Alas, no better cards were found. All maps of Southwest Russia found on the network are given mainly from the time of the Romanovichs, something that was not bearable in the XI-XII century could not be found
Rostislav Vladimirovich, who was killed in Tmutarakan, had three sons left: Rurik, Volodar and Vasilko. After the death of their father, they grew up at the court of their cousin uncle, Yaropolk Izyaslavich, who from 1078 became prince in Vladimir-Volynsky. The brothers, like their father, were outcasts, did not have real power, did not have their own squads, and if they did, then in quantities clearly insufficient for independent politics. They did not expect anything outstanding under the existing order of things, because they were actively looking for ways to improve their social status, or rather, to get their inheritance in the board and cease to depend on relatives who either rose or fell in the turbulent cauldron of political life in Russia at that time. It was difficult to do this by legal means, because the search was conducted for illegal ways, i.e. just ways to drive out local princes from somewhere and sit down to rule by ourselves.
Just at that time, on the territory of the principality, especially in its southern part, which was called Subcarpathia, later became Przemysl principality, and then Galicia, dissatisfaction began to ripen. Local communities were dissatisfied with the rule of Yaropolk, civil wars, Polish garrisons in large cities, and many others. The factor of weakening the power of the Grand Duke of Kiev also affected, because of which there appeared tendencies for separation or at least isolation of individual principalities. Nevertheless, the legacy of the times of Vladimir the Great and Yaroslav the Wise still affected - the local communities associated their future only with the Rurikovichs and therefore they needed some representative of the ruling dynasty in order to achieve legitimacy and, possibly, strengthen their capabilities in the future struggle for a place under the sun. In the person of the Rostislavichs, the local population acquired three princes at once. Without the support of the communities, Rurik, Volodar, and Cornflower had little chance of success; in addition, there is no information that they would have any other support from outside. The union of three brothers and sub-Carpathian communities became natural and even inevitable.
In 1084, taking advantage of the departure of Yaropolk Izyaslavich from Vladimir, the Rostislavichs went to the Cherven cities and rebelled there against the prince. Przemysl also supported them, as a result of which the backbone of the troops of the three brothers made up the city regiments (otherwise it is almost impossible to explain the appearance of their army). The Polish garrisons were driven out in the face of superior forces, and soon after that Vladimir-Volynsky was taken without much bloodshed, who probably simply opened the gates to the rebels. Yaropolk requested help from the Kiev prince, and he sent his son, Vladimir Monomakh, with the aim of returning the principality to the control of his rightful ruler. It was possible to recapture the capital of the principality, but its southern territories, including the major cities of Przemysl, Zvenigorod and Terebovlyu, showed serious resistance. In the end, Monomakh was forced to go back to Kiev, and Yaropolk continued to struggle with the Rostislavichs, during which he died - in 1086 he was killed by his own warrior Neradts. Since Neradec then found refuge in Przemysl, the Rostislavichs were accused of the murder, but they didn’t care: acting together with the communities of the three large cities of South-Western Russia, the outcast princes gained vast and rich lands in their own possession, establishing their authority there .
Principality of Rostislavich
F. A. Bruni. Blinding Vasilka Terebovlskogo
Since 1086, the Volyn principality, before that one, was divided into two parts. Severnaya, with its capital in Vladimir-Volynsky, was controlled by “legitimate” rulers according to logging law, with the exception of the city of Dorogobuzh, which in 1084 was transferred to Davyd Igorevich by decision of the Kiev prince. In the south, having divided the possessions among themselves, the Rostislavichs began to rule, having founded a separate branch of the Rurikovich, later called the First Galician Dynasty. Rurik as the elder brother became the supreme ruler of the newly formed principality, settling in Przemysl. His younger brothers, Volodar and Vasilko, sat down to rule in Zvenigorod and Terebovle respectively. Inheritance in the principality took place within the framework of this branch of the Rurikovich, in exchange for this the princes received significant support from local communities who regularly put their troops under the command of the Rostislavichs - otherwise it is difficult to explain how they managed to repel the numerous encroachments of neighbors on the lands of Przemysl.
Rurik died in 1092, leaving no children behind. Volodar became the prince in Przemysl, who turned out to be a long-lived prince and ruled there until 1124. His reign turned out to be quite eventful. In 1097, he attended the Lyubech Congress of Princes, where he became close friends with Vladimir Monomakh and achieved recognition of his rights to Przemysl. This did not please Prince Davyd Igorevich, who at that time began to rule Volyn: he considered that the Rostislavichi threatened his position and could challenge him with power over the principality. It is possible that Davyda was supported by the community of Vladimir-Volynsky, which lost part of its power and profits with the loss of Subcarpathia. On the side of Davyd Igorevich stood the Grand Duke of Kiev, Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, who in the same year kidnapped Volodar's younger brother, Vasilka, and blinded him, which provoked the beginning of a new strife.
However, the effect of blinding Vasilk turned out to be completely opposite to what could help the cause of Davyd and Svyatopolk. Volodar Rostislavich news about this abuse of his younger brother caused a storm of indignation. The community also joined the prince - the Rostislavichs were “their own” for her, and therefore the blinding of Vasilka was an insult to all the communes of the principality. In addition, the youngest of Rostislavichi was a fairly popular ruler; in the early 1090s, in alliance with the Polovtsy, he went on long trips, including Poland, had great ambitions and sought to establish himself in Bulgaria. People considered such a prince “their own” and therefore were ready to fit in for him in full.
Davyd, taking with him the blinded Vasilk, invaded the territory of Przemysl principality and besieged Terebovlya, a former border town. However, he soon encountered troubles - Volodar managed to quickly assemble a considerable army and drove the Volyn prince to the city of Buzhsk, where he was forced to sit under siege. The situation of Davyd became hopeless, and in exchange for the release of Vasilk he was allowed to leave the city. Nevertheless, Volodar did not let up and besieged the Volyn prince in his capital, the city of Vladimir. In the end, Davyd was forced to flee to Poland and seek support there, and the Rostislavichs began to catch everyone who somehow participated in the blindness of Vasilka. They didn’t execute them personally, handing over the guilty to the hands of community residents, who themselves punished the criminals by hanging on trees and shooting from bows. The unity of Rostislavich and Subcarpathian communities at that time was absolute.
Russian princes were outraged history with the blinding of Vasilka, and therefore in 1098 they gathered a large army, which approached Kiev and forced Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, a participant in the blinding, to punish the main culprit of the incident, Davyd Igorevich. He did not lose time, having managed to return to his principality with the support of the Poles. Svyatopolk had to negotiate neutrality with them, and then besiege Vladimir-Volynsky in order to punish the Volyn prince. However, when it came to real punishments, no special measures were taken - Davyd Igorevich, in fact, voluntarily left the city, going to rule in Cherven, and the son of Svyatopolk, Mstislav, sat down to rule in Vladimir.
After the assertion of his authority in Volhynia, Svyatopolk did not find a better idea how to ... go on a campaign against the Rostislavichs! Meanwhile, Davyd Igorevich was not going to abandon his claims to Volyn, actively looking for allies. As a result of this, a situation arose in South-Western Russia when military operations were conducted between three separate parties, which could either fight with each other or enter into short-term alliances. The first side was the Rostislavichs, who defended their possessions in the Przemysl principality, the second - Prince Chervensky, Davyd Igorevich, who claimed Vladimir-Volynsky, and the third - the Grand Prince of Kiev Svyatopolk. The latter theoretically had the greatest opportunities, but he put his son Mstislav to reign in Vladimir without taking into account the views of the local community, as a result of which she did not have great love for him. This could not play a role in the future ...
The campaign of Svyatopolk with his sons against the Rostislavichs in 1099 ended with the battle on the Rozhny field. Volodar and Vasilko, accustomed to fighting for their interests together with the community, won the battle. This victory of its kind was the first, for the troops of the Prince of Kiev were defeated for the first time in a battle not for Kiev itself. One of the sons of Svyatopolk, Yaroslav, still did not stop, and therefore soon invaded the territory of the principality from the west, with the support of the Hungarian king Coloman I, his relative. This was the first time in a long series of interventions by Hungarian kings in the affairs of Southwest Russia. The brothers were besieged because they could not resist the large Hungarian army in the field.
The position was saved by the Polovtsian Khan Bonyak, who simultaneously acted as an ally of Rostislavich and Davyd Igorevich. Hungarian troops were ambushed on the Vagra River and suffered a heavy defeat, because of which they were forced to leave the territory of Przemysl principality. After that, Davyd Igorevich and the Polovtsy moved to the capital of Volyn. The city was defended mainly by visiting warriors, which emphasizes the chronicle - the Vladimirites themselves refused to support Mstislav Svyatopolchich, who died during the siege while on the wall. An attempt by supporters of the Kiev prince led by Davyd Svyatoslavich (not to be confused with his namesake!) To unlock the city failed, as a result of which Davyd Igorevich’s control over Volyn was restored.
In 1100, Russian princes gathered in Uvetichi to agree on peace conditions. Davyd Igorevich, despite his achievements, was still deprived of the Volyn principality, which was transferred to Yaroslav Svyatopolchich (the very one who brought the Hungarians to Russia a year ago). However, Davydu still left a number of cities in the possession, the main of which was Buzhsk. The Grand Duke of Kiev himself, Svyatopolk, was still trying to return Subcarpathia to his possession and therefore, together with his allies and supporters, put forward an ultimatum to the Rostislavichs - to give him Terebovlya and remain to rule only Przemysl, which he was ready to hand over to the volost with his lordly hand. How exactly the brothers answered this is unknown, but the fact remains: they did not give anything to the Kiev prince. The separate existence of the Principality of Rostislavich continued.
Volodar, Prince Peremyshlsky
After 1100, Volodar could be considered the prince of Przemysl and all the lands of Subcarpathia with even greater right, and even the prince of Kiev could not somehow weaken the power of the Rostislavichs, who acted in close cooperation with local communities. The prince himself turned out to be a pretty good ruler, a skilled diplomat, able to plan ahead and see the benefits of relations with certain of his relatives. In addition, he perfectly understood both his precarious situation and the importance of developing the lands entrusted to him, due to which his policy regarding strife in Russia could be called successful. Rostislavichi took part in them, but rarely enough, without attracting large forces. Everything was done to ensure the rapid development of the principality, its security and independence. Communities of the cities of Subcarpathia highly appreciated this policy and remained selflessly loyal to Volodar throughout his reign.
The prince conducted the "foreign" policy quite flexibly. Sworn enemies or eternal friends did not exist for him. In 1101, Volodar, together with Prince Chernigov, Davyd Svyatoslavich, went on a campaign against the Poles, although only a couple of years ago they were, if not enemies, then certainly fought on opposite sides of the barricades. Relations with Vladimir Monomakh, who were given support during his conflict in 1117 with the Volyn prince, Yaroslav Svyatopolchich, were kept warm enough. This did not prevent Volodar in 1123 from supporting the same Yaroslav Svyatopolchich in the war against the son of Monomakh, Andrei, since the Rostislavichs were seriously afraid of Vladimir Monomakh’s gaining power in Volhynia. In 1119, along with the Polovtsy, Prince Peremyshl went to Byzantium, collecting rich booty, and in 1122, during a raid on the Poles, he was captured due to the betrayal of his governor, as a result of which Vasilk had to redeem his older brother for a large sum of money. Of the two daughters of Volodar, one was married to the son of Vladimir Monomakh, and the second to the son of the Byzantine emperor Alexei I Komnin.
Volodar died in 1124, showing himself, though not a great ruler, but certainly outstanding among many others. The fact that he acted in the interests of his principality, and also ruled for more than 30 years, allowed Przemysl principality to grow stronger and stronger to a large extent. Moreover, the laws of an ordinary ladder did not apply to the principality of Rostislavich. Three large destinies, Przemysl, Terebovlya and Zvenigorod, from now on could only be in the possession of Rostislavichi. It is from the reign of Prince Volodar that you can count the beginning of the future Galician principality as a separate from the rest of Russia, strong and developed, with great potential.
One cannot but mention the activity of the younger Rostislavich. Vasilko continued to rule Terebovlem until his death in the same 1124. During this time, he managed to significantly strengthen the border with the steppe, settling them with settlers and founding a number of settlements. At the same time, relations with the Polovtsy gradually improved, which even their periodic raids on the Terebovl land could not prevent. In his expansion to the south, he even made claims to the Bulgarian territories and actively used the nomads who wanted to settle as new settlers. Probably, Vasilk belongs to merit in the rapid development of one of the cities of his land, which in the future will become the capital of the whole principality - Galich, in which one of his sons sat down to rule immediately after the death of Vasilk. However, this is already a slightly different time ...
After the death of Volodar Rostislavich, the ruler in Przemysl became his eldest son, Rostislav. He had not the simplest relations with the Poles - in 1122 he managed to be held hostage, captured after an unsuccessful trip to Poland, while his father was collecting a ransom, and already in 1124 he managed to defend Przemysl from them. He soon also had a chance to fight with his younger brother, Vladimir Volodarevich, who, with the help of the Hungarians, tried to become the supreme ruler of the whole principality. The war did not lead to anything, since the cousins and Mstislav of Kiev supported the prince. However, in 1128, for an unknown reason, Rostislav died without leaving any heirs, and the very Vladimir became the prince in Przemysl.
Vladimir Volodarevich was an energetic, purposeful and domineering man, not counting natural duplicity, cynicism and unprincipledness. He wanted to create a centralized and strong principality, capable of not only defending itself against external enemies, but also going on the offensive. He inherited a good inheritance from his father, and in 1128 he combined under himself two of the four inheritances of the principality - Przemysl and Zvenigorod. In his actions, Vladimir relied on the support of the communities, but he made a special emphasis on the boyars, which at that time had almost become a separate aristocracy and began to emerge as a new political force. Together with the boyars, Vladimir possessed sufficient power, resources and troops to realize his main aspirations.
In 1140, Vladimir took part in another feud in Russia, speaking in support of Vsevolod Olgovich of Kiev against Izyaslav Mstislavich Volynsky. Here again, the factor of Rostislavich’s fear of strengthening someone in Volhynia played its role, but there was another reason: Prince Peremyshlsky sought to expand his own possessions, primarily at the expense of Volhynia. Nothing came of this venture, since Izyaslav Mstislavich turned out to be a more skilled commander and politician, which he will demonstrate in the future, having earned one of the first tsar’s title in Russia, so far only in correspondence. Despite the insignificant scope of this conflict, it will prove to be a prologue to a rather serious confrontation between these two Rurikovich in the future.
Prince Vasilko Rostislavich left behind his two sons - Ivan and Rostislav, who ruled in Galich and Terebovl respectively. The latter died before the 1140s, and his brother inherited his possessions, Ivan. Ivan himself died in 1141, leaving no heirs, as a result of which all lands, with the exception of Zvenigorod, were inherited by Vladimir Volodarevich. This was a great success, as it allowed for the first time in all time to unite almost all of Subcarpathia in one hand. Immediately after that, Vladimir thought about moving the capital: constant conflicts with the Poles over the border Przemysl caused a lot of problems. It required a capital, quite remote from the borders, but at the same time developed and rich. At that moment only Galich could become such a capital. The move there was made in the same year, and from that moment the history of the Principality of Galician principality begins with the capital in the city of the same name.
To be continued ...