20 kilograms each, 5 cumulative charges of 12,5 kg, 6 incendiary tubes, 20-30 anti-tank mines , 15-20 TNT drafts.

    In total, 26 assault groups and 104 assault groups were prepared for the upcoming battles in Königsberg.

    “Approaching a house occupied by the enemy, 45-mm guns and regimental artillery guns open fire at firing points on the approaches to the building and on the windows of the lower floors, divisional artillery with armor-piercing shells destroys the walls of the lower floors, 122-mm guns, tanks and self-propelled guns fire on the upper floors with the task of making the enemy go down, mortars fire on the roofs and approaches to the building, ”commanded Kuzma Galitsky, commander of the 11th Guards Army, operating from the south, instructed his fighters.

    It should be noted that the assault groups had protective cuirasses.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik April 6 2020 17: 37 New
      assault groups had protective cuirasses
      ,,, CH-42 no
      1. bubalik
        bubalik April 6 2020 18: 12 New
        SN 42 were not always successful in application
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 6 2020 19: 06 New
          PZ-ZIF-20. The main competitor of this breastplate, but it has not received widespread use.
  7. saygon66
    saygon66 April 6 2020 20: 59 New
    The 548th and 561st German divisions were "popular grenadier" ie typed from the pine forest ...
    - Vinzer Bruno, the commander of the anti-tank company of the 551 People’s Grenadier Division about replenishment in the spring of 1945: “Our companies were melting. In this situation, a replenishment once arrived. Extremely pleased, I was about to greet the soldiers, but I was confused, finding myself face to face with about thirty boys aged 14 to 16 from the Hitler Youth Union. A group of elderly men arrived with them, almost without exception the invalids of the First World War. I quickly attached the elderly, sending them to the convoy. But to manage the youths was more difficult. They wanted to fight, win and, if necessary, die "for the beloved Fuhrer." At first I used them to protect the convoy. A few days later they began to scandal, expressed their displeasure in every possible way, striving for the front line. They dreamed of the Knight's Cross and immortal glory. ”
    - In fact - the militias ... We will be more attentive to the details!
  8. Comrade Michael
    Comrade Michael April 7 2020 10: 54 New
    My grandfather took it. In the assault group of the Marine Corps.