The Miracle of Breslau. How they stormed Hitler’s last fortress

The Miracle of Breslau. How they stormed Hitler’s last fortress

Soviet self-propelled guns ISU-152 on the street Breslau. With a high degree of probability in the photograph of ISU-152 from the 349th Guards heavy self-propelled regiment


The last year of the war was the agony of the Third Reich. Realizing the inevitability of defeat and punishment for the crimes committed, the Nazi elite did its best to delay the defeat. For this, all the means were good: they carried out a total mobilization, feverishly developed various samples of “miraculousweapons”, Surrounded by Soviet troops, the cities were declared“ fortresses ”. Breslau-Breslavl, the capital of Silesia, also became such a stronghold. The German garrison fought here for almost three months, from mid-February to May 6, 1945, and surrendered only after the news of the general surrender of the German armed forces.

Breslau Defense Organization


By February 15, 1945, Soviet troops blocked the capital of Silesia, the city of Breslau. The city was defended by the Breslau corps group (about 50 thousand people, plus 30 thousand militias). At first, the military commandant of the city was Major General Hans von Alphen, and in March, General of the Infantry German Nihof. The political power in the fortified area was exercised by Gauleiter Karl Hanke, endowed with dictatorial powers. He shot and hanged everyone who wanted to leave the city without the order of the Fuhrer. So, on January 28, by order of the Gauleiter, the second mayor of Breslau Spielhaten was executed.

The garrison and the remaining inhabitants of the city were convinced that their business was to stand at this strategic point until the Wehrmacht went over to the counteroffensive and set them free. There was hope that the troops of Army Group Center, located southwest of Breslau, would break through the encirclement. At first, soldiers and citizens believed in the appearance of a “miracle weapon that would save the Reich, and in the success of the offensive in Silesia and Pomerania. There were also rumors about the imminent collapse of the anti-Hitler coalition, the conflict of Western powers with the USSR. In addition, the front stabilized relatively close to the city and artillery cannonade came from there, which for a long time supported the garrison's hopes for an early arrival of aid.

Food in the city was enough for a long defense. Ammunition was worse. But they were delivered over an “air bridge”. Airplanes landed at the Gandau airfield. Also, small units of paratroopers and troopers were transported through the air to the city during the siege. Gandau airfield was under constant threat of capture. Hanke decided to build a new airfield in the city center along one of the main streets of the city - Kaiserstrasse. For this, it was necessary to remove all the lighting masts, wires, cut down trees, uproot stumps and even demolish dozens of buildings (to expand the strip) for almost one and a half kilometers. There were not enough sappers to clear the territory of the “internal airdrome”, so we had to attract the civilian population.

Soviet intelligence believed that parts of the 20th tank divisions, 236th assault gun brigade, consolidated tank company, artillery and anti-aircraft units, 38 Volkssturm battalions. In total, more than 30 thousand people (including the militia), with 124 guns, 1645 machine guns, 2335 faustpatrons, 174 mortars and 50 tanks and self-propelled guns. The main forces of the German garrison were concentrated in the southern and western sections. The southeastern, eastern, and northern parts of the city were covered by natural barriers: the Weide River, canals of the Oder River, and the Ole River with wide floodplains. In the north, the area was swampy, which made it impossible to use heavy weapons.

The Nazis created a strong defense. Numerous stone buildings, gardens and parks made it possible to covertly place fire weapons and mask them. The roads were blocked in advance by blockages of stones and logs, barricades and ditches, mined, as well as approaches to them, were shot. At the same time, there was a network of good roads in the city and its suburbs, which allowed the Germans to quickly transfer their tanks, assault guns and artillery to the dangerous section. Armored vehicles were in the commandant's reserve and its small groups (1-2 tanks, 1-3 self-propelled guns) were used at active sites to support infantry.


A column of German troops enters Breslau. Ahead of the tractor, the Sd.Kfz 10 tows a 75-mm anti-tank gun PaK 40. The German units are preparing for the defense of Breslau, which is declared a fortified city. February 1945


Lined up in the battles of Breslau and completely burned down the medium tank Pz.Kpfw.IV Ausf. H late release. The tank was disabled by the only hit of a 76-mm armor-piercing projectile in the forehead of the tower. The forehead is almost completely covered by tracked tracks to increase protection


German machine gunners fire from a building window during battles in Breslau

Assault


On February 18, 1945, the 6th combined arms army of Gluzdovsky was transferred to the 349th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (8 ISU-152). Each rifle regiment assigned an assault group (combined battalion) for combat operations in the city. Also, the assault battalions of the 62nd separate engineer and combat brigade were involved for the assault, whose fighters were prepared for urban battles and capture long-term fortifications. The personnel of these units were armed with protective shells, ROCKS flamethrowers (Klyuev - Sergeyev backpack pack flamethrower), portable rocket launchers, trophy faustpatrons and explosives.

The fighting of the assault groups took place from February 18 to May 1, 1945 (in anticipation of the complete surrender of the enemy, the forces blocking Breslau completed the attack). Soviet troops mainly operated in the western and southern parts of the fortified area. The offensive was uneven: either activation or pause. During a pause, reconnaissance, regrouping and replenishment of forces, ammunition transportation, and targeting for a new quarter were carried out.

The first assault (separate attacks were earlier) began on the night of February 22, 1945 in the southern part of Breslau. After the artillery bombardment, the assault groups began to accompany the batteries. Self-propelled guns moved behind the main forces of the assault groups at a distance of 100-150 meters along the streets from south to north. At the request of the infantry, they hit the enemy firing points. Self-propelled guns moved at some distance from each other, clinging to the walls of houses, supporting neighbors with fire. Periodically, self-propelled guns fired harassing and aimed fire at the upper floors of houses, to ensure the actions of infantry and sappers who paved the way in the rubble and barricades. Unfortunately, there were mistakes, so, two cars pulled ahead of the infantry and were hit by the Faustians.

Soviet sappers actively used directional explosions, using water hatches as reflectors. Then, fiery jets of flamethrowers were directed into punched gaps in the barricades and walls of buildings. However, our troops met fierce resistance, and the Nazis repelled the first assault aimed at the city center.

In early March, the 6th Army was reinforced with the 222nd separate tank regiment (5 T-34, 2 IS-2, 1 ISU-122 and 4 SU-122) and the 87th Guards Tank Heavy Regiment (11 IS-2) . The 349th Guards Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment was significantly strengthened (29 ISU-152). This strengthened the assault forces, the battles resumed with renewed vigor. As before, tanks and self-propelled guns moved behind the infantry, acting as mobile firing points. The boundary of the infantry, as a rule, was indicated by a green or white missile, and red - indicated the direction of fire. Tanks or self-propelled guns fired several shots and the arrows went on the attack under cover of smoke and dust, taking advantage of the fact that the enemy firing point was suppressed, or the Nazis hid in shelters under fire. Soldiers burst into the building, actively used grenades. Some buildings were destroyed by direct fire, by the fire of guns, brick fences and metal fences were destroyed. To avoid losses, the firing position of tanks and self-propelled guns was changed only after a complete cleaning of houses, floors, attics and basements. Sometimes heavy tanks and self-propelled guns were used as rams, making passages in barriers and barricades.

In the best traditions of Russian ingenuity, tankers used river anchors to remove rubble and barricades. A tank or self-propelled guns, under cover of the fire of another car, was approaching the blockage, sappers grabbed anchor for logs, bars and other objects of the blockage, the armored car reversed and pulled away the obstacle. It used to be used tank landing. One tank or self-propelled guns fired at an object, another with a landing on board at high speed jerked toward the building, stopping at a window or door. The landing force burst into the building and began close combat. The armored vehicle retreated to its original position.

However, these forces were not enough to make a decisive turning point in the battle for Breslau. For March 1945, little success was only in the center, where our assault groups managed to advance four blocks from the Hindenburg square northward, in the remaining sections only 1-2 blocks. The battles were extremely stubborn. The Germans fought fiercely and skillfully, defending every house, floor, basement or attic. They tried to use the 87th Guards Tank Heavy Regiment in the northern sector, but unsuccessfully. The sappers could not destroy all the blockages on the roads in time, and when heavy tanks moved outside the roads, they got stuck in marshy areas and became easy prey for the enemy. After this failure, they did not conduct more active actions in the north.


Soviet soldiers run near the German 88-mm Flak 37 anti-aircraft gun during battles in Breslau. February-March 1945


The soldiers are moving through the barricade in Breslau. Lieutenant I. Rodkin leads the fighters on the attack. March 1945


Senior sergeant I. Kireev shoots from a captured German Faustpatron grenade launcher during a night battle in the city of Breslau. March 1945


122-mm howitzer M-30 of senior sergeant Georgy Yevstafievich Makeev from the 663rd artillery regiment of the 218th infantry division on Gutenberg Strasse between the 608th and 607th quarters in the city of Breslau. March 1945

"Easter battle"


The assault on the city took a positional character. Our troops beat off the enemy house by house, block by block, slowly biting into the depths of the city. But the German garrison showed tenacity and ingenuity, fiercely fought back. The commander of the sapper battalion of the 609th division, Captain Rother, recalled:

“The streets between German and Russian positions were bombarded with debris, broken brick and tile. Therefore, we decided to put mines disguised as debris. To do this, we covered the wooden shells of anti-personnel mines with drying oil, and then sprinkled with red and yellowish-white brick dust, so that it was impossible to distinguish them from brick. It was impossible to distinguish mines prepared in this way from a distance of three meters from a brick. At night, they were installed using rods from windows, basement hatches and from balconies or from the ruins of houses unnoticed by the enemy. So, a few days before the front of the 609th engineer battalion, a fence of 5 thousand such anti-personnel mines disguised as bricks was established. ”

In April 1945, the main hostilities took place in the southern and western parts of Breslau. April 1, Soviet Easter Sunday aviation and artillery delivered powerful blows to the city. Neighborhoods flared the city, buildings collapsed one after another. Under a veil of fire and smoke, Soviet tanks and self-propelled guns launched a new attack. The "Easter battle" began. Armored vehicles made holes in the weakening enemy defenses, flamethrowers destroyed pillboxes and bunkers, concentrated artillery fire from close range swept away all living things. The German defense was broken through, our troops captured the main "artery" of the fortress - the Gandau airfield. Breslau was completely cut off from the Reich, since the “internal airfield” on Kaiserstrasse was unsuitable for landing large aircraft that brought weapons and ammunition, taking the wounded and sick. It became obvious that the position of the fortress was hopeless. But the military-political command of the fortified city did not respond to calls for surrender.

In the following days, the battle continued. The main battles were fought in the western part of the fortress city; therefore, all tank and self-propelled regiments were subordinated to the commander of the 74th Rifle Corps, Major General A.V. Vorozhishchev. Armored vehicles supported the operations of the 112th, 135th, 181st, 294th, 309th and 359th Rifle Divisions. On April 3, the 6th Guards Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment was transferred to the 374th Army. Self-propelled gunners got the task, in cooperation with the 294th division, to go to the right bank of the Oder River. By April 15, despite strong enemy resistance, the task was partially completed. Since April 18, the self-propelled gun regiment performed the same task, but now supported the advance of the 112th division. In the battle on April 18, the 374th self-propelled gun regiment lost 13 ISU-152 out of 15. The Germans were able to disperse and destroy the landing force (50 people), the rest of the assault infantry was cut off and the Fausters burned the self-propelled guns. In the future, self-propelled guns of the 374th regiment helped our attack aircraft take several quarters.

On April 30, 1945, our troops stopped the offensive, waiting for the surrender of Germany. Breslau did not give up, and after the surrender of Berlin on May 2, 1945, on May 4, the townspeople, through priests, offered commandant Niechof to lay down their arms in order to stop the suffering of people. The torment of civilians, the elderly, women and children has become unbearable. The general did not give an answer. On May 5, Gauleiter Hanke announced through the city newspaper (its last release) that surrender was banned on pain of death. Hanke himself escaped on an airplane on the evening of May 5. After the flight of Hanke, General Nihof entered into negotiations with Commander Gluzdovsky on the issue of the surrender of the fortress. The Soviet side guaranteed life, food, the preservation of personal property and awards, return to their homeland, after the end of the war; medical care for the wounded and sick; safety and normal living conditions for the entire civilian population.

May 6, 1945 Breslau capitulated. By the evening of the same day, all German troops were disarmed, our units occupied all quarters. On May 7, 1945, gratitude was declared to the troops who took Breslau, and in Moscow salute was given by 20 artillery volleys of 224 guns.


The calculation of the Soviet 120-mm regimental mortar PM-38 fires on Breslau street


Soviet self-propelled guns SU-122, destroyed on the streets of Breslau. In the photograph with a high degree of probability, the SU-122 from the 222nd separate tank regiment (commander Lieutenant Colonel Viktor Georgievich Makarov). Location: the intersection of Gabitz street with Opitz or with Hardenberg


Tank IS-2 No. 537 Lieutenant B.I. Degtyarev from the 222nd Separate Tank Ropshinsky Red Banner Order of Kutuzov, 1rd class regiment, shot down at Strigauerplatz in the German city of Breslau. From April 7 to 5, a regiment of 2 IS-112 tanks supported the infantry of the 359th and 7th rifle divisions in the southwestern part of the city. For XNUMX days of fighting, Soviet troops advanced only a few blocks

The meaning of the "miracle of Breslau"


The defense of Breslau was used by Goebbels, who compared this battle to the battle for Aachen during the wars with Napoleon. The Miracle of Breslau has become a symbol of national resilience. The German garrison fought for almost three months, until the end of the war held most of the city and surrendered only after the surrender of the entire Reich. Thus, the German military historian Kurt Tippelskirch noted that the defense of Breslau became “one of the most glorious pages in stories the German people. "

However, he noted that the defense of Breslau was of strategic importance only in the first phase of the winter offensive of the Red Army of 1945, that is, in January and the first half of February 1945. At this time, the Breslav fortified area attracted part of the forces of the 1st Ukrainian Front, which made it easier for the German command to create a new defense line from Lower Silesia to the Sudetenland. After February, the defense of the fortress no longer had military significance; several Soviet divisions besieging Breslau did not reduce the forces of the Red Army. That is, Breslau could capitulate without prejudice to the Wehrmacht already in late February - early March 1945. But the political significance of the defense of the fortified city (propaganda) was more important than the military.


oh on a railway track in the Breslau area. The fighter holds a DP-27 machine gun in his hand


The crew of the IS-2 tank of the 222nd separate tank Ropshinsky Red Banner Order of Kutuzov III degree regiment on vacation. April 1945. Charging Private Boris Kalyagin plays the harmonium for his crew, next to him is a mechanic-driver Sergeant Konstantin Alekseevich Kargopolov, on the turret of the tank gun commander Private Ivan Andreevich Kazeykin and platoon guard commander Lieutenant Boris Ivanovich Degtyarev. By order of the commander of the armored and mechanized troops of the 6th Army dated 17.04.1945 No. 09 / n for exemplary performance of combat missions of the command at the front of the struggle against the German invaders and shown in the battles to destroy the enemy group in the city of Breslau the whole crew was awarded the orders: Guards. Lieutenant Degtyarev B.I. - Order of the Patriotic War of the XNUMXst degree, ordinary Kazeykin I.A. and Kalyagin B.V. - Orders of the Red Star, foreman Kargopolov K.A. - Order of the Patriotic War of II degree

Why the Red Army was unable to storm Breslau


The answer is simple. The front command almost immediately removed all forces from this sector, except for the rather weak composition of the 6th combined arms army. As a result, the 6th Army conducted a siege only on its own (two rifle corps - 7 rifle divisions, 1 fortified area), without additional artillery and tank forces. Her strength was too small for a full-fledged assault from several directions, which would definitely lead to the fall of the fortress. At the same time, the Soviet command initially underestimated the size of the enemy garrison. Its number at the beginning of the siege was estimated at only 18 thousand soldiers (not counting the militia), but as the siege dragged on, the estimate of its number increased first to 30 thousand people, then to 45 thousand people. Thus, the number of troops of the 6th Army was at first less than the German garrison (in fact, an entire army), there were not enough guns and tanks.

The Soviet supreme command was occupied with larger tasks. Breslau no longer had military significance. The fortress was doomed and its fall was only inevitable. Therefore, no special efforts were made to capture Breslau.

Also among the objective reasons for the long-term defense of the city are the geographical features of the location of the big city. It was covered on two sides by natural barriers that interfered with the actions of mechanized units. In addition, the Soviet command did not want to suffer heavy losses as the end of the war was approaching, there was no military need for a quick capture of Breslau. Moreover, Silesia and Breslau (Wroclaw) from July 1, 1945 were transferred to the new Polish state, friendly to the USSR. If possible, it was necessary to save the city for the Poles.


A group of officers of the 359th Infantry Division in Breslau, against the backdrop of captured German armored vehicles. In the foreground is the German Marder III self-propelled gun, in the background the German Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf heavy tank. B "Tiger II". May 1945


Soviet soldiers distribute bread to the residents of the German city of Breslau. May 1945
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  1. Monster_Fat 19 February 2020 05: 26 New
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    Here, the question arises, why couldn’t you mix Breslau with dust with the help of aviation? And the answer is simple - the Soviet aviation did not act satisfactorily throughout the war, this is evidenced by such a long supply of Breslau (we also remember Demyansk) by the Germans by air.
    1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 06: 01 New
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      Sense
      Stalingrad destroyed from the air - what did it give?
    2. strannik1985 19 February 2020 06: 07 New
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      The answer is simple

      Well, yes, Stalin will take and take out of his pocket an analogue of the 8th US Air Force, because apart from working on Brest, the Air Force had no goals.
    3. iouris 19 February 2020 22: 33 New
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      Quote: Monster_Fat
      why was it impossible to mix Breslau with dust with the help of aviation?

      This is a question for the "allies." Do they need it? War is over. Although he bombed Koenigsberg.
    4. Graz 20 February 2020 05: 02 New
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      if there were 50 thousand soldiers plus residents, it was necessary to take the city in a ring to interfere with the water supply channel, warehouses with food and starve them, the best option
    5. Arthur 85 20 February 2020 18: 23 New
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      Well, maybe because the Red Army does not fight civilians (even Germans)?
    6. Pushkar 28 February 2020 18: 41 New
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      Quote: Monster_Fat
      Here, the question arises, why couldn’t you mix Breslau with dust with the help of aviation?
      Bad weather, the photographs are visible.
  2. Olgovich 19 February 2020 06: 37 New
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    30 April 1945 our troops stopped the offensive, waiting for the surrender of Germany. Breslau did not give up, and after the surrender of Berlin on May 2, 1945, on May 4, the townspeople, through priests, offered commandant Niehof to lay down their arms in order to stop the suffering of people

    interesting. why didn’t you stop earlier?

    They were blocked to death, they are far from the main forces ... recourse
  3. Lamata 19 February 2020 06: 54 New
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    But why did our people fight after February, they would besiege And let the Germans sit there, swell from hunger. Well no no art fire bother. Our soldiers honor and hawala for the Victory.
    1. Alexey RA 19 February 2020 11: 25 New
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      Quote: Lamata
      But why did our people fight after February, they would besiege And let the Germans sit there, swell from hunger. Well no no art fire bother.

      Because Breslau is minus one army of 1 UV (twelve divisions, counting reserves). Just at a time when Konev was desperately lacking infantry. So they tried to quickly end the encirclement in order to free up strength.
      The problem was that the main forces and reinforcements were heading for the main strike. As a result, the group stormed the Breslau received reinforcements on the residual principle:
      On February 18, 1945, the 6th combined arms army of Gluzdovsky was transferred to the 349th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment (8 ISU-152).

      In early March, the 6th Army was strengthened by the 222nd separate tank regiment (5 T-34, 2 IS-2, 1 ISU-122 and 4 SU-122) and the 87th Guards Tank Heavy Regiment (11 IS-2) .

      EMNIP, according to the state in glanders there should be 21 self-propelled guns. In ottp - 21 tanks.
      1. bubalik 19 February 2020 11: 35 New
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        ,,, all in all, the following formations and units of the 6th Army took part in the storming of the city: 22 sk (273. 112, 181, 135 sd), 74 sk (294. 359. 309, 218 sd), 77 UR, 87 det. Guards TTP, 222 div. mp, 349 guards. tsap. 374 guards tsap. 31 ADP (187 lab. 191 gauge. 194 gauge. 164 gauge BM, 38 guards. Minbr, 35 minbr, 52 tminbr). 3 guards Mind (15th guards minbr, 18th guards minbr, 32th guards minbr), 25 gauge BM, 3 adp, 159 apr, 71 zenad. 62 det. rev.
        Losses on armored vehicles

        2VA Air Supply
        1. Mihail80 19 February 2020 13: 47 New
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          Thank. Very informative and unbiased comments.
        2. Pane Kohanku 19 February 2020 16: 12 New
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          the following compounds took part in the storming of the city

          Sergey, can you break through, Lieutenant Degtyarev survived or not? Because in one photo he smiles at the pianist, and in the other - his tank is burnt, and the hatches are not open ... soldier
          1. bubalik 19 February 2020 18: 33 New
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            I hope everything is fine with the crew, as in the HBS Memorial do not appear ...
            1. Pane Kohanku 20 February 2020 09: 21 New
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              thank! Let's hope everyone survived ... soldier
          2. Alf
            Alf 19 February 2020 20: 36 New
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            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            Sergey, can you break through, Lieutenant Degtyarev survived or not? Because in one photo he smiles at the pianist, and in the other - his tank is burnt, and the hatches are not open ...

            Maybe they jumped out through the lower hatch? Through the tower is dangerous.
            1. Pane Kohanku 20 February 2020 09: 26 New
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              Maybe they jumped out through the lower hatch? Through the tower is dangerous.

              quite possible. Vasily, here are some interesting recollections of the political officer of the heavy tank regiment Mindlin:
              http://ta-1g.narod.ru/mem/mindlin/mindlin1.html
              It just describes how they fought in Berlin on the IS-2. All the nuances, and about the lower hatch, and about the "Faust." At the same time, about the death of Temnik - the very commander of the 1st Guards Tank Brigade, which was still commanded by Katukov in 1941. Read, if interested, for a couple of hours read binge. hi
              1. Alf
                Alf 20 February 2020 19: 14 New
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                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                quite possible.

                Thank you!
        3. ser56 20 February 2020 18: 21 New
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          I wonder why there were such corps in this army - 4-5 divisions?
          1. Alf
            Alf 20 February 2020 19: 15 New
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            Quote: ser56
            I wonder why there were such corps in this army - 4-5 divisions?

            And how many divisions should be in your corps?
            1. ser56 21 February 2020 11: 45 New
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              Quote: Alf
              And how many divisions should be in your corps?

              in RIA there were 2 divisions, in the Red Army there are usually 3 ... managing 5 divisions with the headquarters of the corps and its means of communication is not easy ... request
              1. Alf
                Alf 21 February 2020 18: 47 New
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                Quote: ser56
                Quote: Alf
                And how many divisions should be in your corps?

                in RIA there were 2 divisions, in the Red Army there are usually 3 ... managing 5 divisions with the headquarters of the corps and its means of communication is not easy ... request

                Or maybe due to the fact that the actual number of rifle divisions in 44-45 was much lower than the regular one?
                1. ser56 22 February 2020 15: 52 New
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                  Quote: Alf
                  Or maybe due to the fact that the actual number of rifle divisions in 44-45 was much lower than the regular one?

                  Do you think that during the temporary detention facility they increased the number of general posts? request
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 22 February 2020 18: 50 New
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                    Quote: ser56
                    Quote: Alf
                    Or maybe due to the fact that the actual number of rifle divisions in 44-45 was much lower than the regular one?

                    Do you think that during the temporary detention facility they increased the number of general posts? request

                    And what's this? They simply formed the corps, proceeding not from the regular strength of the division, but from the actual one. Instead of one with a standard amount of 10000, two with an actual amount of 5 thousand were included in the corps.
                    1. ser56 2 March 2020 14: 37 New
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                      Quote: Alf
                      Instead of one with a standard amount of 10000, two with an actual amount of 5 thousand were included in the corps.

                      if not a secret - why? why not just replenish to the state?
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 2 March 2020 20: 18 New
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                        Quote: ser56
                        Quote: Alf
                        Instead of one with a standard amount of 10000, two with an actual amount of 5 thousand were included in the corps.

                        if not a secret - why? why not just replenish to the state?

                        It’s good to fight, if everything is according to the textbook. That’s not how it works in life. Tell me, is the organization where you work 100% staffed or is there a shortage? Then it should not work until it is equipped.
                        As Clausewitz used to say, Military affairs is simple and accessible to everyone, but it’s difficult to fight.
                      2. ser56 3 March 2020 12: 55 New
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                        Quote: Alf
                        It’s good to fight, if everything is according to the textbook.

                        it is necessary to fight according to the charter ... they taught me that way ... request
                        Quote: Alf
                        Tell me, is the organization where you work 100% staffed or is there a shortage?

                        full set and very stable frames ... would have scored more ... hi
                        Quote: Alf
                        Then it should not work until it is equipped.

                        you substitute concepts - there is a period of manning (formation) and work (including combat) ...
                        that is why, after receiving certain losses, the troops become not combat-ready ... throwing into battle 2 not combat-ready units / formations is worse than 1 combat-ready, because in the first case, not shooters are sent to the system, but specialists in other military academies ...
  • Pecheneg 19 February 2020 07: 35 New
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    If the German garrison could not influence the general situation at the front, then why attack, it would be enough to block. It was also in Courland. Maybe the generals, understanding the end of the war, wanted to have the last glory and honors?
    1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 08: 33 New
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      Or maybe they thought that 50 thousand German soldiers in the rear - this is serious?
    2. strannik1985 19 February 2020 10: 44 New
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      If the German garrison

      How could they know about this?
    3. Corsair71 (Anatoly) 20 February 2020 19: 35 New
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      If you look in the April bubalik commentary on the loss of officers, privates and generals, one gets the impression that they ordered to seize the city.
  • Viktor Sergeev 19 February 2020 08: 37 New
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    Well, and why, in principle, it was necessary to storm? They put a bunch of their soldiers for nothing.
    1. ermak124.0 19 February 2020 22: 57 New
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      Is it better to stop at the borders of the Reich, right?
  • RusGr 19 February 2020 08: 40 New
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    My grandfather, Gridnev Ilya Konstantinovich, ended the war liberating the city of Breslau. Red Army, mortar regiment. He told me that there were heavy battles, they took the streets with difficulty, many of our soldiers died. Everyone wanted to live, the end of the war, but the fascist reptile should be finished off. And their mortars, also as part of the assault squads, sent attacks to liberate the city. For the liberation of Breslau has the Order of the Red Star. (As indicated in the award sheet "Feat of the people").
    1. Pecheneg 19 February 2020 10: 48 New
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      Maybe for the capture?
    2. Rusfaner 20 February 2020 13: 58 New
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      And my uncle, Belkov Nikolai Aleksandrovich (62nd separate engineer-engineer team), for the courage and bravery shown during the assault on Breslau, received the “Glory” of the third degree, although they were represented on the “Patriotic” - according to the award sheet.
      Somewhere they beat next to the adversary.
  • BAI
    BAI 19 February 2020 09: 16 New
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    But they were delivered over an “air bridge”. Airplanes landed at the Gandau airfield.

    And this is the year 1945. When, as it is believed, Soviet aviation reigned supreme in the sky.
    1. Alexey RA 19 February 2020 11: 39 New
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      Quote: BAI
      And this is the year 1945. When, as it is believed, Soviet aviation reigned supreme in the sky.

      In the afternoon, yes. But the Germans flew at night.
      The Air Bridge began operating almost immediately after the encirclement ring closed. Already on the night of February 15-16, twelve Ju-52s landed at the Gandau airfield, carrying artillery shells on board. The pilots returned 255 wounded and several civilian refugees. The Germans even carried air reinforcements into the besieged city. On February 28, the 52nd battalion of the 2th paratrooper regiment and the 25rd battalion of the 3th paratrooper regiment of the 26th parachute division were landed on gliders and transport Ju-9 on Kaiserstrasse. The paratroopers immediately entered the battle, having rendered considerable assistance to the besieged garrison.
      The supply of the city continued almost until its surrender. The Gandau airfield was lost on April 2, the last three Ju-52s landed in Breslau on the night of April 7, taking out 52 wounded and two glider pilots. In the future, the "fortress" was supplied with the help of gliders and dumped cargo parachute containers.

      And with the night air defense in the Red Army Air Force it was ... complicated. Nevertheless, all possible forces were involved for the air blockade of Breslau, including both of the existing fighter regiments with radar.
      At the first stage, the air blockade was carried out by the forces of the 71st anti-aircraft artillery division of the 1st Ukrainian Front and fighters of the 173rd IAP 256th Iad of the 2nd VA. Only on March 12 began to arrive parts of the 10th Air Defense Corps. From that moment until April 26, the blockade was carried out jointly by the air defense forces of the country and the air forces of the front, and later the task of blocking the "fortress" from the air was completely assigned to the 10th air defense corps. By early May, 85 guns of 85 mm caliber, 108 small-caliber anti-aircraft guns, and forty anti-aircraft machine guns were concentrated near Breslau. In the sky, Breslau worked 268th and 348th IAP 310th Fighter Air Defense Division. In addition, the 173rd IAP, which was previously operating in the area, was allocated to which a separate search zone was allocated. For the timely detection of targets and fighter guidance around the city, a network of ground-based radars was deployed.
      In March, the 56th long-range fighter aviation division was relocated to the fortress area, two regiments of which (the 45th and 173rd) were armed with A-20G-1 night fighters from the Gneiss-2 search radar. For a month and a half of combat work, aircraft of the 56th division completed 246 sorties, during which they found the target 68 times and attacked them 13 times.
      I must say that the Soviet "night lights" greatly complicated the life of German transport workers. In many cases, a meeting with night interceptors forced transport aircraft crews to refuse to perform a combat mission or to disconnect towed gliders away from the city. So, on the night of April 7-8, out of 29 gliders flying to Breslau, only 10 were able to land in the “fortress”.
      Another very unpleasant surprise for the Germans was the active conduct by the Soviet side of a deliberate electronic warfare with the “air bridge”. The crews of transport aircraft noted the jamming of the driven beacon and the radio exchange between the airborne aircraft and the command post of the Gandau airfield, which made it difficult for the aircraft to reach the target. Since the area of ​​the "fortress" was not large, the planes that slipped through the city immediately fell under the fire of Soviet anti-aircraft guns.
      © Air bridges of the Third Reich.
  • bubalik 19 February 2020 10: 38 New
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    Gauleiter Karl Hanke

    ,, many museum treasures of Breslau have not surfaced so far.
    Hanke in late 1944 or early 1945 sent an armored train with gold to Berlin (or somewhere else), realizing that the city was about to be surrounded by Soviet troops. The composition left Breslau in the direction of Waldenburg (present Walbrzych). But he didn’t reach the station. According to one version, a secret train entered the tunnel near the Xenge castle and ... disappeared. In those parts, the Nazis built a whole system of tunnels.
    According to another version, he was driven under Mount Sobes near the town of Pelersdorf, where there was an underground military plant. There was also a railway. In adits, tunnels and sheltered supposedly valuable cargo.
    According to the third version, the gold was hidden under the Snezka Mountain in the Sudetenland.
    1. Pane Kohanku 19 February 2020 16: 16 New
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      But he didn’t reach the station. According to one version, a secret train entered the tunnel near the Xenge castle and ... disappeared. In those parts, the Nazis built a whole system of tunnels.

      it seems that there were some kind of "yellowish publications" about this armored train ... what Sergey, what is not the topic for the article? drinks
      Soviet self-propelled guns ISU-152 and a flamethrower tank OT-34-76 in battle on Breslau street. I wonder how such a machine (I'm talking about the flamethrower "thirty-four") "survived" until 1945? I thought they had already been knocked out. request It seems that a high-explosive flamethrower was mounted on the site of a course machine gun.

      http://waralbum.ru/329977/
    2. karabass 19 February 2020 20: 42 New
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      You know, even the most ancient history has an amazing coincidence with today's day - the ancient inhabitants of the earth (which can be traced by the appearance of writing) acted surprisingly similar to the subjects of modern history, with a discount on the customs of that time
      Proceeding from this, it’s useless to look for the Nazi gold of the Kolchak of Napoleon’s kolchak;
      99% of the gold MUST BE divided into shares according to the ranking, and if you manage to find something, it will be only the part that was transferred to the specific subject when it was shared and, for various reasons, was not put into circulation
  • Operator 19 February 2020 10: 54 New
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    This is what happens when during an assault on a city, aviation does not completely destroy houses on the first line of streets in the offensive zone.

    1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 12: 10 New
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      In Stalingrad destroyed - and?
      1. Operator 19 February 2020 13: 35 New
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        In the city of Stalingrad, the Red Army defended itself, but did not advance (unlike the Stalingrad region).
        1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 15: 10 New
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          The Wehrmacht bombed the city before attacking Stalingrad. It did not help him. When fighting in a built-up area, ruins are your enemy, not your friend
          1. Operator 19 February 2020 15: 12 New
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            The Wehrmacht captured 99% of Stalingrad.
            1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 15: 17 New
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              But not all
              Because instead of an organized capture, I had to rumble through the ruins
              And not only of course
              The resistance of the defenders was no worse than in Breslau
              If not tougher
              1. Operator 19 February 2020 15: 18 New
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                Do not engage in demagogy.
                1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 21: 26 New
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                  laughing
                  Can you imagine what war is in a built-up area?
                  1. Operator 19 February 2020 21: 43 New
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                    Fighting in urban areas - see the Internet.
                    1. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 21: 44 New
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                      How should they be carried out, imagine? With a peaceful one, without a peaceful one? With a serious PT, without one?
                      1. Operator 19 February 2020 21: 46 New
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                        I said - see the Internet.

                        And what does the peaceful people do with it?
                      2. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 21: 54 New
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                        laughing
                        Because you have an idea about this only from the Internet - in short, in a nutshell:
                        entry into the city is carried out across the central city highway, along different streets. Mirnyak is more of a bunt, therefore. The freer the track and the whole building - the easier it is for you to work and navigate. You can enter a serious anti-tank - tanks and heavy sapper equipment only after clearing the blocks, without it - in the battle formations of the advancing units. Etc. The ruins disorient you and create the enemy the best conditions for protection.
                      3. Operator 19 February 2020 22: 06 New
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                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Ruins ... create better conditions for the enemy

                        "But how, Holmes?" (WITH) laughing
                      4. Krasnodar 19 February 2020 22: 13 New
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                        Loss of patency, landmarks, the appearance of unexpected places for enemy firing positions, the appearance of unexpected opportunities for the enemy to move, the appearance of unexpected places for the installation of explosive devices of directional action of the enemy, the appearance of various possibilities for mining the enemy, continue? )))
                      5. Operator 20 February 2020 01: 46 New
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                        The main advantage of the defenders is the time (weeks, months) during which it is possible to turn a settlement into a fortified area: place protected firing points in corner houses, break through partitions and ceilings in houses for covert movement, erect barricades, set mines, etc. etc.

                        The advancing forces are forced to act in conditions of a tight time limit, therefore remotely acting firepower (artillery and aviation) is so important for them: the troops have not yet entered the city, and for them "preparatory measures" have already been taken along the offensive lanes - the destruction of buildings to the state of facades, filling with rubble of firing points in the bases of buildings, blockages on the streets adjacent to the offensive lanes for the obstacles of defending maneuvers.

                        In general, this means destroying everything that the defenders prepared for many weeks / months, and forcing them to improvise.

                        Moreover, the defenders lose the ability to act covertly (inside buildings) and are forced to move in the open air and locate makeshift firing points openly on the mountains of rubble. Those. visually controlled by UAVs, aircraft and artillery gunners, tanks and grenade launchers from the assault groups of the advancing.

                        PS You served in the IDF?
                      6. Krasnodar 20 February 2020 07: 08 New
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                        In the MAGAV and the IDF
                        Let's analyze your post
                        1) Protected firing points can easily be placed in ruins - main, spare, etc.
                        2) Breaks partitions in houses for hidden movement, not only the enemy, but also the advancing))
                        3) Preparatory measures along the offensive lanes - the enemy will say thanks for this - we know where you will enter
                        4) The points in the socles fall asleep - there will be others - there are no artillery pieces
                        5) Maneuvers of the defenders are carried out through underground tunnels, etc. - Gaza, Chechnya, etc.
                        6) How do tunnels control UAVs?
                        7) Destruction is carried out during the play, in advance this mess will add a lot more to the coming
                        The defenders have shelters with several emergency exits in hospitals, residential buildings, schools, international facilities, parks, etc. - where they will not fail
                    2. Constructor68 25 February 2020 11: 08 New
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                      the appearance of unexpected places for enemy firing positions, the appearance of unexpected opportunities for enemy movement

                      Do not dream. In Grozny, the Chichs did not interfere with shelling, both from whole buildings and from dilapidated ones. And so a fairly common tactic was to “drop” a high-rise building in case of firing from it
                    3. Krasnodar 25 February 2020 11: 45 New
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                      Yes, I do not fantasize - I just write that it is easier to defend oneself in ruins)).
  • Fat
    Fat 19 February 2020 20: 19 New
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    And then? 62nd hawtal glitches. Not? There was no point in taking the city, but keeping it in suspense. It is NECESSARY. One could also love how the Allies fell in love with Dresden.
    What was and was. And ... Thanks to the author .... Mmm for justice chtol .... I can not decide.
  • faterdom 19 February 2020 11: 11 New
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    On May 5, Gauleiter Hanke announced through the city newspaper (its last issue) that surrender was banned on pain of death. Hanke himself escaped on an airplane on the evening of May 5.

    Let the gentlemen Poles and other Germans compare the line of behavior of the fascist leaders and the Soviet in similar conditions. And these ... called themselves superhuman? These are not even leaders, they are scammers.
    1. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2020 20: 39 New
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      You’re not talking about Westerplat ... No where else have half of the fighters for treason not finished ...
      Current there. ..
  • bubalik 19 February 2020 12: 41 New
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    Flamethrowers 62 ISBR in the battles for Breslau.



    The bodies of the killed Germans in hand-to-hand fighting on a street in Breslau.
    1. RusGr 19 February 2020 14: 12 New
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      And why is the weapon lying next to the dead and not removed? I read on some of the sites comments on this photo that the dead Germans were pulled out of the building from the windows.
      1. bubalik 19 February 2020 14: 26 New
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        ,,,maybe so.
  • Eug
    Eug 19 February 2020 14: 09 New
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    And what about how the POLISH troops participated in the liberation of the POLISH city of WROCLAW now? Ah yes, they took Berlin ... and in the war they won that they should get in touch with the fortress .. it’s too small for the lords ..
    1. shura7782 19 February 2020 18: 28 New
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      ....... POLISH CITY WROCLAW anything known?
      Wroclaw has a very large officer cemetery. I drew attention to the fact that the date of death falls on 46-47 years.
      1. Eug
        Eug 19 February 2020 21: 31 New
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        The consequences of injuries?
        1. shura7782 22 February 2020 12: 28 New
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          The consequences of injuries?
          Eugene, I can’t say that. But there in the cemetery, to my question (I was then a schoolboy), "Why is it, death after victory?". I was told that the Germans did not give up for a long time. So it turns out significant - non-docking by dates. I am not familiar with the German version yet.
          1. Eug
            Eug 22 February 2020 19: 05 New
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            Thanks, interested. Trying to find out from the locals, I lived in Poland in 93-95 in the Voivodship neighboring Wroclaw, my impressions are very contradictory, but I still have good relations with some Poles. There will be something interesting - I'll write in a personal.
            1. shura7782 22 February 2020 22: 38 New
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              For a long time it was 72-77g Kshiva, Legnica. I was in Wroclaw on excursions. Now it would be interesting for me to find out the details that are not on the Internet.
              1. Eug
                Eug 23 February 2020 09: 13 New
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                I do not promise, but I will try.
  • bandabas 19 February 2020 14: 16 New
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    Our grandfathers made them. Everlasting memory! And, SHAME on the Lilliputians who give handouts to the few still living.
  • Shahno 19 February 2020 14: 32 New
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    My grandfather fought near Breslau. He told a lot of things ...
    1. Lamata 19 February 2020 18: 55 New
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      Aunt of the wife of my own uncle in Lreslau received a second wound (senior medical officer) and met her future husband there. extremely harsh infantry captain. And the aunt was a song, only the husband’s husband was afraid, and the devil himself wasn’t a brother. Glory to our soldiers.
  • Operator 20 February 2020 11: 35 New
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    Quote: Krasnodar
    In MAGAV and the IDF Let’s take a look at your post 1) Protected firing points can be placed in ruins for yourself - main, spare, etc. 2) Not only the enemy, but also the advancing one breaks through partitions in houses for hidden movement)) 3) Preparatory measures along offensive lanes - the enemy will say thanks for this - we know where you will come from 4) The points in the socles will fall asleep - there will be others - there are no artillery guns there 5) The defenders maneuvers are carried out through underground tunnels, etc. - Gaza, Chechnya, etc., 6) How do tunnels control UAVs? 7) Destruction is carried out in the course of the play, in advance this mess will add much more to the advancing defenders have shelters with several emergency exits in hospitals, residential buildings, schools, international facilities, parks etc. - where they will not fail

    1. I was in Grozny in 1996 - only the buildings destroyed to the state of talus of crushed stone and facades remained in the offensive zones of the RA, the firing points of the defenders could be equipped only in the form of rifle cells on the front slopes of the talus - that is, open to direct fire from the advancing side.

    2. There are no partitions or ceilings on the facades of buildings.

    3. The destruction of urban development is carried out immediately before the offensive, so the defenders have practically no time for at least a partial restoration of their positions.

    4. The plinths of the destroyed buildings were buried on all sides under multi-meter strata of rubble.

    5/6. Maneuvers of the defenders through underground communications are possible, but in order to fire, they will have to climb on the talus of rubble. At this point, they will be controlled by the UAV.

    7. Buildings in the offensive zone were preemptively destroyed in whole blocks at once on both sides of the street. All the main and emergency exits from the plinths were blocked by crushed stone scree.

    PS In Grozny, in 1996, separate micro-districts of Soviet 5-story buildings (for example, houses of railway workers loyal to the federal government) were preserved, which were located away from the offensive lanes and were cleared after the city was divided into separate sectors with RA checkpoints along the perimeter (similar to IDF actions in Gaza).
  • delet 22 February 2020 20: 12 New
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    Hello, author! Allow me to insert, for example, the military path of the 10th artillery Silesian corps of the breakthrough of the Reserve of the High Command under the work of Mikhail Pyresin ...?!
  • octogen 16 March 2020 01: 55 New
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    It is a pity of course that people spent on these unnecessary cities. I would methodically water them with a mixture of kerosene and white phosphorus. Moreover, this mixture was used for a long time in the Il-2 VAPs and had a very good effect on the enemy.