Military Review

The struggle for Galich in the years 1205-1229

63
The struggle for Galich in the years 1205-1229

Monument to Andras II in the National Historical Park in Opustasser. This king became one of the co-authors of the chaos that began in Southwest Russia after 1205


By the time of the death of Prince Roman Mstislavich, signs of stratification began to appear even in the midst of the boyars. The reason was the fact that people of a completely different origin and level of well-being could get into the boyar at that time. Thus, wealthy citizens and representatives of rural communities, who had a certain influence, were also boyars. They, as well as the landless sons of large boyars, small warriors, political active merchants and many others formed a layer of small boyars, which did not possess wealth, but was more closely connected with the community and was more numerous. The older boyars turned into typical oligarchs - wealthy and influential, but socially destructive personalities who sought to put the whole world at the service of their own benefit. The former were entirely for maintaining strong princely power in 1205, although it came from the "widow of Romanova" and two young sons of the deceased ruler, which for Russia at that time was a bad manners. The latter wanted the return of the old days and their own domination over everything and everything. As often happens in stories, money as a result defeated good.

Immediately make a reservation: the events of the first years after the death of Roman Mstislavich may not be fully stated by me. The thing is that there began such chaos, such a merry and versatile political movement that many researchers themselves get confused in the events and indicate a different sequence of events or completely forget some details. Even during a cursory inspection of my own sources, I found FOUR different in detail descriptions of what was in Galich before the final approval of the Magyars there. When reading the further description of the events, it is necessary to remember this, but to understand that, perhaps, this is exactly how it was. And immediately it becomes clear why many are confused in those events.

The news of the death of Roman Mstislavich had scarcely come when his former enemies stirred. From Hungary they began to write actively to their supporters Kormilichichi; Rurik Rostislavich rejected tonsure, renewed alliance with the Olgovichi and Polovtsy, and moved to Galich. Anna Angelina was forced to develop an active activity to put together her own coalition. Roman himself took care of protecting the claims of his own sons: in 1204 he entered into an agreement with Andras Arpad on mutual support of the heirs. This was the result of a long game: Andras at one time fought with his cousin, Imre, for the crown, and received support from the Principality of Galicia-Volyn. Just in 1204, the war ended, and Andras became regent with the young nephew, Laszlo III, and after his death in 1205, the regent was crowned king Andras II. After the death of Roman Mstislavich, the contract was declared valid, and Hungarian troops arrived in Galich. Having been defeated at the border, the Russian-Hungarian army arranged for the allies of Rurik Rostislavich a real bloodbath under the walls of the city. The Polovtsian khan himself and his brother almost got captured. Nevertheless, in 1206, Rurik repeated the campaign, this time bringing to the aid of the Poles Prince Leszek Bely. Andras II evaded the war, agreeing only that the children of the late Roman Mstislavich be left Volyn.

In Galich, unexpectedly at the head of everything turned out to be the local boyars with the Kormilichichi at the head. They immediately regained all the feedings taken from them by the late prince, gathered their own army and decided to decide what would happen to their principality in the future. Rurik Rostislavich and his allies shied away from any serious decisions on Galich, waiting for the decision of the local boyars and actively pushing the veche to the most advantageous option for them. With the filing of the Kormilichichi’s, it was decided to implement the option that was already proposed after the death of Vladimir Yaroslavich: to invite the three brothers from the Olgovichi, the sons of Prince Igor Svyatoslavich and the daughter of Yaroslav Osmomysl to rule in Galich (these are the same: the protagonist of “The Words about Igor's Regiment” and the central figure "Crying Yaroslavna"). Brothers Vladimir, Svyatoslav and Roman Igorevich arrived in Galich at the invitation of the boyars and began to rule the principality as legitimate heirs of the first Galician dynasty, being under the control of the boyars.

The King of Hungary, Andras II, didn’t really like this option, and he unexpectedly decided to still fight for Galich. True, he had already forgotten about the patronage of the children of Roman Mstislavich and decided to bet on the son of Vsevolod the Big Nest, Yaroslav. However, nothing came of the venture, even despite the fact that the union of the princes, led by Rurik Rostislavich, crumbled shortly afterwards. Worse, Kormilichichi, having gathered strength, were able to influence Vladimir-Volynsky, and Anna Angelina, along with her son and part of the boyars, was forced to leave the city. The Galician-Volyn principality was wholly in the grip of the Igorevichs and the Galician boyars, and the Romanovichs fled ... to Leshek Bely, who only a year ago became the decisive factor in their defeat in the struggle for Galich.

How Igorevich went to success


It seemed that the Igorevichs suddenly jumped from mud to riches. In their hands was a large and wealthy Galician-Volyn principality. You could do anything, including the classic scenario with claims to Kiev and a huge amount of resources spent on the city, which every year and the conquest became less and less significant on the scale of Russia. However, the power of the Igorevichs was shaky, especially in Volyn, where the dominance of the Galician boyars was perceived in the same way as a bull on a bullfight perceives a red rag. Prince Belzsky, Alexander Vsevolodovich, a close relative of the Romanovichs, raised his army and expelled Svyatoslav Igorevich with the support of Poles and communities in 1207. From this moment, the Galicia-Volyn principality actually collapsed. Galich now had to cook in his own juice. In Volyn, however, the period of internal unrest and war also came.

The Igorevichs were by no means as close-knit brothers as the founding brothers of the Principality of Galicia. This factor was used by the boyars to their full potential. When Vladimir Igorevich began to claim too much power in the state, having begun to suppress the interests of the boyars, they simply turned to another brother, Roman. He, having agreed with the Hungarian nobility, overthrew his brother in 1208, who fled to Putivl and established his own rule. The novel also turned out to be a man eager for power, as a result of which in 1210 the boyars simply called on the Hungarians and replaced him with Rostislav Rurikovich (the son of that same Rurik, who was the father-in-law of Roman Mstislavich). However, for some reason Rostislav also wanted more power, as a result of which the boyars again called on Vladimir Igorevich to the board ...

Here are just Igorevichi from all that happened quickly learned a lesson and joined forces. Now they understood how dangerous the Galician boyars were, and therefore launched large-scale repressions against them, following the example of Prince Roman. However, if Roman was careful with them, persecuting only the most odious boyars, then the brothers were much less restrained and skillful in such things. According to the annals, several hundred boyars and wealthy citizens of Galich were executed, because of which the princes turned against themselves not only boyars, but also the community. As a result of this, the boyars decided to change their shoes in a jump and return to reign the young Daniil Galitsky, who could easily be controlled by writing it to the Hungarian "patron", Andras II. He in 1211 invaded the territory of the principality and achieved victory over the unstable army of the Igorevichs. Since then there is no information about Vladimir; Roman and Svyatoslav were captured by the Hungarians, and they passed them into the hands of the Galician boyars. Having decided to teach a lesson to future princes and avenge their murdered relatives, the Galicians hanged both brothers on a tree. Princes did not execute the princes anywhere and never in Russia by decision of the veche.

At the request of the Hungarians, the son of Roman Mstislavich became the prince again, and the boyars did not seem to be particularly resistant. Thus, in 1211, Daniel nevertheless became a prince in Galich, without real power. However, he also had little time.

The circus continues


Daniil Romanovich, being still a nine-year-old boy, depended heavily on his environment in general and the mother of Anna Angelina in particular. Actually, it was she who, all this time, was pulling on herself to uphold the political interests of her son, using the support of some boyars and relatives, getting what she needed from the Polish and Hungarian rulers. And, of course, when Daniel sat down to rule in Galich, she began to take up all the levers of power in order to strengthen the position of both her and her own son in the city. The boyars did not like this, and they decided to simply expel her from the city in order to turn the young prince into his own puppet. Of course, the Byzantine pride of our princess couldn’t get away with some rude Russian barbarians ...

The degree of lawlessness of what was happening was gaining momentum with the speed of a train, rolling in a straight line and running late on schedule. At the beginning of 1212, Anna returned with the Hungarian army and forced the boyars to reconcile with her stay in Galich, simultaneously curbing their overly raging ambitions. However, as soon as the Hungarian troops left, the nobility rebelled. Again. And Anna went into exile. Again. True, this time with his son, as what is happening seriously made him fear for his safety. The boyars, without thinking twice, were invited to rule the city of Mstislav Nemoy, already the old prince Peresopnytsia, not rich and devoid of great ambitions, which made him a convenient puppet.

And Anna went to Hungary. Again. And she asked the help of Andras II. Again. And he went camping. Again. Those who had not laughed at what was happening now, now laughed, and who laughed before that, could not laugh ... The campaign failed because the Hungarian aristocracy conspired and killed Queen Gertrude Meranska, who allowed herself even more in Hungary than Anna Angelina in Galich. Of course, the king in response to such news deployed his army, and the undertaking failed. But only a rumor about her approach was enough for the next Galician prince to leave his office ahead of time, escaping back to Peresopnytsya. Yes, again ...

After such a boyar, they decided to get rid of the painful choice of which puppet to plant in Galich, and they simply elected the boyar Volodislav Kormilichich, the head of the entire progressive boyars of the city, as prince. And if before everything that was happening still had some shaky connection with traditions and established orders, then landing as a prince of a man who was not Rurikovich or a representative of another royal dynasty was completely not in terms. Already in 1213, a strong coalition was formed against the Kormilichichs from Mstislav Mute, Volyn princes, Poles and Hungarians. And again (yes, again!) Because of Galich, the neighboring rulers had to send a large army. The Galician boyar army was defeated, but the city held on, as a result of which the Allies had to retreat.

However, Kormilichichi was too early to celebrate the victory. The Polish prince Leszek Bely and the king of Hungary Andras II gathered in Spisha in order to solve once and for all the problem with the Principality of Galicia. Nobody was going to leave everything as it was, but it was impossible to constantly interfere in internal affairs - it simply distracted all the attention and resources of the sovereigns from other affairs. The boyar freemen in Galich had to be stopped. As a result, a number of decisions were made, and in 1214 the Polish-Hungarian army again invaded the principality and this time took its capital. Volodislav Kormilichich and a number of boyars were taken to Hungary, where their traces are lost. A Hungarian garrison was stationed in Galich, and Koloman, the son of Andras, was put in place of the prince, who became engaged to Salome, the daughter of Leszek Bely. The Galician principality turned into a condominium of Hungary and Poland, the latter, according to the good old tradition, planted garrisons in the cities of Cherven and Przemysl. The problem was solved, however, without any benefit to anyone who considered himself a Russian person.

But you do not think that this is all over?

And what about Volyn?


After the expulsion of the Igorevichs, Vladimir Vsevolodovich, Prince of Belz, settled in Vladimir-Volynsky. He gained power with the help of the Poles and was actually dependent on Prince Leshky Bely. In order to consolidate these ties, Leshko even married Alexander's daughter, Gremislava. This, however, never saved the prince from falling out of favor, as a result of which already in 1209 the Poles forcibly ousted him and sent him to reign Ingvar Yaroslavich, Prince Lutsk. However, this candidacy did not appeal to the boyars and the community of the capital city, which still had considerable political weight, and therefore in 1210, Alexander was able to return the principality to his hands, after which relative order reigned in Vladimir for five whole years. During this time, he managed to take part in a number of campaigns against Galich as part of the allied forces, as well as fight with the Lithuanians who occupied the northern territories of the state of Roman Mstislavich. Nothing good happened with the Lithuanians, and cities such as Novogrudok and Gorodno passed into the possession of the Lithuanian princes.

Romanovich at that time were divided: Daniel was at the court of Andras II, and Anna and Vasilk remained at the court of Leszek Bely. He took care of their interests, however, very peculiarly, singling out Vasilka in 1207 the principality in Belz, where he ruled until 1211. In addition, Vasilko in 1208-1210 also held the post of prince in Berestye (Brest). He himself had no political weight. Anna Angelina, being a wise woman, quickly realized that Leszek Bely was planning to take all Volhynia under her control in the future. The Dowager Duchess was not going to pay such a price to defend the interests of her sons, and her relations with the Polish prince remained rather cool.

According to the Spissky agreement, Hungarians and Poles took Galich from the Romanovichs not just like that, but in exchange for control of Volyn, i.e. the city of Vladimir was to go to Daniel. Alexander, of course, refused to leave the profitable place, as a result of which the Poles had to pick it out by force. Returning to his native Belz, he harbored a grudge against the Romanovichs and tried in 1215 to regain what he had lost earlier, taking advantage of the deterioration in relations between them and the Poles. However, both Daniel and Vasilko have already grown up and by the standards of that time were quite old adults, and most importantly, very capable rulers. Daniel grew up as a born leader and commander, and Vasilko, who also had good skills, but was much more indecisive, turned out to be an almost perfect assistant with his brother. The Vladimir community, after much throwing and mistakes, returned to where it started, and began to show full loyalty to the sons of Roman Mstislavich. Thanks to this, the young Daniil and Vasilk managed to repulse the attack of Alexander Vsevolodovich and even go on the counterattack. However, they were not able to achieve great successes due to the intervention of the Poles and Mstislav Udatny.

Nevertheless, the Romanovichs came out of this situation as winners. The difficult childhood years were lived, youth came, and in young men people were already beginning to see their leaders. Volhynia, albeit weakened and divided, was now in their hands, and it was possible to collect little by little the pieces of Roman Mstislavich’s inheritance. The failure of Alexander Belzsky showed that the young princes have fangs. In the future, one could hope for the great accomplishments of the brothers. Daniil turned out to be especially talented, who inherited the best features of his parents, and from an early age showed the abilities of a skilled ruler. The struggle for the restoration of the Galicia-Volyn principality was just beginning.

Mstislav Udatny



Prince Mstislav Udaloy leads the Novgorodians to battle with Suzdal. Artist N. A. Koshelev

The union of Hungarians and Poles turned out to be very short. Already in 1215, the Hungarians began to oust the Poles from the Principality of Galicia, claiming to be the sole leader. Leszek Bely, having less strength and realizing that he himself could not fight the Hungarians, began to look for allies. Apparently, Anna Angelina helped him in this, in whose interests there was also the emergence of a new figure in the politics of Southwest Russia, which could break the existing vicious triangle between the Hungarians, Poles and Galician boyars. Urban communities were ready to provide support, since Hungarian domination on the Galician land proved to be very burdensome, starting from the violence perpetrated by the Hungarian garrisons and ending with the imposition of Catholicism. Such a person was found quickly enough, and Prince Mstislav Udatny arrived to fight with the Hungarians from Novgorod land.

This commander was one of the most militant, capable and bright princes in Russia in that era. His whole life passed in battles - with other princes, crusaders, a miracle, and later with Hungarians, Poles and Mongols. By 1215, he already had a great reputation. In his squad there were many dashing warriors who, under the command of their prince, went through many battles. He promptly responded to the invitation, came to Galich with an army and forced Prince Koloman to flee to Hungary. The ease with which he dealt with the Magyars was impressive. But in the same year, the Hungarians were able to regain control of the principality, since Mstislav Udatny appeared light and was not ready for a serious war.

A serious war began in 1217, when he figured out all his affairs in Novgorod and paid maximum attention to Galich. The campaign of 1218 was especially successful when the Russian troops were able to take advantage of the fact that a significant part of the Hungarian troops went on another crusade. Mstislav again took possession of Galich and began to build local politics. He quickly noticed the capable Daniel Romanovich and gave him his daughter, Anna. Somewhere at the same time, it was decided that Daniel would later become the heir to Galich in exchange for the custody of the children of Mstislav Udatny. Together, they acted as allies against two powerful enemies at once: Leszek Bely, whom the Rusich “blamed” with his demands for Russian cities, and the Hungarians. In addition, with the active participation of his mother, Daniel concluded an agreement with the Lithuanian tribes, who, using his support, launched large raids on Poland, striving to deprive her of the ability to wage a serious war in Russia.

The campaign of 1219 turned out to be large-scale, the Polish-Hungarian army besieged Galich, who defended Daniil, while Mstislav gathered troops of his relatives and allies in the east, but a big battle as a result for some reason did not work out. The Volyn prince left the city with his troops, and for some time the Hungarians again took possession of it ... in order to soon lose it again. Mstislav Udatny eventually connected the Polovtsy to the war, and after two new campaigns, by 1221 he captured Galich, at the same time capturing Koloman Hungarian. Andras II, wanting to free his son, was forced to negotiate, at which he recognized Mstislav as the Galician prince. Then Udatny was recognized by the local community and the boyars, as a result of which, it seemed, finally, peace reigned.

The vicissitudes of fate


In 1223, while still allies, Daniil and Mstislav Udatny, together with the Polovtsy and a number of other Russian princes, set off on a campaign far to the Steppe in order to fight the Mongols. All this ended in a battle on Kalka, about which there has already been abound. It is worth adding that this turned out to be the last time when two princes acted as allies. Soon after returning from the campaign, Alexander Belzsky, still claiming power in the whole Volyn land, was able to drive a wedge between the princes of Galicia and Volyn, and Mstislav considered that Daniel posed a threat to him. In the strife that began after this, the Galician prince took the side of Alexander, but did not show much activity. Thanks to this, Daniel again showed the prince of Belz where the crayfish hibernate, and he was forced to reconcile.

Despite the lack of active confrontation, the paths of Mstislav Udatny and Volyn prince diverged. In 1226, the Hungarians again tried to regain Galich, but were defeated by the prince at Zvenigorod. Nevertheless, the aging Mstislav went to a world that was beneficial primarily to the Hungarians. One of his daughters married the son of the Hungarian king, who was named Andras, and the Hungarian prince himself was appointed heir to Mstislav in Galich. Thus, the agreement with Daniel Romanovich was torn. In the same year, Andrash took possession of Przemysl, and in 1227 Udatny completely retired to Ponisie (modern Podolia), giving Galich a son-in-law. Everything ended with the same as it began - Hungarian domination.

Daniel continued the struggle with Alexander Vsevolodovich, who did not let up. Once again, it was necessary to restore the old alliance with the Poles, as Alexander called on Mstislav Mute, Vladimir Rurikovich of Kiev and the Polovtsy. And again the Volyn principality, thanks to the close interaction of the prince of the boyars and the community, was able to repel all the attacks of the enemy. Moreover, Mstislav Nemoy, rejecting the ladder, in exchange for protecting the inheritance rights of his son, bequeathed the Principality of Lutsk, where at that time he ruled, Daniel. Mstislav died in 1226, his son Ivan - in 1227, and after solving the issue with the nephews of the deceased, Vasilko Romanovich settled in Lutsk. Little by little, the issues were resolved with other princes, as a result of which the intensified fragmentation of Volhynia gradually turned back. The more strength Daniel became in his hands, the faster the process of the revival of his father’s state took place. Politics were also used: in 1228, a large army of several princes and Polovtsians besieged Daniil in Kamenetz, but he was able to upset the ranks of the allies and even redirect Polovtsy to Hungarian territories, as a result of which he managed not only to lift the siege of the city, but also to retaliate Kiev principality.

In 1228, when Mstislav Udatny died and Andras Hungarian entered into full rights of Prince Galich, Daniel had considerable resources, allies, and experience in applying them under the prevailing conditions. Neither the community nor the boyars categorically liked the assertion of Hungarian rule in the Principality of Galicia. True, the boyars knew very well the methods of the Romanovichs and therefore were divided into two parties, but as a result those who considered the Magyars to be the greatest evil took over. Daniel received an invitation to the Galician table. In 1229, Galich was besieged and soon captured; the overthrown Andras was honorably taken to the border personally by Daniel. From this moment it was already possible to start talking about the revival of the Galicia-Volyn state, although another half a decade had to fight for recognition of this.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Prince Roman Mstislavich, Byzantine Princess and Foreign Policy
Creation of the Galicia-Volyn principality
Leapfrog of princes in Volyn. Changes in society in the XII century
Yaroslav Osmomysl and the extinction of the first Galician dynasty
How Rostislavich kept their principality
Volyn land in the X-XI centuries
Southwest Russia: geography, ancient history, sources of information
63 comments
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  1. Lexus
    Lexus 15 June 2020 07: 40 New
    +9
    Artyom, I want to express my respect. Glad to read your exciting articles on your favorite Military Review. Sometimes I look at AI, although it’s not registered there, because your work is familiar to me. Regards, Alexey. hi
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 08: 46 New
      +7
      Thank you Artyom !!!
      Reading about the events of those years, the thought gnaws - like everything is not in time. In fact, everything turned out to be what later played into the hands of the Commanders of Genghis Khan and Batu Khan "On the Way to the Last Sea"!
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 09: 03 New
    +6
    An interesting period!
    In fact, the beginnings of the process of consolidation of the Russian lands, moreover, a century before the similar in France and two in Spain! Also, Austria is still a small piece of the Holy Roman Empire. England shares foggy Albion with Scotland! Italy, Germanic principalities - a parade of sovereignty !!! Byzantium has fallen! China, Khozrem, Arab Caliphates and Persia - Time for Change! The first two are already holding the blow of a new threat from the east! I wonder if Batu Khan would come half a century later in the 80s of the 13th century!
    Could Russia meet him with dignity?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 June 2020 09: 13 New
      +3
      A similar military-historical game has already taken place under one of Artyom’s articles.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 09: 19 New
        +5
        Anton gnaws at me doubt that it is not paradoxical, but for the history of Russia the Mongol-Tatar invasion has become a blessing!
        Terrible, terrible, but good in the formation of our statehood!
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 15 June 2020 10: 17 New
          +7
          Well, if we assume that the formation of the Moscow autocracy is the only option for the development of the country, then yes, and so some dubious good.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 10: 29 New
            +1
            Quote: Cartalon
            Well, if we assume that the formation of the Moscow autocracy is the only option for the development of the country, then yes, and so some dubious good.

            Michael, not an option to win the championship against Moscow on equal terms could Tver, Gorodets, Yaroslavl, Pereslavl Zalesky, Ryazan or Nizhny Novgorod!
            Novgorod the Great, Smolensk, Minsk, Polotsk did not see the Tatars and could play their game with their cards!
            Galich had the most unfavorable conditions, but for a century he played in the front ranks of regional neighbors! Too many strong neighbors: Hungarians, Poles, Tatars, Lithuania!
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon 15 June 2020 11: 05 New
              +3
              Before talking about the disadvantageous location it is necessary to find out the productivity of the lands of Galich - Volyn principality and compare with other principalities, and they are neighbors everywhere neighbors, war is the norm for the Middle Ages.
              1. arturpraetor
                15 June 2020 15: 39 New
                +4
                Quote: Cartalon
                Before talking about the disadvantageous location it is necessary to find out the productivity of the lands of Galich - Volyn principality and compare with other principalities

                Yes, good productivity there. Plus, I already talked about this - apparently, by the middle of the XNUMXth century, the triple field was already widespread there, and in general the agricultural crop was at the highest level from all regions of Russia, the close influence of Poland (where it happened even earlier) affected Europe (where the innovations came from). Plus, the presence of profitable trade routes to the south, which did not stall until the XVIII century - the same Vistula-Dniester, although it was not something epoch-making, but brought considerable profits. So in terms of economics, I am firmly convinced, because it all comes down to this, that the Southwest was the most developed, or at least one of the most developed and strong regions of Russia. This is precisely what allowed the Romanovichs to wallow for so long - without resources they would not have achieved such successes.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 11: 02 New
          +6
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          for the history of Russia, the Tatar-Mongol invasion has become a blessing!

          Everything has two sides.
          The positive side of the inclusion of Russia in the Mongol empire is that there was no need to spend energy fighting the steppe, and this made it possible to withstand the onslaught of Europe to the east both in the north (Teutons) and in the south (Hungarians, Poles).
          Plus, a sort of “shake-up” affected the socio-economic structure of the village - the so-called “take off to the hills” when the peasants began to move en masse from the river valleys, where they lived mainly before that, on the watersheds - away from the beaten river roads, deeper into the forests. The result is a sharp increase in the amount of cultivated land, the transition to more productive methods of management - a bifree field, and in some places a triple field.
          But that, perhaps, is all.
          In general, the invasion with its huge human and material losses, and the subsequent domination of the steppes, when Russia was a forced hostage to the political games in the Steppe, threw Russia back and slowed down its development.
          We think about this in detail in the comments to the following articles - the role of Daniil Galitsky in shaping the “special fate” of the South Russian lands. smile
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 15 June 2020 12: 08 New
            +4
            Somehow very unconvincing, Mikhail
            The positive side of the inclusion of Russia in the Mongol empire is that the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe is gone

            Have you spent a lot before? Something I do not remember the analogs of the notch in the 12-13 centuries
            allowed to resist the onslaught of Europe to the east both in the north (Teutons) and in the south (Hungarians, Poles).

            The main threat after the Mongolian was not the notorious Europe, but the Lithuanians. The results of the confrontation in the 13-14 centuries are known. All is not in favor of the Russian principalities.
            In my opinion, there were no benefits.
            At least recall Nevyrueva and Dudeneva "rati"
            PS By the way, the first to speak out that the Mongol invasion prevented further fragmentation and launched the centralization process was N.M. Karamzin
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 13: 01 New
              +2
              Regarding the danger from the Steppe - it was really significant. I’m not ready to list the dates of the Polovtsian raids and return trips of Russians in the steppe, but they certainly didn’t stop. Vladimir Russia permanently fought with Bulgaria, there are also numerous round trips there, almost every year. Peace was concluded with Bulgaria only on the eve of the beginning of the Western campaign. So the eastern and southern borders were indeed a problem, and with the advent of the Mongols this problem was solved.
              As for Lithuania - I agree - it was she who was the most dangerous opponent of Russia in the west., But it was in the second half of the XIII century. they managed to stop their onslaught in Russia, and stop their activity. How many successful campaigns against Lithuania did Alexander Nevsky and his children make?
              Moreover, the expansion of Lithuania by the reasons for its success was by no means Lithuania’s military superiority over Russia - the basis of the territorial acquisitions of Gedemin and later Olgerd was a competent dynastic policy, backed up, of course, by military force, but only that, backed up. And if we analyze the vectors of Lithuanian expansion into Russia, it will become quite obvious that they were most clearly identified in the areas with the least influence of the Horde, that is, the principalities that were least dependent on the Horde fell under Lithuanian rule, although there was a direct military clash between them will happen soon.
              Quote: Engineer
              By the way, the first to speak out that the Mongol invasion prevented further fragmentation and launched the centralization process was N.M. Karamzin

              And here I do not agree. I mean, with Karamzin. It seems to me that these processes started themselves much earlier - this time. And I also see that the Horde, by its policy of distributing shortcuts, precisely contributed to the fragmentation of Russian lands into destinies, and not to their unification.
              As for the ratio of "benefits" and "harm" from invasion and yoke (Does this term not annoy you as some? I can use others smile ), then in my opinion, there was much more harm, disproportionately more. But there was some benefit too.
          2. Ryazan87
            Ryazan87 15 June 2020 13: 49 New
            +2
            lost the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe

            the so-called "take off to the hills"

            Klimzhukov blew.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 15: 11 New
              +2
              Quote: Ryazanets87
              Klimzhukov blew.

              Well, this is not his term; he only popularized it. How not to call this process (for example, “transferring the main agricultural activity to the watersheds), but it was initiated precisely by the invasion and, in general, brought significant benefits in terms of strengthening the economy of Russia.
              1. Ryazan87
                Ryazan87 15 June 2020 16: 47 New
                +1
                It is clear that Zhukov did not invent this himself. "Take-off" is so take-off, theory as theory.
                I am more confused "the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe" has disappeared.
                There was still a need, but there were not enough forces.
                Given the rolling "military" and at least fifty smaller, but still tangible raids ... Plus, I absolutely do not believe that all the steppe bandits have disappeared from the Wild Field. Well, if not on the counteraction system, then on the warning system all kinds of wasted. Well, the Novgorodians and the Pskovites didn’t worry about the steppes. On the contrary, with the advent of the Mongols, they had additional problems - a tribute to pay.
                1. arturpraetor
                  15 June 2020 17: 05 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Ryazanets87
                  I am more confused "the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe" has disappeared. There was still a need, but there were not enough forces. Given the rolling "military" and at least fifty smaller, but still tangible raids ...

                  There is not so simple. The raids from the steppe for the first time, while strong power remained in the Golden Horde, was not on such a scale as it took place, for example, in the era of the Crimean Khanate. While the khan was strong, he guaranteed protection to his vassals, including from his own relatives-steppes. It happened that for an illegal raid on sedentary relatives received a sickly scolding, up to the death penalty. Nevruyev’s army, for example, was not just a raid, but quite a punitive campaign initiated from above. But if the khan was weakening, then a mess began and chaos, which eventually became chronic.

                  But in Russia, the problem was with the mobilization of available forces and means - there was no awareness of how to do this, it was not possible to concentrate sufficient resources in the hands of one ruler, which means to assemble a large army. Here, the Mongolian system of relations "nomadic khan - settled vassal" worked to its fullest, not allowing the Russian princes to become too strong, since otherwise they would have become a danger to the steppes. In fact, it was only in the XNUMXth century that a big step was taken in North-Eastern Russia - at first the ladder was thrown back, because of which the Rurikovich had to fight among themselves, and then a local army was created, which under the current conditions was the only possible way to collect more or smaller masses of cavalry and resist the steppes in the open.
                  1. Ryazan87
                    Ryazan87 15 June 2020 17: 26 New
                    0
                    Artem, I generally understand these points. I can’t assess whether there was a benefit to the Russian lands from the fact that “the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe was lost”. Instead of wasting energy, they began to spend money and periodically undergo punitive expeditions such as Nevruy. The same Novgorod did not care about Polovtsy, by and large. But the Mongols are no longer there. What is the bonus here?
                    R.S. - honestly, there is not enough knowledge to assess how possible and developed the practice of small raids (to burn 3-4 villages from the category) during a period of even strong khan's power. I do not believe that in the Wild Field the silence has abruptly established. I could be wrong, of course.
                    1. arturpraetor
                      15 June 2020 17: 43 New
                      +1
                      Quote: Ryazanets87
                      I can’t assess whether there was a benefit to the Russian lands from the fact that “the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe was lost”.

                      Yes, it is doubtful in fact. Even if there was no need to fight against the steppe inhabitants (because it was futile), no one canceled the strife, and there "God is on the side of the big squads." So little has changed in this regard.
                      Quote: Ryazanets87
                      honestly, there is a lack of knowledge to assess how possible and developed the practice of small raids (to burn 3-4 villages from the category) during a period of even strong khan's power. I do not believe that in the Wild Field the silence has abruptly established.

                      Actually, the Mongol empire itself was created, including on the idea of ​​establishing complete order in the Steppe. And we must understand that the sedentary Russian princes are still vassals of the khan, an attack on them is an attack on the khan himself. This is also one of the cornerstones, but in general of all highly organized steppe states. Therefore, even if there were some small gangs, they became outside the law, and they were completely free to be driven by both Russian princes and the steppes themselves. Moreover, it did not require significant funds - ordinary gangs of robbers. It is also important to understand that the Steppe is not always the same, and therefore stretch the realities of the XVI-XVII centuries, when the Crimean Khanate had no vassals, but there were only tributaries and a source of donkey, for the XIII century, when the Golden Horde was the supreme overlord almost all of Russia, somewhat erroneously. IMHO, of course.
                2. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 17: 15 New
                  +2
                  The raids from the steppe stopped. To the Mongols, the Polovtsy walked in the steppe, who, like the Russians, did not have a single state at that time. Any Polovtsian prince could at any time raid and arrange. Bandits, wanderers - this is a trifle. But five thousand hooting horsemen, hungry and evil in your land - this is a more serious nuisance.
                  After the dependence of the raid from the steppe was established, one could wait only if the khan was angry with you. But that is another question.
                  Then, when the khans began to squabble among themselves, forelocks cracked at the princes, it was, well, and even later, when the "great jamming" began - yes, the steppe borderland became a very dangerous destination. At first, while the Russians were paying on time, problems with the southern and eastern borders were absent as a fact.
                  1. Ryazan87
                    Ryazan87 15 June 2020 17: 43 New
                    0
                    Well, in principle, the matter is small):
                    1. Consolidate information on Polovtsian raids, say, for the first quarter of the 13th century;
                    2. Assess the damage from these raids, plus defense spending;
                    3. Assess the size of the Horde tribute for the same time period, adding the damage from the punitive expedition for non-payment.
                    Compare.
                    R.S. "Bandits, wanderers are a trifle." Certainly, but this is not a trifle for a single village. When there are many bandits, the prince still needs to spend money on defense from them. Otherwise, the smerds will become impoverished, and in some specific princedom this will happen quickly. Those. you’ll spend on minimal defense anyway, just pay a tribute. But do not pay, some Duden will come to visit.
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 18: 42 New
                      +1
                      Actually, what do you want to prove? If the fact that after the invasion life has become worse, I have not argued otherwise. It got worse.
                      If the situation on the southern and eastern borders has not become calmer, then I’m ready to argue. It became calmer.
          3. arturpraetor
            15 June 2020 15: 44 New
            +2
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            The positive side of the inclusion of Russia in the Mongol empire is that the need to spend energy on the struggle with the steppe was lost and this allowed to withstand the onslaught of Europe to the east as in the north (Teutons) so in the south (Hungarians, Poles).

            With the onslaught of Poles and Hungarians, I would beware. The peak of their onslaught on South-Western Russia fell on .... The end of the XII and the first 2/3 of the XIII centuries, i.e. the formation of the GVK and the reign of Daniel Romanovich. After this, only Casimir the Great can pose some danger, after him, provided that the ruling dynasty and strong power in the GVK are preserved. Poles and Hungarians have too many problems; in real life, they have decided to expand in this direction only thanks to a successful combination of circumstances. And the Romanovichs have no one to threaten more from the west.

            Where the big threat is Lithuania. And then, everything is so precarious, with so many accidents in reality, it happened that by the middle of the XIV century the Romanovichs could occupy exactly the same territories that the Gediminids occupied, and even lay claim to Lithuania.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 16: 29 New
              +2
              The fact is that it was with the advent of the Mongols that the onslaught of Poles and Hungarians in Russia weakened. Someone considers this a coincidence, but it seems to me that such accidents do not happen. Well, in any case, while Daniel had peacefully with the Mongols, he had absolutely free hands for business in the West, which he did with such pleasure.
              I can object that by the beginning of the XIII century. the Polovtsy were already more or less "tamed" by the Russians, but this is still not entirely true. Before the arrival of Jaebe and Subedai in 1223, there was no talk of any calmness on the steppe abroad. And after 1223, the calm on the part of the Polovtsy was due to the fact that they waged a permanent war in the steppes with the empire.
              1. arturpraetor
                15 June 2020 16: 41 New
                +2
                Quote: Trilobite Master
                The fact is that it was with the advent of the Mongols that the onslaught of Poles and Hungarians in Russia weakened. Someone considers this a coincidence, but it seems to me that such accidents do not happen.

                Of course, there are no such accidents - because Daniel finally figured out the claims to Galicia-Volyn in 1246, already after the Mongols walked in a skating rink both in its lands and the lands of its main competitors. But his victory in this struggle was clearly visible from the middle or end of the 1230s, until the Mongol. So here it most likely coincided. And I kind of studied the history of Poland and the history of Hungary smile They really were no longer up to expansion into Russia. Hungary generally de facto collapsed and boiled in a long civil war by the end of the century, Poland was experiencing a peak of strife with a gradual access to unification, while reflecting the onslaught of the Czechs. As a result, under Lev Danilovich it turned out quite the opposite - not the Hungarians and Poles went to visit him, but he to them. Moreover, regularly, having managed for some time even to claim Krakow, and to seize Transcarpathia and Lublin from their sworn Catholic friends.

                I repeat, I’m talking specifically about the fact that, in fact, the onslaught on the GVK from Poland and Hungary was actually episodic, and for some time during the late Romanovichs was practically absent, from about the 1260s until the 1340s, when The period of long conflicts between Poles and Lithuanians over the Galician-Volyn inheritance began. Almost 100 years of absence of great threats from the west however!
          4. Cartalon
            Cartalon 15 June 2020 17: 51 New
            0
            As for the calmness of the steppe border, this is a dubious thesis, I didn’t really care, but it seems that part of the steep lands the Russian population left, a number of cities were abandoned for 300 years. Rising to the hills would have taken place anyway, everything was bad with the fight against the onslaught of the West. So in addition to reducing the number of princes, there are no advantages.
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon 15 June 2020 10: 22 New
      +3
      Philippe rules in France on the second of August; the battle of Bouvin consolidation has already begun.
      Where you see the consolidation of Russian lands is not clear, on the contrary, the collapse is progressing. Suzdal land joyfully goes to disintegration.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 10: 39 New
        +3
        We are talking about the Principality of Galicia-Volyn. The Tatar-Mongol invasion did not stop the disintegration of the Russian lands, it raised new unprincipled dogs! Yuri Danilovich remember !!!
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 15 June 2020 10: 43 New
          +2
          Galitsky Volyn land special case one prince managed to restore order.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 10: 49 New
            +3
            That is, the decentralization of Russian lands was inevitable. Thus, the Mongol-Tatars came half a century after the real events with a skating rink boldly the principalities of the Eastern Slavs and would have the resources to gobble up Hungary and Poland without thinking about the rear!
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon 15 June 2020 11: 01 New
              +1
              The specific system led to the fragmentation of the principalities, no forces capable of stopping this process besides the physical elimination of extra princes are not observed, maybe the crushing of princes would lead to the strengthening of urban communities.
              The Mongols came when they arrived, later they could not come, the offensive stopped because of the internal problems of the empire, and not because of some fears for the rear, the Russian principalities did not have the resources to resist the Mongols and certainly could not strike the steppe in the rear Mongolian army.
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 12: 34 New
            +5
            Quote: Cartalon
            Galitsky Volyn land special case one prince managed to restore order

            Hard to tell. In general, I agree with Vladislav in that part that certain trends for the reunification of Russian lands by the beginning of the invasion began to be visible. But only viewed and not to a greater extent, but much less than at the same time in Europe.
            See what was the general situation and trends in the development of the political situation on the eve of the invasion.
            Novgorod recognized the power of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich.
            Western lands - Smolensk and Polotsk are ready to fall under the onslaught of Lithuania. Own forces to resist its pressure are no longer enough, Polotsk is practically captured, Smolensk falls into the hands of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, who is planting princes in the Smolensk land by inheritance.
            Ryazan is, in fact, a vassal of Suzdal, that is, Yuri Vsevolodovich.
            Chernigov, Kiev, Galich and Volyn mutually depleted each other in the struggle, as a result, Kiev is in the power of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, and Galich is in the hands of Daniel. In Chernigov, the elderly Mikhail Vsevolodovich is no longer capable of any accomplishments, and his only son known to us, Rostislav, is guided more by Hungary than Russia. With a high degree of probability, in the following years after the death of Mikhail, the Principality of Chernigov would also lose independence, falling under the influence of either Volyn or Suzdal.
            As a result, two centers clearly emerge - the southwest and northeast, and the northeast is much more extensive territorially. Two, not seven or eight, as it was just recently.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon 15 June 2020 14: 35 New
              +3
              Only if there weren’t the Mongols who would allow Yaroslav and his descendants to gain power in the Vladimir - Suzdal principality? At least three princely dynasties would fight at the great table.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 14: 50 New
                +2
                Yes, that would be there - the forest is dark. Much would depend on accidents - who would die of the brothers before - Yuri or Yaroslav, which children will survive ... But in general, among the generation of Vsevolod’s grandchildren at the time of the invasion, one stood out - Vasilko Konstantinovich. He is both by age and by ladder seniority (he was the eldest grandson of Vsevolod), and, most importantly, by his abilities, stood out for the best. And his inheritance was the strongest in the principality, with the exception of the grand duke himself.
                Of course, there would also be conflicts and massacres, but the lands themselves already began to strive to slide again, centrifugal forces were already not so powerful.
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 15 June 2020 10: 57 New
          +3
          The Danilovichi took their family.
        3. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 12: 11 New
          +5
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Yuri Danilovich remember !!!

          And what about Yuri Danilovich?
          Of course, Dmitry Balashov did not caress him kindly, but from the point of view of historical science he was not much different from the rest of the princes. Balashov plays on the contrast of the noble Mikhail Tversky with the vile Yuri of Moscow, but this is nothing more than a literary device. Everything was mocking and slandering in the Horde, just Yuri was a little more successful in this matter, but Mikhail did poorly, that's all. Moreover, it was Michael who manifested himself as a faithful and obedient vassal of the Horde khan, while Yuri always opposed and actively opposed the khan's policy in Russia.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 13: 17 New
            +5
            Yuri Danilovich was, in a number of ways, a sprat of his ancestor Yuri Dolgoruky, he knew how to bite a bit and achieve results! Sometimes on the edge!
            1. His father Danil Alexandrovich, did not sit on the Vladimir-Suzdal table.
            2. In addition, Danil Alexandrovich, was the youngest of the sons of Alexander Nevsky.
            3. Moscow actually - economically inferior to all the players in the sandbox of the Vladimir-Suzdal reign, except perhaps the Old-Dubsky and Murom reigns!
            And under the above circumstances, he repeatedly takes up! And from the side, they kick him back every time, like a puppy, and he climbs again! Even with his death, he gives a chance to his younger brother Ivan.
            Regards, Vlad!
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 14: 35 New
              +7
              Yes, he was trickier, more energetic, meaner opponents. He was just a more capable politician. And note, despite all his tricks and obviously disloyal actions towards the Horde, he perfectly managed to save his lands from wars and ruins. There was one Tver campaign with the siege of Moscow, but it did not bring any great harm and ended in nothing.
              Vlad, I cannot but note, no offense. smile
              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Yuri Danilovich was in a number of ways sprats his ancestor Yuri Dolgoruky
              laughing
              This is tin. Thank. Nobody knows how to seal so accurately. good
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 June 2020 15: 34 New
                +1
                I have no dust! Sprats need to read tracing paper!
                I tried to upload a photo of the avatar and got Sonya’s ass, since at least with a tail! You can ascribe some meaning!
                Not mindfulness, my misfortune!
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 16: 12 New
                  +3
                  In any case, my mood is raised at least until the evening. smile Thank you. smile
          2. Cartalon
            Cartalon 15 June 2020 17: 59 New
            0
            Yuri Danilovich was considered a black male, long before Balashov and why it is not clear to launder, in general, the victory of Moscow without any legitimate rights is a big trouble for Russia, the idea of ​​absolute arbitrariness of power comes from this, the sovereign can do anything, because. ..
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 15 June 2020 18: 59 New
              0
              In general, the victory of Moscow, which did not have any legitimate rights, is a big disaster for Russia

              Where such confidence? Do you think that the Tver princes would be more democratic?
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 19: 02 New
              +1
              Quote: Cartalon
              Yuri Danilovich was considered a black male, long before Balashov

              Exclusively because he did not leave male offspring. The Moscow princes went from Ivan Danilovich, who, perhaps, was more terrible and "blacker" than Yuri, but he was handsome and well done. Because the ancestor.
              All around it was clear that Moscow received power illegally. But! There is one subtlety: it was Yuri who became the first of the Moscow princes to receive power — yes, illegally, and contrary to law and custom, by the will of the khan, through the blood of a lawful prince. Here he is bad. But his brother already received power legally, by right of succession. He, therefore, is good. And Yuri atoned for his sins by childlessness (although he had a daughter) and untimely death.
              Although, if we compare Yuri and Ivan Danilovich, the elder brother is simply the lamb of God in comparison with the younger. But the youngest is a direct ancestor, which means good. And the elder, well, yes, he is probably bad. So he is not an ancestor.
              In short, cones fell on Yuri solely because it was convenient and safe to pour them on him.
            3. arturpraetor
              15 June 2020 19: 20 New
              0
              Quote: Cartalon
              the idea of ​​absolute arbitrariness of power comes precisely from this, the sovereign can create anything, because ...

              I'm afraid everything is much more complicated here, and it rests not only and not so much on Moscow. Because the autocratic tsars seemed to have absolute power, but in reality ... For example, Peter III, the autocrat of all Russia. Overthrown by the noble-bureaucratic elite, later killed. Paul I - killed by the very top. His son, Alexander I, was forced to reckon with the opinion of the nobility, as he was afraid to repeat the fate of his father. Boris Godunov is most likely killed by the boyars, his son is killed by the boyars already for sure. Questions are still on a number of rulers, "inconvenient" the military-political elite of the state. What kind of "emperor can do anything"?

              The problem lies precisely in the fact that the autocratic sovereign, if he was not a completely extraordinary person, somehow turned into a screen behind which the boyars and then the nobles and officials decided their affairs. And therefore, all power de jure belonged to the sovereign, just like in Europe, but de facto - no. When the elite grew to the realization that they no longer needed the tsar to rule the state, the February revolution took place. And this is a completely different conversation, which has nothing to do with absolutism, but with the construction of an allegedly nonsense society in post-Mongol Russia, where in fact one estate absolutely dominated the others.

              A hypertrophied, reduced to absolute idiocy version of the same was in the Commonwealth. And, like the Poles, the root cause of such an excessive strengthening of the noble class in Russia was the military need - to give privileges to the nobles, strengthen them and get a strong army for expansion seemed to the rulers much more profitable and easier than building a delicate balance between the estates, and playing domestic politics restraining the ambitions of the nobles and building a multifaceted, comprehensively developed state.
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon 15 June 2020 20: 22 New
                0
                I had such an idea about the dangers of Moscow’s power when comparing centralization in France where the royal authorities acted ruthlessly, but be sure to rely on the law, if in the right interpretation, marry the heiress of the Duchy of Breton and get this very duchy, its inhabitants don’t say that they suffer greatly, and we are driven away from the table by Prince Ryazan, but because here.
                By the way, if sclerosis does not change me, Mikhail of Tver in Novgorod tried to exercise his rights as Prince of Novgorod, unlike Muscovites who took silver and did not interfere in anything.
                1. arturpraetor
                  15 June 2020 20: 54 New
                  0
                  Quote: Cartalon
                  This thought about the dangers of Moscow’s power came to me comparing centralization in France where the royal power acted ruthlessly, but always with the support of the law, albeit in the right interpretation

                  France and Russia had a completely different base, and completely different development conditions. I honestly doubt that it would be possible to quickly come to plus or minus to those orders that reigned among the French, even in the absence of the Mongols. There, quite specifically, for several generations, the whole state would have to be rebuilt radically. In this regard, it is better to follow the Spanish scenario with the Cortes (all-knowing!) And build a balance in the estate society. But there were their bottlenecks.
                  Quote: Cartalon
                  we marry the heiress of the Duchy of Breton and get this very duchy, its inhabitants do not say that they suffer greatly, but we have to drive Prince Ryazan off the table, but because.

                  And here the problem is simple - the Rurikovich are too fruitful, and they have painfully peculiar inheritance laws. In the west, dynasties were easily suppressed, there were not only purely male forms of inheritance, but also with the admission of women. In addition, there was primogenesis. It was quite possible to inherit a particular state. In Russia ... I don’t even remember something when and where there was such an opportunity to inherit some principality through a dynastic marriage.
                  1. Cartalon
                    Cartalon 15 June 2020 21: 16 New
                    -2
                    So this Prince of Ryazan, well, didn’t bother anyone, sat on his desk and did not shine, no, he had to be thrown out in the cold.
                    Strengthen your power, create supervisory authorities over vassals; no need, redraw everything in the Moscow manner.
                    The Grand Duchy of Lithuania could well collapse at the beginning of the 15th century if the Princes of Lithuania - Russians could expect to be near Moscow something more than a servant of sovereigns.
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 15 June 2020 09: 14 New
    +2
    I read - and complete analogies with our Troubles:

    “The confusion and fights went:
    Poles and Cossacks,

    Cossacks and Poles
    Us packs beat and packs;
    We are like a crayfish without a king
    Grieving aground ”(c).
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 15 June 2020 10: 23 New
      +1
      Without the king, no one really grieved.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 15 June 2020 10: 56 New
        +2
        Who was the trouble caused?
        Or is seven-boyars good?
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 15 June 2020 11: 22 New
          +1
          I'm talking about Galich actually
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 15 June 2020 12: 16 New
            +2
            And there the prince persistently searched.
            Another question is how manageable.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon 15 June 2020 14: 40 New
              +2
              But it’s certainly not the autocrat, but the constant feudal feud that didn’t seem to bother anyone at all, the squabble has been going on for decades, the Princes come and go, someone invades all the time, and there’s no information about ruin and decline, obviously this whole movement is in business did not affect.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 15 June 2020 15: 02 New
                +2
                This is the main question - how much the external and internal order is maintained.
  4. Red Dragon
    Red Dragon 15 June 2020 09: 17 New
    +7
    Thanks to the author for a very interesting series of articles on the Galicia-Volyn principality. It is written interestingly, reads easily, like a historical adventure novel. Reading, you combine business with pleasure, in addition to the pleasure of reading, the gaps in the history of South-Western Russia are deleted. Thanks again, I would like to have more such articles on the resource. wink
  5. Operator
    Operator 15 June 2020 11: 27 New
    -10
    Political life in the 13th century in the peripheral and depressive Galicia-Volyn principality, as well as in the same peripheral and depressive principality of Kiev with Kiev, which turned into a small town, was a mouse fuss compared to the northeast of Ruska Zemlya, where in the successful and crowded Vladimir, Suzdal and Novgorod are rapidly forming a new center of the state.

    At the same time, one should not forget that the Roman Empire with its capital in New Rome (better known as the Byzantine and Constantinople) at the beginning of the 13th century was already a territorial stub sandwiched from the north by the Bulgarian kingdom, from the west by the Serbian kingdom, from the east by the Koni Sultanate, from the south - island possessions of the Republic of Venice. The powers of the ruling dynasty of Angels were zero, so it left and right sold out the only remaining resource they had - a female offspring with the imperial title. But this also ended in a catastrophe with the entry of Catholic Crusaders into New Rome (absolutely legitimately led by one of the Angels), after which the Roman Empire was liquidated and dwarf Latin, Nicene, and Trebizond empires arose on its territory.

    Returning to our rams - after the "great and terrible" rex of the Catholic flood of Roman Galitsky was beaten up by ordinary Polish peasants with a dresco, the south-west of Ruska turned into a passage yard for Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians and Polovtsy.

    PS Auto continues to burn with napalm - as part of the fantasy city community of Galich in the early 13th century, he already "discovered" veche laughing
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 15: 24 New
      +8
      Quote: Operator
      Political life in the 13th century in the peripheral and depressed Galician-Volyn principality

      And further in the text.
      Do you know what is the difference between you and Artem?
      If someone in a normal company of educated, intellectually developed people retells the content of his articles, this can cause controversy, disagreement, discussion, but in general it will be perceived normally.
      If you repeat your comments in the same company, it will cause bewildered glances at each other in the style of “How did he get here? Who brought him?”, Intelligent silence, shrug and cautious questions about the state of health.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 June 2020 20: 08 New
        +4
        intelligent shutdown, shrug, and cautious health questions.
        I can hang in the face, depending on the mood!
  6. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 11: 57 New
    +7
    Greetings, colleagues. Thanks to the author as always, everything is great.
    Oddly enough, this time I have no comments, there are several additions or generalizations.
    Prince Alexander Vsevolodovich Belzsky is a cousin of Daniel, the son of Vsevolod Mstislavich, the younger brother of Roman. Therefore, despite the fact that he was older than Daniel and Vasilka for years, according to the ladder, he was the younger prince, since he came from his younger brother.
    But Prince Mstislav Yaroslavich Nemoy was Daniil’s uncle, since he was a cousin of his father and, accordingly, after the death of Roman, became the elder prince in the family of Volyn izyaslavichi.
    On the whole, I would divide the struggle for the unification of Galicia and Volhynia after the death of Roman into three stages.
    The first is the struggle for Galich between the Volyn Izyaslavichs and the Chernigov Olgovichs.
    The second is the struggle for Galich between the Izyaslavichs and the Smolensk Rostislavichs (including the reign in Galich of Mstislav Udatny)
    The third is the struggle of Daniel with his other relatives for the unification of Volhynia and with Mikhail Chernigovsky for Galich (this is the next article).
    At the same time, at all three stages, the Hungarians took the most active part in the struggle as a third, independent side. The Poles more often acted on the side of the Volyn Izyaslavichs, helping either Daniel or Alexander, but for the time being they did not make independent claims to Galich.
    It is interesting that the Suzdal princes did not participate in this struggle, although, as the author correctly noted, they also tried to draw them into it.
    Yes, and another interesting point. Chernigovsky, and at that time, Grand Prince of Kiev Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Cherny laid the blame for the execution of his relatives in Galicia - the princes of the igorevichs - not on anyone (well, there, the Hungarians who took them prisoner, or the Galician boyars who sentenced and sentenced to execution, or of young Daniel, who stood nearby and looked at how the Russian princes were hanged), but on the Smolensk Rostislavichi, who at that moment did not take any visible active part in the Galician strife - Mstislav Udatny would only join this process after five years. I wonder how it is possible to reconstruct the events of execution in view of this accusation.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 15 June 2020 12: 16 New
      +2
      The author does not assess the legitimacy of the claims of a prince from the point of view of "ladder" law.
      Mstislav Nemoy appears like a devil from a snuffbox. Your comment is clear.
      1. arturpraetor
        15 June 2020 15: 52 New
        +5
        Quote: Engineer
        The author does not assess the legitimacy of the claims of a prince from the point of view of "ladder" law.

        The author and family ties omitted along the way, like many theories and details. Just because the story would have turned out twice as much request And since the cycle was planned as the most general review, I decided not to detail. True, I kind of forgot to indicate that these princes were close relatives of Daniil and Vasilk, but this is already the author’s mistake - I already realized for a long time that there were only descendants of Mstislav Izyaslavich in Volyn, and therefore it seemed so clear.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 15 June 2020 16: 34 New
          +6
          Quote: arturpraetor
          in Volyn some descendants of Mstislav Izyaslavich were

          Mstislav Nemoy was the son of Yaroslav Izyaslavich. smile
          1. arturpraetor
            15 June 2020 16: 43 New
            +4
            Here once again got confused in these "ichi" fool Yes, Izyaslavichi ruled there, if you take according to Izyaslav Mstislavich.
    2. arturpraetor
      15 June 2020 15: 50 New
      +3
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      I wonder how it is possible to reconstruct the events of execution in view of this accusation.

      If it’s true, then it’s most likely commonplace: the Smolensk Rostislavichs could conspire with the Galician boyars and ask them to “help” the Igorevichs out of the game. The brutal execution of the princes looks more logical - nevertheless, many princes brought troubles to many communities, sometimes much more (Rurik Rostislavich won Kiev in fact to plunder the Polovtsy, something tells me that this is a much more serious flight than the Igorevichs), but they were executed only in Galich. We can say - a combination of circumstances, extremely unfavorable for the princes.
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