Monument to Andras II in the National Historical Park in Opustasser. This king became one of the co-authors of the chaos that began in Southwest Russia after 1205
By the time of the death of Prince Roman Mstislavich, signs of stratification began to appear even in the midst of the boyars. The reason was the fact that people of a completely different origin and level of well-being could get into the boyar at that time. Thus, wealthy citizens and representatives of rural communities, who had a certain influence, were also boyars. They, as well as the landless sons of large boyars, small warriors, political active merchants and many others formed a layer of small boyars, which did not possess wealth, but was more closely connected with the community and was more numerous. The older boyars turned into typical oligarchs - wealthy and influential, but socially destructive personalities who sought to put the whole world at the service of their own benefit. The former were entirely for maintaining strong princely power in 1205, although it came from the "widow of Romanova" and two young sons of the deceased ruler, which for Russia at that time was a bad manners. The latter wanted the return of the old days and their own domination over everything and everything. As often happens in stories, money as a result defeated good.
Immediately make a reservation: the events of the first years after the death of Roman Mstislavich may not be fully stated by me. The thing is that there began such chaos, such a merry and versatile political movement that many researchers themselves get confused in the events and indicate a different sequence of events or completely forget some details. Even during a cursory inspection of my own sources, I found FOUR different in detail descriptions of what was in Galich before the final approval of the Magyars there. When reading the further description of the events, it is necessary to remember this, but to understand that, perhaps, this is exactly how it was. And immediately it becomes clear why many are confused in those events.
The news of the death of Roman Mstislavich had scarcely come when his former enemies stirred. From Hungary they began to write actively to their supporters Kormilichichi; Rurik Rostislavich rejected tonsure, renewed alliance with the Olgovichi and Polovtsy, and moved to Galich. Anna Angelina was forced to develop an active activity to put together her own coalition. Roman himself took care of protecting the claims of his own sons: in 1204 he entered into an agreement with Andras Arpad on mutual support of the heirs. This was the result of a long game: Andras at one time fought with his cousin, Imre, for the crown, and received support from the Principality of Galicia-Volyn. Just in 1204, the war ended, and Andras became regent with the young nephew, Laszlo III, and after his death in 1205, the regent was crowned king Andras II. After the death of Roman Mstislavich, the contract was declared valid, and Hungarian troops arrived in Galich. Having been defeated at the border, the Russian-Hungarian army arranged for the allies of Rurik Rostislavich a real bloodbath under the walls of the city. The Polovtsian khan himself and his brother almost got captured. Nevertheless, in 1206, Rurik repeated the campaign, this time bringing to the aid of the Poles Prince Leszek Bely. Andras II evaded the war, agreeing only that the children of the late Roman Mstislavich be left Volyn.
In Galich, unexpectedly at the head of everything turned out to be the local boyars with the Kormilichichi at the head. They immediately regained all the feedings taken from them by the late prince, gathered their own army and decided to decide what would happen to their principality in the future. Rurik Rostislavich and his allies shied away from any serious decisions on Galich, waiting for the decision of the local boyars and actively pushing the veche to the most advantageous option for them. With the filing of the Kormilichichi’s, it was decided to implement the option that was already proposed after the death of Vladimir Yaroslavich: to invite the three brothers from the Olgovichi, the sons of Prince Igor Svyatoslavich and the daughter of Yaroslav Osmomysl to rule in Galich (these are the same: the protagonist of “The Words about Igor's Regiment” and the central figure "Crying Yaroslavna"). Brothers Vladimir, Svyatoslav and Roman Igorevich arrived in Galich at the invitation of the boyars and began to rule the principality as legitimate heirs of the first Galician dynasty, being under the control of the boyars.
The King of Hungary, Andras II, didn’t really like this option, and he unexpectedly decided to still fight for Galich. True, he had already forgotten about the patronage of the children of Roman Mstislavich and decided to bet on the son of Vsevolod the Big Nest, Yaroslav. However, nothing came of the venture, even despite the fact that the union of the princes, led by Rurik Rostislavich, crumbled shortly afterwards. Worse, Kormilichichi, having gathered strength, were able to influence Vladimir-Volynsky, and Anna Angelina, along with her son and part of the boyars, was forced to leave the city. The Galician-Volyn principality was wholly in the grip of the Igorevichs and the Galician boyars, and the Romanovichs fled ... to Leshek Bely, who only a year ago became the decisive factor in their defeat in the struggle for Galich.
How Igorevich went to success
It seemed that the Igorevichs suddenly jumped from mud to riches. In their hands was a large and wealthy Galician-Volyn principality. You could do anything, including the classic scenario with claims to Kiev and a huge amount of resources spent on the city, which every year and the conquest became less and less significant on the scale of Russia. However, the power of the Igorevichs was shaky, especially in Volyn, where the dominance of the Galician boyars was perceived in the same way as a bull on a bullfight perceives a red rag. Prince Belzsky, Alexander Vsevolodovich, a close relative of the Romanovichs, raised his army and expelled Svyatoslav Igorevich with the support of Poles and communities in 1207. From this moment, the Galicia-Volyn principality actually collapsed. Galich now had to cook in his own juice. In Volyn, however, the period of internal unrest and war also came.
The Igorevichs were by no means as close-knit brothers as the founding brothers of the Principality of Galicia. This factor was used by the boyars to their full potential. When Vladimir Igorevich began to claim too much power in the state, having begun to suppress the interests of the boyars, they simply turned to another brother, Roman. He, having agreed with the Hungarian nobility, overthrew his brother in 1208, who fled to Putivl and established his own rule. The novel also turned out to be a man eager for power, as a result of which in 1210 the boyars simply called on the Hungarians and replaced him with Rostislav Rurikovich (the son of that same Rurik, who was the father-in-law of Roman Mstislavich). However, for some reason Rostislav also wanted more power, as a result of which the boyars again called on Vladimir Igorevich to the board ...
Here are just Igorevichi from all that happened quickly learned a lesson and joined forces. Now they understood how dangerous the Galician boyars were, and therefore launched large-scale repressions against them, following the example of Prince Roman. However, if Roman was careful with them, persecuting only the most odious boyars, then the brothers were much less restrained and skillful in such things. According to the annals, several hundred boyars and wealthy citizens of Galich were executed, because of which the princes turned against themselves not only boyars, but also the community. As a result of this, the boyars decided to change their shoes in a jump and return to reign the young Daniil Galitsky, who could easily be controlled by writing it to the Hungarian "patron", Andras II. He in 1211 invaded the territory of the principality and achieved victory over the unstable army of the Igorevichs. Since then there is no information about Vladimir; Roman and Svyatoslav were captured by the Hungarians, and they passed them into the hands of the Galician boyars. Having decided to teach a lesson to future princes and avenge their murdered relatives, the Galicians hanged both brothers on a tree. Princes did not execute the princes anywhere and never in Russia by decision of the veche.
At the request of the Hungarians, the son of Roman Mstislavich became the prince again, and the boyars did not seem to be particularly resistant. Thus, in 1211, Daniel nevertheless became a prince in Galich, without real power. However, he also had little time.
The circus continues
Daniil Romanovich, being still a nine-year-old boy, depended heavily on his environment in general and the mother of Anna Angelina in particular. Actually, it was she who, all this time, was pulling on herself to uphold the political interests of her son, using the support of some boyars and relatives, getting what she needed from the Polish and Hungarian rulers. And, of course, when Daniel sat down to rule in Galich, she began to take up all the levers of power in order to strengthen the position of both her and her own son in the city. The boyars did not like this, and they decided to simply expel her from the city in order to turn the young prince into his own puppet. Of course, the Byzantine pride of our princess couldn’t get away with some rude Russian barbarians ...
The degree of lawlessness of what was happening was gaining momentum with the speed of a train, rolling in a straight line and running late on schedule. At the beginning of 1212, Anna returned with the Hungarian army and forced the boyars to reconcile with her stay in Galich, simultaneously curbing their overly raging ambitions. However, as soon as the Hungarian troops left, the nobility rebelled. Again. And Anna went into exile. Again. True, this time with his son, as what is happening seriously made him fear for his safety. The boyars, without thinking twice, were invited to rule the city of Mstislav Nemoy, already the old prince Peresopnytsia, not rich and devoid of great ambitions, which made him a convenient puppet.
And Anna went to Hungary. Again. And she asked the help of Andras II. Again. And he went camping. Again. Those who had not laughed at what was happening now, now laughed, and who laughed before that, could not laugh ... The campaign failed because the Hungarian aristocracy conspired and killed Queen Gertrude Meranska, who allowed herself even more in Hungary than Anna Angelina in Galich. Of course, the king in response to such news deployed his army, and the undertaking failed. But only a rumor about her approach was enough for the next Galician prince to leave his office ahead of time, escaping back to Peresopnytsya. Yes, again ...
After such a boyar, they decided to get rid of the painful choice of which puppet to plant in Galich, and they simply elected the boyar Volodislav Kormilichich, the head of the entire progressive boyars of the city, as prince. And if before everything that was happening still had some shaky connection with traditions and established orders, then landing as a prince of a man who was not Rurikovich or a representative of another royal dynasty was completely not in terms. Already in 1213, a strong coalition was formed against the Kormilichichs from Mstislav Mute, Volyn princes, Poles and Hungarians. And again (yes, again!) Because of Galich, the neighboring rulers had to send a large army. The Galician boyar army was defeated, but the city held on, as a result of which the Allies had to retreat.
However, Kormilichichi was too early to celebrate the victory. The Polish prince Leszek Bely and the king of Hungary Andras II gathered in Spisha in order to solve once and for all the problem with the Principality of Galicia. Nobody was going to leave everything as it was, but it was impossible to constantly interfere in internal affairs - it simply distracted all the attention and resources of the sovereigns from other affairs. The boyar freemen in Galich had to be stopped. As a result, a number of decisions were made, and in 1214 the Polish-Hungarian army again invaded the principality and this time took its capital. Volodislav Kormilichich and a number of boyars were taken to Hungary, where their traces are lost. A Hungarian garrison was stationed in Galich, and Koloman, the son of Andras, was put in place of the prince, who became engaged to Salome, the daughter of Leszek Bely. The Galician principality turned into a condominium of Hungary and Poland, the latter, according to the good old tradition, planted garrisons in the cities of Cherven and Przemysl. The problem was solved, however, without any benefit to anyone who considered himself a Russian person.
But you do not think that this is all over?
And what about Volyn?
After the expulsion of the Igorevichs, Vladimir Vsevolodovich, Prince of Belz, settled in Vladimir-Volynsky. He gained power with the help of the Poles and was actually dependent on Prince Leshky Bely. In order to consolidate these ties, Leshko even married Alexander's daughter, Gremislava. This, however, never saved the prince from falling out of favor, as a result of which already in 1209 the Poles forcibly ousted him and sent him to reign Ingvar Yaroslavich, Prince Lutsk. However, this candidacy did not appeal to the boyars and the community of the capital city, which still had considerable political weight, and therefore in 1210, Alexander was able to return the principality to his hands, after which relative order reigned in Vladimir for five whole years. During this time, he managed to take part in a number of campaigns against Galich as part of the allied forces, as well as fight with the Lithuanians who occupied the northern territories of the state of Roman Mstislavich. Nothing good happened with the Lithuanians, and cities such as Novogrudok and Gorodno passed into the possession of the Lithuanian princes.
Romanovich at that time were divided: Daniel was at the court of Andras II, and Anna and Vasilk remained at the court of Leszek Bely. He took care of their interests, however, very peculiarly, singling out Vasilka in 1207 the principality in Belz, where he ruled until 1211. In addition, Vasilko in 1208-1210 also held the post of prince in Berestye (Brest). He himself had no political weight. Anna Angelina, being a wise woman, quickly realized that Leszek Bely was planning to take all Volhynia under her control in the future. The Dowager Duchess was not going to pay such a price to defend the interests of her sons, and her relations with the Polish prince remained rather cool.
According to the Spissky agreement, Hungarians and Poles took Galich from the Romanovichs not just like that, but in exchange for control of Volyn, i.e. the city of Vladimir was to go to Daniel. Alexander, of course, refused to leave the profitable place, as a result of which the Poles had to pick it out by force. Returning to his native Belz, he harbored a grudge against the Romanovichs and tried in 1215 to regain what he had lost earlier, taking advantage of the deterioration in relations between them and the Poles. However, both Daniel and Vasilko have already grown up and by the standards of that time were quite old adults, and most importantly, very capable rulers. Daniel grew up as a born leader and commander, and Vasilko, who also had good skills, but was much more indecisive, turned out to be an almost perfect assistant with his brother. The Vladimir community, after much throwing and mistakes, returned to where it started, and began to show full loyalty to the sons of Roman Mstislavich. Thanks to this, the young Daniil and Vasilk managed to repulse the attack of Alexander Vsevolodovich and even go on the counterattack. However, they were not able to achieve great successes due to the intervention of the Poles and Mstislav Udatny.
Nevertheless, the Romanovichs came out of this situation as winners. The difficult childhood years were lived, youth came, and in young men people were already beginning to see their leaders. Volhynia, albeit weakened and divided, was now in their hands, and it was possible to collect little by little the pieces of Roman Mstislavich’s inheritance. The failure of Alexander Belzsky showed that the young princes have fangs. In the future, one could hope for the great accomplishments of the brothers. Daniil turned out to be especially talented, who inherited the best features of his parents, and from an early age showed the abilities of a skilled ruler. The struggle for the restoration of the Galicia-Volyn principality was just beginning.
Prince Mstislav Udaloy leads the Novgorodians to battle with Suzdal. Artist N. A. Koshelev
The union of Hungarians and Poles turned out to be very short. Already in 1215, the Hungarians began to oust the Poles from the Principality of Galicia, claiming to be the sole leader. Leszek Bely, having less strength and realizing that he himself could not fight the Hungarians, began to look for allies. Apparently, Anna Angelina helped him in this, in whose interests there was also the emergence of a new figure in the politics of Southwest Russia, which could break the existing vicious triangle between the Hungarians, Poles and Galician boyars. Urban communities were ready to provide support, since Hungarian domination on the Galician land proved to be very burdensome, starting from the violence perpetrated by the Hungarian garrisons and ending with the imposition of Catholicism. Such a person was found quickly enough, and Prince Mstislav Udatny arrived to fight with the Hungarians from Novgorod land.
This commander was one of the most militant, capable and bright princes in Russia in that era. His whole life passed in battles - with other princes, crusaders, a miracle, and later with Hungarians, Poles and Mongols. By 1215, he already had a great reputation. In his squad there were many dashing warriors who, under the command of their prince, went through many battles. He promptly responded to the invitation, came to Galich with an army and forced Prince Koloman to flee to Hungary. The ease with which he dealt with the Magyars was impressive. But in the same year, the Hungarians were able to regain control of the principality, since Mstislav Udatny appeared light and was not ready for a serious war.
A serious war began in 1217, when he figured out all his affairs in Novgorod and paid maximum attention to Galich. The campaign of 1218 was especially successful when the Russian troops were able to take advantage of the fact that a significant part of the Hungarian troops went on another crusade. Mstislav again took possession of Galich and began to build local politics. He quickly noticed the capable Daniel Romanovich and gave him his daughter, Anna. Somewhere at the same time, it was decided that Daniel would later become the heir to Galich in exchange for the custody of the children of Mstislav Udatny. Together, they acted as allies against two powerful enemies at once: Leszek Bely, whom the Rusich “blamed” with his demands for Russian cities, and the Hungarians. In addition, with the active participation of his mother, Daniel concluded an agreement with the Lithuanian tribes, who, using his support, launched large raids on Poland, striving to deprive her of the ability to wage a serious war in Russia.
The campaign of 1219 turned out to be large-scale, the Polish-Hungarian army besieged Galich, who defended Daniil, while Mstislav gathered troops of his relatives and allies in the east, but a big battle as a result for some reason did not work out. The Volyn prince left the city with his troops, and for some time the Hungarians again took possession of it ... in order to soon lose it again. Mstislav Udatny eventually connected the Polovtsy to the war, and after two new campaigns, by 1221 he captured Galich, at the same time capturing Koloman Hungarian. Andras II, wanting to free his son, was forced to negotiate, at which he recognized Mstislav as the Galician prince. Then Udatny was recognized by the local community and the boyars, as a result of which, it seemed, finally, peace reigned.
The vicissitudes of fate
In 1223, while still allies, Daniil and Mstislav Udatny, together with the Polovtsy and a number of other Russian princes, set off on a campaign far to the Steppe in order to fight the Mongols. All this ended in a battle on Kalka, about which there has already been abound. It is worth adding that this turned out to be the last time when two princes acted as allies. Soon after returning from the campaign, Alexander Belzsky, still claiming power in the whole Volyn land, was able to drive a wedge between the princes of Galicia and Volyn, and Mstislav considered that Daniel posed a threat to him. In the strife that began after this, the Galician prince took the side of Alexander, but did not show much activity. Thanks to this, Daniel again showed the prince of Belz where the crayfish hibernate, and he was forced to reconcile.
Despite the lack of active confrontation, the paths of Mstislav Udatny and Volyn prince diverged. In 1226, the Hungarians again tried to regain Galich, but were defeated by the prince at Zvenigorod. Nevertheless, the aging Mstislav went to a world that was beneficial primarily to the Hungarians. One of his daughters married the son of the Hungarian king, who was named Andras, and the Hungarian prince himself was appointed heir to Mstislav in Galich. Thus, the agreement with Daniel Romanovich was torn. In the same year, Andrash took possession of Przemysl, and in 1227 Udatny completely retired to Ponisie (modern Podolia), giving Galich a son-in-law. Everything ended with the same as it began - Hungarian domination.
Daniel continued the struggle with Alexander Vsevolodovich, who did not let up. Once again, it was necessary to restore the old alliance with the Poles, as Alexander called on Mstislav Mute, Vladimir Rurikovich of Kiev and the Polovtsy. And again the Volyn principality, thanks to the close interaction of the prince of the boyars and the community, was able to repel all the attacks of the enemy. Moreover, Mstislav Nemoy, rejecting the ladder, in exchange for protecting the inheritance rights of his son, bequeathed the Principality of Lutsk, where at that time he ruled, Daniel. Mstislav died in 1226, his son Ivan - in 1227, and after solving the issue with the nephews of the deceased, Vasilko Romanovich settled in Lutsk. Little by little, the issues were resolved with other princes, as a result of which the intensified fragmentation of Volhynia gradually turned back. The more strength Daniel became in his hands, the faster the process of the revival of his father’s state took place. Politics were also used: in 1228, a large army of several princes and Polovtsians besieged Daniil in Kamenetz, but he was able to upset the ranks of the allies and even redirect Polovtsy to Hungarian territories, as a result of which he managed not only to lift the siege of the city, but also to retaliate Kiev principality.
In 1228, when Mstislav Udatny died and Andras Hungarian entered into full rights of Prince Galich, Daniel had considerable resources, allies, and experience in applying them under the prevailing conditions. Neither the community nor the boyars categorically liked the assertion of Hungarian rule in the Principality of Galicia. True, the boyars knew very well the methods of the Romanovichs and therefore were divided into two parties, but as a result those who considered the Magyars to be the greatest evil took over. Daniel received an invitation to the Galician table. In 1229, Galich was besieged and soon captured; the overthrown Andras was honorably taken to the border personally by Daniel. From this moment it was already possible to start talking about the revival of the Galicia-Volyn state, although another half a decade had to fight for recognition of this.
To be continued ...