Military Review

Leapfrog of princes in Volyn. Changes in society in the XII century

38
Leapfrog of princes in Volyn. Changes in society in the XII century

"Prince Izyaslav Mstislavich offers peace and friendship to his uncle Vyacheslav." Engraving by Schliter from the picture of Claudius Lebedev


The story of South-Western Russia smoothly switched to the Principality of Galicia for a reason. It was with him that the most interesting events of the region in the XNUMXth – XNUMXth centuries turned out to be connected, which is explained by the vernacular there of a particular branch of the Rurikovich who tried to conduct an independent policy. The Volyn principality remained part of Russia, was directly dependent on Kiev and was inextricably linked with all its main processes, including strife and further fragmentation of destinies. If Volyn was once unified and, apart from Vladimir, Cherven and Przemysl could be distinguished, then after the loss of Subcarpathia, separate inheritances began to appear in the composition of the land like Lutsk, Belz, Brest, Dorogobuzh or Peresopnitsa.

The principality was headed mainly by the main bigwigs of Russian politics of that time or their closest relatives, because Volyn often served as the basis for their great undertakings - from campaigns against the Polovtsy to the struggle for Kiev. As a result of this, unlike the principality of Rostislavich, Volyn is difficult to perceive separately from the historical process in the rest of Russia. However, despite all the above, do not consider in more detail history principalities will still be a crime against copyright tediousness, and therefore in the future a certain amount of material will be devoted to this.

Volyn princes


After the expulsion of Prince Davyd Igorevich from Vladimir-Volyn in 1100, Yaroslav Svyatopolchich, son of the Kiev prince Svyatopolk Izyaslavich (the same one who participated in the blindness of Vasyl Rostislavich, Prince Terebovli), settled there. Moreover, he ruled not as a full-fledged ruler, but only as the governor of his father. Svyatopolk wanted as much as possible to control the resources of the rich Volhynia plus, probably, he feared a scenario similar to the Principality of Galicia, when the rich land, tired of strife, decided to separate from Kiev. This situation lasted a long 18 years, during which the principality managed to gain strength and develop, becoming even richer than before.

In 1113, Svyatopolk died, but his son continued to rule Volhynia. At the same time, clouds began to gather on the horizon. The power in Kiev was taken by Vladimir Monomakh, and Yaroslav became greatly afraid for his reign. He managed to quarrel with the Rostislavichs, who ruled in neighboring Subcarpathia. In 1117, it came to an open conflict, and the next year Monomakh, together with Volodar and Vasilk Rostislavich, expelled Svyatopolchich from Volyn. He also tried to fight for the principality, with the support of Poles and Hungarians, but died during the siege of Vladimir-Volynsky in 1123, according to chronicles, at the hands of Polish soldiers.

Yaroslav Svyatopolchich was replaced by Monomakhovichi: first, Roman, who was closely connected with the Rostislavichs by the bonds of a dynastic marriage, and in 1119, when he died, Andrei Vladimirovich, nicknamed Good, sat down to rule in Vladimir-Volynsky. Despite the fact that he had a chance to fight with his predecessor for the principality, his 16-year rule as a whole turned out to be quite quiet and calm, devoid of major conflicts that would affect the territory of Volyn. In 1135 he received the principality of Pereyaslav, transferring Volyn to the next prince.

The next was Izyaslav Mstislavich, one of the most prominent and prominent representatives of the Rurikovich times of strife. Before that, he had already managed to sit the prince in several destinations, and to remain completely landless, forced to fight along with his relatives to obtain new possessions. Prince of Kiev Yaropolk after a conflict in which he did not succeed, was forced to make concessions, and after another shuffling of princes and tables for Izyaslav, the Volyn principality was allocated. In 1139, Vsevolod Olgovich became the prince in Kiev, who for some time clashed with Izyaslav, but to no avail. In 1141, Izyaslav went to the same place as his predecessor - to Pereyaslavl.

Izyaslav Mstislavich was replaced by the son of Vsevolod, Svyatoslav, who ruled in Volyn until the death of his father in 1146. After this, the three-year reign of Vladimir Andreevich (son of Andrei Kind) followed, but already in 1149 Izyaslav Mstislavich (the same one) removed him from the princely post, putting his brother, Svyatopolk in Vladimir-Volynsky, who ruled the princedom from 1149 to 1154, for with the exception of two years, when the principality was directly controlled by Izyaslav expelled from Kiev, and Svyatopolk at that time ruled Lutsk. At the same time, the war with the Principality of Galicia was gaining momentum, where just at that time Vladimir Volodarevich sought to expand his possessions at the expense of Volyn, continuing his long-standing conflict with Izyaslav Mstislavich, which was described earlier.

After the death of Svyatopolk, his brother Vladimir Mstislavich became the prince in Vladimir-Volynsky. He did not rule for long, only 3 years, and the reason for his fall was a rather unexpected act: together with Vladimir Galitsky, he besieged Lutsk, where his nephew, Mstislav Izyaslavich, ruled. The Galicians tried to arrange the conquest of all Volhynia and help them in this, being the Volyn prince, was at least strange ... Near Lutsk, two Vladimirs had to face a very capable and skillful ruler in the person of Mstislav Izyaslavich, who was also a good commander. He, realizing that the forces are unequal, left Lutsk, but only in order to return with the Polish army, with the help of which he not only recaptured his city, but also drove out his uncle from Vladimir-Volynsky and sat there to reign on his own.

The reign of Mstislav Izyaslavich turned out to be closely connected with the next strife, which at that time almost did not stop in Russia. Already in 1158, Volyn, Galich, Smolensk and Chernigov got involved in the war against Kiev, where Izyaslav Davydovich, a representative of the Olgovich branch, was sitting. In 1159, he was succeeded in dropping from the princely post, which Mstislav himself sat on. Instead, the governor in Volyn became Prince Lutsk and his brother, Yaroslav Izyaslavich. However, our hero ruled Kiev for a very short time, after which he was forced to return to Volyn, returning his brother to Lutsk. In 1167, he again became the prince of Kiev, and this time for a longer time. Like last time, Yaroslav Izyaslavich remained to rule Volyn, but only as governor, and not as an independent prince (Mstislav wanted to preserve this inheritance for his son). In 1170, the Grand Duke of Kiev died, and it was the turn of a new change of power in Vladimir-Volynsky.

In short, Volhyn fully suffered from the frequent change of princes, strife and political instability. From quantity -which it literally ripples in the eyes, and without a hundred grams it’s quite difficult to figure out who is who, or even just remember the sequence of boards. Princes changed often, the longest in the 18th century were ruled by Yaroslav Svyatopolchich (13 years old) and Mstislav Izyaslavich (XNUMX years old), which could not but have their negative consequences for the region. However, the wind of change was already felt, and another Rurikovich from the Monomakhovich clan appeared on the horizon, which would drastically change the history of all South-West Russia ...

Now I have to again take a short pause in the tale of the events of that time. The reason lies in the need to describe the processes that were going on in the territory of South-West Russia at the indicated time in terms of social development and political relations between different groups of the population, without which subsequent events may seem unsaid or misinterpreted. Less text will be devoted to Galich, as it was already mentioned earlier; the main part of the article will be devoted to Volyn and its capital, the city of Vladimir.

Subcarpathia and Galich


The development of Subcarpathia, which since 1141 became part of the Principality of Galicia, and before that formed several destinies, was influenced by several factors that were absent in other regions of Russia, or were not so pronounced. There were important trade routes that converged in the city of Galich, which, coupled with convenient geographical and climatic conditions, the availability of land and water resources, made it possible to create a strong economy. The territory of the principality was very densely populated and well developed. At the same time, in the south, this land was adjacent to the steppe and Berlad - a medieval “wild field”, where everyone who did not find a place in the established social system of Russia settled down, forming a fairly large local freemen. In the XI-XII centuries, these territories were quickly developed and settled, approaching the development of the "old" inheritance of Przemysl and Zvenigorod.

Galich himself was a young city, and this affected its features. The old traditions here were not as strong as in other cities, but due to the rapid growth of the settlement, the newcomer was also strong. The Galician nobility was formed in relatively free conditions, for a long time did not have tangible power over the prince and therefore felt especially free, already in the middle of the XII century becoming a powerful aristocracy with an oligarchic bias. Huge profits came from various kinds of crafts, crafts and agriculture, and trade was also important. It was this, and not geographical proximity, that brought the Galician boyars in their spirit closer to the Hungarian nobility - extremely self-willed, independent, regularly arranging big problems for their kings, which is why the chronicles of the Hungarian court will make any “Game of Thrones” cry and puff with envy. The Galician boyars clearly intended to catch up and overtake their Magyar colleagues in this. The communities of the cities of Subcarpathia were still strong and played a prominent role, but they were already beginning to exfoliate into poor and wealthy citizens and often acted only as a blind tool in the hands of an ambitious nobleman who defends his goals.

And Galician land was rich, rich again and rich again, which has already been mentioned several times. In the event of any weakening of power in the principality itself or in South-Western Russia, two strong neighbors inevitably began to claim the principality: Poland and Hungary. Poles have long claimed the Cherven cities, and the Hungarians have just become involved in local political squabbles, suddenly realizing what kind of Klondike they have at their side. Given that the degradation of power in the region was growing rapidly, the beginning of a fierce struggle for Galich was just around the corner, compared with which the events of 1187-1189 would seem like a trifle ...

Volyn and Vladimir



Grand Duke Mstislav Izyaslavich. Figure V.P. Vereshchagin

In a completely different vein, Volyn developed at this time. If the Galician land was largely saturated with the spirit of freemen (universal in Berladi, the boyar in Galich itself), then the territory to the north of it continued to remain under the control of some central authority, although in Russia it became more and more degraded every year. This led to a much greater degree of centralization and community loyalty to the figure of the prince. Volyn, unlike Galich, was affected by specific fragmentation, which was characteristic at that time for all of Russia: small principalities appeared in Dorogobuzh, Peresopnitsa, Lutsk, but local communities continued to hold on to the main one, i.e. Vladimir-Volynsky. In parallel with this, large-scale changes took place in the Vladimir community itself, which were the result of past history and formed the basis for future history. These changes affected the mentality of the community.

It is important to understand: after eight centuries, various theories can be made about this, which will be based on the facts we know. There are several such theories, some of them are outdated, as over time more and more information about past events is revealed. Many theories have eminent historians in their ranks; serious studies are devoted to them. Nevertheless, these are still theories, and not the exact information about what exactly happened in the XNUMXth century, I swear by my mother! And yet, some theories better explain the essence of the events taking place at that time, so you can make some logical and believable picture.

In parallel, in the field of political thinking of the community, two processes were going on that could be called mutually exclusive if they did not concern different spheres of the principality's life. On the one hand, amid growing confrontation with neighboring principalities, as well as growing threats from Poland and Hungary, centralization of power began to take on more and more importance. Veche was still resolving issues at a general meeting, the boyars still acted as the voice of the community, although they had their own interests, but everywhere the clear awareness of the need for a strong ruler was strengthened, which could concentrate all the resources of the Volyn land in its hands and use them to protect her, and therefore, community, interests. Moreover, the awareness of the community of all the communities of the principality gradually led to the formation, so to speak, of a single community, where the individual members were the villages and suburbs of Vladimir, and the Vladimir community was only the first among equals. The consolidation and consolidation took place gradually, and it is difficult to say when this process was completed, but one thing is clear: it began to give its results already in the 2nd half of the XNUMXth century.

On the other hand, the community could not help but be disappointed by the continued connection with the center of Russia, i.e. Kiev, since in the struggle for it the Volyn princes spent a lot of resources that could be spent on strengthening the principality itself. This, in turn, reinforced the desire for decentralization, separation, and even the separation of the principality from Kiev, for the simplest reason: a united Russia was bogged down in strife, which had no end and edge. Even the unity of Russia was called into question. Many principalities behaved independently, did not recognize the supreme power of Kiev, or by means of its capture they tried to head the rapidly crumbling and decaying Rus. In such conditions, maintaining attachment to a degrading center threatened with sad consequences for Volhynia itself.

Thus, in the separation from a conditionally united state, which was already cracking at the seams and was actually on the verge of collapse, many saw salvation. Separated and strengthened, having waited until the rest weakened in squabbles, it was possible to return to the “big game” for Kiev with new forces and unite all Russia around itself. In this case, the Vladimir community would inevitably become one of the main ones, and the local boyars would become the main among the boyars of other principalities. And even in the event of failure, Volyn still remained with its own, remaining aloof from the constant change of princes and strife.

After all this, the evolution of the mentality of the Vladimir community towards establishing a strong monarchical power in Volyn seems quite logical. Only a strong prince could ensure the survival and prosperity of the state. At the same time, it was impossible to count on stable rule under the conditions of the continuing strife and all-Russian ladder, because of which the ruling princes were constantly changing and therefore few of them had an interest in the development of the territory, which he could leave tomorrow. Because of this, the only way out was the path of the Principality of Galicia, where strong princely power within the framework of only one dynasty of Rostislavich, the branch of Rurikovich, allowed a relatively small territory to defend its interests for many years and reflect the encroachments of more powerful neighbors on their lands.

Thus, by the end of the XII century in Volhynia, a social request could well form for the creation of its own statehood with its own ruling dynasty and princes who would be interested in developing their hereditary possessions. For the sake of such a ruler, who would become not just a fleeting ruler, but a real “his” prince, the community was ready to make big sacrifices and show such loyalty that might seem fantastic before. The future Galicia-Volyn state began to arise in the minds of people, and it remained only to wait for the prince, who would agree to go against a kind of Rurikovich in order to turn vast territories of South-Western Russia into his patrimony. The probability was very low, since such outstanding people who are able to go against the system are rarely born. But Volynians are incredibly lucky. In 1170, after the death of Mstislav Izyaslavich, his son Roman Mstislavich became the prince in Vladimir-Volynsky.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Yaroslav Osmomysl and the extinction of the first Galician dynasty
How Rostislavich kept their principality
Volyn land in the X-XI centuries
Southwest Russia: geography, ancient history, sources of information
38 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 June 2020 06: 17 New
    10
    Good morning!
    Artem's article on a branch, the day was practically a success !!!
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      Edward Vashchenko 6 June 2020 13: 34 New
      +6
      All welcome!
      Artem thanks separately!
      A couple of words to the discussion around the raised issue in the article.
      Indeed, this is a real leapfrog that will drive anyone crazy.
      I remember when I passed my exams: the guard, in all lands, in all princes, who went where, on which tables I sat.
      Here the key question still is what kind of society was it?
      All this princely “leapfrog” was caused precisely by the transitional period and the formation of the East Slavic society from the tribal system to the territorial community.
      Of course, there is no talk of any monarchism for this period or even approximation to it.
      The land or city community saw in the prince primarily a military organizing principle, with the aim of fighting with neighbors for tribute, and with the goal of fending off neighbors.
      But, I repeat, without a vision of a key moment in the development of Russia - everything else really seems like an incomprehensible leapfrog
      1. arturpraetor
        6 June 2020 16: 33 New
        +4
        Quote: Edward Vashchenko
        I remember when I passed my exams: the guard, in all lands, in all princes, who went where, on which tables I sat.

        Here it’s difficult to remember Volyn’s alone, to put it mildly .... But yeah, my history exams at the university were simpler wassat Although I generally had it in this regard - I already knew the story, the only one on two parallels (except for a classmate) passed everything orally, in dialogue with the teacher. And he was glad that he met a student who was interested in the issue, he himself voiced half of the material in the conversation laughing For half a semester he got 5 and was released from the exam. Unfortunately, in my specialty, history went just one semester ...
        Quote: Edward Vashchenko
        Of course, there is no talk of any monarchism for this period or even approximation to it.

        Here on the topic of terminology could write a separate article smile I would call it proto-monarchism - the community needed a strong central authority, without leapfrog. Not yet a monarchy in its classical form, but already a request for the establishment of permanent power, probably dynastic. The logical development of the social and political state in which Russia was before. And after the formation of a particular branch of the Rurikovich on one table, there was already a transition to the monarchy. Daniil Romanovich was actually a monarch by his title - the king of Russia, if you please, the population accepted this without much resistance.
        1. Edward Vashchenko
          Edward Vashchenko 6 June 2020 17: 20 New
          +4
          Unfortunately, in my specialty, history went just one semester ...

          Fortunately i have five years lol
          proto-monarchism

          - interesting
          the community needed a strong central authority, without leapfrog.

          true!
          Yours!
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 6 June 2020 08: 10 New
    0
    On the other hand, the community could not help but be disappointed by the continued connection with the center of Russia, i.e. Kiev, since in the struggle for it the Volyn princes spent a lot of resources that could be spent on strengthening the principality itself.

    I wonder what resources, but many more?
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      Edward Vashchenko 6 June 2020 13: 35 New
      +3
      I wonder what resources, but many more?

      Very correct question
    2. arturpraetor
      6 June 2020 16: 37 New
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      I wonder what resources, but many more?

      The prince received a portion of the proceeds from her during the oath. All this was spent on the army, which can be used in different ways - but in the struggle for Kiev it was used essentially so that the prince later left to rule in another city. Plus, the manifestations of war in the form of enemy invasions could not but cause damage to the economy of the principality. At the same time, there was essentially no winner in the struggle for Kiev - it was an endless process until the arrival of Batu. That is ... again - at the expense of the principality an army was kept, sometimes city regiments were also used, so that the prince at best went to another table. And at worst, his relatives would have replaced him. All this required resources that were not spent in the interests of the community — it was neither cold nor hot for the community to leave the prince on another table.

      In later terms, there is a predominance of dynastic interests over state interests, with all the consequences.
  3. Operator
    Operator 6 June 2020 09: 04 New
    -11
    The author has a mess in his head - a request to the VO administration to transfer his folkhistories from the series “They would drink Bavarian” to the section “Opinion”.
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 June 2020 10: 14 New
    +5
    A dual feeling: with respect you perceive the narrative chain of the author. And at the same time, the author himself mentions a leapfrog of princes and strife.

    If you haven’t touched it, it’s extremely difficult to figure it out.
    And here you see a familiar name - middle name: Roman Mstislavovich. And immediately more fun.

    Moral: good when the reader is prepared. But where are there many to take.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 June 2020 10: 53 New
      +6
      Good day Sergey!
      I dare to assume that while preparing this article Artyom was counting on a specific “Public” - that is, on you and me. So, Roman Mstislavovich Do not scare us !!!
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 June 2020 11: 03 New
        +4
        I catch myself thinking: there is much more doubt than knowledge.
        This is not humiliation, which is more than pride.
        One thing pleases - as a result of communication, it can be remembered.
    2. arturpraetor
      6 June 2020 16: 39 New
      +5
      Quote: Korsar4
      If you haven’t touched it, it’s extremely difficult to figure it out.

      If touched - also wassat Therefore, it was decided to walk along the tops and just show it to the leapfrog. Because how to paint each prince separately is not as interesting as about the Galitsky, and there would be little sense in the framework of the legend about South-Western Russia. Here I had to make a conscious simplification, because complication, roughly speaking, requires a separate cycle.
  5. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 June 2020 12: 03 New
    +6
    Greetings, colleagues.
    Artem, thanks for the next article. As always interesting and entertaining.
    I also note that if the Operator is dissatisfied with the material, then everything is done correctly. smile
    According to the article.
    I would like to note the following, which the author did not mention, a sort of objection-supplement.
    In fact, the unified Old Russian state referred to in the historiography “Kievan Rus” finally fell apart with the death of Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great in 1132. But before that, the rule “everyone holds his own fatherland” was proclaimed at the Lyubech Congress, that is, specific lands were assigned to specific princely families . In fact, this began to happen after the death of Prince Vladimir the Baptist, when the offspring of his eldest son Izyaslav settled in Polotsk, which was thus excluded from the all-Russian ladder system already at the beginning of the XNUMXth century.
    The next city, or rather, the next land, which gained its dynasty, was the land of Galitskaya, which received its dynasty in the person of rogue Rostislavichi. But this dynasty by the end of the XII century. faded away.
    Then, by the end of the XII century. the land of Chernihiv was isolated, where the descendants of Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, the son of Yaroslav the Wise, entrenched, it is customary to call them "olgovichs" by the name of Oleg Svyatoslavich, who was able to "legally formalize" this binding.
    Following Chernigov, the Rostov-Suzdal land received the same dynastic independence, where the descendants of Yuri Dolgoruky plundered.
    And lastly, Volyn and Smolensk received their own dynasties. In Volyn, the descendants of Izyaslav Mstislavich, mentioned in the article - Roman Mstislavich were his grandson, were fixed in Smolensk - the descendants of Rostislav Mstislavich, the brother of Izyaslav (by the way, it was extremely friendly tandem of two brothers, which was very uncharacteristic for those times). Of the descendants of Rostislav, the most famous is probably his grandson Mstislav Udatny.
    Kiev, Novgorod and Galich did not receive their own princely dynasties after leaving the historical scene of his first dynasty. It was these cities that were the eternal bone of contention between the Russian princes, since in fact anyone could rule them, a representative of any of the five main dynasties, although the Polotsk princes, who considered themselves generally special, separate from the rest of the Rurikovich (called themselves "Rogvolzhy Vnutsi" that is, the grandchildren of Rogvolod, the murdered father of Rogneda, the wife of Prince Vladimir, emphasizing his "self"), in general, did not take part in these disassemblies.
    So, except for Polotsk, we have in Russia four princely families of Rurikovich who secured their own lands: Chernigov olgovichs, Suzdal Yurevichs, Volyn Izyaslavichs and Smolensk Rostislavichs and three disputed regions, without their own dynasty, due to which most of the most large-scale squabble, and, interestingly, these areas were distributed very evenly - north, center and south. Probably, for all the princely families, there was enough business so that no one would play a trick. smile
    So, neither Volyn nor Galich in their statuses were by any means unique in Russia and were not even “pioneers” in their development.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 6 June 2020 12: 28 New
      +4
      But did Ryazan belong to the Principality of Chernigov in those days? Not a significant interest?
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 6 June 2020 13: 06 New
        +6
        Ryazan has its own characteristics. Initially, Ryazan belonged to the Chernigov land, so the Ryazan princes are descendants of Svyatoslav Yaroslavich. But already at the time of Andrei Bogolyubsky, the Ryazan land fell under the influence of Suzdal and subsequently, in fact, was in vassal dependence precisely on the Suzdal princes, that is, it was part of their possessions.
        Ryazan princes never led an independent policy, they didn’t apply for some leading roles in the Old Russian state, but they didn’t let representatives of other families come into their own. The same clan possession as the rest of the land, where there was its own dynasty, only without claims to primacy. Something like Polotsk, only Polotsk land was completely independent since the death of Vladimir the Baptist, and Ryazan always de facto, though not de jure, was in the position of inheritance, obeying one of its strong neighbors - Chernigov or Suzdal.
    2. arturpraetor
      6 June 2020 16: 47 New
      +5
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      So, neither Volyn nor Galich in their statuses were by any means unique in Russia and were not even “pioneers” in their development.

      Undoubtedly. If I wrote the opposite somewhere, I’m guilty, I confess, the reservation hi In general, IMHO, at the time of the arrival of Batu, all individual principalities-patrimonies were at a different stage of social and political development, and two of them went as leaders, or with the outstripping development of the rest of Russia - these are Galicia-Volyn and Vladimir-Suzdal. I also have an opinion, which, alas, I can’t confirm ironly, that by the time Batu arrived, Vladimir-Suzdal was at about that stage in the development of socio-political and feudal (in the most general sense) relations, which was again achieved only in XV century. That is, the Mongol invasion in the North-East of Russia really threw back the region in development, or froze it for two centuries.

      However, this is only my not the most substantiated hypothesis, which is rather even just IMHO request
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 June 2020 18: 11 New
        +3
        Thank you, Artyom. For me, all this mystery is sealed with seven seals.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 6 June 2020 18: 10 New
      +4
      I also note that if the Operator is dissatisfied with the material, then everything is done correctly.

      Very beautiful, Michael! good After that, all the cons are superfluous. smile
      I am sincerely grateful to Artyom for his enlightenment activities “among me,” I am a complete layman in this period, and not so much in the rest. When I got to the end of the article, wading through the jungle of princes and events, I understood one thing: life was no easier then than now. A person does not change, regardless of the computer and atomic rockets. hi
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 June 2020 18: 26 New
        +5
        Andersen in "Galoshes of Happiness" came to the same conclusion. A little earlier.
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 6 June 2020 20: 16 New
    +6
    It is unfortunate that there has not been an extensive discussion today, as last time. crying
    In any case, thanks, Artem !!! good
    1. arturpraetor
      6 June 2020 20: 21 New
      +4
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      It is unfortunate that there has not been an extensive discussion today, as last time.

      I doubt that I would be able to participate in an equally extensive discussion today - I overheated in the morning, as a result, I am now able to connect at least a few words only thanks to the pills. Very pills laughing So in case of a lively discussion, there would be a risk of slipping into the proof that Roman Mstislavich is a raccoon wassat
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 June 2020 20: 23 New
        +2
        In the wake of the heat?
        1. arturpraetor
          6 June 2020 20: 34 New
          +2
          Yes, it’s not so hot, by the standards of last year it’s even cool, but today the sun suddenly baked. And that’s all with heavy, very humid air. And I, a man with problem vessels, just walked across the field to a considerable distance ... In general, I caught my portion of solar activity laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 6 June 2020 20: 58 New
            +2
            Yes, we are "Soul Mates" (Oh, Henry) laughing
            I still can’t stand the heat, especially wet. That is, the bathhouse is not mine at all, up to the lethal outcome. However, with age, he learned to negotiate with his own body.
            1. arturpraetor
              6 June 2020 21: 06 New
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              I still can’t stand the heat, especially wet. That is, the bathhouse is not mine at all, up to the lethal outcome. However, with age, he learned to negotiate with his own body.

              I have the opposite - in childhood and high school he tolerated the heat better than many, but after living in a hostel somehow everything changed. At +18, I can already walk freely in one underwear, the temperature is about zero - I have enough clothes from jeans, a T-shirt and a light jacket for my eyes to walk along the street. But when the heat - then at least remove the skin, for better cooling. And my head starts to hurt right away, which is generally a curse of my life.

              By the way, I’m thinking now - this is a gorgeous justification for the Delusionality Operator of my articles. Like, the author is wrong, because he writes his little papers in semi-narcotic delirium, under painkillers laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 June 2020 21: 18 New
                +1
                At +18, I can already walk freely in one underwear, the temperature is about zero - I have enough clothes from jeans, a T-shirt and a light jacket for my eyes to walk along the street.
                A rare genetic twist is a person with fever. Just met a couple of times. On the contrary, I have +35,9 - normal temperature.
            2. Doliva63
              Doliva63 7 June 2020 20: 01 New
              +2
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              I still can’t stand the heat, especially wet. That is, the bathhouse is not mine at all

              About 30 years old, he liked to wait for the very heat under the sun, to put on heavier shoes than you can run - and 10 km. And a couple of years I had to live in a humid climate - all one could not deny myself such a thrill laughing And we went with the guys to the 23rd in the bathhouse - got out of the steam room and lost consciousness. Somehow pumped out. Since then, not a foot in the bathhouse, but ran around in the heat for a long time! drinks
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 7 June 2020 20: 15 New
                +3
                Exactly! Different organisms.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 June 2020 20: 50 New
        +1
        And how far is the XNUMXth century from the ice age?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 June 2020 21: 42 New
          +1
          It depends on which
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 6 June 2020 21: 49 New
            +1
            If we estimate the distance on the time scale of coordinates, probably the approximation of Maly Lednikovoy can be worried.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 6 June 2020 21: 51 New
              +1
              Hmmm. Are there any prerequisites?
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 6 June 2020 22: 07 New
                0
                XII century.
                Now, rather the opposite. Although every year local surprises.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 6 June 2020 22: 11 New
                  +1
                  XII century - the heyday of the medieval climatic optimum.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 6 June 2020 22: 20 New
                    +2
                    There are different points of view, including an increase in intra-seasonal climate variability, dating back to the XNUMXth century.
  7. Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 7 June 2020 12: 58 New
    -3
    After the exile in 1100 from Vladimir-Volyn Prince Viktor Yanukovych ...... ""
    History is cyclical ....))))