Military Review

Restoration of the Principality and Military Reforms of Daniil Galitsky

47
Restoration of the Principality and Military Reforms of Daniil Galitsky

The same tournament on the eve of the Yaroslavl battle


The situation when the owner was not in the house, and the cabinets were actively emptying the robbers, could not but cause a revival of old problems and increased centrifugal forces. The Galician boyar opposition, which did not come under the blow of the steppes and once again decided to stand apart from the Romanovichs, gained strength again. Returning with their personal squads, the boyars took control of the deserted city and all local crafts, including salt, which brought considerable profit. Behind weapon the Balkhovites took, who began to raid the Principality of Galicia-Volyn in order to rob everything that the Mongols did not have time to take with them. Rostislav Mikhailovich, the son of Mikhail Chernigovsky, entered into an alliance with them: he stayed with the Galician prince for months, if not weeks, but already made claims on the city, and at the very height of the Mongol invasion made an unsuccessful campaign against Bakota, and later another, already successful. The crusaders in the north again took control of the city of Dorogochin (Drogichin) with the surrounding area. And this was far from the end: the rebellion raised Bishop Przemysl, the Chernigov boyars settled in Ponizye, local boyars of a number of lands also showed their disobedience, believing that the Romanovich’s strength was over.

It would be so if the Mongols did the same with the Galicia-Volyn principality as with the other principalities of Russia. Meanwhile, Daniel and Vasilka still had a fully combat-ready army, control over important cities and communications, and most importantly - sympathy from the majority of important city communities that survived the invasion. After all the ruins and troubles suffered at the beginning of 1241, the prince was ready to take the most drastic measures to punish the traitors, and the people forgave him cruelty, perhaps unnecessary. Two boyars, who mutilated the water in Ponisie, Dobroslav and Grigory Vasilievich, were summoned to negotiations in Galich, put in chains and soon died. The foci of separatism were suppressed by force, severe punishment awaited the guilty. After several attempts, the Crusaders were expelled from Dorogochin by force, and the townspeople, who opened the city gates to them and did not feel any special sympathy for the Romanovichs, were rather severely punished: they were evicted to other lands, and the city was again settled by refugees and migrants from other lands controlled by the Romanovichs.

Having dealt with the internal enemy, Daniel took up the external enemy. These were Prince Rostislav Mikhailovich and his allies, Bokhovtsy. Together, during the second campaign, they were able to occupy Przemysl and Galich, having entered into an alliance with the local boyars and clergy, but with the news that Daniel and Vasilko were already on the way, and with all his considerable army, the prince fled to Hungary. At the same time, Rostislav was very unlucky, in the process of fleeing, he came across the Mongols returning from a European campaign, who gave him an additional bashing. Having dealt with his remaining supporters, the Romanovichs took up the Balkhovites. They have long interfered with the Principality of Galicia-Volyn, acting as a small but constantly hostile neighbor. In 1241-42, the Bolokhov issue was resolved once and for all: this land was devastated, people were taken to pieces and handed out to the boyars loyal to Daniel in Volyn and in Galicia, and refugees from other Russian and Polish lands that had previously been saved under Romanovich defense against the Mongols. The arbitrariness of the Bolokhov land was over, it was divided between the Romanovichs and the Kiev princes and ceased to be a constant problem for the central government.

The end of the struggle for Galich


The events connected with Rostislav Mikhailovich reminded the Romanovichs that the Mongol-Tatars (Tatar-Mongols?) Can come to the Russian land as much as they want with war, but the strife will continue until all the applicants have been arranged with an exemplary flogging . It was this flogging that the Romanovichs took up after the elimination of the boyar riots and the consequences of the Batu invasion.

Rostislav Mikhailovich did not restrain himself and continued to lay claim to Galich while in Hungary. The Hungarians, like the Poles, for some time could not participate in hostilities, trying to recover after the visit of Batu Khan with his nukers, but they did not stop supporting Rostislav. A coalition was formed with the participation of the prince, the boyars who remained loyal to him, who fled from the Romanovich repressions to Hungary, the Krakow prince Boleslaw V Shy, the Hungarian king Bela IV and the discontented communities of Przemysl land, which remained opposed to the power of Daniel and Vasilka. In 1243, Rostislav, who became a close person for the Hungarian king, married his daughter Anna, which already clearly hinted at a future campaign for the Carpathians to the east.

Romanovich did not wait for the war to come to them, and the first to strike. The goal was Boleslav the Shy, who fought at that time against Konrad Mazowiecki. Daniel supported the latter, and in 1243-1244 he made two campaigns, trying to weaken the Polish prince. This was only partially successful: Lublin was captured, who for a short time entered the Romanovich state. I also had to twice repel the raids of the Lithuanians, but here again my “brother and my enemy” relations showed themselves, which more than once showed Lithuanian-Russian relations: after fighting for some time and not achieving success, the parties entered into an alliance and at the crucial moment supported each other against the Poles, Hungarians and crusaders.

In 1244, Rostislav, gathering his strength, invaded the Galicia-Volyn state and captured Przemysl. However, he did not retain control of the city for long: Daniel soon recaptured it, and the prince fled to Hungary. After a quick regrouping and the gathering of all forces in 1245, Rostislav's supporters led by him, as well as Hungarians and Poles, again invaded there for the same purpose, just capturing Przemysl and moving further, besieging the city of Yaroslavl. Daniel, enlisting the support of the Polovtsians, came forward to meet the allied army. This year was supposed to solve everything.

During the siege, Rostislav Mikhailovich boasted that he was ready to defeat Daniel and Vasilka with only a dozen people, their strength was so insignificant. On the eve of the battle, he even organized a jousting tournament (one of the few documented tournaments in Russia), where he dislocated his shoulder and could not fight as skillfully as usual in the upcoming battle (and Rostislav was famous for his skillful and capable warrior). Many perceived this as a bad sign. In the battle that unfolded on August 17, 1245 near Yaroslavl, the allied army of Rostislav, Hungarians, Poles and rebellious boyars was crushed to pieces. During the battle, the results of the military reforms of Daniel and his son Leo were noticeably affected for the first time: the infantry steadily kept the blow, and the army itself actively and accurately maneuvered, which ensured the victory.

Many rebellious boyars were captured and executed. After the demonstration of the strength of the Romanovichs, who defeated the Union army even without their allies, the Prince of Mazovia and the Lithuanians of Mindovg, the Poles and Hungarians chose to reconcile. Rostislav Mikhailovich, despite the bravado, barely escaped from the battlefield and was forced to abandon claims to Galich. The Principality of Galicia and Volyn triumphed and, after decades of strife and struggle, finally completed its formation as a single and independent state with strong centralized prince power and considerable authority among the surrounding states.

Military reforms of Daniel Romanovich



This is what the Galician-Volyn equestrian combatant of the "new model" looked like

Almost all his life, Daniel Romanovich fought. Most often, he won victories, but defeats also occurred. The Mongol invasion of his state and the need to combat such a serious opponent turned out to be large-scale and painful for him. Fortunately, this prince was pragmatic and enterprising enough to become a good student in military matters. Moreover, he was able to benefit from his own experience of resistance to the Mongols. Favorable factors turned out to be the military talents of Lev Danilovich, the heir to Daniel, and although it suffered, but generally preserved wealth of the Galician-Volyn land. As a result of this, already in 1241, large-scale military reforms began in the Galicia-Volyn principality, which will continue during the reign of Leo and will form a very effective and advanced army by the standards of their time, which will become the pride of the Romanovichi until the very end of their existence.

The old army of the Galicia-Volyn principality was not entirely bad, but in the new conditions it simply was not enough. It was based by the 1240s on the totality of princely squads and militias. The squad was maintained at the expense of the prince, consisted mainly of heavy cavalry, was his most faithful warriors, but remained very small, reaching several hundred. As a rule, a boyar militia was added to it: each boyar, like the European feudal lord, at the call of the prince brought with him an armed servant, foot and horse, who formed the "spear". In total, before the invasion of Batu, Daniel had about 2,5-3 thousand standing troops (up to 300-400 combatants, the rest were the boyar militia). This was enough to solve small problems, but in the case of large wars, the Zemstvo militia was also called on, i.e. urban regiments and rural community warriors. The strength of the Romanovich army by 1240, with the full mobilization of forces and means, is estimated by modern historians at about 30 thousand, but this is subject to the short-term convocation, and far from brilliant training and equipment of a significant part of such an army, which is why in fact such an army was never called up . In most battles for his father’s inheritance, Daniel hardly had more than 6-8 thousand people.

In the new conditions, as already mentioned above, such a military was not enough. It was required to put in the field as many warriors as possible, on foot and horseback. At the same time, the old system for the first time gave a major malfunction: due to conflicts between the prince and the boyars, the latter increasingly refused to come at the call with their “spears," as a result of which the army not only did not grow, but also decreased. At the same time, the prince remained faithful to the petty boyars, who were relatively poor and unable to independently provide for their military needs. The situation was saved by the fact that Daniel had a lot of land: even during the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the crown lands, former princes, after some reduction represented more than 50% of the land fund of the voivodships of the former Galicia-Volyn principality. The course of action was obvious, besides, something similar was already used in neighboring Poland, and therefore, from the beginning of the 1240s, a local army began to form at a rapid pace in the Romanovich state, which made it possible to put in the field a large and well-trained cavalry faithful to the prince. After joining Poland, it is these local boyars who serve in exchange for the right to use the crown land and peasants who will harmoniously pour into the Polish gentry, having close to it history, socio-economic and political role in the state. True, this was not yet called a local army, but it turned out to be so close in character to what was created in the Moscow principality in the XNUMXth century, that this term can be used for simplification.

The infantry was also changed. Previously, only city regiments and squads provided more or less combat-ready pawns. By the standards of some Western European countries, this was a lot, but in the realities of Eastern Europe in the middle of the XIII century this was already not enough. Numerous infantry was required, capable of withstanding the blow of the Mongolian steppe, and perhaps European knightly cavalry — in general, such infantry that would appear among the masses in Europe (with the exception of Scandinavia, there was a special case) after 100-200 years. And such an infantry was created! It was based on community relations, multiplied by constant training: militia units gathered more or less regularly for exercises, which the princely treasury spent a huge amount of resources on. Militias were recruited from both well-connected urban communities and less organized rural ones (in the latter case, recruiting took place in geographically close villages, as a result of which the militias were usually either personally acquainted, or at least had mutual acquaintances because of their close proximity) . After preparation, such detachments showed, though not outstanding, but sufficient combat readiness, discipline and stamina on the battlefield, so that together with the city regiments they would represent great strength on the battlefield. The resulting infantry could already hold the cavalry strike, as happened in 1257 in the battle of Vladimir-Volynsky. It has not yet become the main force on the battlefield, but at the same time it allowed the cavalry to be completely freed, which became a tool for delivering clear, well-aimed attacks at the right time and in the right place, while the infantrymen could keep the bulk of the enemy army in front of them by tying him in a fight.

The real revolution took place in the field of personal protection. Here, Daniel and Leo adopted the Chinese and Mongolian experience, thanks to which the steppes managed to create massive, cheap and quite effective armor. The heavy cavalry began to defend themselves with stronger types of chain mail, as well as to use flake and plate armor more massively, which required the significant development of the Galician-Volyn forge and workshops. The armor acquired high collars, developed plate bracers and a large chain mail length, which became better to protect the riders' legs. Local cavalry, as a rule, provided itself with armor itself, while pawns received protection at the expense of the princely treasury. For infantry, the armor was even simpler and cheaper, in fact, boiling down to quilts, various “Khatag Degel” (speaking roughly and simplistically, this is the Mongolian analogue of quilting with a maximum warrior protection area) and helmets, not always iron. By the standards of past times, it was an ersatz, but most soldiers were protected by it, and such protection left very little open surface of the human body, which provided sufficient protection from the Mongol arrows and chopping blows. This played an important role in enhancing the resilience of the infantry. However, horsemen who could not afford expensive board armor or chain mail of new designs could not disdain such protection. Horses received protection: under Daniel, partial, and under Leo - already complete, while before that the horses received any serious protection quite rarely.

Offensive weapons developed rapidly. First of all, this concerned the gunshots: realizing their benefit in the defense of fortresses, the Romanovichs began to arm the field armies with them, which allowed the infantry to snarl rather painfully against the well-protected heavy cavalry of the steppes or even Hungarians with Poles. Throwing artillery, previously undeveloped, received significant development: Rusichs from Southwest Russia quickly adopted and improved both heavy siege stone-throwers and light throwing machines designed for field battles.

The organization of troops as a whole has grown markedly, making it possible to divide them into separate (independent) units and maneuver them in battle. For the first time, division into wings and reserve during battles became widely used. The Mongols copied the method of carrying out lightning marches: during conflicts with the Poles, the Galician-Volyn army once 50 days traveled XNUMX kilometers along with light throwing artillery, causing the enemy to be horrified by such agility.

Enormous progress was observed in fortification: the old wooden fortifications were rapidly replaced by mixed or entirely stone, which were too tough for the Mongols in 1241. In the strengthening of the Rusich cities, such fanaticism came that even the neighboring Poles and Hungarians soon began to characterize the Galician-Volyn land as a very protected, real country of fortresses (directly Castilla de la Rus!). In addition to cities, separate “pillars” began to appear: stone towers designed to protect road junctions, approaches to cities, etc. In peacetime, they were points of protection of roads and customs, in wartime - they turned into real fortresses. After the departure of the Mongols, they began to be built in large numbers, although information has not been preserved about all of them, but in general, we can now observe only two such towers. In the event of an enemy invasion (including the Tatar hordes), such towers, also built on a hill, could be completely impregnable for siege artillery, which made any attack on the lands of the principality very difficult.

Of course, all these reforms were worth a lot of effort and a significant waste of resources. The Romanovich state at that time literally lived in war; providing troops with new weapons and armor required a whole revolution in handicraft production, which, on the one hand, required enormous exertion of forces, and on the other, led to a significant increase in all craft in South-Western Russia at a time when it was most often in the rest of Russia was in decline. It was necessary to conduct the maximum concentration of all resources and income in the princely treasury, which sharply led to the fall of the role of independent boyars, which lost control of most places of “feeding” and henceforth became a serving estate, entirely dependent on the prince. The treasury of the Romanovichs at this time rarely allowed itself any excesses, the list of third-party expenses was minimized; everything was spent on the maintenance of the strongest troops in Eastern Europe. Thanks to all the measures taken, it was possible to increase the overall combat effectiveness of the troops and, if necessary, to convene a huge number of soldiers. True, most often Daniel and Leo continued to wage war with limited forces, but at the same time they constantly maintained significant reserves and “rear” in case of unexpected visits of guests to their native lands, while before, during large campaigns, the patrimony remained poorly protected.

The Galician-Volyn army radically changed and was a very serious force on the battlefield, able to withstand even much richer Hungary. The very appearance of the army has changed: due to the active use of armor of the steppe type in 1253, when Daniel invaded Czech territory, the local population mistook the Russian army for the Mongols; the Mongols were also called the squad of the king of Russia in 1260, when she fought with the Austrians on the side of the Hungarians. There was nothing wrong with that at that time: the organic fusion of the military traditions of the steppes, China and Russia proved to be extremely effective. Already at the beginning of the XIV century, Vladislav Lokotok, king of Poland, will write to Pope John XXIII that the Galician-Volyn army is the invincible shield of Europe on the path of the Tatar hordes and should not be underestimated. Given the fact that only it stood between the lands of Lokotka itself and the steppes, these words deserve attention, and even trust.

It is such a large and effective army that will allow the Romanovichs after the invasion of Batu to survive in the difficult political situation that will develop in Eastern Europe after 1241.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
On the eve of the storm. Batu invasion of the Romanovich state
The struggle for Galich in the years 1205-1229
Prince Roman Mstislavich, Byzantine Princess and Foreign Policy
Creation of the Galicia-Volyn principality
Leapfrog of princes in Volyn. Changes in society in the XII century
Yaroslav Osmomysl and the extinction of the first Galician dynasty
How Rostislavich kept their principality
Volyn land in the X-XI centuries
Southwest Russia: geography, ancient history, sources of information
47 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. polpot
    polpot 18 June 2020 18: 15 New
    -1
    The passage about siege artillery in the 13th century pleased, and even the fortresses inaccessible to Tatars in the 13th century, even more.
    1. arturpraetor
      18 June 2020 18: 37 New
      +8
      But didn’t you know about such a term as throwing artillery? About vices (which sobsno stone-throwers) also did not hear? smile
      1. polpot
        polpot 18 June 2020 19: 00 New
        0
        By the described time, the term "siege weapons" is more appropriate, of which the Mongols had a large number, the destruction of a lonely tower, if necessary, for the Mongols was not a very big problem given their level of siege technology.
        1. arturpraetor
          18 June 2020 19: 09 New
          +6
          The problem is that wooden fortifications are one thing, and stone fortification is another. You need to be reminded of the cyclopean size of the Trebuchet built in Europe to guarantee the breaking of stone fortresses? And the vices of the Mongols, apparently, carried around Russia in Russia. And used often enough. What hints that these were not the largest and most powerful stone throwers. And if the turret is also on the hill, then it’s still a big problem to break it up.
          1. polpot
            polpot 18 June 2020 20: 01 New
            0
            Samarkand and Bukhara apparently also had wooden fortifications, you know, their Mongols successfully took, storming a separate tower is not a very difficult task if it is even on a hill, apparently the towers were observation and guard purposes, which did not pose a particular danger to the enemy.
            1. arturpraetor
              18 June 2020 20: 06 New
              +3
              Quote: polpot
              Samarkand and Bukhara apparently also had wooden fortifications

              Samarkand and Bukhara were far from taking a couple of days. There were large-scale sieges involving Chinese engineers. Batu Khan did not do anything of the kind. It only remained to try to take it abruptly, with what it is - or move on. Any losses in Russia for him meant a decrease in the chances of success further, in Europe. And he already lost a lot before 1241.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 June 2020 21: 17 New
                +3
                Shemakha was taken in three days, Derbent was not taken, preferred to negotiate. However, it was only an expeditionary force.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 June 2020 18: 42 New
      +4
      "Gravitational artillery" is quite a scientific term.
  2. Engineer
    Engineer 18 June 2020 18: 50 New
    +5
    There is no Mongolian influence in the Galicia-Volyn warrior of the "new model". A kind of cataphract
    Lamellar throat protection, helmet-hat. See the closest analogue here (penultimate picture)
    https://topwar.ru/164597-vizantijskij-soldat-v-polnyj-rost.html
    As for me, fantasy.
    About the reorganization of the army and the updated infantry is very controversial. It would be better to give sources at least in the body of the article. The social basis of the new infantry is described extremely vague and unconvincing. Bach, and there was such a beautiful, competitive. Yes, and after the Mongol invasion. The technical aspect (new chain mail, etc.) without links looks completely unfounded
    Back in 1235, everything was very mediocre among the Galicians. Chernihiv residents will confirm.
    The Yaroslavl battle is somewhat more similarly described here.
    https://warspot.ru/10579-v-kontse-dolzhen-ostatsya-tolko-odin
    The participation of the infantry is hypothetical.
    1. polpot
      polpot 18 June 2020 19: 02 New
      -15
      Links will be visible to the current history books of Ukraine, others are not expected.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 18 June 2020 19: 06 New
        +4
        Artyom is capable of more. Just getting closer to the most critical moments in the history of Western Russia
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 June 2020 00: 26 New
        +2
        Criticizing the history textbooks of any state, it makes sense to compare them with their domestic counterparts, accompanying the process with references and quotations. Apparently, you also know about the Russian ones in the framework of discussions about the "victims of the Unified State Exam", let alone the Ukrainian, written in a language that you despise.
    2. arturpraetor
      18 June 2020 19: 21 New
      +6
      There is no Mongolian influence in the Galicia-Volyn warrior of the "new model". A kind of cataphract

      So I have and not Ospreyevsky book on the topic smile You can’t illustrate everyone. And here is a good example - armor with a high collar, in the pre-Mongol era, such as it seemed to be extremely rare.
      Quote: Engineer
      About the reorganization of the army and the updated infantry is very controversial.

      It depends on how you imagine the socio-political and socio-economic structure of the state of that time. I remain faithful to Froyanov and Mayorov, and with the basis described by them something similar can be created. In addition, we know the result, because the massive use of sufficiently combat-ready infantry by Daniil Galitsky is a fact, this is not a single historian, and he does not speak in a single historical work. Offhand the active use of infantry indicated Kripyakevich, Mayorov and Voitovich. Plus, the modern Polish historian, some kind of EMNIP, came to similar conclusions, but I did not remember the surname, and therefore it is not in the primary sources.
      Quote: Engineer
      It would be better to give sources at least in the body of the article.

      All sources were cited immediately throughout the cycle, since the material was compiled in a complex on them. No preference was given to any particular work. I can only repeat from the list already mentioned above two points dedicated specifically to this topic:
      A. Fedoruk “Military activity of Prince Daniil Romanovich in the context of the military development of Central and Eastern Europe of the XNUMXth century”
      L.V. Voitovich "Reforms of the army by the princes Daniil Romanovich and Lev Danilovich in the XIII century."
      True, some of these historical articles from serious historians, with a bunch of primary sources indicated there, can start to bomb, since these materials, alas, are only in Ukrainian laughing
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 18 June 2020 19: 29 New
        +4
        Okay, we’ll postpone the sources and say thank you for working with the reader.
        I remain faithful to Froyanov and Mayorov, and with the basis described by them something similar can be created

        See what happens. There are no combat infantry before the Mongols. The Mongols are ramping up - productive forces are greatly reduced, the amount of money is decreasing. And now rrrrraz - according to the pike, Danilian desire, we have infantry in commodity quantities and even with improved equipment. And cavalry with an upgrade
        Copperfield. Need an explanation.
        1. arturpraetor
          18 June 2020 19: 35 New
          +4
          Quote: Engineer
          There are no combat infantry before the Mongols.

          Already a cardinal difference in our estimates. Because I am inclined to believe that there was, but a "special sort" - the regiments of the city militia. We have already talked about this topic.
          Quote: Engineer
          There are no combat infantry before the Mongols. The Mongols are ramping up - productive forces are greatly reduced, the amount of money is decreasing.

          But not as much as in other parts of Russia. Or maybe not as much as in Hungary or Poland. In fact, Batu passed through the GVK with a quick march, a narrow strip.
          Quote: Engineer
          And now rrrrraz - according to the pike, Danilian desire, we have infantry in commodity quantities and even with improved equipment.

          In fact, these reforms have been carried out for decades, both by Daniel himself and his son, Lev Danilovich. It is quite difficult to single out dates for what year it was ready. We could talk about some kind of reformed army rather from the beginning of the 1250s, i.e. 10 years after the invasion of Batu. Time is not so short.
          Quote: Engineer
          Need an explanation.

          Which will pull on a separate article, or even a cycle smile It is easier to read these two materials. Ideally, that’s all that I based the cycle on, but it will be too radical laughing And do not forget - the written nothing more than my vision of the issue, systematized and reduced to one common historical plot, without highlighting any specific points and battles. Here and so it turned out too much about the military transformations in the GVK.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 June 2020 19: 36 New
          +2
          Great question!
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 June 2020 18: 55 New
    +4
    Hmmmm ... Perhaps the longest article in the series. Especially given the fact that the events described are documented and do not require conclusions based on assumptions.
    However, anyway, thanks, Artem! good
  4. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 18 June 2020 19: 34 New
    +6
    I thought today to take a break from VO, but that's not fate. smile
    Oh, Artem, now there will be a shaft of criticism and, I'm afraid it will not be easy for you to fight back. smile
    The first thing that you can probably say about this is that the infantry fighting capacity is not made by its equipment, but by constant joint training and the ability to keep order in any situation. An example, when a well-equipped, even very well-equipped and motivated, but not trained infantry was defeated in one wicket by a squad of professional soldiers - the battle of Visby. And although it was more than a hundred years after the described period, it can well serve as an illustration of what a professional army with a peasant militia does, even if it is dressed in heavy armor. If the Danes of Waldemar Atterdag suffered some losses in it, they simply did not notice them. And in the collective graves of the murdered Gotlanders (there are some nightmare there, about 2000 people), almost all the dead are dressed, if not in plate armor, then in chain mail, which the winners did not even take off.
    At the same time, the Scottish shiltrons, equipped by no means so well, almost at the same time, a little later, were able to attack and defeat the English knightly cavalry, although they were helpless due to the poorness of the protective equipment under firing. But the Scots are a special conversation, like the later Swiss, they have dense infantry units bristled with spears in blood from time immemorial, which cannot be said about peasants in Russia.
    In addition, you did not say a word about how this infantry showed itself - how it defended itself, how it attacked, in what battles it showed itself, what exactly. Did this infantry have any unified weapons (such as Swiss halberds) that she was taught to use, whether she stood on the battlefield in line or in deep structures, was she dismembered along the front, etc. It would be great to confirm all this with concrete examples. As soon as you paint its merits in such a way, there are probably some reasons for this, I would like to know which ones.
    Also interested in information about the use of Daniil and Vasilk squads heavy throwing guns in field battles. This is real news for me. Here, I would also like details.
    I fully and completely approve of the part of the article devoted to fortification. I didn’t think that the "Volyn towers" would be affected, I was glad. A very interesting phenomenon, by the way, deserves a separate study.
    I note that it was in Volyn that the Mongols during the western campaign first encountered fortified points, against which they were powerless. Rather, their siege or assault, seemed to them impractical due to the complexity, cost and poverty of the settlements themselves. A number of towns in Volyn and Galicia were not taken by the Mongols, they resisted. Then, in Europe, they were faced with such phenomena constantly, but for the first time this happened precisely in the possessions of Daniel.
    And thanks again for the article.
    Although it seems to me that you, as an author, as a researcher, are somewhat carried away. smile
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 June 2020 19: 51 New
      +2
      I note that it was in Volyn that the Mongols during the western campaign first encountered fortified points, against which they were powerless.
      Probably not the first. I think Jebe and Subude have come across this in the Caucasus.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 June 2020 20: 31 New
        +1
        I talked about a western campaign. The raid of Jabe and Subedai does not apply to him. smile And so, of course, stone walls are news for them. were not - and in China and in Khorezm and the Caucasus, they came across them.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 June 2020 20: 49 New
          +3
          I'm not talking about walls, I'm talking about detached towers, like defense strongholds.
    2. arturpraetor
      18 June 2020 19: 55 New
      +4
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Oh, Artem, now there will be a shaft of criticism and, I'm afraid it will not be easy for you to fight back.

      Now it’s easier for me - stupidly little time, there will be no time to answer. And after a day or two - it will not make much sense, all the answers will be found even without my participation hi Both in a good and a bad sense. In the bad already started to find a little higher laughing
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      The first thing that you can probably say about this is that the infantry fighting capacity is not made by its equipment, but by constant joint training and the ability to keep order in any situation.

      Dear colleague, against the shelling of horse archers, poorly protected infantry, if it has been trained three hundred times, will not prohibit the word at all. Carr showed it perfectly. And Daniil needed the infantry first of all in case of the visit of the Mongols - as the steppemen brought a lot of people, and the GVK did not have the means to put comparable masses of cavalry on the battlefield. Therefore, it was necessary to use the tactics of the hammer-cavalry and the anvil-infantry. And that is characteristic, with Kuremsa it turned out.
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      In addition, you did not say a word about how this infantry showed itself - how it defended itself, how it attacked, in what battles it showed itself, what exactly.

      This is the material of a separate study. Do not forget, as part of this cycle, I have to balance between details and conciseness. Here, alas, it turned out too many details in the framework of the cycle, but too little for a detailed consideration of the issue.
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Also interested in information about the use of Daniil and Vasilk squads heavy throwing guns in field battles. This is real news for me. Here, I would also like details.

      I don’t remember heavy ones in field battles, they were prepared for sieges, but I was not particularly interested in this issue. And here’s light throwing artillery. spied on by the Mongols in the field battles could well be used - or at least gathered. The EMNIP at Dlugosh marked some march-throw of the Galician-Volyn cavalry during the next war with the Poles, when the Rusich led the horses in exile, peering from the Mongol, and even grabbing light throwing artillery (it’s as if quite light, disassembled by 1 -2 horses can be dragged away). Although in general, as far as I can tell, the use of all kinds of throwing devices in GVK quickly waned.
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      I note that it was in Volyn that the Mongols during the western campaign first encountered fortified points, against which they were powerless. Rather, their siege or assault, seemed to them impractical due to the complexity, cost and poverty of the settlements themselves. A number of towns in Volyn and Galicia were not taken by the Mongols, they resisted. Then, in Europe, they were faced with such phenomena constantly, but for the first time this happened precisely in the possessions of Daniel.

      Yes. Moreover, the Mongols could hypothetically start a siege as in Central Asia, or try to repeat a long sitting at Kozelsk .... But it was after Kozelsk that Batu Khan seemed to be very afraid of the lingering seats at the walls of any cities. And the seat could be delayed only with developed fortifications, which did not give in for a couple of days of siege artillery (propelling, who is not in the subject).
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 June 2020 20: 43 New
        +4
        Yes, unprotected infantry will not stand up against beam fire. Long spears from arrows do not shrug off, but in order to close shields it requires oh what a preparation ...
        So you think that Daniel was preparing his infantry to confront the Mongols? I don’t know, I don’t know ... It seems to me that by that time the Mongols had already wished everyone to confront them. Illusions were experienced only by those who did not encounter them.
        And, by the way, it was during this period that the Russian squads as a whole noticed a sharp increase in protective armament. Some researchers attribute this to the fact that in Russia no one planned to oppose the light steppe cavalry, and they saw the main opponents in the west. A controversial concept, but it seems to me that it has a right to exist.
        And yet, yes, the main weapon against the Mongols was still stone walls. As soon as they faced an abundance of small, well-fortified castles, their predatory potential began to rapidly decline. Unpacking their vices near the house of every unfortunate pan, ban or anyone else they did not have the opportunity. However, they continued to take large cities where good production loomed with regularity - the sheepskin was probably worth the cost.
        1. arturpraetor
          18 June 2020 21: 18 New
          +2
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Yes, unprotected infantry will not stand up against beam fire. Long spears from arrows do not shrug off, but in order to close shields it requires oh what a preparation ...

          Arrows fired from bows are far from the best penetrative power. Even the quilts already gave some kind of protection at the usual battle distance, plus shields and helmets. The infantry system suffered some losses, but at the same time the infantry could snap back with firing from its bows and self-arrows.
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          So you think that Daniel was preparing his infantry to confront the Mongols?

          Apparently - yes, against the Poles and Hungarians, in principle, he had enough troops. But this, in fact, was already an extreme measure, to protect against major invasions from the steppe. And this measure seemed to justify itself - there are references that the Galician-Volyn infantry held the blow of Kuremsa's cavalry, for example. This, in turn, freed up its own cavalry for maneuvers, and the infantry task was simplified, since offensive actions were not particularly required from it, and this significantly reduced the requirements for the quality of training. At the same time, it turned out to be very expensive, but Daniil could not prepare a mass of cavalry comparable to the steppes in any foreseeable time. And in principle, probably, he couldn’t.
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          It seems to me that by that time the Mongols had already wished everyone to confront them. Illusions were experienced only by those who did not encounter them.

          Are you now trying to record a person under this business who almost ruined his entire legacy from a desire to fight the steppes in the early 1260s? laughing There was a naturally family tragicomedy, due to which then Lev Danilovich had to essentially re-unite the GVK. And all due to the fact that Daniel was bothering to fight the steppes.
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Some researchers attribute this to the fact that in Russia no one planned to oppose the light steppe cavalry, and they saw the main opponents in the west. A controversial concept, but it seems to me that it has a right to exist.

          Some researchers, apparently, are not aware that the Mongols also had heavy cavalry, which also had to be fought. No, the theory has the right to life ... But for me it is unconvincing. After the Batu Khan in Russia, the riders and their horses were required not only to strike their spears and wave their ali with a coin, but to withstand the same shelling of horse archers. And since a rider with a horse is much more expensive than a pawn, they tried to protect them to the maximum - it is better to overtake than not to finish.
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          As soon as they faced an abundance of small, well-fortified castles, their predatory potential began to rapidly decline.

          Apparently, some degradation in the field of siege warfare in comparison with the times of Temujin also affected. I have persistent suspicions that Batu Khan had already had quite a few Chinese engineers, and he could not stupidly do what the Mongols were doing in Central Asia. Because of what, at the sight of a massive stone fortification, the stage quickly set in "well, nafig, we rob everything that lies badly and dump it."
    3. knn54
      knn54 18 June 2020 20: 20 New
      0
      Mikhail, the researcher of the martial art of Ancient Russia A.N. Kirpichnikov wrote that a sharp increase in the role of infantry in the Russian military operations occurred almost half a century earlier than the time when the peasants on foot of the Swiss cantons for the first time inflicted sensitive defeats on the knightly cavalry.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 June 2020 20: 29 New
        +4
        Please, more specifically, time, place, battle?
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 June 2020 20: 46 New
        +3
        Quote: knn54
        the strengthening role of infantry in the hostilities of the Russians happened almost half a century earlier than that time

        Yes? Could forget. smile
        It seemed to me that the Swiss began to show themselves only in the XIV century. Mid XIII century for me - the time of unconditional domination of the knightly cavalry.
    4. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 June 2020 23: 07 New
      +3
      I thought today to take a break from VO, but that's not fate.
      Me too, over the past six months I’ve already made repeated statements. But it pulls, damn it!
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 June 2020 20: 46 New
    +4
    In 1243, Rostislav, who became a close person for the Hungarian king, married his daughter Anna, which already clearly hinted at a future campaign for the Carpathians to the east.
    My respect, Artem!
    For me personally, this phrase has become the most intriguing in the article.
    As far as I understand, at that time the split of Christianity was rapidly gaining momentum. That is, Orthodox for Catholics are "schismatics, worse than pagans." If you recall the recently suppressed Albigensian heresy - generally gloom!
    Accordingly, Rostislav could get married only by adopting Catholicism. But how did this react in Russia? Or was Orthodoxy more tolerant at that time?
    I have already asked a similar question to Michael "Trilobite Master".
    1. arturpraetor
      18 June 2020 21: 32 New
      +4
      The religious question is actually far from simple. The Pope pressed, urged the crusaders in every possible way to put pressure on the frontier princes, there were serious problems like the failure of the same church union under Daniel ... But the secular rulers in the big campaign against the Orthodox did not particularly rise, and the situation "Catholics vs Orthodox "in fact was much less heated than is commonly believed. Because when you start digging genealogies and details of the relationship between Orthodox and Catholic families in Lithuania and Poland before the Union of Lublin, a lot of funny things will come up.

      Rostislav, as far as I remember, did not accept Catholicism, which did not prevent him from becoming his beloved son-in-law of Bela IV. The same Bela IV calmly gave his daughter, Constance, to Lev Danilovich. At the same time, Constance remained a Catholic (with her family, where there are a lot of Catholic saints, there was no option at all to convert to Orthodoxy), and Leo remained Orthodox. One of the daughters of Leo and Constance, Svyatoslav, was brought up in the Orthodox rite, but decided to become a nun. And she went to a Polish Catholic monastery, with no information about her changing the rite. Even in much later times, the Lithuanian-Ruthenian and Polish gentry in most cases ignored confessional differences - an Orthodox could freely marry a Catholic, an Orthodox bride did not have to give up her gaze in front of a Catholic wife. No, everything happened, of course, and sometimes social discrimination naturally occurred, especially if some Orthodox bride fell into the nest of mother's fanatics, Catholics and chauvinists ... But this discrimination was not massive until the XNUMXth century. In this regard, the princes of North-Eastern Russia began to rely on "one state, one faith" much earlier, just like the Western European monarchs could be religious fanatics - but unprecedented freedom of morals reigned in the border between the Latins and the Orthodox for a long time. The only ones who from the "local" pedaled the religious issue in the XIII-XIV centuries were the Teutons, and then they somehow quickly switched from the wars with heretics and pagans to seizing the lands from the Catholic brothers and squabbling with them. Well, the Livonians, who often fought with Pskov and Novgorod, and could come to rob, were more likely not knights of the cross, carrying the light of the Pope, but ordinary raubritters - in this situation, the religious question is already the tenth thing, but if necessary, it will be attracted. The last in importance, but hiding the true intentions.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 June 2020 21: 44 New
        +3
        Voooot! I am trying to figure out for myself how important the issue of faith was in the time being described and the region being described.
        1. arturpraetor
          18 June 2020 21: 49 New
          +3
          It is very important if you needed a reason for war or rejection laughing And so - by and large it’s not important. There are perhaps very exceptional cases where the GVK was inherited by the Mazovian Piast, and he had to convert from Catholicism to Orthodoxy - for being a Catholic ruler in the Orthodox state was very bad manners. Among the people, inter-confessional tension arose at times, but it was usually instigated artificially. This will also be said, however, even in the last article of the cycle.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 June 2020 21: 56 New
            +2
            It is very important if you needed a reason for war or rejection
            Is Paris Worth Mass?
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 June 2020 22: 06 New
            +3
            In other words, religious intolerance in this part of Eurasia began with the emergence of Lutheranism, the expansion of the Ottomans and continued with the triumph of the Spanish Inquisition?
            1. arturpraetor
              18 June 2020 22: 11 New
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              In other words, religious intolerance in this part of Eurasia began with the emergence of Lutheranism.

              Rather, when the Counter-Reformation reached the Commonwealth, and the head of the state was a king, raised by the Jesuits. Those. end of the XNUMXth century. Although the "first bells" went off under Stefan Batory, he did not pedal the religious theme so fanatically. Before that, Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Protestants got along quite calmly in the country, and for a long time the secretary of the king was generally an openly heretic Arian. And no one could do anything with him, although many tried.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 June 2020 22: 24 New
                +3
                Guilty, I meant the region from the Urals to Gibraltar.
                Artem, in me the love of micro and macro history is oddly combined.
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 June 2020 01: 05 New
    +2
    Another point, Artem. For the interaction of cavalry and infantry you indicated, significant progress was required in command and control of the army on the battlefield. How could it be implemented?
    1. arturpraetor
      19 June 2020 02: 32 New
      +2
      I have not seen anything similar to the Chinese system (pipes, flags, etc.), but it was not really necessary. The task of the infantry was to stand and hold back the enemy's blow, the cavalry, as a rule, was commanded, if not personally by the prince, then by his sons, brothers and governors. There was an improvement in controllability, but it went rather through planning and practicing the actions of the cavalry on the battlefield so that it would not crumble during maneuvers. For this, for some unknown time, there were "great princely hunts", which were carried out annually, and were more military exercises than a classical hunt. At least such a practice existed among the Lithuanians of Olgerd's time, and was already sufficiently developed so that the cavalry trained in this way could compete with the steppe inhabitants. Probably, something similar was carried out in the time of Daniel Galitsky, although sometimes there was no time for "big hunts" - it was necessary to naturally fight almost every year, and there, on a campaign, it is easier to work out interaction and solidarity along the way.
  7. pin_code
    pin_code 19 June 2020 06: 13 New
    +3
    Thank you very much for the series of articles. interesting and easy to read information. Thank you very much for your work!
  8. Vlad world
    Vlad world 19 June 2020 12: 52 New
    0
    If the author is writing articles, then it is advisable to stick to sources and not fantasies - the sources said they marveled at the Tatar Licenses on horses. I repeat the Tatar. So you need to write.

    Flashed super archers-Mongol. The question is what type of onion. If it is difficult to composite glued then the type of Glue. Resource base for the production of this glue.
    Wangyu - there will be no answer
    1. frog
      frog 19 June 2020 19: 03 New
      +1
      It will not work out of you, esteemed, vangovatel, that's quite straight. As well as from the grandmother, only her Bulgarian special forces supported and untwisted, and you are unlikely to be anyone ..... Kol izh with the most trivial casein glue are unfamiliar, and there, "wang" ...
      The Egyptians used glue compounds, and there are so many things about compound bows ...
      1. Vlad world
        Vlad world 19 June 2020 19: 29 New
        -1
        Quote: frog
        It will not work out of you, esteemed, vangovatel, that's quite straight. As well as from the grandmother, only her Bulgarian special forces supported and untwisted, and you are unlikely to be anyone ..... Kol izh with the most trivial casein glue are unfamiliar, and there, "wang" ...
        The Egyptians used glue compounds, and there are so many things about compound bows ...


        Well, why it doesn’t work out. It worked out completely.
        You already try Casein glue to glue a compound glued onion. With a tension of 60 kg. And so that he could lie in the earth for about 400 years and bend after that. How many wonderful discoveries will be. If you don’t know, then from the beginning, get in touch with the matter and then express your opinion. Specialist.
        And if there are so many things about complex compound glued bows, then why didn’t they look from the beginning.
        After all, the question is not simple.
        1. frog
          frog 19 June 2020 20: 46 New
          +1
          One of the most important secrets of ancient archer masters was the glue recipe, almost like the secret of varnish among violin masters. There are many different technologies for manufacturing adhesives. The Japanese, for example, use rice glue for their onions. The conditions under which the weapon will be operated are also important. In warm countries with a humid climate, such as the Mediterranean, fish glue is ideal, poorly permeable to moisture. Glue from tendons is better suited for our conditions. It is more hygroscopic, which traps moisture from the air easily and protects the onion from drying out and cracking in dry conditions of the continental climate. In addition, the tendon glue is phenomenally strong - up to 100 kgf / cm2 for breaking.
          For glue, we needed the Achilles tendon of cows, which were thoroughly cleaned of fat and other impurities and dipped in boiling water for 15 minutes. We merge water with the remains of fat, we wash out tendons and we cut into small pieces. In ancient times, for the next stage, craftsmen poured clean rainwater into a ceramic pot and boiled charcoal tendons for a week. Today, rainwater is not the same - a lot of all sorts of impurities, so distilled water is used. And the charcoal pot does not languish for a week - Mario boils tendons in a pressure cooker in just 2,5 hours. The result is an extremely strong tendon broth, which is filtered and cooled. The resulting very hard jelly is cut into small pieces and dried. All glue is ready.
          Now, as needed, the right amount of glue is dissolved in warm water and used. With each subsequent heating, the tendon glue loses from 10 to 15% of its properties. Therefore, wizards do not reuse it, as a rule.
          Ancient masters took at least a week to cook glue. Tendons were boiled in pure rainwater in a ceramic pot on charcoal. We rationalized this process: instead of rainwater, we took distilled water, and instead of a pot, a pressure cooker. Accordingly, the preparation time of the final product was reduced, and very significantly - up to two and a half hours.

          And yet, do not hand over the wretched, waist-high wooden, reference to the bow that lay in the steward of the 4th century and continued to bend after descendants? I would be grateful, here she is ....
          1. Vlad world
            Vlad world 19 June 2020 22: 29 New
            0
            Here she told her News on archeology a few years ago, during excavations, the shoulders of the bow were discovered and they bent. I can go through a polygraph that I read and not invented.
            And for complex onion fish glue was used. And it was a swimming bladder of sturgeons - beluga, stellate sturgeon, sturgeon. At one time, the Monopoly Supplier of glue was Khazaria. Yes, that same Khazaria. Compound glued onions appeared in the basin of the Caspian Sea. (archeology data) I think it’s clear why. Compound onion is a bow from glued plates of different varieties of wood with glued bone plates for reinforcement. Possessed tremendous flexibility and power.
            The British, having the opportunity to buy fish glue and buying it, sometimes still preferred to use yew onion. Do not tell me why.
            And now, having an atlas of sturgeon distribution, don’t tell me how nomads who do not use fish in food learned about glue and ensured the supply of this glue. Cupid did not offer there forest taiga. And the aboregens of this region used a simple onion stick.
            1. frog
              frog 19 June 2020 23: 05 New
              +1
              Here she told her News on archeology a few years ago, during excavations, the shoulders of the bow were discovered and they bent. I can go through a polygraph that I read and not invented.

              I readily believe that "The word caballero, that's how it was", but I would like to have a reference ...
              And yet about the rest - it would also be nice to have a reference, a quote. Because sturgeons in Siberian rivers easily live even now. And not only of them can be made glue.
              It is better to ask rhetorical questions to yourself, honestly ..... Because your faith (to which you certainly have the right) remains faith without confirmation, no more. And to convince others that your idea of ​​a creator is true is an occupation for a clinical optimist ......
              1. Vlad world
                Vlad world 20 June 2020 08: 54 New
                -1
                Quote: frog
                Here she told her News on archeology a few years ago, during excavations, the shoulders of the bow were discovered and they bent. I can go through a polygraph that I read and not invented.

                I readily believe that "The word caballero, that's how it was", but I would like to have a reference ...
                And yet about the rest - it would also be nice to have a reference, a quote. Because sturgeons in Siberian rivers easily live even now. And not only of them can be made glue.
                It is better to ask rhetorical questions to yourself, honestly ..... Because your faith (to which you certainly have the right) remains faith without confirmation, no more. And to convince others that your idea of ​​a creator is true is an occupation for a clinical optimist ......



                1 Seek ye be with you
                2 You introduced Glues and on Flexibility after rejection Checked. Unfortunately no. And there is the truth
                3 There are no answers to the questions. Yes, and how to answer it if at the same time the usual
                Religious worldview.
                1. frog
                  frog 20 June 2020 09: 40 New
                  +1
                  Velmy appreciates the conversation. True, with TV. Yes, and they talk with radio mainly on TNT, so all the best. And new achievements ....