The first and last commander of the Russian Crimean army


Lieutenant General P.N. Wrangel - Commander of the Russian Army

The period of P.N.Wrangel's service in the Armed Forces of the South of Russia was ending (Conqueror of Red Verdun) and the stage of leadership of the Russian army began.

In the controlled territories (primarily in the Crimea) P.N. Wrangel carried out a number of successful reforms. We wrote about land reform earlier (The land of the peasants in Wrangel ; Land to the peasants in Wrangel. Key idea reform) A reform of local government was carried out, relations with the Cossack regions were reorganized. So, on 29 on March 1920, the general announced a regulation on the management of the areas occupied by the Armed Forces of the South of Russia. It contained the following lines: “The lands of the Cossack Troops are independent in relation to self-government, but with full submission to the Cossack armed forces to the Commander-in-Chief”. This was preceded by a preliminary agreement with the chieftains of the Cossack troops.



Russian army P.N. Wrangel


The Russian army was also reformed. The army was reorganized on a regular basis. There was a struggle with the non-combatant element and the excessively sprawling rear. Restored in the rear.

The first and last commander of the Russian Crimean army

In October 1920, the Russian army had a harmonious system and structurally looked as follows:

1-th Army

1th Army Corps:

Kornilov shock division:
1th Kornilov shock regiment
2th Kornilov shock regiment
3th Kornilov shock regiment
Kornilov artillery brigade;

Sep. Ing. company
Sep. conn. gene. Kornilova Division
Reserve battalion;

General Markov Infantry Division:

1-th gene. Markov infantry. regiment
2-th gene. Markov infantry. regiment
3-th gene. Markov infantry. regiment
4-th gene. Markov infantry. regiment
Art. gene. Markov brigade

Sep. Ing. gene. Markov company
Sep. conn. gene. Markov Division
Reserve battalion (regiment);

Rifle General Drozdovsky Division:
1 th shooter. gene. Drozdovsky regiment
2 th shooter. gene. Drozdovsky regiment
3 th shooter. gene. Drozdovsky regiment
4 th shooter. gene. Drozdovsky regiment
Drozdovskaya art. team

Sep. Ing. gene. Drozdov company
Sep. conn. gene. Drozdovsky Division;

Not included in the divisions:
1 th Sep. heavy art. division
Sep. heavy tractor battery
1-I Sep. Ing. company
2-I Sep. telegraph company;

Horse enclosure

1 I Cavalry Division:
1 I Brigade:
Guards Cavalry Regiment
1 Cavalry Regiment
2 I Brigade:
3 Cavalry Regiment
6 Cavalry Regiment

1 th equestrian art. division
3 th equestrian art. division;

2 I Cavalry Division:
1 Brigade:
2 Cavalry Regiment
4 Cavalry Regiment
2 I Brigade:
7 Cavalry Regiment
Caucasian cavalry regiment

4 th equestrian art. division
5 th equestrian art. division;

1-I Kuban Cossack Division:
Kornilovsky Horse Regiment
1-th Labinsky gene. Babiev Kaz. regiment
1 Linear Cossack Regiment
1th Uman Cossack Regiment
Kuban Combined Division
2 th equestrian art. division
1-th Kuban Kaz. conn. [art.] division
Reserve regiment

When housing:
Horse sapper-subversive team;

Don corps
1-I Don Cavalry Division:
1-I (Guards) brigade:
Life Guard Cossack Regiment
Life Guards Ataman Regiment
2 I Brigade:
1-th Don Conn. regiment
2-th Don Conn. Regiment

1th Don Don Battalion
1-th Don horse art. division
3-th Don horse art. division;

2-I Don Cavalry Division
1 I Brigade:
3-th Kaledinsky Conn. regiment
4-th Nazarovsky Conn. regiment
2 I Brigade:
5-th Ataman Platov Conn. regiment
6-th Ataman Yermak conn. regiment
Dzungar conn. regiment

2th Don Don Spare Conn. division
2-th Don con-art. division;

3-I Don division
1 I Brigade:
Gundorovsky St. George Regiment
7th Don Regiment
10th Don Regiment

2 I Brigade:
18th Don Regiment
8th Don Regiment

3th Don Don Battalion
3-th Don Conn. division:
1-th Don light art. division;

2-th Army
At the headquarters of the army:
4-I Sep. telegraph company;

2 Army Corps

13 I Infantry Division
1 I Brigade:
49 infantry. Brest regiment
50 infantry. Bialystok regiment
2 I Brigade:
51 infantry. Lithuanian regiment
52 infantry. Vilensky Regiment
13-I art. team
Sep. Ing. company
Sep. conn. Vilnius Division
Reserve battalion

34 I Infantry Division
1 Brigade:
133 infantry. Simferopol regiment
134 infantry. Theodosian Regiment
2 I Brigade:
135 infantry. Kerch-Yenikalsky Regiment
136 infantry. Taganrog Regiment
34-I art. team
Sep. Ing. company
Sep. conn. Simferopol Division
Reserve battalion;

Not part of the divisions:
2 th Sep. heavy art. division
2-I Sep. telegraph company
2-I Sep. Ing. company
5-I Sep. Ing. company
Consolidated Guard infantry. regiment
4 i-position battery;

3 Army Corps (Almost immediately after coming to Crimea, it was disbanded, the 6 I infantry division was poured into the 2 army, and the 7 I into the Kuban corps).

6 I Infantry Division
1 I Brigade:
Caucasian shooter. regiment
(83-th) Samur infantry. regiment
2 I Brigade:
(25-th) Smolensk infantry. regiment
Summary shooter. regiment

6-I art. team
Sep. Ing. company
Sep. conn. gene. Alekseeva Division
Reserve battalion

7 I Infantry Division
1 I Brigade:
1-th Partisan gene. Alekseeva infantry. regiment
Terek Plastun Regiment
2 I Brigade:
1-th Kuban shooter. regiment
2-th Kuban shooter. regiment

7-I art. team
Sep. Kuban engineer a hundred
Sep. Zaporizhzhya Kuban Kaz. division
Reserve battalion

Not part of the division:
Sep. battalion of German colonists

Not part of separate armies:
Sep. Tersko-Astrakhan Kaz. team
1 Tere Cossack Regiment
1 Astrakhan Cossack Regiment
2 Astrakhan Cossack Regiment
Tersko-Astrakhan Cossack equestrian art. division
Sep. reserve Astrakhan Cossack division
Sep. Terek reserve Cossack hundred

Military schools:
Konstantinovsky Military School
Kuban Alekseevsk Military School
Sergiev art. school
War gene. Alekseeva school
War gene. Kornilova School

Armored vehicles and tanks:
1th Tank Division
Spare Armored Automobile and Tank Division
Armored car "Gundorovets" and others.

Armored trains:
1-th armored division
Heavy armored train "Great Russia"

2-th armored division
Light armored train "Officer"
Light armored train "St. George the Victorious"

3-th armored division
Light armored train "Dmitry Donskoy"
Light armored train "Warrior"
Heavy armored train "John Kalita"

Aviation
1 Air Force
2 Air Force
3-th art. air squad
4-th Aviation named after military man. Colonel Kazakov pilot detachment
5 Air Force
6 Fighter Squadron
Military Aviation School

Other parts:
1-th Kerch positional art. division
2-th Kerch positional art. division
3 battery art preparatory art. school
1-I positional art. team
2-I positional art. team
4 position battery

Simferopol department garrison company
Yalta Separate Garrison Company

Don officer art. school
Don educational art. division
3 I Don Light Battery
4 I Don Light Battery
Don officer reserve regiment

Spare Kuban Cossack Battery
Cossack machine gun. school
Kuban reserve. battalion
A special working hundred of the Kuban Cossack army
Kuban reserve technical hundred.


On April 30, by order of No. 3089, P. N. Wrangel established the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker on the Nikolaev ribbon (national colors - white-blue-red). The order was one for both officers and soldiers. He had two degrees and a statute of special rights and advantages, as well as award rules.


Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker

The order was awarded to one who, having despised a clear danger and showing a valiant example of fearlessness and selflessness, performed an excellent military feat, which was crowned with complete success and brought obvious benefit. Made by the Cavalry Duma, the award was approved by the Commander-in-Chief.

Awarding of the 1 degree was not made.

The 2 degree was awarded to 337 people (including P.N. Wrangel, who accepted from the Cavalier Duma a cross of the 2 degree of the 15 of November 1921).


Last award ceremony in White Russia. General P.N. Wrangel awards the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker General N.V. Skoblin. From left to right: Head of the Government of the South of Russia A.V. Krivoshein, head of the Yugoslav military mission, British war correspondent, commander of the 1 Army General Kutepov, general Skoblin, general Wrangel. from. Fedorovka, Northern Tavria, 14 September 1920

The first cavalier of the order was the tank commander of the former 3th tank detachment of the VSSR, captain Lyubin-Yarmolovich, who "broke through wire fences on the head tank and opened the way for the infantry." 2 officers of the detachment were also awarded, including the commander of the tank General Skobelev, Colonel Trembovelsky.

The military units were awarded with the banners and standards of the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, as well as silver pipes with Nikolaev ribbons. The Order led to the emergence of such collective awards as the Nikolaev pennant (awarded the former 3th tank detachment of the All-Russian Union of Liberal Democratic Forces) and the pennant of the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker (naval distinction; granted by order of the Commander-in-Chief No. 118 from 26. 06. 1920 of the gunboat “Terrible” and “Sentinel”, river gunboats “Ural” and “Altai”, armed with icebreakers “Gaydamak” and “Horseman”, armed boats “Azovets”, “Maria”, “Nikolai Pashich”, “Pantikopey”, “Dimitry "," Meotida ").


Order of St. Nicholas the Miracle Worker on the banner

The status of the order was next to the Order of St. George.

By his order P.N. Wrangel freed from all punishments and restrictions on the service of all officers and soldiers if they surrendered and went over to the side of the white troops, as well as all those who had previously served in the Red Army and who had been punished or restricted by voluntary arrival in the armed forces service.

The last stage of the White struggle


Thus, the Crimean period of the White movement occupies a special place in stories Civil war. It was at this time that, under the leadership of the new leader, General Baron P.N. The Russian army, as the armed forces in the south of Russia are now called, was built on a strictly regular basis, in the tradition of the Imperial Army. Conflicts with the leadership of the Cossack regions were eliminated, the land question was resolved in the interests of the absolute majority of the country's population, and effective civil administration was formed. And it was during this period that the postulates of the ideology of the White movement were formulated - crystallized after years of mistakes and achievements. The goals and objectives of the White Struggle were set out in an appeal from the 1918 of May 1919:

“Listen, Russian people, for what we are fighting.
For desecrated faith and offended shrines.
For the liberation of the Russian people from the yoke of the Communists, vagabonds and convicts, who completely ruined Holy Russia.
For the termination of internecine warfare.
That the peasant, having acquired the land he cultivated, would engage in peaceful labor.
For true freedom and law to prevail in Russia.
For the Russian people to choose their own Master. ”


But all these promising undertakings were no longer destined to come true - they were already carried out when the general situation in the world and the country did not leave hope for victory. The inequality of forces that took place at all stages of the struggle took on truly disastrous proportions by the year 1920. The betrayal of the former allies of the 1 World War put the whites in a hopeless situation and forced a tragic exodus abroad.


Generals Wrangel and Bogaevsky at a moleben

How did the events develop?

Last offensive


By May 1920, the Russian army had at the front, in the spare and rear units of 40000 people, 10 tanks and 20 airplanes. Despite, in general, the meagerness of forces (one full-fledged corps of the old army), it was a highly efficient combat mechanism, which was well-functioning and had great combat experience - it was active

25 May 1920 g., Without waiting for the blow of the Red Army, the army of P. N. Wrangel went on the offensive - broke through the front of the Reds and launched an offensive in Northern Tavria. The situation was difficult - the British resisted the offensive, continuing to mend various obstacles. The latter could be resolved through personal negotiations in Sevastopol, but cargoes of ever-shrinking aid were delivered to Crimea with great difficulty. Active hostilities coincided with the developing process of establishing peaceful life in Crimea.

Nevertheless, the battles in Northern Tavria continued with success for the Russian army, although the enemy constantly strengthened his troops. The strategic plan of the Soviet command was also foiled. So, the Reds formed a strong equestrian group of Rednecks, numbering 12 thousand sabers. The redneck fell on the bottom of the corps of General Abramov. Having suffered heavy losses, the Don people retreated. The redneck advanced to Melitopol, where the headquarters of P.N. Wrangel was located.


Generals Wrangel and Kutepov at the head car in Melitopol

Given the current situation, the commander in chief decided to destroy the enemy - and the goiter’s cavalry was defeated (Aviation against cavalry, or raid on Melitopol).

August landing in the Kuban (Strategic landing ; From Crimea - to the Kuban. Throw of General Ulagai ; Lost opportunities of Ulagaev’s landing; The fate of the strategic landing) from an operational point of view, was unsuccessful, but diverted the large forces of the Reds, and also brought replenishment - with people and horses (people around 10000).

And then in the Crimea, information was received about the conclusion by the Poles of a truce with the Bolsheviks. The hostilities on the Soviet-Polish front ceased, and the Red Command was given the opportunity to throw all its forces into a single front - the Wrangel Front. The Polish representatives at Headquarters called such a truce ... a forced concession to England.


Exodus from Crimea and emigration


With the approach of the 1th Cavalry Army, the forces of the Reds repeatedly exceeded the forces of the Russian Army (especially in the number of sabers). I had to forget about operational activity.

The Reds went on a decisive offensive, and the Crimean operation was lost. But the last merit of the administration of P.N. Wrangel was the carefully planned and impeccably realized evacuation of not only the army, but also a significant number of civilians who did not want to stay in Soviet Russia (comparable to the Novorossiysk disaster in March 1920).

Military men, sailors and workers worked at an accelerated pace - and preparation for the evacuation was completed. On the 29 of October (November 11) P.N. Wrangel gave the directive to the troops: “Break away from the enemy, go to the ports for loading”, indicating exactly which units should be loaded and where. “The burdens to leave. To put infantry on carts, to cover cavalry with withdrawal. ” 126 people were taken out on 145693 ships.


General P.N. Wrangel on the deck of the yacht "Lucull" - the floating rate of the commander in chief

The American admiral McCauley, who was in Sevastopol in November 1920, informed his superiors: “In full order, Sevastopol was evacuated within three days. Gene. Wrangel was the last to leave. ”


Thanks to his organizational skills, the general managed to save tens of thousands of people from death. To judge how he secured his troops, taking them out of Russia, it’s enough to give a brief list of the property that was requisitioned by the French occupation authorities from the Russian army in Constantinople (to pay the “allies” for the meager French ration): 45000 rifles, 350 machine guns, 60000 hand grenades, 330000 shells, 2000000 pound cartridges, 300000 pounds of sugar, 20000 pounds of salt, 17000 pounds of different products, up to 50000 sets of uniforms, 200000 sets of linen, 340000 pieces of shoes, XNNX pounds, XN leather blankets, xnumx meters with KPA factory and so on.

P.N. Wrangel became commander in chief of the Russian army in exile.


After the fall of Crimea P.N. Wrangel was evacuated to Constantinople and then remained in exile. With headquarters in 1922, he moved from Constantinople to the Kingdom of CXS (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; Sremski Karlovitsy).



During these years, P.N. Wrangel gave his strength and resources to the care and device of the Russian military and refugees, scattered throughout Europe. His wife helped him in this matter.


In 1924, under the leadership of P.N. Wrangel, the Russian All-Military Union (ROVS) was created. In September 1927, Mr P.N. Wrangel and his family moved from the Kingdom of the CXC to Belgium (in Brussels), where he soon died of an unexpectedly serious illness.


On October 6 1929 the ashes of P.N. Wrangel were solemnly reburied in the Russian Church of the Holy Trinity in Belgrade. About how representative his "second funeral" was, the photographs below.






















P. N. Struve wrote that P. N. Wrangel was alien to illusions. He had a strict and generally skeptical mind. But, what is very important, besides the mind, there was a spirit in it - a determination that inspired his whole personality to carry out a feat, no matter how difficult and hopeless it was from the point of view of human calculations.


Another contemporary, a participant in the review of P. N. Wrangel, recalled how the general approached the right flank of the 2 line front. He was wearing a dark gray Circassian coat with ivory ghazyrs. On the chest - the Order of St. George 4-th degree. On a narrow (smooth) Caucasian belt there is a large ancient and very beautiful dagger with a pure gold set. The Baron was very tall and thin, but lively and quick in movements, folded proportionally - and made an impressive impression. Officers and Cossacks “devoured his eyes” (according to the charter). And the general, peering very closely into the eyes of the Cossacks (as if wishing to penetrate their souls and know their moods), reached the middle of the front, and, stopping, shouted in a loud and clear voice: “Great, Don eagles!” The Cossacks answered in a friendly and loud voice “Hurray!” Rushed through the rows. Going around the front, the baron returned to the middle and raised his hand. The Cossacks fell silent, and P.N. Wrangel distinctly and very loudly expressed the hope that the Cossacks would fight perfectly - as before. Having barked back “We’ll try, Your Excellency!”, The Cossacks shouted “Hurray!” Again.


Finally, the third eyewitness to the events wrote about General P.N. Wrangel that he was one of the first Russian leaders to fully understand the danger of communism - not only for the Russian people, but for the whole world. Having entered General Denikin’s army shortly after the Bolshevik coup, he was appointed the head of a large unit, and later, after Denikin left his post, he became Commander-in-Chief of heavily weakened and poorly equipped units of the All-Union Federal League of Forces. In these positions, P. N. Wrangel proved to be a talented military leader and administrator, possessing brilliant personal qualities. The general defended the Crimea as once General Washington at Valeforge, opposing the enemy ten times superior in strength. In the end, in this unequal struggle, he had to retreat to Sevastopol and go abroad with the army - in order to preserve its remnants and save a large mass of refugees.


White Church, Yugoslavia 1925 Crimean Cadet Corps. P.N. Wrangel with the smallest cadet - N. Zakharov

Among the awards of the general: Georgievskoe weapon, the Order of St. George of the 4th degree, St. Anna of the 4th (“For Courage”) and the 3th degree, of St. Stanislav the 3th (with swords and a bow) and the 2th degree, St. Vladimir of the 4th (with with swords and a bow) and the 3 (with swords) and St. Nicholas the Wonderworker of the 2 degree, the Cross of the Salvation of the Kuban of the 1 degree, the English Order of Saints Michael and George of the 2 degree, as well as several medals. He was an honorable old man and a resident of a number of villages of Astrakhan, Don and Tere Cossack troops.



In conclusion, we give a track record of P. N. Wrangel, as well as poems written in connection with his death.





Sources and literature:

List of captains of the Guards Cavalry by seniority. St. Petersburg, 1913.
A list of Adjutant Generals, Major Generals and Rear Admirals of His Majesty’s Suite and the Adjutant Outbuilding by seniority. Ed. Military Camp Chancellery E. I. V., 1916.
Rogvold V. The cavalry of the 1 Army in East Prussia (August - September 1914). GURKKA Military Printing House, 1926.
Buguraev M. General Wrangel. Los Angeles, 1972.
Rutych N. N. Biographical Directory of the Highest Ranks of the Volunteer Army and Armed Forces of the South of Russia. M., 2002.
Wrangel P.N. Notes. November 1916 - November 1920 T. T. 1-2. Plenty, 2002 .;
White Russia. Photo album. M., 2003.
Klaving V. Civil war in Russia: White armies. M. 2003.
Cherkasov-Georgievsky V.G. General Pyotr Nikolaevich Wrangel. The last knight of the Russian Empire. M., 2004.
Schmaglit R.G. White movement. 900 biographies of the largest representatives of the Russian military abroad. M., 2006.
Sokolov B.V. Wrangel. The life of wonderful people. M., 2009.
Oleinikov A.V. Captured in battle. Trophies of the Russian army in the First World War. M .: Veche, 2015.




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